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The ARAB LEAGUE ( Arabic
Arabic
: الجامعة العربية‎‎ _al-Jāmiʻah al-ʻArabīyah_), formally the LEAGUE OF ARAB STATES ( Arabic
Arabic
: جامعة الدول العربية‎‎ _Jāmiʻat ad-Duwal al-ʻArabīyah_), is a regional organization of Arab countries in and around North Africa
North Africa
, the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
and Arabia
Arabia
. It was formed in Cairo
Cairo
on 22 March 1945 with six members: Kingdom of Egypt
Egypt
, Kingdom of Iraq
Iraq
, Transjordan (renamed Jordan
Jordan
in 1949), Lebanon
Lebanon
, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
, and Syria
Syria
. Yemen
Yemen
joined as a member on 5 May 1945. Currently, the League has 22 members , but Syria
Syria
's participation has been suspended since November 2011, as a consequence of government repression during the Syrian Civil War
Syrian Civil War
.

The League's main goal is to "draw closer the relations between member States and co-ordinate collaboration between them, to safeguard their independence and sovereignty, and to consider in a general way the affairs and interests of the Arab
Arab
countries".

Through institutions, such as the Arab
Arab
League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALECSO) and the Economic and Social Council of the Arab
Arab
League's Council of Arab Economic Unity (CAEU), the Arab
Arab
League facilitates political, economic, cultural, scientific, and social programmes designed to promote the interests of the Arab world . It has served as a forum for the member states to coordinate their policy positions, to deliberate on matters of common concern, to settle some Arab
Arab
disputes and to limit conflicts such as the 1958 Lebanon
Lebanon
crisis . The League has served as a platform for the drafting and conclusion of many landmark documents promoting economic integration. One example is the _ Joint Arab Economic Action Charter _, which outlines the principles for economic activities in the region. Arab
Arab
League of states establishment memorial stamp. Showing flags of the 8 establishing countries: Kingdom of Egypt, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Mutwakilite Kingdom of Yemen, Hashimite Kingdom of Syria, Hashimite Kingdom of Iraq, Hashimite Kingdom of Jordan, Republic of Lebanon
Lebanon
and Palestine Arab
Arab
League of states establishment memorial stamp. Showing flags of the 8 establishing countries: Kingdom of Egypt, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Mutwakilite Kingdom of Yemen, Hashimite Kingdom of Syria, Hashimite Kingdom of Iraq, Hashimite Kingdom of Jordan, Republic of Lebanon
Lebanon
and Palestine

Each member state has one vote in the _League Council_, and decisions are binding only for those states that have voted for them. The aims of the league in 1945 were to strengthen and coordinate the political, cultural, economic and social programs of its members and to mediate disputes among them or between them and third parties. Furthermore, the signing of an agreement on _Joint Defence and Economic Cooperation_ on 13 April 1950 committed the signatories to coordination of military defence measures. In March 2015, the Arab League General Secretary announced the establishment of a Joint Arab Force with the aim of counteracting extremism and other threats to the Arab
Arab
States. The decision was reached while Operation Decisive Storm was intensifying in Yemen. Participation in the project is voluntary, and the army intervenes only at the request of one of the member states. The growing militarization of the region and the increase in violent civil wars as well as terrorist movements are the reason behind the creation of the JAF, financed by the rich Gulf countries.

In the early 1970s, the Economic Council of the League of Arab
Arab
States put forward a proposal to create the Joint Arab
Arab
Chambers of Commerce across the European states. That led, under the decree of the League of Arab
Arab
States no. K1175/D52/G, to the decision by the Arab governments to set up the Arab British Chamber of Commerce which was mandated to "promote, encourage and facilitate bilateral trade" between the Arab world and its major trading partner, the United Kingdom.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Member states

