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Historically: Arabian mythology (Hubal · al-Lāt · Al-‘Uzzá · Manāt · Other Goddesses) Predominantly: Islam (Sunni · Shia · Sufi · Ibadi · Alawite · Ismaili) Sizable minority: Christianity (Eastern Orthodox · Maronite · Coptic Orthodox · Greek Orthodox · Greek Catholic · Chaldean Christian) Smaller minority: Other monotheistic religions (Druze · Bahá'í Faith · Sabianism · Bábism · Mandaeism)

Related ethnic groups

Other Afroasiatic-speaking peoples

a Arab
Arab
ethnicity should not be confused with non- Arab
Arab
ethnicities that are also native to the Arab
Arab
world.[30] b Not all Arabs
Arabs
are Muslims
Muslims
and not all Muslims
Muslims
are Arabs. An Arab
Arab
can follow any religion or irreligion. c Arab identity
Arab identity
is defined independently of religious identity.

This article contains Arabic
Arabic
text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols.

Arabs
Arabs
(/ˈær.əbz/;[32] Arabic: عَرَب‎ ISO 233 ‘arab, Arabic pronunciation [ˈʕarab] ( listen)) are a population inhabiting the Arab
Arab
world. They primarily live in the Arab
Arab
states in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
and western Indian Ocean islands.[33] They also form a significant diaspora, with Arab communities established around the world.[34] The Arabs
Arabs
are first mentioned in the mid-ninth century BCE as tribal people in eastern and southern Syria, and the north of the Arabian Peninsula.[35] The Arabs
Arabs
appear to have been under the vassalage of the Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
(911–612 BCE), and the succeeding Neo-Babylonian (626–539 BCE), Achaemenid (539–332 BCE), Seleucid and Parthian empires.[36] Arab
Arab
tribes, most notably the Ghassanids
Ghassanids
and Lakhmids, begin to appear in the southern Syrian Desert
Syrian Desert
from the mid 3rd century CE onward, during the mid to later stages of the Roman and Sasanian empires.[37] Tradition holds that Arabs
Arabs
descend from Ishmael, the son of Abraham.[38] The Arabian Desert
Arabian Desert
is the birthplace of "Arab",[39] as well other Arab
Arab
groups that spread in the land and existed for millennia.[40] Before the expansion of the Rashidun Caliphate
Rashidun Caliphate
(632–661), "Arab" referred to any of the largely nomadic and settled Semitic people
Semitic people
from the Arabian Peninsula, Syrian Desert, North and Lower Mesopotamia.[41] Today, "Arab" refers to a large number of people whose native regions form the Arab world
Arab world
due to the spread of Arabs
Arabs
and the Arabic
Arabic
language throughout the region during the early Muslim
Muslim
conquests of the 7th and 8th centuries and the subsequent Arabisation
Arabisation
of indigenous populations.[42] The Arabs
Arabs
forged the Rashidun (632–661), Umayyad (661–750), Abbasid (750–1517) and the Fatimid
Fatimid
(901–1071) caliphates, whose borders reached southern France
France
in the west, China in the east, Anatolia
Anatolia
in the north, and the Sudan
Sudan
in the south. This was one of the largest land empires in history.[43] In the early 20th century, the First World War signalled the end of the Ottoman Empire; which had ruled much of the Arab world
Arab world
since conquering the Mamluk Sultanate in 1517.[44] This resulted in the defeat and dissolution of the empire and the partition of its territories, forming the modern Arab
Arab
states.[45] Following the adoption of the Alexandria Protocol
Alexandria Protocol
in 1944, the Arab League
Arab League
was founded on 22 March 1945.[46] The Charter of the Arab League
Arab League
endorsed the principle of an Arab
Arab
homeland whilst respecting the individual sovereignty of its member states.[47] Today, Arabs
Arabs
primarily inhabit the 22 Arab
Arab
states within the Arab League: Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
and Yemen. The Arab world
Arab world
stretches around 13 million km2, from the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
in the west to the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
in the north to the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
and the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
in the southeast. Beyond the boundaries of the League of Arab
Arab
States, Arabs
Arabs
can also be found in the global diaspora.[33] The ties that bind Arabs
Arabs
are ethnic, linguistic, cultural, historical, identical, nationalist, geographical and political.[48] The Arabs
Arabs
have their own customs, language, architecture, art, literature, music, dance, media, cuisine, dress, society, sports and mythology.[49] The total number of Arabs
Arabs
are an estimated 450 million.[1] Arabs
Arabs
are a diverse group in terms of religious affiliations and practices. In the pre-Islamic era, most Arabs
Arabs
followed polytheistic religions. Some tribes had adopted Christianity
Christianity
or Judaism, and a few individuals, the hanifs, apparently observed monotheism.[50] Today, Arabs
Arabs
are mainly adherents of Islam, with sizable Christian minorities.[51] Arab Muslims
Arab Muslims
primarily belong to the Sunni, Shiite, Ibadi, Alawite
Alawite
and Ismaili
Ismaili
denominations. Arab Christians
Arab Christians
generally follow one of the Eastern Christian
Christian
Churches, such as the Maronite, Coptic Orthodox, Greek Orthodox, Greek Catholic
Greek Catholic
or Chaldean churches.[52] Other smaller minority religions are also followed, such as the Bahá'í Faith, Druze, Sabianism, Bábism
Bábism
and Mandaeism. Arabs
Arabs
have greatly influenced and contributed to diverse fields, notably the arts and architecture, language, philosophy, mythology, ethics, literature, politics, business, music, dance, cinema, medicine, science and technology[53] in the ancient and modern history. Arab people
Arab people
are generally known for their generosity and hospitality[54] as well as their beliefs and family values.[55]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Antiquity

2.1.1 Origins and early history 2.1.2 Classical kingdoms 2.1.3 Late kingdoms

2.2 Medieval period

2.2.1 Arab
Arab
caliphates

2.2.1.1 Rashidun era (632–661) 2.2.1.2 Umayyad
Umayyad
era (661–750 & 756–1031) 2.2.1.3 Abbassid era (750–1258 & 1261–1517) 2.2.1.4 Fatimid Caliphate
Fatimid Caliphate
(909–1171)

2.2.2 Ottoman Empire

2.3 Modern period

3 Identity 4 Subgroups 5 Demographics

5.1 Arab
Arab
world 5.2 Arab
Arab
diaspora

6 Religion 7 Culture

7.1 Language 7.2 Mythology 7.3 Literature 7.4 Gastronomy 7.5 Art 7.6 Architecture 7.7 Music 7.8 Spirituality 7.9 Philosophy 7.10 Science 7.11 Wedding and marriage

8 Genetics 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Etymology[edit] Further information: Arab
Arab
(etymology)

Arabic
Arabic
epitaph of Imru' al-Qais, son of 'Amr, king of all the Arabs", inscribed in Nabataean
Nabataean
script. Basalt, dated in 7 Kislul, 223, viz. 7 December 328 CE. Found at Nemara in the Hauran
Hauran
(Southern Syria).

The earliest documented use of the word "Arab" to refer to a people appears in the Kurkh Monoliths, an Akkadian language
Akkadian language
record of the ninth century BCE Assyrian conquest of Aram, which referred to Bedouins of the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
under King Gindibu, who fought as part of a coalition opposed to Assyria.[56] Listed among the booty captured by the army of king Shalmaneser III of Assyria
Assyria
in the Battle of Qarqar are 1000 camels of "Gi-in-di-bu'u the ar-ba-a-a" or "[the man] Gindibu belonging to the Arab
Arab
(ar-ba-a-a being an adjectival nisba of the noun ʿarab[56]). The related word ʾaʿrāb is still used to refer to Bedouins today, in contrast to ʿarab which refers to Arabs
Arabs
in general.[57] The oldest surviving indication of an Arab
Arab
national identity is an inscription made in an archaic form of Arabic
Arabic
in 328 using the Nabataean
Nabataean
alphabet, which refers to Imru' al-Qays ibn 'Amr
Imru' al-Qays ibn 'Amr
as "King of all the Arabs".[58][59] Herodotus
Herodotus
refers to the Arabs
Arabs
in the Sinai, southern Palestine, and the frankincense region (Southern Arabia). Other ancient Greek historians like Agatharchides, Diodorus Siculus and Strabo
Strabo
mention Arabs
Arabs
living in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
(along the Euphrates), in Egypt
Egypt
(the Sinai
Sinai
and the Red Sea), southern Jordan
Jordan
(the Nabataeans), the Syrian steppe and in eastern Arabia (the people of Gerrha). Inscriptions dating to the 6th century BCE in Yemen
Yemen
include the term "Arab".[60] The most popular Arab
Arab
account holds that the word "Arab" came from an eponymous father called Ya'rub who was supposedly the first to speak Arabic. Abu Muhammad al-Hasan al-Hamdani had another view; he states that Arabs
Arabs
were called Gharab ("West") by Mesopotamians because Bedouins originally resided to the west of Mesopotamia; the term was then corrupted into "Arab". Yet another view is held by al-Masudi that the word "Arabs" was initially applied to the Ishmaelites of the "Arabah" valley. In Biblical etymology, "Arab" (in Hebrew
Hebrew
Arvi ) comes both from the desert origin of the Bedouins it originally described (Arava means wilderness). The root ʿ-r-b has several additional meanings in Semitic languages—including "west/sunset," "desert," "mingle," "mixed," "merchant," and "raven"—and are "comprehensible" with all of these having varying degrees of relevance to the emergence of the name. It is also possible that some forms were metathetical from ʿ-B-R "moving around" ( Arabic
Arabic
ʿ-B-R "traverse"), and hence, it is alleged, "nomadic."[61] History[edit] Main article: History of the Arabs Antiquity[edit] Main article: Pre-Islamic Arabia

Historical Arab
Arab
states and dynasties

Ancient Arab
Arab
States

Kingdom of Saba 1200 BC–275 AD

Kingdom of Awsan 800 BC–500 BC

Kingdom of Ma'in 800 BC–100 BC

Kingdom of Qedar 800 BC–300 BC

Kingdom of Lihyan 600 BC–100 BC

Kingdom of Qataban 400 BC–200 AD

Nabataean
Nabataean
Kingdom 400 BC–106 AD

Kingdom of Kindah 200 BC–633 AD

Kingdom of Himyar 200 BC–525 AD

Kingdom of Osroene 132 BC–244 AD

Kingdom of Characene 127 BC–221 AD

Royal family of Emesa 64 BC–300s AD

Kingdom of Araba 100s–241 AD

Ghassanid
Ghassanid
kingdom 220–638 AD

Lakhmid
Lakhmid
Kingdom 300–602 AD

Arab
Arab
Empires

Rashidun 632–661

Umayyads 661–750

Abbasids 750–1258

Fatimids 909–1171

Eastern Dynasties

Emirate of Crete 824–961

Dulafids 840–897

Kaysites 860–964

Shirvanshah 861-1538

Alavids 864–928

Hamdanids 890–1004

Rawadids 955–1071

Jarrahids 970–1107

Uqaylids 990–1096

Numayrids 990–1081

Mirdasids 1024–1080

Muzaffarids 1314–1393

Ma'anids 1517–1697

Shihabid 1697–1842

Al-Azm family 1720–1807

Western Dynasties

Emirate of Córdoba 756–929

Muhallabids 771–793

Idrisids 788–974

Aghlabids 800–909

Emirate of Sicily 831–1091

Caliphate
Caliphate
of Córdoba 929–1031

Kanzids 1004–1412

Tujibids 1013–1039

Abbadids 1023–1091

Hammudids 1026–1057

Jawharids 1031–1091

Hudids 1039–1110

Sumadihids 1041–1091

Nasrids 1230–1492

Saadis 1554–1659

Senussids 1837–1969

Arabian Peninsula

Ziyadids 819–1138

Yufirids 847–997

Ukhaidhirds 865–1066

Rassids 897–1962

Qarmatians 899–1077

Wajihids 926–965

Sharifate of Mecca 968–1925

Sulayhids 1047–1138

Sulaymanids 1063–1174

Uyunids 1076–1253

Zurayids 1083–1174

Nabhanids 1154–1624

Mahdids 1159–1174

Rasulids 1229–1454

Usfurids 1253–1320

Jarwanids 1305–1487

Kathirids 1395–1967

Tahirids 1454–1526

Jabrids 1463–1521

Qasimids 1597–1872

Ya'arubids 1624–1742

Upper Yafa 1800–1967

Rashidids 1836–1921

Qu'aitids 1858–1967

Emirate of Beihan 1903–1967

Idrisids 1906–1934

Mutawakkilite Kingdom 1926–1970

Current monarchies

Alaouites (Morocco) 1631–present

Al Qasimi
Al Qasimi
(Ras al Khaymah) 1727–present

Al Qasimi
Al Qasimi
(Sharjah) 1727–present

Al Saud (Saudi Arabia) 1744–present

Al Said
Al Said
(Oman) 1749–present

Al Sabah (Kuwait) 1752–present

Al Nahyan (Abu Dhabi) 1761–present

Al Nuaim (Ajman ) 1810–present

Al Mu'alla (Umm al-Quwain) 1775–present

Al Khalifa (Bahrain) 1783–present

Al Thani (Qatar) 1825–present

Al Maktoum
Al Maktoum
(Dubai) 1833–present

Al Sharqi
Al Sharqi
(Fujairah) 1833–present

Hashemites
Hashemites
(Jordan) 1921–present

v t e

Pre-Islamic Arabia
Pre-Islamic Arabia
refers to the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
prior to the rise of Islam
Islam
in the 630s. The study of Pre-Islamic Arabia
Pre-Islamic Arabia
is important to  Islamic studies
Islamic studies
as it provides the context for the development of Islam. Some of the settled communities in the Arabian Peninsula developed into distinctive civilizations. Sources for these civilizations are not extensive, and are limited to archaeological evidence, accounts written outside of Arabia, and Arab
Arab
oral traditions later recorded by Islamic scholars. Among the most prominent civilizations was Dilmun, which arose around the 4th millennium BCE and lasted to 538 BCE, and Thamud, which arose around the 1st millennium BCE and lasted to about 300 CE. Additionally, from the beginning of the first millennium BCE, Southern Arabia
Southern Arabia
was the home to a number of kingdoms, such as the Sabaean kingdom, and the coastal areas of Eastern Arabia
Eastern Arabia
were controlled by the Parthian and Sassanians from 300 BCE. Origins and early history[edit] Further information: Ancient Semitic-speaking peoples
Ancient Semitic-speaking peoples
and Proto-Arabic According to Arab-Islamic-Jewish traditions, Ishmael
Ishmael
was father of the Arabs, to be the ancestor of the Ishmaelites.[62]

Traditional Qahtanite
Qahtanite
genealogy.

The first written attestation of the ethnonym Arab
Arab
occurs in an Assyrian inscription of 853 BCE, where Shalmaneser III lists a King Gindibu of mâtu arbâi ( Arab
Arab
land) as among the people he defeated at the Battle of Karkar. Some of the names given in these texts are Aramaic, while others are the first attestations of Ancient North Arabian dialects. In fact several different ethnonyms are found in Assyrian texts that are conventionally translated "Arab": Arabi, Arubu, Aribi and Urbi. Many of the Qedarite
Qedarite
queens were also described as queens of the aribi. The Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
occasionally refers to Aravi peoples (or variants thereof), translated as "Arab" or "Arabian." The scope of the term at that early stage is unclear, but it seems to have referred to various desert-dwelling Semitic tribes in the Syrian Desert and Arabia.[citation needed] Arab
Arab
tribes came into conflict with the Assyrians during the reign of the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal, and he records military victories against the powerful Qedar
Qedar
tribe among others. Old Arabic diverges from Central Semitic by the beginning of the 1st millennium BCE.[citation needed]

Nabataean
Nabataean
trade routes in Pre-Islamic Arabia.