* 3 Politics and administration * 4 Summits

* 5 Military

* 5.1 Emergency summits

* 6 Economic resources

* 6.1 Transport

* 7 Literacy
Literacy
in Arab
Arab
league countries

* 8 Demographics

* 8.1 Religion * 8.2 Linguistics

* 9 Culture

* 9.1 Sports

* 10 See also * 11 References * 12 External links

HISTORY

Main article: History of the Arab League

Following adoption of the Alexandria Protocol in 1944, the Arab League was founded on 22 March 1945. It aimed to be a regional organisation of Arab
Arab
states with a focus to developing the economy, resolving disputes and coordinating political aims. Other countries later joined the league. Each country was given one vote in the council. The first major action was the joint intervention, allegedly on behalf of the majority Arab
Arab
population being uprooted as the state of Israel
Israel
emerged in 1948 (and in response to popular protest in the Arab
Arab
world), but a major participant in this intervention, Transjordan, had agreed with the Israelis to divide up the Arab Palestinian state proposed by the United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly, and Egypt
Egypt
intervened primarily to prevent its rival in Amman
Amman
from accomplishing its objective. It was followed by the creation of a mutual defence treaty two years later. A common market was established in 1965.

GEOGRAPHY

Main article: Geography of the Arab League Joining dates of member states; the Comoros (circled) joined in 1993. 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s

The Arab
Arab
League member states cover over 13,000,000 km2 (5,000,000 sq mi) and straddles two continents: Africa
Africa
and Asia
Asia
. The area largely consists of arid deserts, such as the Sahara
Sahara
. Nevertheless, it also contains several highly fertile lands like the Nile
Nile
Valley , the Jubba Valley and Shebelle Valley in the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
, the Atlas Mountains in the Maghreb
Maghreb
, and the Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
that stretches over Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and the Levant
Levant
. The area comprises deep forests in southern Arabia
Arabia
and parts of the world's longest river, the Nile
Nile
.

MEMBER STATES

Main article: Member states of the Arab League

The Charter of the Arab League , also known as the Pact of the League of Arab
Arab
States, is the founding treaty of the Arab
Arab
League. Adopted in 1945, it stipulates that "the League of Arab
Arab
States shall be composed of the: independent Arab
Arab
States that have signed this Pact."

Starting with only six members in 1945, the Arab
Arab
League now occupies an area spanning around 14 million km² and counts 22 members, and 4 observer states. The 22 members today include three of the largest African countries ( Sudan
Sudan
, Algeria
Algeria
and Libya
Libya
) and the largest country in the Middle East
Middle East
( Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
).

There was a continual increase in membership during the second half of the 20th century, with an additional 15 Arab
Arab
states being admitted. Syria
Syria
was suspended following the 2011 uprising. As of 2016, there are a total of 22 member states. The Arab
Arab
League member states are as follows:

* Algeria
Algeria
* Bahrain
Bahrain
* Comoros * Djibouti
Djibouti
* Egypt
Egypt
* Iraq
Iraq
* Jordan
Jordan
* Kuwait
Kuwait
* Lebanon
Lebanon
* Libya
Libya
* Mauritania
Mauritania
* Morocco
Morocco
* Oman
Oman
* Palestine * Qatar
Qatar
* Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
* Somalia
Somalia
* Sudan
Sudan
* Syria
Syria
* Tunisia
Tunisia
* United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
* Yemen
Yemen

and 4 observer states :

* Brazil
Brazil
* Eritrea
Eritrea
* India
India
* Venezuela
Venezuela

On 22 February 2011, following the start of the Libyan Civil War and the use of military force against civilians, the Arab
Arab
League Secretary-General, Amr Moussa , stated that Libya's membership in the Arab
Arab
League had been suspended: "the organisation has decided to halt the participation of the Libyan delegations from all Arab
Arab
League sessions". That makes Libya
Libya
the second country in the League's history to have a frozen membership. Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi declared that the League was illegitimate, saying: "The Arab
Arab
League is finished. There is no such thing as the Arab
Arab
League". On 25 August 2011, Secretary-General Nabil Elaraby announced it was "about time" Libya's full member status was restored. The National Transitional Council , the partially recognised interim government of Libya, sent a representative to be seated at the Arab
Arab
League meeting on 17 August to participate in a discussion as to whether to readmit Libya
Libya
to the organisation.

The Arab Parliament recommended the suspension of member states Syria and Yemen
Yemen
on 20 September 2011 over persistent reports of disproportionate violence against regime opponents and activists during the Arab Spring
Arab Spring
. A vote on 12 November agreed to the formal suspension of Syria
Syria
four days after the vote, giving Assad a last chance to avoid suspension. Syria, Lebanon
Lebanon
and Yemen
Yemen
voted against the motion, and Iraq
Iraq
abstained. There was a large amount of criticism as the Arab
Arab
League sent in December 2011 a commission "monitoring" violence on people protesting against the regime. The commission was headed by Mohammad Ahmed Mustafa al-Dabi, who served as head of Omar al-Bashir's military intelligence, while war crimes , including genocide , were allegedly committed on his watch. On 6 March 2013, the Arab
Arab
League granted to the Syrian National Coalition Syria's seat in the Arab
Arab
League. On 9 March 2014, the pan- Arab
Arab
group's secretary general Nabil al-Arabi said that Syria's seat at the Arab
Arab
League would remain vacant until the opposition completes the formation of its institutions.

POLITICS AND ADMINISTRATION

Main articles: Charter of the Arab League , Politics of the Arab League , and Arab Parliament Headquarters of the Arab
Arab
League, Cairo
Cairo
. Administrative divisions in the Arab
Arab
League.

The Arab
Arab
League is a political organization which tries to help integrate its members economically, and solve conflicts involving member states without asking for foreign assistance. It possesses elements of a state representative parliament while foreign affairs are often dealt with under UN supervision.

The Charter of the Arab League endorsed the principle of an Arab homeland while respecting the sovereignty of the individual member states. The internal regulations of the Council of the League and the committees were agreed in October 1951. Those of the Secretariat-General were agreed in May 1953.

Since then, governance of the Arab
Arab
League has been based on the duality of supra-national institutions and the sovereignty of the member states. Preservation of individual statehood derived its strengths from the natural preference of ruling elites to maintain their power and independence in decision making. Moreover, the fear of the richer that the poorer may share their wealth in the name of Arab nationalism , the feuds among Arab
Arab
rulers , and the influence of external powers that might oppose Arab
Arab
unity can be seen as obstacles towards a deeper integration of the league.

Mindful of their previous announcements in support of the Arabs
Arabs
of Palestine the framers of the Pact were determined to include them within the League from its inauguration. This was done by means of an annex that declared:

“ Even though Palestine was not able to control her own destiny, it was on the basis of the recognition of her independence that the Covenant of the League of Nations determined a system of government for her. Her existence and her independence among the nations can, therefore, no more be questioned _de jure_ than the independence of any of the other Arab
Arab
States. Therefore, the States signatory to the Pact of the Arab
Arab
League consider that in view of Palestine's special circumstances, the Council of the League should designate an Arab delegate from Palestine to participate in its work until this country enjoys actual independence ”

At the Cairo
Cairo
Summit of 1964, the Arab
Arab
League initiated the creation of an organisation representing the Palestinian people. The first Palestinian National Council convened in East Jerusalem on 29 May 1964. The Palestinian Liberation Organization was founded during this meeting on 2 June 1964. Palestine was shortly admitted in to the Arab League, represented by the PLO. Today, State of Palestine is a full member of the Arab
Arab
League.

At the Beirut Summit on 28 March 2002, the league adopted the Arab Peace Initiative , a Saudi-inspired peace plan for the Arab–Israeli conflict . The initiative offered full normalisation of the relations with Israel
Israel
. In exchange, Israel
Israel
was required to withdraw from all occupied territories , including the Golan Heights
Golan Heights
, to recognise Palestinian independence in the West Bank
West Bank
and Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
, with East Jerusalem as its capital, as well as a "just solution" for the Palestinian refugees
Palestinian refugees
. The Peace Initiative was again endorsed at 2007 in the Riyadh
Riyadh
Summit. In July 2007, the Arab
Arab
League sent a mission, consisting of the Jordanian and Egyptian foreign ministers, to Israel to promote the initiative. Following Venezuela
Venezuela
's move to expel Israeli diplomats amid the 2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict , Kuwaiti member of parliament Waleed Al-Tabtabaie proposed moving Arab League headquarters to Caracas , Venezuela
Venezuela
. On 13 June 2010, Amr Mohammed Moussa, Secretary-General of the Arab
Arab
League, visited the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
, the first visit by an official of the Arab
Arab
League since Hamas' armed takeover in 2007.

In 2015, the Arab
Arab
League voiced support for Saudi Arabian-led military intervention in Yemen
Yemen
against the Shia Houthis and forces loyal to former President Ali Abdullah Saleh , who was deposed in the 2011 uprising .