Medieval Arab
Arab
genealogists divided Arabs
Arabs
into three groups:

"Ancient Arabs", tribes that had vanished or been destroyed, such as ʿĀd and Thamud, often mentioned in the Qur'an
Qur'an
as examples of God's power to vanquish those who fought his prophets. "Pure Arabs" of South Arabia, descending from Qahtan. The Qahtanites (Qahtanis) are said to have migrated from the land of Yemen
Yemen
following the destruction of the Ma'rib Dam
Ma'rib Dam
(sadd Ma'rib). The "Arabized Arabs" (mustaʿribah) of Central Arabia (Najd) and North Arabia, descending from Ishmael
Ishmael
the elder son of Abraham, through Adnan
Adnan
(hence, Adnanites). The Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis
narrates that God promised Hagar
Hagar
to beget from Ishmael
Ishmael
twelve princes and turn him to a great nation.(Genesis 17:20) The Book of Jubilees
Book of Jubilees
claims that the sons of Ishmael
Ishmael
intermingled with the 6 sons of Keturah, from Abraham, and their descendants were called Arabs
Arabs
and Ishmaelites:

And Ishmael
Ishmael
and his sons, and the sons of Keturah
Keturah
and their sons, went together and dwelt from Paran to the entering in of Babylon
Babylon
in all the land towards the East facing the desert. And these mingled with each other, and their name was called Arabs, and Ishmaelites. —  Book of Jubilees
Book of Jubilees
20:13

Assyrian horsemen pursue defeated Arabs.

Assyrian and Babylonian Royal Inscriptions and North Arabian inscriptions from 9th to 6th century BCE, mention the king of Qedar
Qedar
as king of the Arabs
Arabs
and King of the Ishmaelites.[63][64][65][66] Of the names of the sons of Ishmael
Ishmael
the names "Nabat, Kedar, Abdeel, Dumah, Massa, and Teman" were mentioned in the Assyrian Royal Inscriptions as tribes of the Ishmaelites. Jesur was mentioned in Greek inscriptions in the 1st century BCE.[67]

Life-size bronze bust sculpture of Ibn Khaldun.[68]

Ibn Khaldun's Muqaddima
Muqaddima
distinguishes between sedentary Arabian Muslims
Muslims
who used to be nomadic, and Bedouin
Bedouin
nomadic Arabs
Arabs
of the desert. He used the term "formerly nomadic" Arabs
Arabs
and refers to sedentary Muslims
Muslims
by the region or city they lived in, as in Yemenis.[69] The Christians
Christians
of Italy
Italy
and the Crusaders preferred the term Saracens
Saracens
for all the Arabs
Arabs
and Muslims
Muslims
of that time.[70] The Christians
Christians
of Iberia
Iberia
used the term Moor to describe all the Arabs
Arabs
and Muslims
Muslims
of that time. Muslims
Muslims
of Medina
Medina
referred to the nomadic tribes of the deserts as the A'raab, and considered themselves sedentary, but were aware of their close racial bonds. The term "A'raab" mirrors the term Assyrians used to describe the closely related nomads they defeated in Syria. The Qur'an
Qur'an
does not use the word ʿarab, only the nisba adjective ʿarabiy. The Qur'an
Qur'an
calls itself ʿarabiy, "Arabic", and Mubin, "clear". The two qualities are connected for example in ayat 43.2–3, "By the clear Book: We have made it an Arabic
Arabic
recitation in order that you may understand". The Qur'an
Qur'an
became regarded as the prime example of the al-ʿarabiyya, the language of the Arabs. The term ʾiʿrāb has the same root and refers to a particularly clear and correct mode of speech. The plural noun ʾaʿrāb refers to the Bedouin
Bedouin
tribes of the desert who resisted Muhammad, for example in at-Tawba 97, al-ʾaʿrābu ʾašaddu kufrān wanifāqān "the Bedouin
Bedouin
are the worst in disbelief and hypocrisy". Based on this, in early Islamic terminology, ʿarabiy referred to the language, and ʾaʿrāb to the Arab
Arab
Bedouins, carrying a negative connotation due to the Qur'anic verdict just cited. But after the Islamic conquest
Islamic conquest
of the eighth century, the language of the nomadic Arabs
Arabs
became regarded as the most pure by the grammarians following Abi Ishaq, and the term kalam al-ʿArab, "language of the Arabs", denoted the uncontaminated language of the Bedouins. Classical kingdoms[edit] Main articles: Palmyra
Palmyra
and Nabateans

Façade of Al Khazneh
Al Khazneh
in Petra, Jordan, built by the Nabateans.

Proto-Arabic, or Ancient North Arabian, texts give a clearer picture of the Arabs' emergence. The earliest are written in variants of epigraphic south Arabian musnad script, including the 8th century BCE Hasaean inscriptions of eastern Saudi Arabia, the 6th century BCE Lihyanite
Lihyanite
texts of southeastern Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
and the Thamudic texts found throughout the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
and Sinai
Sinai
(not in reality connected with Thamud). The Nabataeans
Nabataeans
were nomadic who moved into territory vacated by the Edomites – Semites who settled the region centuries before them. Their early inscriptions were in Aramaic, but gradually switched to Arabic, and since they had writing, it was they who made the first inscriptions in Arabic. The Nabataean alphabet
Nabataean alphabet
was adopted by Arabs
Arabs
to the south, and evolved into modern Arabic
Arabic
script around the 4th century. This is attested by Safaitic
Safaitic
inscriptions (beginning in the 1st century BCE) and the many Arabic
Arabic
personal names in Nabataean inscriptions. From about the 2nd century BCE, a few inscriptions from Qaryat al-Faw
Qaryat al-Faw
reveal a dialect no longer considered proto-Arabic, but pre-classical Arabic. Five Syriac inscriptions mentioning Arabs
Arabs
have been found at Sumatar Harabesi, one of which dates to the 2nd century CE.

The ruins of Palmyra. The Palmyrenes were a mix of Arabs, Amorites
Amorites
and Arameans.

Arabs
Arabs
arrived in the Palmyra
Palmyra
in the late first millennium BCE.[71] The soldiers of the sheikh Zabdibel, who aided the Seleucids in the battle of Raphia (217 BCE), were described as Arabs; Zabdibel and his men were not actually identified as Palmyrenes in the texts, but the name "Zabdibel" is a Palmyrene name leading to the conclusion that the sheikh hailed from Palmyra.[72] Palmyra
Palmyra
was conquered by the Rashidun Caliphate
Caliphate
after its 634 capture by the Arab
Arab
general Khalid ibn al-Walid, who took the city on his way to Damascus; an 18-day march by his army through the Syrian Desert
Syrian Desert
from Mesopotamia.[73] By then Palmyra
Palmyra
was limited to the Diocletian camp.[74] After the conquest, the city became part of Homs Province.[75]

Fragment of a wall painting showing a Kindite king, 1st century CE.

Palmyra
Palmyra
prospered as part of the Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate, and its population grew.[76] It was a key stop on the East-West trade route, with a large souq (market), built by the Umayyads,[76][77] who also commissioned part of the Temple of Bel as a mosque.[77] During this period, Palmyra was a stronghold of the Banu Kalb
Banu Kalb
tribe.[78] After being defeated by Marwan II
Marwan II
during a civil war in the caliphate, Umayyad
Umayyad
contender Sulayman ibn Hisham fled to the Banu Kalb
Banu Kalb
in Palmyra, but eventually pledged allegiance to Marwan in 744; Palmyra
Palmyra
continued to oppose Marwan until the surrender of the Banu Kalb
Banu Kalb
leader al-Abrash al-Kalbi in 745.[79] That year, Marwan ordered the city's walls demolished.[74][80] In 750 a revolt, led by Majza'a ibn al-Kawthar and Umayyad
Umayyad
pretender Abu Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Sufyani, against the new Abbasid Caliphate
Caliphate
swept across Syria;[81] the tribes in Palmyra
Palmyra
supported the rebels.[82] After his defeat Abu Muhammad
Muhammad
took refuge in the city, which withstood an Abbasid assault long enough to allow him to escape.[82] Late kingdoms[edit] Further information: Lakhmids, Ghassanids, and Kindites

Near East
Near East
in 565, showing the Lakhmids
Lakhmids
and their neighbors.

The Ghassanids, Lakhmids
Lakhmids
and Kindites
Kindites
were the last major migration of pre-Islamic Arabs
Arabs
out of Yemen
Yemen
to the north. The Ghassanids
Ghassanids
increased the Semitic presence in the then Hellenized Syria, the majority of Semites were Aramaic
Aramaic
peoples. They mainly settled in the Hauran
Hauran
region and spread to modern Lebanon, Palestine and East Jordan.

The imperial province of Arabia Petraea
Arabia Petraea
in 117–138 CE.

Greeks
Greeks
and Romans
Romans
referred to all the nomadic population of the desert in the Near East
Near East
as Arabi. The Romans
Romans
called Yemen
Yemen
"Arabia Felix".[83] The Romans
Romans
called the vassal nomadic states within the Roman Empire Arabia Petraea, after the city of Petra, and called unconquered deserts bordering the empire to the south and east Arabia Magna. The Lakhmids
Lakhmids
as a dynasty inherited their power from the Tanukhids, the mid Tigris region around their capital Al-Hira. They ended up allying with the Sassanids against the Ghassanids
Ghassanids
and the Byzantine Empire. The Lakhmids
Lakhmids
contested control of the Central Arabian tribes with the Kindites
Kindites
with the Lakhmids
Lakhmids
eventually destroying Kinda in 540 after the fall of their main ally Himyar. The Persian Sassanids dissolved the Lakhmid
Lakhmid
dynasty in 602, being under puppet kings, then under their direct control.[84] The Kindites
Kindites
migrated from Yemen
Yemen
along with the Ghassanids
Ghassanids
and Lakhmids, but were turned back in Bahrain
Bahrain
by the Abdul Qais Rabi'a tribe. They returned to Yemen
Yemen
and allied themselves with the Himyarites who installed them as a vassal kingdom that ruled Central Arabia from "Qaryah Dhat Kahl" (the present-day called Qaryat al-Faw). They ruled much of the Northern/Central Arabian peninsula, until they were destroyed by the Lakhmid
Lakhmid
king Al-Mundhir, and his son 'Amr. Medieval period[edit] Further information: Arab
Arab
conquests

Age of the Caliphs   Expansion under Muhammad, 622–632/A.H. 1–11   Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661/A.H. 11–40   Expansion during the Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate, 661–750/A.H. 40–129

Arab
Arab
caliphates[edit] Rashidun era (632–661)[edit] Main article: Rashidun Caliphate After the death of Muhammad
Muhammad
in 632, Rashidun armies launched campaigns of conquest, establishing the Caliphate, or Islamic Empire, one of the largest empires in history. It was larger and lasted longer than the previous Arab
Arab
empire of Queen Mawia or the Aramean- Arab
Arab
Palmyrene Empire. The Rashidun state was a completely new state and unlike the Arab
Arab
kingdoms of its century such as the Himyarite, Lakhmids
Lakhmids
or Ghassanids. Umayyad
Umayyad
era (661–750 & 756–1031)[edit] Main article: Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate See also: Caliphate of Córdoba
Caliphate of Córdoba
and Al-Andalus See also: Abbadid, Taifa, Nasrid dynasty
Nasrid dynasty
(Sistan), Zengid dynasty, and Ikhshidid dynasty

The Great Mosque of Kairouan
Great Mosque of Kairouan
in Kairouan, Tunisia
Tunisia
was founded in 670 by the Arab
Arab
general Uqba ibn Nafi; it is the oldest mosque in the Maghreb[85] and represents an architectural testimony of the Arab conquest of North Africa.

The Umayyad Mosque
Umayyad Mosque
in Damascus, built in 715, is one of the oldest, largest and best preserved mosques in the world.

In 661, the Rashidun Caliphate
Rashidun Caliphate
fell into the hands of the Umayyad dynasty and Damascus
Damascus
was established as the empire's capital. The Umayyads were proud of their Arab identity
Arab identity
and sponsored the poetry and culture of pre-Islamic Arabia. They established garrison towns at Ramla, Raqqa, Basra, Kufa, Mosul
Mosul
and Samarra, all of which developed into major cities.[86] Caliph
Caliph
Abd al-Malik established Arabic
Arabic
as the Caliphate's official language in 686.[87] This reform greatly influenced the conquered non- Arab
Arab
peoples and fueled the Arabization
Arabization
of the region. However, the Arabs' higher status among non- Arab
Arab
Muslim
Muslim
converts and the latter's obligation to pay heavy taxes caused resentment. Caliph
Caliph
Umar II strove to resolve the conflict when he came to power in 717. He rectified the disparity, demanding that all Muslims
Muslims
be treated as equals, but his intended reforms did not take effect, as he died after only three years of rule. By now, discontent with the Umayyads swept the region and an uprising occurred in which the Abbasids came to power and moved the capital to Baghdad.

The Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
in Jerusalem, constructed during the reign of Abd al Malik.

Umayyads expanded their Empire westwards capturing North Africa
North Africa
from the Byzantines. Before the Arab
Arab
conquest, North Africa
North Africa
was conquered or settled by various people including Punics, Vandals and Romans. After the Abbasid Revolution, the Umayyads lost most of their territories with the exception of Iberia. Their last holding became known as the Emirate of Córdoba. It wasn't until the rule of the grandson of the founder of this new emirate that the state entered a new phase as the Caliphate
Caliphate
of Córdoba. This new state was characterized by an expansion of trade, culture and knowledge, and saw the construction of masterpieces of al-Andalus architecture and the library of Al-Ḥakam II
Al-Ḥakam II
which housed over 400,000 volumes. With the collapse of the Umayyad
Umayyad
state in 1031 CE, Islamic Spain
Spain
was divided into small kingdoms. Abbassid era (750–1258 & 1261–1517)[edit] Main article: Abbasid Caliphate

Mustansiriya University
Mustansiriya University
in Baghdad.

Scholars at an Abbasid library in Baghdad. Maqamat of al-Hariri Illustration, 1237.

The Abbasids were the descendants of Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, one of the youngest uncles of Muhammad
Muhammad
and of the same Banu Hashim clan. The Abbasids led a revolt against the Umayyads and defeated them in the Battle of the Zab
Battle of the Zab
effectively ending their rule in all parts of the Empire with the exception of al-Andalus. In 762, the second Abbasid Caliph
Caliph
al-Mansur founded the city of Baghdad
Baghdad
and declared it the capital of the Caliphate. Unlike the Umayyads, the Abbasids had the support of non- Arab
Arab
subjects.[86] The Islamic Golden Age
Islamic Golden Age
was inaugurated by the middle of the 8th century by the ascension of the Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
and the transfer of the capital from Damascus
Damascus
to the newly founded city of Baghdad. The Abbassids were influenced by the Qur'anic injunctions and hadith such as "The ink of the scholar is more holy than the blood of martyrs" stressing the value of knowledge. During this period the Muslim
Muslim
world became an intellectual centre for science, philosophy, medicine and education as the Abbasids championed the cause of knowledge and established the "House of Wisdom" (Arabic: بيت الحكمة‎) in Baghdad. Rival dynasties such as the Fatimids
Fatimids
of Egypt
Egypt
and the Umayyads of al-Andalus were also major intellectual centres with cities such as Cairo
Cairo
and Córdoba rivaling Baghdad.[88]

Harun al-Rashid
Harun al-Rashid
receiving a delegation sent by Charlemagne.