SUMMITS

2013 Arab
Arab
League Summit Logo

NO. DATE HOST COUNTRY HOST CITY

1 13–17 January 1964 Egypt
Egypt
Cairo
Cairo

2 5–11 September 1964 Egypt
Egypt
Alexandria
Alexandria

3 13–17 September 1965 Morocco
Morocco
Casablanca
Casablanca

4 29 August 1967 Sudan
Sudan
Khartoum
Khartoum

5 21–23 December 1969 Morocco
Morocco
Rabat
Rabat

6 26–28 November.1973 Algeria
Algeria
Algiers
Algiers

7 29 October 1974 Morocco
Morocco
Rabat
Rabat

8 25–26 October 1976 Egypt
Egypt
Cairo
Cairo

9 2–5 November.1978 Iraq
Iraq
Baghdad
Baghdad

10 20–22 November 1979 Tunisia
Tunisia
Tunis
Tunis

11 21–22 November 1980 Jordan
Jordan
Amman
Amman

12 6–9 September 1982 Morocco
Morocco
Fes

13 1985 Morocco
Morocco
Casablanca
Casablanca

14 1987 Jordan
Jordan
Amman
Amman

15 June 1988 Algeria
Algeria
Algiers
Algiers

16 1989 Morocco
Morocco
Casablanca
Casablanca

17 1990 Iraq
Iraq
Baghdad
Baghdad

18 1996 Egypt
Egypt
Cairo
Cairo

19 27–28 March 2001 Jordan
Jordan
Amman
Amman

20 27–28 March 2002 Lebanon
Lebanon
Beirut
Beirut

21 1 March 2003 Egypt
Egypt
Sharm el-Sheikh

22 22–23 May 2004 Tunisia
Tunisia
Tunis
Tunis

23 22–23 March 2005 Algeria
Algeria
Algiers
Algiers

24 28–30 March 2006 Sudan
Sudan
Khartoum
Khartoum

25 27–28 March 2007 Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
Riyadh
Riyadh

26 29–30 March 2008 Syria
Syria
Damascus
Damascus

27 28–30 March 2009 Qatar
Qatar
Doha
Doha

28 27–28 March 2010 Libya
Libya
Sirte
Sirte

29 27–29 March 2012 Iraq
Iraq
Baghdad
Baghdad

30 21–27 March 2013 Qatar
Qatar
Doha
Doha

31 25–26 March 2014 Kuwait
Kuwait
Kuwait
Kuwait
City

32 28–29 March 2015 Egypt
Egypt
Sharm El Sheikh

33 20 July 2016 Mauritania
Mauritania
Nouakchott
Nouakchott

34 23–29 March 2017 Jordan
Jordan
Amman
Amman

MILITARY

Main article: Military of the Arab League

The Joint Defence Council of the Arab League is one of the Institutions of the Arab League . It was established under the terms of the Joint Defence and Economic Co-operation Treaty of 1950 to coordinate the joint defence of the Arab
Arab
League member states .

The Arab
Arab
League as an Organization has no military Force, like the UN or EU, but at the 2007 summit, the Leaders decided to reactivate their joint defense and establish a peacekeeping force to deploy in South Lebanon, Darfur, Iraq, and other hot spots.

At a 2015 summit in Egypt, member nations agreed in principle to form a joint military force.

EMERGENCY SUMMITS

NO. DATE HOST COUNTRY HOST CITY

1 21–27 September 1970 Egypt
Egypt
Cairo
Cairo

2 17–28 October 1976 Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
Riyadh
Riyadh

3 7–9 September 1985 Morocco
Morocco
Casablanca
Casablanca

4 8–12 November 1987 Jordan
Jordan
Amman
Amman

5 7–9 June 1988 Algeria
Algeria
Algiers
Algiers

6 23–26 June 1989 Morocco
Morocco
Casablanca
Casablanca

7 28–30 March 1990 Iraq
Iraq
Baghdad
Baghdad

8 9–10 August 1990 Egypt
Egypt
Cairo
Cairo

9 22–23 June 1996 Egypt
Egypt
Cairo
Cairo

10 21–22 October 2000 Egypt
Egypt
Cairo
Cairo

11 7 January 2016 Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
Riyadh
Riyadh

* Two summits are not added to the system of Arab
Arab
League summits:

* Anshas , Egypt: 28–29 May 1946. * Beirut, Lebanon: 13 – 15 November 1958.