The Abbasids ruled for 200 years before they lost their central control when Wilayas began to fracture in the 10th century; afterwards, in the 1190s, there was a revival of their power, which was ended by the Mongols, who conquered Baghdad
Baghdad
in 1258 and killed the Caliph
Caliph
Al-Musta'sim. Members of the Abbasid royal family escaped the massacre and resorted to Cairo, which had broken from the Abbasid rule two years earlier; the Mamluk generals taking the political side of the kingdom while Abbasid Caliphs
Abbasid Caliphs
were engaged in civil activities and continued patronizing science, arts and literature. Fatimid Caliphate
Fatimid Caliphate
(909–1171)[edit] Main article: Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliphate

The Al-Azhar Mosque, commissioned by the Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliph
Caliph
Al-Mu'izz for the newly established capital city of Cairo
Cairo
in 969.

The Fatimid
Fatimid
caliphate was founded by al-Mahdi Billah, a descendant of Fatimah, the daughter of Muhammad, in the early 10th century. Egypt was the political, cultural, and religious centre of the Fatimid empire. The Fatimid
Fatimid
state took shape among the Kutama Berbers, in the West of the North African littoral, in Algeria, in 909 conquering Raqqada, the Aghlabid
Aghlabid
capital. In 921 the Fatimids
Fatimids
established the Tunisian city of Mahdia
Mahdia
as their new capital. In 948 they shifted their capital to Al-Mansuriya, near Kairouan
Kairouan
in Tunisia, and in 969 they conquered Egypt
Egypt
and established Cairo
Cairo
as the capital of their caliphate. Intellectual life in Egypt
Egypt
during the Fatimid
Fatimid
period achieved great progress and activity, due to many scholars who lived in or came to Egypt, as well as the number of books available. Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliphs gave prominent positions to scholars in their courts, encouraged students, and established libraries in their palaces, so that scholars might expand their knowledge and reap benefits from the work of their predecessors.[89] The Fatimids
Fatimids
were also known for their exquisite arts. Many traces of Fatimid
Fatimid
architecture exist in Cairo
Cairo
today; the most defining examples include the Al-Hakim Mosque
Al-Hakim Mosque
and the Al-Azhar University.

Arabesque
Arabesque
pattern behind hunters on ivory plaque, 11th–12th century, Egypt

It was not until the 11th century that the Maghreb
Maghreb
saw a large influx of ethnic Arabs. Starting with the 11th century, the Arab
Arab
bedouin Banu Hilal tribes migrated to the West. Having been sent by the Fatimids
Fatimids
to punish the Berber Zirids
Zirids
for abandoning Shias, they travelled westwards. The Banu Hilal
Banu Hilal
quickly defeated the Zirids
Zirids
and deeply weakened the neighboring Hammadids. According to some modern historians. their influx was a major factor in the arabization of the Maghreb.[90][91] Although Berbers
Berbers
ruled the region until the 16th century (under such powerful dynasties as the Almoravids, the Almohads, Hafsids, etc.), the arrival of these tribes eventually helped Arabize much of it ethnically, in addition to the linguistic and political impact on local non-Arabs.[citation needed] Ottoman Empire[edit] Main articles: Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Ottoman Caliphate

Soldiers of the Arab Army
Arab Army
in the Arabian Desert
Arabian Desert
carrying the Flag of the Arab
Arab
Revolt.

From 1517 to 1918, much of the Arab world
Arab world
was under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans defeated the Mamluk Sultanate in Cairo, and ended the Abbasid Caliphate. Arabs
Arabs
did not feel the change of administration because the Ottomans modeled their rule after the previous Arab
Arab
administration systems.[citation needed] In 1911, Arab
Arab
intellectuals and politicians from throughout the Levant formed al-Fatat ("the Young Arab
Arab
Society"), a small Arab
Arab
nationalist club, in Paris. Its stated aim was "raising the level of the Arab nation to the level of modern nations." In the first few years of its existence, al-Fatat called for greater autonomy within a unified Ottoman state rather than Arab
Arab
independence from the empire. Al-Fatat hosted the Arab Congress of 1913
Arab Congress of 1913
in Paris, the purpose of which was to discuss desired reforms with other dissenting individuals from the Arab
Arab
world. However, as the Ottoman authorities cracked down on the organization's activities and members, al-Fatat went underground and demanded the complete independence and unity of the Arab provinces.[92] After World War I, when the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
was overthrown by the British Empire, former Ottoman colonies were divided up between the British and French as League of Nations mandates. Modern period[edit]

A map of the Arab
Arab
world

Arabs
Arabs
in modern times live in the Arab
Arab
world, which comprises 22 countries in Western Asia, North Africa, and parts of the Horn of Africa. They are all modern states and became significant as distinct political entities after the fall and defeat and dissolution of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(1908–1922). Identity[edit] Further information: Arab
Arab
identity Arab identity
Arab identity
is defined independently of religious identity, and pre-dates the spread of Islam, with historically attested Arab Christian
Christian
kingdoms and Arab
Arab
Jewish tribes. Today, however, most Arabs are Muslim, with a minority adhering to other faiths, largely Christianity, but also Druze
Druze
and Baha'i.[93][94]

Near East
Near East
in 565, showing the Ghassanids, Lakhmids, Kindah
Kindah
and Hejaz.

Today, the main unifying characteristic among Arabs
Arabs
is Arabic, a Central Semitic language from the Afroasiatic language family. Modern Standard Arabic
Arabic
serves as the standardized and literary variety of Arabic
Arabic
used in writing. The Arabs
Arabs
are first mentioned in the mid-ninth century BCE as a tribal people dwelling in the central Arabian Peninsula subjugated by Upper Mesopotamia-based state of Assyria. The Arabs
Arabs
appear to have remained largely under the vassalage of the Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
(911–605 BCE), and then the succeeding Neo-Babylonian Empire
Neo-Babylonian Empire
(605–539 BCE), Persian Achaemenid Empire (539–332 BCE), Greek Macedonian/ Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
and Parthian Empire. Arab
Arab
tribes, most notably the Ghassanids
Ghassanids
and Lakhmids
Lakhmids
begin to appear in the south Syrian deserts and southern Jordan
Jordan
from the mid 3rd century CE onwards, during the mid to later stages of the Roman Empire and Sasanian Empire. Also, before them the Nabataeans
Nabataeans
of Jordan
Jordan
and arguably the Emessans,[95] Edessans,[96] and Hatrans[97] all appear to have been an Aramaic
Aramaic
speaking ethnic Arabs
Arabs
who came to rule much of the pre-Islamic fertile crescent often as vassals of the two rival empires, the Sasanian (Persian) and the Byzantine (Eastern Roman).[98] Thus, although a more limited diffusion of Arab culture
Arab culture
and language was felt in some areas by these migrant minority Arabs
Arabs
in pre-Islamic times through Arabic-speaking Christian
Christian
kingdoms and Jewish tribes, it was only after the rise of Islam
Islam
in the mid-7th century that Arab culture, people and language began their wholesale spread from the central Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
(including the south Syrian desert) through conquest and trade. Subgroups[edit] Further information: Tribes of Arabia

Approximate locations of certain tribes of Arabia, including those descended from Adnan, Hawazin
Hawazin
and Quraysh
Quraysh
at the dawn of Islam, 600 CE.

Arabs
Arabs
in the narrow sense are the indigenous Arabians who trace their roots back to the tribes of Arabia and their immediate descendant groups in the Levant
Levant
and North Africa. Within the people of the Arabian Peninsula, distinction is made between: Perishing Arabs (Arabic: العرب البائدة‎) are ancient tribes of whose history little is known. They include ‘Aad, Thamud, Tasm, Jadis, Imlaq and others. Jadis and Tasm perished because of genocide. 'Aad and Thamud perished because of their decadence, as recorded in the Qur'an. Archaeologists have recently uncovered inscriptions that contain references to 'Iram, which was a major city of the 'Aad. Imlaq is the singular form of 'Amaleeq and is probably synonymous to the biblical Amalek. Pure Arabs
Arabs
(العرب العاربة) or Qahtanites from Yemen, taken to be descended from Ya‘rub ibn Yashjub ibn Qahtan and further from Hud. Arabized Arabs
Arabs
(العرب المستعربة) or Adnanites, taken to be the descendants of Ishmael
Ishmael
son of Abraham. Arabians are most prevalent in the Arabian Peninsula, but are also found in large numbers in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
( Arab
Arab
tribes in Iraq), the Levant
Levant
and Sinai
Sinai
(Negev Bedouin, Tarabin bedouin), as well as the Maghreb
Maghreb
(Eastern Libya, South Tunisia
Tunisia
and South Algeria) and the Sudan region.

Arabian tribes before the spread of Islam.

This traditional division of the Arabs
Arabs
of Arabia may have arisen at the time of the First Fitna. Of the Arabian tribes that interacted with Muhammad, the most prominent was the Quraysh. The Quraysh subclan, the Banu Hashim, was the clan of Muhammad. During the early Muslim
Muslim
conquests and the Islamic Golden Age, the political rulers of Islam
Islam
were exclusively members of the Quraysh. The Arab
Arab
presence in Iran did not begin with the Arab
Arab
conquest of Persia in 633 CE. For centuries, Iranian rulers had maintained contacts with Arabs
Arabs
outside their borders, dealt with Arab
Arab
subjects and client states (such as those of Iraq
Iraq
and Yemen), and settled Arab tribesmen in various parts of the Iranian plateau. It follows that the "Arab" conquests and settlements were by no means the exclusive work of Arabs
Arabs
from the Hejaz
Hejaz
and the tribesmen of inner Arabia. The Arab infiltration into Iran began before the Muslim
Muslim
conquests and continued as a result of the joint exertions of the civilized Arabs
Arabs
(ahl al-madar) as well as the desert Arabs
Arabs
(ahl al-wabar).[99] The largest group of Iranian Arabs
Iranian Arabs
are the Ahwazi Arabs, including Banu Ka'b, Bani Turuf and the Musha'sha'iyyah
Musha'sha'iyyah
sect. Smaller groups are the Khamseh nomads in Fars Province
Fars Province
and the Arabs
Arabs
in Khorasan.

Post-card of Emir Mejhem ibn Meheid, chief of the Anaza tribe near Aleppo
Aleppo
with his sons after being decorated with the Croix de Légion d'honneur on 20 September 1920.

The Arabs
Arabs
of the Levant
Levant
are traditionally divided into Qays and Yaman tribes. This tribal division is likewise taken to date to the Umayyad period. The Yemen
Yemen
trace their origin to South Arabia
South Arabia
or Yemen; they include Banu Kalb, Kindah, Ghassanids, and Lakhmids.[100] Since the 1834 Peasants' revolt in Palestine, the Arabic-speaking population of Palestine has shed its formerly tribal structure and emerged as the Palestinians[citation needed]. Native Jordanians are either descended from Bedouins (of which, 6% live a nomadic lifestyle),[101] or from the many deeply rooted non bedouin communities across the country, most notably Al-Salt
Al-Salt
city west of Amman
Amman
which was at the time of Emirate the largest urban settlement east of the Jordan
Jordan
River. Along with indigenous communities in Al Husn, Aqaba, Irbid, Al Karak, Madaba, Jerash, Ajloun, Fuheis
Fuheis
and Pella.[102] In Jordan, there is no official census data for how many inhabitants have Palestinian roots but they are estimated to constitute half of the population,[103][104] which in 2008 amounted to about 3 million.[104] Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics
Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics
put their number at 3.24 million in 2009.[105]

Old Bedouin
Bedouin
man and his wife in Egypt, 1918.

The Bedouins of western Egypt
Egypt
and eastern Libya
Libya
are traditionally divided into Saʿada and Murabtin, the Saʿada having higher social status. This may derive from a historical feudal system in which the Murabtin were vassals to the Saʿada In Sudan, there are numerous Arabic-speaking tribes, including the Shaigya, Ja'alin and Shukria, who are ancestrally related to the Nubians. These groups are collectively known as Sudanese Arabs. In addition, there are other Afroasiatic-speaking populations, such as Copts
Copts
and Beja.

Commander and Amir
Amir
of Mascara, Banu Hilal.

The medieval Arab slave trade
Arab slave trade
in the Sudan
Sudan
drove a wedge between the Arabic-speaking groups and the indigenous Nilotic populations. Slavery substantially persists today along these lines.[106] It has contributed to ethnic conflict in the region, such as the Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile, Northern Mali conflict, or the Boko Haram insurgency. The Arabs
Arabs
of the Maghreb
Maghreb
are descendants of Arabian tribes of Banu Hilal, the Banu Sulaym and the Maqil native of Middle East[107] and of other tribes native to Saudi Arabia, Yemen
Yemen
and Iraq. Arabs
Arabs
and Arabic-speakers inhabit plains and cities. The Banu Hilal
Banu Hilal
spent almost a century in Egypt
Egypt
before moving to Libya, Tunisia
Tunisia
and Algeria, and another century later some moved to Morocco, it is logical to think that they are mixed with inhabitants of Egypt
Egypt
and with Libya.[108] Demographics[edit] The total number of Arabic
Arabic
speakers living in the Arab
Arab
nations is estimated at 366 million by the CIA Factbook
CIA Factbook
(as of 2014). The estimated number of Arabs
Arabs
in countries outside the Arab League
Arab League
is estimated at 17.5 million, yielding a total of close to 384 million. Arab
Arab
world[edit]

Population density of the Arab world
Arab world
in 2008.

According to the Charter of the Arab League
Arab League
(also known as the Pact of the League of Arab
Arab
States), the League of Arab
Arab
States is composed of independent Arab
Arab
states that are signatories to the Charter.[109] Although all Arab
Arab
states have Arabic
Arabic
as an official language, there are many non-Arabic-speaking populations native to the Arab
Arab
world. Among these are Berbers, Toubou, Nubians, Jews, Kurds, Armenians.[30] Additionally, many Arab
Arab
countries in the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
have sizable non- Arab
Arab
immigrant populations (10–30%). Iraq, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
and Oman
Oman
have a Persian speaking minority. The same countries also have Hindi-Urdu speakers and Filipinos
Filipinos
as sizable minority. Balochi speakers are a good size minority in Oman. Additionally, countries like Bahrain, UAE, Oman
Oman
and Kuwait
Kuwait
have significant non- Arab
Arab
and non- Muslim
Muslim
minorities (10–20%) like Hindus and Christians
Christians
from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal
Nepal
and the Philippines. The table below shows the distribution of populations in the Arab world, as well as the official language(s) within the various Arab states.[110]

Arab
Arab
state Population Official language(s)

 Algeria 38,700,000[111] Arabic
Arabic
co-official language with Berber

 Bahrain 1,314,089[112] Arabic
Arabic
official language

 Comoros 780,971[113] Arabic
Arabic
co-official language with Comorian and French

 Djibouti 810,179[114] Arabic
Arabic
co-official language with French

 Egypt 94,526,231[115] Arabic
Arabic
official language

 Iraq 32,585,692[116] Arabic
Arabic
co-official language with Kurdish

 Jordan 9,531,712[117] Arabic
Arabic
official language

 Kuwait 4,156,306[118] Arabic
Arabic
official language

 Lebanon 5,882,562[119] Arabic
Arabic
official language

 Libya 6,244,174[120] Arabic
Arabic
official language

 Mauritania 3,516,806[121] Arabic
Arabic
official language

 Morocco 32,987,206[122] Arabic
Arabic
co-official language with Berber

 Oman 3,219,775[123] Arabic
Arabic
official language

Palestine 4,550,368[124] Arabic
Arabic
official language

 Qatar 2,123,160[125] Arabic
Arabic
official language

 Saudi Arabia 27,345,986[126] Arabic
Arabic
official language

 Somalia 10,428,043[127] Arabic
Arabic
co-official language with Somali

 Sudan 35,482,233[128] Arabic
Arabic
co-official language with English

 Syria 17,951,639[129] Arabic
Arabic
official language

 Tunisia 10,937,521[130] Arabic
Arabic
official language

 United Arab
Arab
Emirates 10,102,678[131] Arabic
Arabic
official language

 Yemen 26,052,966[132] Arabic
Arabic
official language

Arab
Arab
diaspora[edit] Main articles: Arab diaspora
Arab diaspora
and List of Arabic
Arabic
neighborhoods

Syrian immigrants in New York City, as depicted in 1895.