* Summit 14 in Fes, Morocco, occurred in two stages:

* On 25 November 1981: the 5-hour meeting ended without an agreement on document. * On 6–9 September 1982.

ECONOMIC RESOURCES

_ This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2016)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_

Main article: Economy of the Arab League See also: List of countries by GDP (PPP) and List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita

The Arab
Arab
League is rich in resources, with enormous oil and natural gas resources in certain member states. Another industry that is growing steadily in the Arab
Arab
League is telecommunications. Within less than a decade, local companies such as Orascom and Etisalat have managed to compete internationally.

Economic achievements initiated by the League amongst member states have been less impressive than those achieved by smaller Arab organisations such as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Among them is the Arab Gas Pipeline , that will transport Egyptian and Iraqi gas to Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, and Turkey. As of 2013, a significant difference in economic conditions exist between the developed oil states of Algeria
Algeria
, Qatar
Qatar
, Kuwait
Kuwait
and the UAE
UAE
, and developing countries like Comoros , Djibouti
Djibouti
, Mauritania
Mauritania
, Somalia
Somalia
, Sudan
Sudan
and Yemen
Yemen
. OAPEC Members

The Arab
Arab
League also includes great fertile lands in the southern part of Sudan
Sudan
. It is referred to as the food basket of the Arab
Arab
World , the region's instability including the independence of South Sudan has not affected its tourism industry, that is considered the fastest growing industry in the region, with Egypt
Egypt
, UAE
UAE
, Lebanon
Lebanon
, Tunisia and Jordan
Jordan
leading the way. Another industry that is growing steadily in the Arab
Arab
League is telecommunications.

Economical achievements within members have been low in the league's history, other smaller Arab
Arab
Organizations have achieved more than the league has, such as the GCC , but lately several major economic projects that are promising are to be completed, the Arab
Arab
Gas Pipeline is to end by the year 2010, Connecting Egyptian and Iraqi Gas to Jordan, Syria
Syria
and Lebanon, and then to Turkey
Turkey
thus Europe, a free trade Agreement (GAFTA ) is to be completed by 1 January 2008, making 95% of all Arab
Arab
Products tax free of customs.

TRANSPORT

Main article: Transport in the Arab League

The Arab
Arab
League is divided into five parts when it comes to transport, with the Arabian Peninsula and the Near East
Near East
being entirely connected by air, sea, roads and railways. Another part of the League is the Nile
Nile
Valley , made up of Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan
Sudan
. These two member states have started to improve the River Nile's navigation system to improve accessibility and thus foster trading. A new railway system is also set to connect the southern Egyptian city of Abu Simbel
Abu Simbel
with the northern Sudanese city of Wadi Halfa
Wadi Halfa
and then to Khartoum
Khartoum
and Port Sudan
Sudan
. The third division of the League is the Maghreb
Maghreb
, where a 3,000 km stretch of railway runs from the southern cities of Morocco to Tripoli
Tripoli
in Western Libya
Libya
. The fourth division of the League is the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
, whose member states include Djibouti
Djibouti
and Somalia
Somalia
. These two Arab
Arab
League states are separated by only ten nautical miles from the Arabian Peninsula by the Bab el Mandeb and this is quickly changing as Tarik bin Laden, the brother of Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
, has initiated the construction of the ambitious Bridge of the Horns project, which ultimately aims to connect the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
with the Arabian Peninsula via a massive bridge. The project is intended to facilitate and accelerate the already centuries-old trade and commerce between the two regions. The last division of the League is the isolated island of Comoros , which is not physically connected to any other Arab
Arab
state, but still trades with other League members.

LITERACY IN ARAB LEAGUE COUNTRIES

Main article: List of countries by literacy rate Literacy
Literacy
rate in Arab
Arab
World.

In collecting literacy data, many countries estimate the number of literate people based on self-reported data. Some use educational attainment data as a proxy, but measures of school attendance or grade completion may differ. Because definitions and data collection methods vary across countries, literacy estimates should be used with caution. United Nations
United Nations
Development Programme , Human Development Report
Human Development Report
2010. It is also important to note that the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
region has had an oil boom , enabling more schools and universities to be set up.