Arab diaspora
Arab diaspora
refers to descendants of the Arab
Arab
immigrants who, voluntarily or as refugees, emigrated from their native lands in non- Arab
Arab
countries, primarily in East Africa, South America, Europe, North America, and parts of South Asia, Southeast Asia, the Caribbean, and West Africa. According to the International Organization for Migration, there are 13 million first-generation Arab
Arab
migrants in the world, of which 5.8 million reside in Arab
Arab
countries. Arab
Arab
expatriates contribute to the circulation of financial and human capital in the region and thus significantly promote regional development. In 2009, Arab
Arab
countries received a total of 35.1 billion USD in remittance in-flows and remittances sent to Jordan, Egypt
Egypt
and Lebanon
Lebanon
from other Arab
Arab
countries are 40 to 190 per cent higher than trade revenues between these and other Arab
Arab
countries.[133] The 250,000 strong Lebanese community in West Africa
West Africa
is the largest non-African group in the region.[134][135] Arab
Arab
traders have long operated in Southeast Asia and along the East Africa's Swahili coast. Zanzibar
Zanzibar
was once ruled by Omani Arabs.[136] Most of the prominent Indonesians, Malaysians, and Singaporeans of Arab
Arab
descent are Hadhrami people
Hadhrami people
with origins in southern Yemen
Yemen
in the Hadramawt
Hadramawt
coastal region.[137]

Amel Bent, a France-born Maghrebi pop singer.

There are millions of Arabs
Arabs
living in Europe
Europe
mostly concentrated in France
France
(about 6,000,000 in 2005[6]). Most Arabs
Arabs
in France
France
are from the Maghreb
Maghreb
but some also come from the Mashreq
Mashreq
areas of the Arab
Arab
world. Arabs
Arabs
in France
France
form the second largest ethnic group after French people of French origin.[138] Spain
Spain
(about 800,000[139][140] to 1,600,000 – 1,800,000[141][142][143][144]), there have been Arabs
Arabs
in Spain
Spain
since the early 8th century when the Umayyad
Umayyad
conquest of Hispania created the state of Al-Andalus.[145][146][147] Germany
Germany
(over 1,000,000[148]), Italy
Italy
(about 680,000[23]), United Kingdom (366,769[149] to 500,000[150]). Greece
Greece
(250,000 to 750,000[151]), In addition, Greece
Greece
has people from Arab
Arab
countries who have the status of refugees (e.g. refugees of the Syrian civil war) or illegal immigrants trying to immigrate to Western Europe.[152] Sweden
Sweden
(210,400[153]). Netherlands
Netherlands
(180,000[154]). Denmark
Denmark
(121,000). And in other European countries, such as Norway, Austria, Bulgaria, Switzerland, Republic of Macedonia, Romania
Romania
and Serbia.[155] As of late 2015, Turkey
Turkey
had a population of 78.7 million, with Syrian refugees accounting for 3.1% of that figure based on conservative estimates. Demographic trends indicate that the country already had from 1,500,000[156] to more than 2,000,000,[10] so Turkey's Arab
Arab
constituency now numbers anywhere from 4.5 to 5.1% of the population. In other words, nearly 4–5 million Arab
Arab
inhabitants.[9][10]

The Arab American National Museum
Arab American National Museum
in Dearborn, Michigan, USA.

Arab immigration to the United States
Arab immigration to the United States
began in sizable numbers during the 1880s. Today, it is estimated that nearly 3.7 million Americans trace their roots to an Arab
Arab
country.[157][158][159] Arab
Arab
Americans are found in every state, but more than two thirds of them live in just ten states: California, Michigan, New York, Florida, Texas, New Jersey, Illinois, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Virginia. Metropolitan Los Angeles, Detroit, and New York City
New York City
are home to one-third of the population.[158][160] Contrary to popular assumptions or stereotypes, the majority of Arab Americans
Arab Americans
are native-born, and nearly 82% of Arabs
Arabs
in the U.S. are citizens.[161][162][162][163][164] Arabs immigrants began to arrive in Canada
Canada
in small numbers in 1882. Their immigration was relatively limited until 1945, after which time it increased progressively, particularly in the 1960s and thereafter.[165] According to the website "Who are Arab
Arab
Canadians," Montreal, the Canadian city with the largest Arab
Arab
population, has approximately 267,000 Arab
Arab
inhabitants.[166]

Michel Temer, the 37th and current President of Brazil, is of Lebanese descent.[167][168][169]

Latin America
Latin America
has the largest Arab
Arab
population outside of the Arab World.[170] Latin America
Latin America
is home to anywhere from 17–25 to 30 million people of Arab
Arab
descent,[171] which is more than any other diaspora region in the world.[172][173] The Brazilian and Lebanese governments claim there are 7 million Brazilians of Lebanese descent.[174][175] Also, the Brazilian government claims there are 4 million Brazilians of Syrian descent.[174] According to research conducted by IBGE in 2008, covering only the states of Amazonas, Paraíba, São Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul, Mato Grosso and Distrito Federal, 0.9% of white Brazilian respondents said they had family origins in the Middle East.[176][177][178][179][180] Other large Arab communities includes Argentina
Argentina
(about 4,500,000[181][182][183]) The interethnic marriage in the Arab
Arab
community, regardless of religious affiliation, is very high; most community members have only one parent who has Arab
Arab
ethnicity.[184] Venezuela
Venezuela
(over 1,600,000[15][185][186]), Colombia
Colombia
(over 1,600,000[16] to 3,200,000[187][188][189]), Mexico (over 1,100,000[19]), Chile
Chile
(over 800,000[190][191][192][193]), and Central America, particularly El Salvador, and Honduras
Honduras
(between 150,000 and 200,000).[194][195][196] is the fourth largest in the world after those in Israel, Lebanon, and Jordan. Arab Haitians (a large number of whom live in the capital) are more often than not, concentrated in financial areas where the majority of them establish businesses.[197][197][197]

Georgia and the Caucasus
Caucasus
in 1060, during the final decline of the emirate.

In 1728, a Russian officer described a group of Arab
Arab
nomads who populated the Caspian shores of Mughan (in present-day Azerbaijan) and spoke a mixed Turkic- Arabic
Arabic
language.[198] It is believed that these groups migrated to the Caucasus
Caucasus
in the 16th century.[199] The 1888 edition of Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
also mentioned a certain number of Arabs
Arabs
populating the Baku Governorate
Baku Governorate
of the Russian Empire.[200] They retained an Arabic
Arabic
dialect at least into the mid-19th century,[201] there are nearly 30 settlements still holding the name Arab
Arab
(for example, Arabgadim, Arabojaghy, Arab-Yengija, etc.). From the time of the Arab
Arab
conquest of the Caucasus, continuous small-scale Arab migration from various parts of the Arab world
Arab world
occurred in Dagestan. The majority of these lived in the village of Darvag, to the north-west of Derbent. The latest of these accounts dates to the 1930s.[199] Most Arab
Arab
communities in southern Dagestan
Dagestan
underwent linguistic Turkicisation, thus nowadays Darvag is a majority-Azeri village.[202][203] According to the History of Ibn Khaldun, the Arabs that were once in Central Asia
Central Asia
have been either killed or have fled the Tatar invasion of the region, leaving only the locals.[204] However, today many people in Central Asia
Central Asia
identify as Arabs. Most Arabs
Arabs
of Central Asia
Central Asia
are fully integrated into local populations, and sometimes call themselves the same as locals (for example, Tajiks, Uzbeks) but they use special titles to show their Arab
Arab
origin such as Sayyid, Khoja or Siddiqui.[205]

Kechimalai Mosque, Beruwala. One of the oldest mosques in Sri Lanka. It is believed to be the site where the first Arabs
Arabs
landed in Sri Lanka.

There are only two communities in India
India
which self-identify as Arabs, the Chaush of the Deccan region and the Chavuse of Gujarat.[206][207] These groups are largely descended from Hadhrami migrants who settled in these two regions in the 18th century. However, neither community still speaks Arabic, although the Chaush have seen re-immigration to the Arab
Arab
States of the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
and thus a re-adoption of Arabic.[208] In South Asia, where Arab
Arab
ancestry is considered prestigious, many communities have origin myths that claim Arab ancestry. These include the Mappilla
Mappilla
of Kerala
Kerala
and the Labbai of Tamil Nadu.[209] Among North Indian and Pakistani Arabs, there are groups who claim the status of Sayyid
Sayyid
and have origin myths that allege descent from the Prophet Mohammad.[210] The South Asian Iraqi biradri may be considered Arabs
Arabs
because records of their ancestors who migrated from Iraq
Iraq
exist in historical documents. There are about 5,000,000 Native Indonesians
Native Indonesians
with Arab
Arab
ancestry.[211] Arab
Arab
Indonesians are mainly of Hadrami descent.[212][212] The Sri Lankan Moors
Moors
are the third largest ethnic group in Sri Lanka, comprising 9.23% of the country's total population.[213] Some sources trace the ancestry of the Sri Lankan Moors
Moors
to Arab
Arab
traders who settled in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
at some time between the 8th and 15th centuries.[214][215][216]

Baggara
Baggara
belt.

Afro-Arabs
Afro-Arabs
are individuals and groups from Africa
Africa
who are of partial Arab
Arab
descent. Most Afro-Arabs
Afro-Arabs
inhabit the Swahili Coast
Swahili Coast
in the African Great Lakes region, although some can also be found in parts of the Arab
Arab
world.[217][218] Large numbers of Arabs
Arabs
migrated to West Africa, particularly Côte d'Ivoire
Côte d'Ivoire
(home to over 100,000 Lebanese),[219] Senegal
Senegal
(roughly 30,000 Lebanese),[220] Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
(roughly 10,000 Lebanese today; about 30,000 prior to the outbreak of civil war in 1991), Liberia, and Nigeria.[221] Since the end of the civil war in 2002, Lebanese traders have become re-established in Sierra Leone.[222][223][224][225] The Arabs
Arabs
of Chad occupy northern Cameroon and Nigeria
Nigeria
(where they are sometimes known as Shuwa), and extend as a belt across Chad and into Sudan, where they are called the Baggara grouping of Arab
Arab
ethnic groups inhabiting the portion of Africa's Sahel. The Chadian Arabs
Arabs
are (2,391,000 to 2,500,000[226]), Nigeria (289,000[227]), Cameroon
Cameroon
(171,000), Niger
Niger
(150,000[228]), and the Central African Republic
Central African Republic
(107,000).[229] Religion[edit] Main articles: Arabian mythology, Arab
Arab
Muslims, Arab
Arab
Christians, Druze, and Bahá'í Faith

Bas-relief: Nemesis, Allāt
Allāt
and the dedicator.

Arabs
Arabs
are mostly Muslims
Muslims
with a Sunni
Sunni
majority and a Shia minority, one exception being the Ibadis, who predominate in Oman.[230] Arab Christians
Christians
generally follow Eastern Churches
Eastern Churches
such as the Greek Orthodox and Greek Catholic
Greek Catholic
churches, though a minority of Protestant Church followers also exists; The Copts
Copts
and the Maronites, follow the Coptic Church
Coptic Church
and Maronite Church
Maronite Church
accordingly.[231] The Greek Catholic church and Maronite church are under the Pope
Pope
of Rome, and a part of the larger worldwide Catholic Church. There are also Arab
Arab
communities consisting of Druze
Druze
and Baha'is.[232][233] Before the coming of Islam, most Arabs
Arabs
followed a pagan religion with a number of deities, including Hubal,[234] Wadd, Allāt,[235] Manat, and Uzza. A few individuals, the hanifs, had apparently rejected polytheism in favor of monotheism unaffiliated with any particular religion. Some tribes had converted to Christianity
Christianity
or Judaism. The most prominent Arab
Arab
Christian
Christian
kingdoms were the Ghassanid
Ghassanid
and Lakhmid kingdoms.[236] When the Himyarite
Himyarite
king converted to Judaism
Judaism
in the late 4th century,[237] the elites of the other prominent Arab
Arab
kingdom, the Kindites, being Himyirite vassals, apparently also converted (at least partly). With the expansion of Islam, polytheistic Arabs
Arabs
were rapidly Islamized, and polytheistic traditions gradually disappeared.[238][239]

The holiest place in Islam, the Kaaba, is located in Saudi Arabia.

Today, Sunni
Sunni
Islam
Islam
dominates in most areas, overwhelmingly so in North Africa
Africa
and the Horn of Africa. Shia Islam
Islam
is dominant among the Arab population in Bahrain
Bahrain
and southern Iraq
Iraq
while northern Iraq
Iraq
is mostly Sunni. Substantial Shia populations exist in Lebanon, Yemen, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia,[240] northern Syria
Syria
and the al-Batinah region in Oman. There are small numbers of Ibadi
Ibadi
and non-denominational Muslims too.[230] The Druze
Druze
community is concentrated in Lebanon, Syria, Israel
Israel
and Jordan. Many Druze
Druze
claim independence from other major religions in the area and consider their religion more of a philosophy. Their books of worship are called Kitab Al Hikma
Kitab Al Hikma
(Epistles of Wisdom). They believe in reincarnation and pray to five messengers from God. In Israel, the Druze
Druze
have a status aparte from the general Arab
Arab
population, treated as a separate ethno-religious community.

A Greek Orthodox Church
Greek Orthodox Church
during a snow storm in Amman, Jordan.

Christianity
Christianity
had a prominent presence In pre-Islamic Arabia among several Arab
Arab
communities, including the Bahrani people of Eastern Arabia, the Christian
Christian
community of Najran, in parts of Yemen, and among certain northern Arabian tribes such as the Ghassanids, Lakhmids, Taghlib, Banu Amela, Banu Judham, Tanukhids and Tayy. In the early Christian
Christian
centuries, Arabia was sometimes known as Arabia heretica, due to its being "well known as a breeding-ground for heterodox interpretations of Christianity."[241] Christians
Christians
make up 5.5% of the population of Western Asia
Western Asia
and North Africa.[242] A sizeable share of those are Arab Christians
Arab Christians
proper, and affiliated Arabic-speaking populations of Copts
Copts
and Maronites. In Lebanon, Christians
Christians
number about 40.5% of the population.[119] In Syria, Christians
Christians
make up 10% of the population.[129] In West Bank
West Bank
and in Gaza Strip, Christians
Christians
make up 8% and 0.7% of the populations, respectively.[243][244] In Egypt, Coptic Christians
Christians
number about 10% of the population. In Iraq, Christians
Christians
constitute 0.1% of the population.[245] In Israel, Arab Christians
Arab Christians
constitute 2.1% (roughly 9% of the Arab
Arab
population).[246] Arab Christians
Arab Christians
make up 8% of the population of Jordan.[247] Most North and South American Arabs
Arabs
are Christian,[248] so are about half of the Arabs
Arabs
in Australia
Australia
who come particularly from Lebanon, Syria
Syria
and Palestine. One well known member of this religious and ethnic community is Saint Abo, martyr and the patron saint of Tbilisi, Georgia.[249] Arab Christians
Arab Christians
also live in holy Christian
Christian
cities such as Nazareth, Bethlehem
Bethlehem
and the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and many other villages with holy Christian
Christian
sites. Culture[edit] Main article: Arab
Arab
culture

An Abbasid-era Arabic
Arabic
manuscript.