RANK COUNTRY LITERACY RATE

1 Qatar
Qatar
97.3

2 Palestine 96.5

3 Kuwait
Kuwait
96.3

4 Bahrain
Bahrain
95.7

5 Jordan
Jordan
95.4

6 Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
94.4

7 Lebanon
Lebanon
93.9

8 United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
93.8

9 Oman
Oman
91.1

10 Libya
Libya
91

11 Syria
Syria
86.4

12 Iraq
Iraq
85.7

13 Tunisia
Tunisia
81.8

14 Comoros 81.8

15 Algeria
Algeria
80.2

16 Sudan
Sudan
75.9

17 Egypt
Egypt
73.8

18 Yemen
Yemen
70.1

19 Djibouti
Djibouti
70.0

20 Morocco
Morocco
68.5

21 Mauritania
Mauritania
52.1

22 Somalia
Somalia
44–72

DEMOGRAPHICS

Main article: Demographics of the Arab League

The Arab
Arab
League is a culturally and ethnically one association of 22 member states, with the overwhelming majority of the League's population identified as Arab
Arab
(on a cultural ethnoracial basis). As of July 1, 2013, about 359 million people live in the states of the Arab League. Its population grows faster than in most other global regions. The most populous member state is Egypt
Egypt
, with a population of about 91 million. The least populated is the Comoros , with over 0.6 million inhabitants.

RANK COUNTRY POPULATION DENSITY (/KM2) DENSITY (SQ MI) NOTES

1 Egypt
Egypt
92,519,544 98 254

2 Algeria
Algeria
37,100,000 16 41

3 Iraq
Iraq
37,056,169 79 205

4 Morocco
Morocco
32,064,173 71 184

5 Sudan
Sudan
30,894,000 16 41

6 Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
28,146,658 12 31

7 Yemen
Yemen
23,580,000 45 117

8 Syria
Syria
* 21,906,000 118 306

9 Tunisia
Tunisia
10,673,800 65 168

10 Somalia
Somalia
11,400,000 18 47

11 United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
8,264,070 99 256

12 Libya
Libya
6,733,620 3.8 9.8

13 Jordan
Jordan
6,332,000 71 184

14 Palestine 4,550,368 756 1,958

15 Lebanon
Lebanon
4,224,000 404 1,046

16 Kuwait
Kuwait
3,566,437 200 518

17 Mauritania
Mauritania
3,291,000 3.2 8.3

18 Oman
Oman
2,845,000 9.2 24

19 Qatar
Qatar
1,699,435 154 399

20 Bahrain
Bahrain
1,234,596 1,646 4,263

21 Djibouti
Djibouti
864,000 37 96

22 Comoros 691,000 309 800

TOTAL Arab
Arab
League 356,398,918 30.4 78.7

* Syrian demographics are before the Syrian civil war.

RELIGION

Almost all of the Arab
Arab
League's citizens adhere to Islam
Islam
, with Christianity
Christianity
being the second largest religion. At least 15 million Christians combined live in Egypt
Egypt
, Iraq
Iraq
, Jordan
Jordan
, Lebanon
Lebanon
, Palestine , Sudan
Sudan
and Syria
Syria
. In addition, there are smaller but significant numbers of Druze
Druze
, Yazidis , Shabaks and Mandaeans . Numbers for nonreligious Arabs
Arabs
are generally not available, but research by the Pew Forum
Pew Forum
suggests around 1% of people in the MENA region are "unaffiliated".

LINGUISTICS

The official language of the Arab
Arab
League is Literary Arabic
Arabic
, based on Classical Arabic
Arabic
. However, several Arab
Arab
League member states have other co-official or national languages, such as Somali , Berber , Kurdish , Assyrian , and Nubian . Additionally, various different Arabic
Arabic
dialects are spoken, such as Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
, Levantine Arabic and Moroccan Arabic
Arabic
.