Part of a series on

Arab
Arab
culture

Architecture

Styles

Architecture
Architecture
of ancient Yemen Nabataean
Nabataean
architecture Umayyad
Umayyad
architecture Abbasid architecture Fatimid
Fatimid
architecture Moorish architecture Mamluk architecture

Features

Ablaq Hypostyle Mashrabiya Iwan Liwan Riwaq Qadad Moroccan riad Sahn Tadelakt Vaulting Voussoir Multifoil arch Horseshoe arch Arabic
Arabic
dome Alfiz Arabesque Banna'i Girih Islamic calligraphy Islamic geometric patterns Islamic interlace patterns Mocárabe Muqarnas Nagash painting Socarrat Yeseria Zellige Reflecting pool Howz Mosaic Windcatcher Gardens

Types

Madrasa Maqam Mazar Mosque Tekyeh Zawiya Sebil Shadirvan Bazaar Caravanserai Dar al-Shifa Kasbah Medina
Medina
quarter Souq Hammam Well house Albarrana tower Alcazaba Alcázar Bab Qalat Ribat

art

Styles

Art
Art
of ancient Yemen Nabataean
Nabataean
art Umayyad
Umayyad
art Abbasid art Moorish art Fatimid
Fatimid
art Mamluk art

Types

Arabic
Arabic
calligraphy Arabic
Arabic
miniature Arabic
Arabic
pottery Arabic
Arabic
embroidery Arabic
Arabic
hardstone carving Arabic
Arabic
ivory carving Arabic
Arabic
Metalwork Palestinian wood carving Arabic
Arabic
garden Arabic
Arabic
glass Arab
Arab
carpet Arabic
Arabic
graffiti

Features

Arabic
Arabic
geometric patterns Arabic
Arabic
interlace patterns Arabesque Girih
Girih
tiles Pseudo-Arabic Damask Kiswah Banna'i Zellige Mocárabe Muqarnas Damascus
Damascus
steel Hedwig glass

Gastronomy

Khalij (Arabian Peninsula) Mashriq
Mashriq
(Levant) Arab
Arab
Mawsit (Egypt) Arab
Arab
Maghrib (North Africa)

Dress

Headwear

Keffiyeh Agal Taqiyah Tarboush (fez) Turban Litham Tantour Battoulah Madhalla Haik

Clothing

Thawb Bisht Jellabiya Abaya Bedlah Sirwal Kaftan Djellaba Takchita Burnous Izaar Fouta towel Macawis Robe of honour Durra'ah Tiraz

Music

Theory

Arabic
Arabic
maqam Arab
Arab
tone system Rhythm in Arabian music Taqsim Jins Lazma Teslim Quarter tone Algerian scale Arabic
Arabic
musical instruments Arabic
Arabic
music theorists Great Book of Music

Genres

Arabic
Arabic
pop Arabic
Arabic
hip hop Arabic
Arabic
rock Arabic
Arabic
jazz Classical Arab
Arab
music Opera Al Jeel Khaliji Raï

Art
Art
music

Taqsim Andalusian classical music Muwashshah Andalusi nubah Malhun Qudud Halabiya Maqam al-iraqi Qasidah Dulab Sama'i Bashraf Tahmilah Dawr Layali Mawwal Waslah

Folk

Ataaba Zajal Mawwal Fijiri Chaabi (Algeria) Chaabi (Morocco) Gnawa Mezwed Baladi Shaabi Raï Fann at-Tanbura Samri Bedouin Liwa Sawt

Dance

Belly dance Dabke Raqs Sharqi Baladi Almeh Khaleegy Ouled Nail Shamadan Deheyeh Hagallah Schikhatt Guedra Yowla Ardah Al Ayala Samri Tahtib Mizmar Liwa Tanoura Zār

Literature

Language

Old Classical Modern

Prose

Epic literature Saj (ryhmed prose) Maqama Love in Arabic
Arabic
literature Arabic
Arabic
erotic literature Arabic
Arabic
Grimoires Literary_criticism Arabic
Arabic
short story Tabaqat Tezkire Rihla Mirrors for princes

Islamic

Quran Tafsir Hadith Sīra Fiqh Aqidah

Poetry

Anthologies Poets

Genres

Madih Hija Rithā' Waṣf Ghazal Khamriyyah Tardiyyah Khawal Fakhr Hamasa

Forms

Diwan Qasida Muwashshah Urjūza Mathnawi Rubaʿi Nasīb Riddles Kharja Zajal Mawwal Nabati Ghinnawa Humayni Modern Arabic
Arabic
poetry

Arabic
Arabic
prosody

Beit Ṭawīl Madīd Basīṭ Kamil Wāfir Hazaj Rajaz Ramal Munsariħ Khafīf Muqtaḍab Mujtathth Muḍāriʿ Sarīʿ Mutaqārib Mutadārik

Science

Arabic
Arabic
chemistry Arabic
Arabic
astrology Arabic
Arabic
astronomy Arabic
Arabic
geography Arabic
Arabic
Golden Age Arabic
Arabic
mathematics Arabic
Arabic
medicine Arabic
Arabic
psychology Arabic
Arabic
technology

Philosophy

Early Arabic
Arabic
Philosophy Islamic Aristotelianism Islamic Platonism Islamic Logic Kalam Sufi
Sufi
philosophy Farabism Avicennism Averroism Identityism Theoretical mysticism

Concepts

Al-aql al-faal Aql bi-l-fi'l Al-Insān al-Kāmil Dhati Peace Arcs of Descent and Ascent Asabiyyah Haal Irfan Nafs Qadar Qalb Wahdat al-mawjud

Texts

Liber de Causis The Theology
Theology
of Aristotle Al-isharat The Book of the Apple Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity The Incoherence of the Philosophers The Incoherence of the Incoherence Hayy ibn Yaqdhan Theologus Autodidactus On the Harmony of Religions and Philosophy Muqaddimah Sicilian Questions Fusus al-Hikam

Mythology

Jinn Ifrit Marid Ghoul Nasnas Qareen Hinn Qutrub Dandan Roc Karkadann Ababil Buraq Bahamut Falak Shadhavar Atlantis of the Sands Iram of the Pillars Shaddad Kujata Magic carpet Wāḳwāḳ Mount Qaf Luqman Zulfiqar Houri Beast of the Earth She- Camel
Camel
of God Zarqa al Yamama Shams al-Ma'arif Book of Idols Book of Wonders One Thousand and One Nights

Fictional Arab
Arab
people

Ra's al Ghul Aladdin Sindbad Abdul Alhazred Ali Baba Battal Gazi Hayy ibn Yaqdhan Altaïr Ibn-La'Ahad Othello Princess Jasmine Layla and Majnun King Marsile Kara Ben Nemsi Palamedes Talia al Ghul

Spirituality

North Arabian deities

Al-‘Uzzá Al-Lat Manāt Dushara Chaabou Manaf Nuha Al-Kutbay Asira Awal Azizos Bajir Quzah Manāt Manāt A'ra Abgal Aglibol Allah Al-Qaum Atarsamain Baalshamin Bēl Hubal Suwa' Theandrios Wadd Malakbel Orotalt Ruda Sa'd Yarhibol Isāf and Nā'ila

South Arabian deities

Almaqah Amm Anbay Athtar Salman Dhat-Badan Haubas Ta'lab Qaynan Basamum Dhul Khalasa Haukim Nasr Sīn Ya'uq Yaghūth Yatha

v t e

Arabic
Arabic
culture is the culture of Arab
Arab
people, from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea. Language, literature, gastronomy, art, architecture, music, spirituality, philosophy, mysticism (etc.) are all part of the cultural heritage of the Arabs.[250] Arabs
Arabs
share basic beliefs and values that cross national and social class boundaries. Social
Social
attitudes have remained constant because Arab society is more conservative and demands conformity from its members. It is important for Western observers to be able to identify and distinguish these cultural patterns from individual behaviors.[251] Language[edit] Main article: Arabic

Arabic
Arabic
calligraphy.

Another important and unifying characteristic of Arabs
Arabs
is a common language. Arabic
Arabic
is a Semitic language
Semitic language
of the Afro-Asiatic Family.[252] Evidence of its first use appears in accounts of wars in 853 BCE. It also became widely used in trade and commerce. Arabic
Arabic
also is a liturgical language of 1.7 billion Muslims.[253][254] Arabic
Arabic
is one of six official languages of the United Nations.[255] It is revered as the language that God
God
chose to reveal the Quran.[256][257] Arabic
Arabic
has developed into at least two distinct forms. Classical Arabic
Arabic
is the form of the Arabic
Arabic
language used in literary texts from Umayyad
Umayyad
and Abbasid times (7th to 9th centuries). It is based on the medieval dialects of Arab
Arab
tribes. Modern Standard Arabic
Arabic
(MSA) is the direct descendant used today throughout the Arab world
Arab world
in writing and in formal speaking, for example, prepared speeches, some radio broadcasts, and non-entertainment content,[258] while the lexis and stylistics of Modern Standard Arabic
Arabic
are different from Classical Arabic. Colloquial Arabic, an informal spoken language, varies by dialect from region to region; various forms of the language are in use today and provide an important force for Arab
Arab
cohesion.[259] Mythology[edit] Main article: Arabian mythology

Aladdin
Aladdin
flying away with two people, from the Arabian Nights, c. 1900

Arabic
Arabic
mythology comprises the ancient beliefs of the Arabs.[260] Prior to Islam
Islam
the Kaaba
Kaaba
of Mecca
Mecca
was covered in symbols representing the myriad demons, djinn, demigods, or simply tribal gods and other assorted deities which represented the polytheistic culture of pre-Islamic.[261][262] It has been inferred from this plurality an exceptionally broad context in which mythology could flourish. The most popular beasts and demons of Arabian mythology
Arabian mythology
are Bahamut, Dandan, Falak, Ghoul, Hinn, Jinn, Karkadann, Marid, Nasnas, Qareen, Roc, Shadhavar, Werehyena
Werehyena
and other assorted creatures which represented the profoundly polytheistic environment of pre-Islamic.[263] The most obvious symbol of Arabian mythology
Arabian mythology
is the Jinn
Jinn
or genie.[264] Jinns are supernatural beings of varying degrees of power. They possess free will (that is, they can choose to be good or evil) and come in two flavors. There are the Marids, usually described as the most powerful type of Jinn. These are the type of genie with the ability to grant wishes to humans. However, granting these wishes is not free. The Quran
Quran
says that the jinn were created from "mārijin min nar" (smokeless fire or a mixture of fire; scholars explained, this is the part of the flame, which mixed with the blackness of fire).[265][266] They are not purely spiritual, but are also physical in nature, being able to interact in a tactile manner with people and objects and likewise be acted upon. The jinn, humans, and angels make up the known sapient creations of God.[267] A ghoul is a monster or evil spirit in Arabic
Arabic
mythology, associated with graveyards and consuming human flesh,[268][269] demonic being believed to inhabit burial grounds and other deserted places. In ancient Arabic
Arabic
folklore, ghūls belonged to a diabolic class of jinn (spirits) and were said to be the offspring of Iblīs, the prince of darkness in Islam. They were capable of constantly changing form, but their presence was always recognizable by their unalterable sign—ass’s hooves.[270] which describes the ghūl of Arabic folklore. The ghul is a devilish type of jinn believed to be sired by Iblis.[271] Literature[edit] Main article: Arabic
Arabic
literature

A giraffe from the Kitāb al-Ḥayawān (Book of the Animals), an important scientific treatise by the 9th century Arab
Arab
writer Al-Jahiz.[272]

Al-Jahiz
Al-Jahiz
(born 776, in Basra
Basra
– December 868/January 869) was an Arab prose writer and author of works of literature, Mu'tazili
Mu'tazili
theology, and politico-religious polemics. A leading scholar in the Abassid Caliphate, his canon includes two hundred books on various subjects, including Arabic
Arabic
grammar, zoology, poetry, lexicography, and rhetoric. Of his writings, only thirty books survive. Al-Jāḥiẓ was also one of the first Arabian writers to suggest a complete overhaul of the language's grammatical system, though this would not be undertaken until his fellow linguist Ibn Maḍāʾ took up the matter two hundred years later.[273] There is a small remnant of pre-Islamic poetry, but Arabic
Arabic
literature predominantly emerges in the Middle Ages, during the Golden Age of Islam.[274] Literary Arabic
Arabic
is derived from Classical Arabic, based on the language of the Quran
Quran
as it was analyzed by Arabic
Arabic
grammarians beginning in the 8th century.[275]

Illustration from Kitab al-Aghani
Kitab al-Aghani
(Book of Songs), by Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani. The 14th-century historian Ibn Khaldun
Ibn Khaldun
called the Book of Songs the register of the Arabs.[276]

A large portion of Arabic
Arabic
literature before the 20th century is in the form of poetry, and even prose from this period is either filled with snippets of poetry or is in the form of saj or rhymed prose.[277] The ghazal or love poem had a long history being at times tender and chaste and at other times rather explicit.[278] In the Sufi
Sufi
tradition the love poem would take on a wider, mystical and religious importance. Arabic
Arabic
epic literature was much less common than poetry, and presumably originates in oral tradition, written down from the 14th century or so. Maqama
Maqama
or rhymed prose is intermediate between poetry and prose, and also between fiction and non-fiction.[279] Maqama
Maqama
was an incredibly popular form of Arabic
Arabic
literature, being one of the few forms which continued to be written during the decline of Arabic
Arabic
in the 17th and 18th centuries.[280]

Self portrait of renowned Lebanese poet/writer Khalil Gibran.

Arabic
Arabic
literature and culture declined significantly after the 13th century, to the benefit of Turkish and Persian. A modern revival took place beginning in the 19th century, alongside resistance against Ottoman rule. The literary revival is known as al-Nahda in Arabic, and was centered in Egypt
Egypt
and Lebanon. Two distinct trends can be found in the nahda period of revival.[281] The first was a neo-classical movement which sought to rediscover the literary traditions of the past, and was influenced by traditional literary genres—such as the maqama—and works like One Thousand and One Nights. In contrast, a modernist movement began by translating Western modernist works—primarily novels—into Arabic.[282] A tradition of modern Arabic
Arabic
poetry was established by writers such as Francis Marrash, Ahmad Shawqi
Ahmad Shawqi
and Hafiz Ibrahim. Iraqi poet Badr Shakir al-Sayyab
Badr Shakir al-Sayyab
is considered to be the originator of free verse in Arabic poetry.[283][284][285] Gastronomy[edit] Main article: Arabic
Arabic
cuisine

A large plate of Mezes in Petra, Jordan.

Arabic
Arabic
cuisine is the cuisine of the Arab
Arab
people.[286] The cuisines are often centuries old and resemble and culture of great trading in spices, herbs, and foods. The three main regions, also known as the Maghreb, the Mashriq, and the Khaleej have many similarities, but also many unique traditions. These kitchens have been influenced by the climate, cultivating possibilities, as well as trading possibilities. The kitchens of the Maghreb
Maghreb
and Levant
Levant
are relatively young kitchens which were developed over the past centuries. The kitchen from the Khaleej region is a very old kitchen. The kitchens can be divided into the urban and rural kitchens. Arab cuisine
Arab cuisine
mostly follows one of three culinary traditions – from the Maghreb, the Levant
Levant
or the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
states. In the Maghreb countries (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia
Tunisia
and Libya) traditional main meals are tajines or dishes using couscous. In the Levant
Levant
(Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon
Lebanon
and Syria) main meals usually start with mezze – small dishes of dips and other items which are eaten with bread. This is typically followed by skewers of grilled lamb or chicken. Gulf cuisine, tends to be more highly spiced with more use of rice. Sometimes a lamb is roasted and served whole.[287] One will find the following items on most dishes; Cinnamon, Fish
Fish
(in coastal areas), Garlic, Lamb (or veal), Mild to hot sauces, Mint, Onion, Rice, Saffron, Sesame, Yogurt, Spices
Spices
due to heavy trading between the two regions. Tea, Thyme
Thyme
(or oregano), Turmeric, Variety of fruits (primarily citrus), Variety of vegetables such as cucumbers, eggplants, lettuce, tomato, green pepper, green beans, zucchini and parsley.[287][288] Art[edit] Main articles: Arabic
Arabic
art, Nabataean
Nabataean
art, Arabic
Arabic
miniature, and Arabesque

Mosaic and arabesque on a wall of the Myrtle court in Alhambra, Granada.

Arabic
Arabic
art takes on many forms, though it is jewelry, textiles and architecture that are the most well-known. It is generally split up by different eras, among them being early Arabic, early medieval, late medieval, late Arabic, and finally, current Arabic. One thing to remember is that many times a particular style from one era may continue into the next with few changes, while some have a drastic transformation. This may seem like a strange grouping of art mediums, but they are all closely related.[289][290]

Arabic
Arabic
miniature dibicting Al-Harith from Maqamat of al-Hariri.

Arabic
Arabic
writing is done from right to left, and was generally written in dark inks, with certain things embellished with special colored inks (red, green, gold). In early Arabic
Arabic
and early Medieval, writing was typically done on parchment made of animal skin. The ink showed up very well on it, and occasionally the parchment was dyed a separate color and brighter ink was used (this was only for special projects). The name given to the form of writing in early times was called Kufic script.[291] Arabic
Arabic
miniatures are small paintings on paper, whether book illustrations or separate works of art. Arabic
Arabic
miniature art dates to the late 7th century. Arabs
Arabs
depended on such art not only to satisfy their artistic taste, but also for scientific explanations. Arabesque
Arabesque
is a form of artistic decoration consisting of "surface decorations based on rhythmic linear patterns of scrolling and interlacing foliage, tendrils" or plain lines,[292] often combined with other elements. Another definition is "Foliate ornament, typically using leaves, derived from stylised half-palmettes, which were combined with spiralling stems".[293] It usually consists of a single design which can be 'tiled' or seamlessly repeated as many times as desired.[294][295] Architecture[edit] Main article: Arabic
Arabic
architecture

The Mosque-Cathedral of Cordóba, built by Abd al Rahman I in 987.

Arabic
Arabic
Architecture
Architecture
has a deep diverse history, it dates to the dawn of the history in pre-Islamic Arabia and includes various styles from the Nabataean
Nabataean
architecture to the old yet still used architecture in various regions of the Arab
Arab
world. Each of it phases largely an extension of the earlier phase, it left also heavy impact on the architecture of other nations. Arab
Arab
Architecture
Architecture
also encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the foundation of Islam
Islam
to the present day. Some parts of its religious architectures raised by Muslim
Muslim
Arabs
Arabs
were influenced by cultures of Roman, Byzantine and cultures of other lands which the Arab
Arab
conquered in the 7th and 8th centuries.[296][297] In Sicily, Arab-Norman architecture combined Occidental features, such as the Classical pillars and friezes, with typical Arabic
Arabic
decorations and calligraphy. The principal Islamic architectural types are: the Mosque, the Tomb, the Palace
Palace
and the Fort. From these four types, the vocabulary of Islamic architecture
Islamic architecture
is derived and used for other buildings such as public baths, fountains and domestic architecture.[298][299] Music[edit] Main article: Arabic
Arabic
music

Bayad plays the oud to The Lady. from the Bayad & Riyad, Arabic tale.

Arabic
Arabic
music, while independent and flourishing in the 2010s, has a long history of interaction with many other regional musical styles and genres. It is an amalgam of the music of the Arab people
Arab people
in the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
and the music of all the peoples that make up the Arab world
Arab world
today[300] Pre-Islamic Arab
Arab
music was similar to that of Ancient Middle Eastern music. Most historians agree that there existed distinct forms of music in the Arabian peninsula
Arabian peninsula
in the pre-Islamic period between the 5th and 7th century CE. Arab
Arab
poets of that "Jahili poets", meaning "the poets of the period of ignorance"—used to recite poems with a high notes.[301] It was believed that Jinns revealed poems to poets and music to musicians.[301][301] By the 11th century, Islamic Iberia
Iberia
had become a center for the manufacture of instruments. These goods spread gradually throughout France, influencing French troubadours, and eventually reaching the rest of Europe. The English words lute, rebec, and naker are derived from Arabic
Arabic
oud, rabab, and naqareh.[302][303]

Umm Kulthum
Umm Kulthum
was an internationally famous Egyptian singer.

A number of musical instruments used in classical music are believed to have been derived from Arabic
Arabic
musical instruments: the lute was derived from the Oud, the rebec (ancestor of violin) from the rebab, the guitar from qitara, which in turn was derived from the Persian Tar, naker from naqareh, adufe from al-duff, alboka from al-buq, anafil from al-nafir, exabeba from al-shabbaba (flute), atabal (bass drum) from al-tabl, atambal from al-tinbal,[304] the balaban, the castanet from kasatan, sonajas de azófar from sunuj al-sufr, the conical bore wind instruments,[305] the xelami from the sulami or fistula (flute or musical pipe),[306] the shawm and dulzaina from the reed instruments zamr and al-zurna,[307] the gaita from the ghaita, rackett from iraqya or iraqiyya,[308] geige (violin) from ghichak,[309] and the theorbo from the tarab.[310] During the 1950s and the 1960s, Arabic
Arabic
music began to take on a more Western tone – artists Umm Kulthum
Umm Kulthum
and Abdel Halim Hafez
Abdel Halim Hafez
along with composers Mohamed Abd al-Wahab and Baligh Hamdi
Baligh Hamdi
pioneered the use of western instruments in Egyptian music. By the 1970s several other singers had followed suit and a strand of Arabic
Arabic
pop was born. Arabic pop usually consists of Western styled songs with Arabic
Arabic
instruments and lyrics. Melodies are often a mix between Eastern and Western. Beginning in the mid-1980s, Lydia Canaan, musical pioneer widely regarded as the first rock star of the Middle East[311][312][313][314][315][316][317][318] Spirituality[edit]

Al-‘Uzzá
Al-‘Uzzá
was one of the three chief goddesses of Arabian religion.

Arab
Arab
polytheism was the dominant religion in pre-Islamic Arabia. Gods and goddesses, including Hubal and the goddesses al-Lāt, Al-‘Uzzá and Manāt, were worshipped at local shrines, such as the Kaaba
Kaaba
in Mecca, whilst Arabs
Arabs
in the south, in what is today's Yemen, worshipped various gods, some of which represented the Sun
Sun
or Moon. Different theories have been proposed regarding the role of Allah
Allah
in Meccan religion.[50][319][320][321] Many of the physical descriptions of the pre-Islamic gods are traced to idols, especially near the Kaaba, which is said to have contained up to 360 of them.[322] Until about the fourth century, almost all Arabs
Arabs
practised polytheistic religions.[323] Although significant Jewish and Christian
Christian
minorities developed, polytheism remained the dominant belief system in pre-Islamic Arabia.[50][324] The religious beliefs and practices of the nomadic bedouin were distinct from those of the settled tribes of towns such as Mecca.[325] Nomadic
Nomadic
religious belief systems and practices are believed to have included fetishism, totemism and veneration of the dead but were connected principally with immediate concerns and problems and did not consider larger philosophical questions such as the afterlife.[325] Settled urban Arabs, on the other hand, are thought to have believed in a more complex pantheon of deities.[325] While the Meccans and the other settled inhabitants of the Hejaz
Hejaz
worshipped their gods at permanent shrines in towns and oases, the bedouin practised their religion on the move.[326] Philosophy[edit] Main article: Arabic
Arabic
philosophy

Averroes, founder of the Averroism
Averroism
school of philosophy, was influential in the rise of secular thought in Western Europe.

Ibn Arabi, one of the most celebrated mystic-philosophers in Islamic history.

Arabic
Arabic
philosophy refers to philosophical thought in the Arab
Arab
world. Schools of Arabic
Arabic
thought include Avicennism
Avicennism
and Averroism. The first great Arab
Arab
thinker is widely regarded to be al-Kindi (801–873 A.D.), a Neo-Platonic
Neo-Platonic
philosopher, mathematician and scientist who lived in Kufa
Kufa
and Baghdad
Baghdad
(modern day Iraq). After being appointed by the Abbasid Caliphs
Abbasid Caliphs
to translate Greek scientific and philosophical texts into Arabic, he wrote a number of original treatises of his own on a range of subjects, from metaphysics and ethics to mathematics and pharmacology.[327] Much of his philosophical output focuses on theological subjects such as the nature of God, the soul and prophetic knowledge.[328] Doctrines of the Arabic
Arabic
philosophers of the 9th–12th century who influenced medieval Scholasticism
Scholasticism
in Europe. The Arabic
Arabic
tradition combines Aristotelianism
Aristotelianism
and Neoplatonism
Neoplatonism
with other ideas introduced through Islam. Influential thinkers include the Persians al-Farabi and Avicenna. The Arabic
Arabic
philosophic literature was translated into Hebrew and Latin, this contributed to the development of modern European philosophy. The Arabic
Arabic
tradition was developed by Moses Maimonides
Moses Maimonides
and Ibn Khaldun.[329][330] Science[edit] Main article: Arabic
Arabic
science

Hevelius's Selenographia, showing Alhazen
Alhazen
[sic] representing reason, and Galileo representing the senses. Alhazen
Alhazen
has been described as the "world's first true scientist".[331]

Arabic
Arabic
science underwent considerable development during the 8th to 13th centuries CE, a source of knowledge that later spread throughout Europe
Europe
and greatly influenced both medical practice and education. These scientific accomplishments occurred after Muhammad
Muhammad
united the Arab
Arab
tribes.[332]

Albategnius's Kitāb az-Zīj was one of the most influential books in medieval astronomy.

Within a century after Muhammed's death (632 CE), an empire ruled by Arabs
Arabs
was established. It encompassed a large part of the planet, stretching from southern Europe
Europe
to North Africa
North Africa
to Central Asia
Central Asia
and on to India. In 711 CE, Arab Muslims
Arab Muslims
invaded southern Spain; al-Andalus was a center of Arabic
Arabic
scientific accomplishment. Another center emerged in Baghdad
Baghdad
from the Abbasids, who ruled part of the Islamic world during a historic period later characterized as the "Golden Age" (∼750 to 1258 CE).[333]

The Tabula Rogeriana, drawn by al-Idrisi for Roger II of Sicily
Sicily
in 1154, is one of the most advanced ancient world maps. Modern consolidation, created from the 70 double-page spreads of the original atlas.

This era can be identified as the years between 692 and 945,[334] and ended when the caliphate was marginalized by local Muslim
Muslim
rulers in Baghdad – its traditional seat of power. From 945 onward until the sacking of Baghdad
Baghdad
by the Mongols in 1258, the Caliph
Caliph
continued on as a figurehead, with power devolving more to local amirs.[335] The pious scholars of Islam, men and women collectively known as the ulama, were the most influential element of society in the fields of Sharia
Sharia
law, speculative thought and theology.[336] Arabic
Arabic
scientific achievement is not as yet fully understood, but is very large.[337] These achievements encompass a wide range of subject areas, especially mathematics, astronomy, and medicine.[337] Other subjects of scientific inquiry included physics, alchemy and chemistry, cosmology, ophthalmology, geography and cartography, sociology, and psychology.[338][339] Al-Battani
Al-Battani
(c. 858 – 929; born Harran, Bilad al-Sham) was an Arab astronomer, astrologer and mathematician of the Islamic Golden Age. His work is considered instrumental in the development of science and astronomy. One of Al-Battani's best-known achievements in astronomy was the determination of the solar year as being 365 days, 5 hours, 46 minutes and 24 seconds which is only 2 minutes and 22 seconds off.[340] Ibn al-Haytham
Ibn al-Haytham
(Alhazen) used experimentation to obtain the results in his Book of Optics
Book of Optics
(1021), an important development in the history of the scientific method. He combined observations, experiments and rational arguments to support his intromission theory of vision, in which rays of light are emitted from objects rather than from the eyes. He used similar arguments to show that the ancient emission theory of vision supported by Ptolemy
Ptolemy
and Euclid
Euclid
(in which the eyes emit the rays of light used for seeing), and the ancient intromission theory supported by Aristotle
Aristotle
(where objects emit physical particles to the eyes), were both wrong.[341] Al-Zahrawi, regarded by many as the greatest surgeon of the middle ages.[342] His surgical treatise "De chirurgia" is the first illustrated surgical guide ever written. It remained the primary source for surgical procedures and instruments in Europe
Europe
for the next 500 years.[343] The book helped lay the foundation to establish surgery as a scientific discipline independent from medicine, earning al-Zahrawi his name as one of the founders of this field.[344] Other notable Arab
Arab
contributions include among other things: establishing the science of chemistry by Jābir ibn Hayyān,[345][346][347] establishing the science of cryptology and cryptanalysis by al-Kindi,[348][349] the discovery of the pulmonary circulation by Ibn al-Nafis,[350] the identification of sarcoptes scabiei as the cause of scabies by Ibn Zuhr,[351] the first use of irrational numbers as an algebraic objects by Abū Kāmil,[352] the first use of the positional decimal fractions by al-Uqlidisi,[353] the Thabit number and Thābit theorem by Thābit ibn Qurra,[354] the first steps towards algebraic symbolism by Ibn al-Banna and Al-Qalasadi,[355] the discovery of several new trigonometric identities by Ibn Yunus and al-Battani,[356][357] the mathematical proof for Ceva's theorem
Ceva's theorem
by Ibn Hűd,[358] the first accurate lunar model by Ibn al-Shatir,[359] the invention of the torquetum (an early analog computer) by Jabir ibn Aflah,[360] the tables of Toledo and the equatorium by al-Zarqali,[361][362] the anticipation of the inertia concept by Averroes,[363] the discovery of the physical reaction by Avempace,[364] the Arab
Arab
Agricultural Revolution, and the Tabula Rogeriana, which was tho most accurate world map until the 15th century by al-Idrisi.[365] The birth of the University institution can be traced to this development, as several universities and educational institutions of the Arab world
Arab world
such as the University of Al Quaraouiyine, Al Azhar University, and Al Zaytuna University are considered to be the oldest in the world. Founded by Fatima al Fihri in 859, the University of Al Quaraouiyine in Fez
Fez
is the oldest existing, continually operating and the first degree awarding educational institution in the world according to UNESCO
UNESCO
and Guinness World Records[366][367] and is sometimes referred to as the oldest university.[368] There are many scientific Arabic
Arabic
loanwords in Western European languages, including English, mostly via Old French.[369] This includes traditional star names such as Aldebaran, scientific terms like alchemy (whence also chemistry), algebra, algorithm, alcohol, alkali, cipher, zenith, etc. Under the Ottoman rule, the cultural life in the Arab world
Arab world
declined, and the scientific pursuit became stagnant. However, starting from the 20th century, Arabic
Arabic
contribution to science and technology returned with several notable names achieving high reputation and getting awarded some of the most prestigious science prizes including among others: Ahmed Zewail
Ahmed Zewail
and Elias Corey
Elias Corey
(Nobel Prize), Michael DeBakey and Alim Benabid (Lasker Award), Omar M. Yaghi
Omar M. Yaghi
( Wolf
Wolf
Prize), Huda Zoghbi (Shaw Prize), Zaha Hadid
Zaha Hadid
(Pritzker Prize), and Michael Atiyah both (Fields Medal) and (Abel Prize). Also, in the field of technology, several Arabs
Arabs
played a role in some of the most revolutionary inventions of modern age like, Rachid Yazami one of the co-inventors of Lithium-ion battery,[370] and Tony Fadell one of the fathers of iPod and iPhone.[371] Wedding and marriage[edit] Main article: Arabic
Arabic
wedding

Henna
Henna
tattoo in Morocco.