CULTURE

Part of a series on

ARAB CULTURE

Architecture

STYLES

* Mashrabiya * Muqarnas * Arabesque * Windcatcher
Windcatcher
* Gardens

FEATURES OF MOSQUES

* Minaret
Minaret
* Maqsurah * Mihrab * Sahen * Dikka * Iwan * Qubba * Sebil
Sebil
* Mosaic * Ribat
Ribat

Art

CALLIGRAPHY

* Naskh * Diwani * Ruq\'ah * Thuluth * Hijazi * Muhaqqaq * Maghrebi * Kufic
Kufic
* Mashq * Jawi * Nastaʿlīq * Pseudo- Kufic
Kufic
* Pegon

TEXTILES

* Khayameia * Rugs (prayer ) * Black Stone
Black Stone

Cuisine

* Khalij (Persian Gulf) * Mashriq
Mashriq
(Levant) * Arab
Arab
Mawsit (Egypt) * Arab
Arab
Maghrib (North Africa)

Dress

HEADWEAR

* Keffiyeh * Agal * Taqiyah * Tarboush (fez) * Turban
Turban
* Bisht

CLOTHING

* Thawb * Jellabiya * Abaya
Abaya
* Sirwal * Turban
Turban
* Kaftan
Kaftan
* Tantour * Takchita * Jilbāb * Macawis

Language

PRE-ISLAMIC

* North * South * Nabataean * Classical

PRE-MODERN · Modern

* Maghrebi (Western) * Mawsiti (Central) * Mashriq
Mashriq
(Eastern) * Khaliji (Southern)

Literature

* Classical * Epic literature * Saj (ryhmed prose) * Tafsir (commentary) * _Arabian Nights _ * _ The Book of the Apple _ * Sindbad (Sinbad) * Bayad and Riyad * _Book of Songs _ * _Book of Examples _ * _Book of Animals _ * Maqamat Al-Hamadhani * Nashiri

POETRY

* Arūḍ * Kharja * Zajal * Noha * Waṣf * Hamasah * Mu\'allaqat * Mufaddaaliyyat * Basit * Ghazal * Ghinnawa * Bohoor Al-Shi\'r

* Modern Arabic
Arabic
poetry

Music

* Arabic
Arabic
maqam * Tone system * Andalusi nubah * Qasidah * Muwashshah * Taqsim * Sama\'i * Dulab * Liwa * Maqam al-iraqi * Bashraf * Tahmilah * Sawt * Malhun * Fijiri * Baladi * Iqa\' * Dawr * Zaffa * Taqtuqa * Wazn * Waslah

Religion

* Muslims * Christians * Druze
Druze

* Bahá\'í Faith

* v * t * e

SPORTS

Main article: Sport policies of the Arab League

The Pan Arab Games are considered the biggest Arab
Arab
sporting event, which brings together athletes from all the Arab
Arab
countries to participate in a variety of different sports.

The Union of Arab
Arab
Football Associations organises the Arab
Arab
Nations Cup (for national teams) and the Arab
Arab
Club Championship (for clubs). Arab
Arab
sport federations also exist for several games, include basketball , volleyball , handball , table tennis , tennis , squash and swimming .

SEE ALSO

* Arab Charter on Human Rights * Arab Cold War * Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development (AFESD) * Arab
Arab
leaders * Arab League and the Arab–Israeli conflict * Arab
Arab
League boycott of Israel
Israel
* Arab
Arab
Maghreb
Maghreb
Union (UMA) * Arab Monetary Fund * Arab Organization for Industrialization * Arab Parliament * Arab
Arab
Union * Bloudan Conference (1937) * Council of Arab Economic Unity (CAEU) * General Arab
Arab
Insurance Federation * General Union of Chambers of Commerce, Industry and Agriculture for Arab
Arab
Countries * Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) * International Association of Arabic
Arabic
Dialectology (AIDA) * International Confederation of Arab Trade Unions * List of conflicts in the Arab
Arab
League * List of country groupings * List of multilateral free-trade agreements * List of largest cities in the Arab world * Lists of the Arab
Arab
League * Model Arab
Arab
League * Orange card system – motor insurance scheme of the Arab
Arab
League * Organisation of Islamic Cooperation * Organization of Arab
Arab
Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) * Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) * Pan Arab Games * Pan-Arabism * Summit of South American- Arab
Arab
Countries * United Arab Command * Flag of the Arab League
Flag of the Arab League

REFERENCES

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