Arabic
Arabic
weddings have changed greatly in the past 100 years. Original traditional Arabic
Arabic
weddings are supposed to be very similar to modern-day Bedouin
Bedouin
weddings and rural weddings, and they are in some cases unique from one region to another, even within the same country. It must be mentioned that what some people today call "Bedouin" wedding is in fact the original true traditional Arab
Arab
Islamic wedding without foreign influence. The practice of marrying of relatives is a common feature of Arab
Arab
culture.[372] In the Arab world
Arab world
today between 40% and 50% of all marriages are consanguineous or between close family members, though these figures may vary among Arab
Arab
nations.[373][374] In Egypt, around 40% of the population marry a cousin. A 1992 survey in Jordan
Jordan
found that 32% were married to a first cousin; a further 17.3% were married to more distant relatives.[375] 67% of marriages in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
are between close relatives as are 54% of all marriages in Kuwait, whereas 18% of all Lebanese were between blood relatives.[376][376] Due to the actions of the Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
and the Rightly Guided Caliphs, marriage between cousins is explicitly allowed in Islam
Islam
and the Qur'an itself does not discourage or forbid the practice.[377] Nevertheless, opinions vary on whether the phenomenon should be seen as exclusively based on Islamic practices as a 1992 study among Arabs
Arabs
in Jordan
Jordan
did not show significant differences between Christian
Christian
Arabs
Arabs
or Muslim Arabs
Arabs
when comparing the occurrence of consanguinity.[376] Genetics[edit] Main articles: Genetic studies on Arabs, Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of the Near East, and Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of North Africa E1b1b is the most frequent paternal clade among the populations in the western part of the Arab world
Arab world
(Maghreb, Nile
Nile
Valley and Horn of Africa), whereas haplogroup J is the most frequent paternal clade toward the east ( Arabian peninsula
Arabian peninsula
and Near East). Other less common haplogroups are R1a, R1b, G, I, L and T.[378][379][380][381][382][383][384][385][386][387][388][389][390]

J-M172

J-M267

E-M215

Listed here are the human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups in Arabian peninsula, Mashriq/Levant, Maghreb
Maghreb
and Nile Valley.[391][392][393][394][395][396][397] Yemeni Arabs
Arabs
J (82.3%), E1b1b (12.9%) and E1b1a
E1b1a
(3.2%).[398][399] Saudi Arabs
Arabs
J1 (58%), E1b1b (7.6%), E1b1a
E1b1a
(7.6%), R1a (5.1%), T (5.1%), G (3.2%) and L (1.9%).[400][401] Emirati Arabs
Arabs
J (45.1%), E1b1b (11.6%), R1a (7.3%), E1b1a
E1b1a
(5.5%), T (4.9%), R1b (4.3%) and L (3%).[398] Omani Arabs
Arabs
J (47.9%), E1b1b (15.7%), R1a (9.1%), T (8.3%), E1b1a
E1b1a
(7.4%), R1b (1.7%), G (1.7%) and L (0.8%).[402] Qatari
Qatari
Arabs
Arabs
J (66.7%), R1a (6.9%), E1b1b (5.6%), E1b1a
E1b1a
(2.8%), G (2.8%) and L (2.8%).[403][404] Lebanese Arabs
Arabs
J (45.2%), E1b1b (25.8%), R1a (9.7%), R1b (6.4%), G, I and I (3.2%), (3.2%), (3.2%).[405] Syrian Arabs
Arabs
J (58.3%),[406][407] E1b1b (12.0%), I (5.0%), R1a (10.0%) and R1b 15.0%.[405][407] Palestinian Arabs
Arabs
J (55.2%), E1b1b (20.3%), R1b (8.4%), I (6.3%), G (7%), R1a and T (1.4%), (1.4%).[408][409] Jordanian Arabs
Arabs
J (43.8%), E1b1b (26%), R1b (17.8%), G (4.1%), I (3.4%) and R1a (1.4%).[410] Iraqi Arabs
Arabs
J (50.6%), E1b1b (10.8%), R1b (10.8%), R1a (6.9%) and T (5.9%).[411][412] Egyptian Arabs
Arabs
E1b1b (36.7%) and J (32%), G (8.8%), T (8.2% R1b (4.1%), E1b1a
E1b1a
(2.8%) and I (0.7%).[393][413] Sudanese Arabs
Arabs
J (47.1%), E1b1b (16.3%), R1b (15.7%) and I (3.13%).[414][415] Moroccan Arabs
Arabs
E1b1b (75.5%) and J1 (20.4%).[416][417] Tunisian Arabs E1b1b (49.3%), J1 (35.8%), R1b (6.8%) and E1b1a
E1b1a
(1.4%).[418] Algerian Arabs
Arabs
E1b1b (54%), J1 (35%), R1b (13%).[418] Libyan Arabs
Arabs
E1b1b (35.88%), J (30.53%), E1b1a
E1b1a
(8.78%), G (4.20%), R1a/R1b (3.43%) and E (1.53%).[419][420] The mtDNA haplogroup J has been observed at notable frequencies among overall populations in the Arab
Arab
world.[421][422] The maternal clade R0 reaches its highest frequency in the Arabian peninsula,[423] while K and T(specifically subclade T2) is more common in the Levant.[421] In the Nile
Nile
Valley and Horn of Africa, haplogroups N1 and M1;[423] in the Maghreb, haplogroups H1 and U6 are more significant.[424] There are four principal West Eurasian autosomal DNA components that characterize the populations in the Arab
Arab
world: the Arabian, Levantine, Coptic and Maghrebi components. The Arabian component is the main autosomal element in the Persian Gulf region. It is most closely associated with local Arabic-speaking populations.[396] The Arabian component is also found at significant frequencies in parts of the Levant
Levant
and Northeast Africa.[396][425] The geographical distribution pattern of this component correlates with the pattern of the Islamic expansion, but its presence in Lebanese Christians, Sephardi and Ashkenazi Jews, Cypriots and Armenians
Armenians
might suggest that its spread to the Levant
Levant
could also represent an earlier event.[396] The Levantine component is the main autosomal element in the Near East and Caucasus. It peaks among Druze
Druze
populations in the Levant. The Levantine component diverged from the Arabian component about 15,500–23,700 ypb.[396] The Coptic component is the main autosomal element in Northeast Africa. It peaks among Egyptian Copts
Copts
in Sudan, and is also found at high frequencies among other Afro-Asiatic-speaking populations in the Nile
Nile
Valley and Horn of Africa.[426] The Coptic component is roughly equivalent with the Ethio-Somali component.[427] The Maghrebi component is the main autosomal element in the Maghreb. It peaks among the non-Arabized Berber populations in the region.[425] The Maghrebi component diverged from the Coptic/Ethio-Somali, Arabian and Levantine components prior to the Holocene.[425][427] See also[edit]

Arab
Arab
Union Arab
Arab
world Lists of Arab
Arab
companies North African Arabs

References[edit]

Notes

^ A 2008 IBGE study indicates that residents of Middle Eastern origin (Oriente médio) were distributed in the regions of Amazonas (0.3%), Paraíba (0.0%), São Paulo (0.5%), Rio Grande do Sul (0.5%), Mato Grosso (0.1%), and the Federal District (0.0%).[5] ^ Including recent Syrian refugees

^ a b Margaret Kleffner Nydell Understanding Arabs: A Guide For Modern Times, Intercultural Press, 2005, ISBN 1931930252, page xxiii, 14 ^ total population 450 million, CIA Factbook
CIA Factbook
estimates an Arab population of 450 million, see article text. ^ "World Arabic
Arabic
Language
Language
Day United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". Unesco.org. Retrieved 18 December 2017.  ^ " Arabs
Arabs
Love Brazil. They Are 7% of the Country". Brazzil. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ Características étnico-raciais da população: classificações e identidades (PDF). IBGE. 2013. p. 127. ISBN 9788524042447. Retrieved 20 June 2017.  ^ a b By (29 January 2008). "French- Arabs
Arabs
battle stereotypes – Entertainment News, French Cinema, Media". Variety. Retrieved 22 August 2010.  ^ "Hadramaut dan Para Kapiten Arab". 20 August 2009.  ^ Kaya, Ibrahim (2009). "The Iraqi Refugee Crisis and Turkey: a Legal Outlook". cadmus.eui.eu. Retrieved 11 May 2017.  ^ a b "The Impact of Syrian Refugees on Turkey". Washingtoninstitute.org. Retrieved 18 December 2017.  ^ a b c "Turkey's demographic challenge". Aljazeera.com. Retrieved 18 December 2017.  ^ " UNHCR
UNHCR
Syria
Syria
Regional Refugee Response/ Turkey". UNHCR. 31 December 2015. Retrieved 11 May 2017.  ^ "The Arab
Arab
American Institute". Aaiusa.org. Archived from the original on 1 June 2006. Retrieved 17 September 2011.  ^ "Inmigración sirio-libanesa en Argentina". 20 June 2010. Archived from the original on 20 June 2010.  ^ "65th Independence Day - More than 8 Million Residents in the State of Israel" (PDF). Cbs.gov.il. Retrieved 18 December 2017.  ^ a b Margolis, Mac (15 September 2013). "Abdel el-Zabayar: From Parliament to the Frontlines". The Daily Beast.  ^ a b "Las mil y una historias" (in Spanish). semana.com. 2004. There is an estimated population of 1,500,000 Arabs
Arabs
in Colombia. ^ "Iran". Archived from the original on 3 February 2012. Retrieved 3 August 2013.  ^ "Chad". Archived from the original on 24 April 2013. Retrieved 3 August 2013.  ^ a b Ben Cahoon. "World Statesmen.org". World Statesmen.org. Retrieved 17 September 2011.  ^ Mediendienst Integration. "Syrische Flüchtlinge". Retrieved 8 June 2016.  ^ "Men of Arab
Arab
descent not finding Germany
Germany
as welcoming as they used to". Public Radio International.  ^ (in Spanish) En Chile
Chile
viven unas 700.000 personas de origen árabe y de ellas 500.000 son descendientes de emigrantes palestinos que llegaron a comienzos del siglo pasado y que constituyen la comunidad de ese origen más grande fuera del mundo árabe. ^ a b Dati ISTAT 2016, counting only immigrants from the Arab
Arab
world. "Cittadini stranieri in Italia – 2016". tuttitalia.it.  ^ "REPORT ON THE 2011 CENSUS – MAY 2013 – Arabs
Arabs
and Arab
Arab
League Population in the UK". National Association of British Arabs. Archived from the original on 29 May 2014. Retrieved 25 April 2014.  ^ Statistics Canada. "2011 National Household Survey: Data tables". Retrieved 11 February 2014.  ^ "Dutch media perceived as much more biased than Arabic
Arabic
media – Media & Citizenship Report conducted by University of Utrecht" (PDF), Utrecht University, 10 September 2010, retrieved 29 November 2010 [dead link] ^ "Monash University Research Repository" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 24 March 2015.  ^ "revistas.ucm.es/index.php/ANQE/article/viewFile/ANQE9797110057A/3864".  Missing or empty url= (help) ^ Larry Luxner (2001). "The Arabs
Arabs
of Honduras". Saudi Aramco World. Retrieved 11 February 2016.  ^ a b Ghazi O. Tadmouri; Konduru S. Sastry; Lotfi Chouchane (2014). " Arab
Arab
gene geography: From population diversities to personalized medical genomics". Global Cardiology Science and Practice. 2014: 54. doi:10.5339/gcsp.2014.54. PMC 4355514 . PMID 25780794. Retrieved 1 December 2016.  ^ Serge D. Elie, "Hadiboh: From Peripheral Village to Emerging City", Chroniques Yéménites: "In the middle, were the Arabs
Arabs
who originated from different parts of the mainland (e.g., prominent Mahrî tribes10, and individuals from Hadramawt, and Aden)". Footnote 10: "Their neighbors in the West scarcely regarded them as Arabs, though they themselves consider they are of the pure stock of Himyar." ^ " Arabs
Arabs
- Wiktionary". en.wiktionary.org.  ^ a b Frishkopf, edited by Michael (2010). Music
Music
and media in the Arab world (1st ed.). Cairo: The American University in Cairo
Cairo
Press. ISBN 9774162935. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Bureš, Jaroslav (2008). Main characteristic and development trends of migration in the Arab
Arab
world. Prague: Institute of International Relations. ISBN 8086506711.  ^ Myers, E. A. The Ituraeans and the Roman Near East: Reassessing the Sources. Cambridge University Press. p. 18. ISBN 9781139484817.  ^

Bowman, Alan K.; Champlin, Edward; Lintott, Andrew. The Cambridge Ancient History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521264303.  Jan, Retsö,. " Arabs
Arabs
(historical)".  "The origin of the word "Arab"". Ismaili.net. Retrieved 18 December 2017. 

^

"LAKHMIDS – Encyclopaedia Iranica". Iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 18 December 2017.  Bowersock, G.W.; Brown, Peter; editors, Oleg Grabar, (1999). Late antiquity : a guide to the postclassical world (2. print. ed.). Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard Univ. Press. ISBN 0674511735.  Cameron, Averil. The Mediterranean World in Late Antiquity: AD 395–700. Routledge. ISBN 9781136673054. 

^ Fredrick E. Greenspahn (2005). "Ishmael". In Lindsay Jones. Encyclopedia of Religion. 7. Macmillan Reference USA. pp. 4551–4552. ISBN 9780028657400. ISHMAEL, or, in Hebrew, Yishmaʿeʾl; eldest son of Abraham. Ishmael's mother was Hagar, an Egyptian slave girl whom Sarah gave to Abraham
Abraham
because of her own infertility; in accordance with Mesopotamian law, the offspring of such a union would be credited to Sarah (Gn. 16:2). The name Yishmaʿeʾl is known from various ancient Semitic cultures and means " God
God
has hearkened," suggesting that a child so named was regarded as the fulfillment of a divine promise. Ishmael
Ishmael
was circumcised at the age of thirteen by Abraham
Abraham
and expelled with his mother at the instigation of Sarah, who wanted to ensure that Isaac
Isaac
would be Abraham's heir (Gn. 21). In the New Testament, Paul uses this incident to symbolize the relationship between Judaism, the older but now rejected tradition, and Christianity
Christianity
(Gal. 4:21–31). In the Genesis account, God
God
blessed Ishmael, promising that he would be the founder of a great nation and a "wild ass of a man" always at odds with others (Gn. 16:12). He is credited with twelve sons, described as "princes according to their tribes" (Gn. 25:16), representing perhaps an ancient confederacy. The Ishmaelites, vagrant traders closely related to the Midianites, were apparently regarded as his descendants. The fact that Ishmael's wife and mother are both said to have been Egyptian suggests close ties between the Ishmaelites and Egypt. According to Genesis 25:17, Ishmael
Ishmael
lived to the age of 137. Islamic tradition tends to ascribe a larger role to Ishmael
Ishmael
than does the Bible. He is considered a prophet and, according to certain theologians, the offspring whom Abraham
Abraham
was commanded to sacrifice (although surah Judaism
Judaism
has generally regarded him as wicked, although repentance is also ascribed to him. According to some rabbinic traditions, his two wives were Aisha and Fatima, whose names are the same as those of Muhammad's wife and daughter Both Judaism
Judaism
and Islam see him as the ancestor of Arab
Arab
peoples. Bibliography A survey of the Bible's patriarchal narratives can be found in Nahum M. Sarna's Understanding Genesis (New York, 1966). Postbiblical traditions, with reference to Christian
Christian
and Islamic views, are collected in Louis Ginzberg's exhaustive Legends of the Jews, 2d ed., 2 vols., translated by Henrietta Szold and Paul Radin (Philadelphia, 2003). Frederick E. Greenspahn (1987 and 2005) 

Noegel, Scott B.; Wheeler, Brannon M. The A to Z of Prophets in Islam and Judaism. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9781461718956. Retrieved 18 December 2017.  " Ishmael
Ishmael
and Isaac". Therefinersfire.org. Retrieved 18 December 2017. 

^ Inc, Encyclopædia Britannica. Britannica Student Encyclopedia (A-Z Set). Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ISBN 9781615355570.  ^

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Malouf 2008: 70% (28/40)

Cadenas 2008: 45/62=72.6% J-M267

− ^ Khaled K Abu-Amero; Ali Hellani; Ana M González; Jose M Larruga; Vicente M Cabrera; Peter A Underhill (2009). "Saudi Arabian Y-Chromosome diversity and its relationship with nearby regions". BMC Genet. 10: 59. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-10-59. PMC 2759955 . PMID 19772609.  ^ Ollier, W; Doyle, P; Alonso, A; Awad, J; Williams, E; Gill, D; Welch, S; Klouda, P; Bacchus, R; Festenstein, H (February 1985). "HLA polymorphisms in Saudi Arabs". Tissue Antigens. 25 (2): 87–95. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1985.tb00420.x. PMID 3857723.  ^ Luis, J; Rowold, D; Regueiro, M; Caeiro, B; Cinnioglu, C; Roseman, C; Underhill, P; Cavallisforza, L; Herrera, R (2004). "The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: Evidence for Bidirectional Corridors of Human Migrations". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 74 (3): 532–44. doi:10.1086/382286. PMC 1182266 . PMID 14973781.  (Errata Archived 16 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine.) ^ "The Genetic Atlas". www.thegeneticatlas.com. Retrieved 11 October 2015.  ^ Hunter-Zinck, H; Musharoff, S; Salit, J; Al-Ali, KA; Chouchane, L; Gohar, A; Matthews, R; Butler, MW; Fuller, J; Hackett, NR; Crystal, RG; Clark, AG (9 July 2010). "Population genetic structure of the people of Qatar". American Journal of Human Genetics. 87 (1): 17–25. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2010.05.018. PMC 2896773 . PMID 20579625.  ^ a b Semino, O.; Passarino, G; Oefner, PJ; Lin, AA; Arbuzova, S; Beckman, LE; De Benedictis, G; Francalacci, P; et al. (2000). "The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in Extant Europeans: A Y Chromosome Perspective". Science. 290 (5494): 1155–9. doi:10.1126/science.290.5494.1155. PMID 11073453.  ^ Badro, DA; Douaihy, B; Haber, M; et al. (30 January 2013). "Y-Chromosome and mtDNA Genetics Reveal Significant Contrasts in Affinities of Modern Middle Eastern Populations with European and African Populations". PLoS ONE. 8: e54616. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054616. PMC 3559847 . PMID 23382925. Retrieved 11 March 2015. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ a b El-Sibai, M; Platt, DE; Haber, M; Xue, Y; Youhanna, SC; Wells, RS; Izaabel, H; Sanyoura, MF; Harmanani, H; Bonab, MA; Behbehani, J; Hashwa, F; Tyler-Smith, C; Zalloua, PA (16 August 2009). "Geographical Structure of the Y-chromosomal Genetic Landscape of the Levant: A coastal-inland contrast". Annals of Human Genetics. 73: 568–581. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2009.00538.x. PMC 3312577 . PMID 19686289. Retrieved 11 March 2015.  ^ Nebel, A; Filon, D; Brinkmann, B; Majumder, P; Faerman, M; Oppenheim, A (2001). "The Y Chromosome Pool of Jews
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Europe
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Bibliography

This article contains Arabic
Arabic
text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols.

Ankerl, Guy (2000). Coexisting Contemporary Civilizations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. Geneva: INU PRESS. ISBN 2-88155-004-5.  Retso, Jan (2002). Arabs
Arabs
in Antiquity: Their History from the Assyrians to the Umayyads. Routledge. ISBN 9780700716791.  Cragg, Kenneth (1991). The Arab
Arab
Christian: A History in the Middle East. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-22182-9.  Deng, Francis Mading (1995). War of Visions: Conflict of Identities in the Sudan. Brookings Institution Press.  Touma, Habib Hassan. The Music
Music
of the Arabs. Portland, Oregon: Amadeus P, 1996. ISBN 0-931340-88-8. Lipinski, Edward. Semitic Languages: Outlines of a Comparative Grammar, 2nd ed., Orientalia Lovanensia Analecta: Leuven 2001 Kees Versteegh, The Arabic
Arabic
Language, Edinburgh University Press (1997) The Catholic Encyclopedia, Robert Appleton Company, 1907, Online Edition, K. Night 2003: article Arabia History of Arabic
Arabic
language(1894), Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd. The Arabic
Arabic
language, National Institute for Technology and Liberal Education web page (2006) Ankerl, Guy (2000) [2000]. Global communication without universal civilization. INU societal research. Vol.1: Coexisting contemporary civilizations : Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. Geneva: INU Press. ISBN 2-88155-004-5.  Hooker, Richard. "Pre-Islamic Arabic
Arabic
Culture." WSU Web Site. 6 June 1999. Washington State University. Owen, Roger. "State Power and Politics in the Making of the Modern Middle East
Middle East
3rd Ed" Page 57 ISBN 0-415-29714-1 Levinson, David
David
(1998). Ethnic groups worldwide: a ready reference handbook. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-57356-019-1 inconsistent citations  

Further reading[edit]

Price-Jones, David. The Closed Circle: an Interpretation of the Arabs. Pbk. ed., with a new preface by the author. Chicago: I. R. Dee, 2002. xiv, 464 p. ISBN 1-56663-440-7 Ankerl, Guy. Coexisting Contemporary Civilizations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. INU PRESS, Geneva, 2000. ISBN 2-88155-004-5.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Arab.

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v t e

Semitic topics

Peoples

Adnanites Algerians Amhara people Amorites Arab
Arab
diaspora Arabs Arabs
Arabs
in India Arabs
Arabs
in Turkey Arameans Argobba people Arma people Assyrian people Bahrani people Bedouin Chaldeans Chaush Egyptians Emiratis Gurage people Habesha people Hadhrami people Harari people Hyksos Iranian Arabs Iraqis Ishmaelites Israelis

Israeli Arabs Israeli Jews

Israelites Jewish diaspora Jews Jordanians Lebanese people

Maronites

Libyans Mandaeans Marsh Arabs Mauritanians Mhallami Moors Moroccans Nabataeans Omanis Palestinians Qahtanite Qataris Sabians Samaritans Saracen Soqotri Sudanese people Syrian people Tigrayans Tigre people Tigrinyas Tunisians Yemenis

Politics

Algerian nationalism Arab
Arab
nationalism Arab
Arab
socialism Assyrian nationalism Canaanism Egyptian nationalism Iraqi nationalism Jewish political movements

Bundism Zionism

Jewish religious movements Lebanese nationalism

Phoenicianism

Libyan nationalism Palestinian nationalism Pan-Arabism Pan-Islamism Syrian nationalism Tunisian nationalism

Origins

Generations of Noah Genetic studies on Jews Haplogroup IJ Haplogroup IJK Haplogroup J-M172 Haplogroup J-M267 Haplogroup J (Y-DNA) Shem Y-chromosomal Aaron Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of the Near East

History

Abbasid Caliphate Akkadian Empire Amorites Arabization Aram Rehob Aram-Damascus Aram-Naharaim Assyria Babylonia Bit Adini Canaan Carthage Chaldea Davidic line Edom Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliphate Ghassanids Hasmonean dynasty Herodian kingdom Herodian Tetrarchy Himyarite
Himyarite
Kingdom Judaization Kindah Kingdom of Aksum Kingdom of Awsan Kingdom of Israel
Israel
(Samaria) Kingdom of Israel
Israel
(united monarchy) Kingdom of Judah Lakhmids Lihyan Midian Minaeans Moab Nabataeans Neo-Assyrian Empire Neo-Babylonian Empire Paddan Aram Palmyrene Empire Phoenicia Qataban Qedarite Rashidun Caliphate Sabaeans Solomonic dynasty Thamud Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate Zagwe dynasty ʿĀd

Countries

Algeria Arab
Arab
world Bahrain Comoros Djibouti Egypt Eritrea Ethiopia Iraq Israel Jordan Lebanon Libya Mauritania Palestinian territories1 Qatar Sahrawi Arab
Arab
Democratic Republic1 (Western Sahara) Saudi Arabia Somalia Sudan Syria Tunisia United Arab
Arab
Emirates Yemen

Flags and coats of arms

Algeria Arab
Arab
flags Aramean-Syriac flag Assyria Bahrain Cedrus libani The Coromos Crescent Djibouti Egypt Eritrea Ethiopia
Ethiopia
(emblem) Ethiopia
Ethiopia
(flag) Hamsa Iraq Israel
Israel
(emblem) Israel
Israel
(flag) Janbiya Jordan Khanjar Kuwait Lebanon Libya Lion
Lion
of Judah Mauritania Menorah (Temple) Morocco Oman Palestine Pan- Arab
Arab
colors Qatar Saudi Arabia Scimitar Shamash Star
Star
of David Sudan Syria Takbir Tanit Tunesia United Arab
Arab
Emirates Yemen Zulfiqar

Studies

Arabist Assyriology Hebraist Semitic Museum Semitic studies Syriac studies

Religions

Abrahamic religions Ancient Canaanite religion Ancient Mesopotamian religion Ancient Semitic religion Babylonian religion Christianity Druze
Druze
religion Islam Judaism Mandaeism pre-Islamic Arabia Samaritan religion Semitic neopaganism

Organizations

Arab
Arab
European League Arab
Arab
League Assyrian Universal Alliance World Council of Arameans
Arameans
(Syriacs) World Zionist Congress

1 Is a state with limited international recognition

v t e

Arab
Arab
diaspora

Africa

Ghana Ivory Coast

Middle East

Iran

Khorasan

Turkey

Asia

Afghanistan India Indonesia Malaysia Pakistan Philippines Singapore Sri Lanka

Europe

Austria Belgium Bulgaria Caucasus Denmark France

Beur Paris

Germany

Berlin

Greece Italy Republic of Macedonia Netherlands Romania Serbia Spain Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom

Americas

Argentina Brazil Canada Chile Colombia Haiti Mexico United States

Detroit

Uruguay Venezuela

Oceania

Australia New Zealand

v t e

People and things in the Quran

Characters

Non-humans

Allâh ("The God")

Names of Allah
Allah
found in the Quran

Beings in Paradise

Ghilmān or Wildān Ḥūr

Animals

Related

The baqarah (cow) of Israelites The dhi’b (wolf) that Jacob
Jacob
feared could attack Joseph The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians) Ḥimār (Domesticated donkey) The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave The nāqaṫ (she-camel) of Saleh The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah

Non-related

Ḥimār (Wild ass) Qaswarah
Qaswarah
('Lion', 'Beast of prey' or 'Hunter')

Jinns

‘Ifrîṫ ("Strong one") Mârid ("Rebellious one")

Iblīs the Shayṭān (Devil)

Qarīn

Prophets

Mentioned

Ādam (Adam) Al-Yasa‘ (Elisha) Ayyūb (Job) Dāwūd (David) Dhūl-Kifl (Ezekiel?) Hārūn (Aaron) Hūd (Eber?) Idrīs (Enoch?) Ilyās (Elijah) ‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam) Is-ḥāq (Isaac) Ismā‘īl (Ishmael)

Dhabih Ullah

Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise) Lūṭ (Lot) Ṣāliḥ Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?) Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd ( Solomon
Solomon
son of David) ‘ Uzair
Uzair
(Ezra?) Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā ( John the Baptist
John the Baptist
the son of Zechariah) Ya‘qūb (Jacob)

Isrâ’îl (Israel)

Yūnus (Jonah)

Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)" or "Owner of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)") Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūṫ ("Companion of the Whale")

Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb ( Joseph
Joseph
son of Jacob) Zakariyyā (Zechariah)

Ulu-l-‘Azm

Muḥammad

Aḥmad Other names and titles of Muhammad

ʿĪsā (Jesus)

Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah) Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary)

Mūsā Kalīmullāh ( Moses
Moses
He who spoke to God) Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh ( Abraham
Abraham
Friend of God) Nūḥ (Noah)

Debatable ones

Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?) Luqmân Maryam (Mary) Ṭâlûṫ (Saul or Gideon?)

Implied

Irmiyā (Jeremiah) Ṣamû’îl (Samuel) Yūsha‘ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)

People of Prophets

Evil ones

Āzar (possibly Terah) Fir‘awn ( Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Moses' time) Hāmān Jâlûṫ (Goliath) Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses) As-Sāmirī Abî Lahab Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr)

Good ones

Adam's immediate relatives

Martyred son Wife

Believer of Ya-Sin Family of Noah

Father Lamech Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos

Luqman's son People of Aaron and Moses

Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura) Imra’aṫ Fir‘awn (Âsiyá bint Muzâḥim or Bithiah) Khidr Magicians of the Pharaoh Moses' wife Moses' sister-in-law Mother Sister

People of Abraham

Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo Ishmael's mother Isaac's mother

People of Jesus

Disciples (including Peter) Mary's mother Zechariah's wife

People of Joseph

Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon) Egyptians

‘Azîz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin) Malik (King Ar-Rayyân ibn Al-Walîd)) Wife of ‘Azîz (Zulaykhah)

Mother

People of Solomon

Mother Queen of Sheba Vizier

Zayd

Implied or not specified

Abrahah Bal'am/Balaam Barsisa Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua Luqman's son Nebuchadnezzar II Nimrod Rahmah the wife of Ayyub Shaddad

Groups

Mentioned

Aş-ḥāb al-Jannah

People of Paradise People of the Burnt Garden

Aş-ḥāb as-Sabṫ (Companions of the Sabbath) Christian
Christian
apostles

Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus)

Companions of Noah's Ark Aş-ḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim? Companions of the Elephant People of al-Ukhdūd People of a township in Surah
Surah
Ya-Sin People of Yathrib or Medina Qawm Lûṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah) Nation of Noah

Tribes, ethnicities or families

A‘rāb ( Arabs
Arabs
or Bedouins)

ʿĀd (people of Hud) Companions of the Rass Qawm Ṫubba‘ (People of Tubba')

People of Saba’ or Sheba

Quraysh Thamûd (people of Saleh)

Aṣ-ḥâb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland")

Ajam Ar- Rûm (literally "The Romans") Banî Isrâ’îl (Children of Israel) Mu’ṫafikāṫ (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah) People of Ibrahim People of Ilyas People of Nuh People of Shuaib

Ahl Madyan People of Madyan) Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
("Companions of the Wood")

Qawm Yûnus (People of Jonah) Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog Ahl al-Bayṫ ("People of the Household")

Household of Abraham

Brothers of Yūsuf Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.) Progeny of Imran Household of Moses Household of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim

Daughters of Muhammad Wives of Muhammad

Household of Salih

People of Fir'aun Current Ummah of Islam
Islam
(Ummah of Muhammad)

Aṣ-ḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad)

Muhajirun (Emigrants) Anṣār Muslims
Muslims
of Medina
Medina
who helped Muhammad
Muhammad
and his Meccan followers, literally 'Helpers')

People of Mecca

Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab)

Children of Ayyub Dead son of Sulaiman Qabil/Cain (son of Adam) Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh) Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut) Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj (Gog and Magog) Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh)

Implicitly mentioned

Amalek Ahl al-Suffa (People of the Verandah) Banu Nadir Banu Qaynuqa Banu Qurayza Iranian people Umayyad
Umayyad
Dynasty Aus & Khazraj People of Quba

Religious groups

Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi) Kâfirûn (Infidels) Zoroastrians Munāfiqūn (Hypocrites) Muslims People of the Book (Ahl al-Kiṫāb)

Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil)

Ruhban ( Christian
Christian
monks) Qissis ( Christian
Christian
priest)

Yahūd (Jews)

Ahbār (Jewish scholars) Rabbani/Rabbi

Sabians

Polytheists

Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of Abraham
Abraham
and Lot

Locations

Mentioned

Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
("The Land The Blessed")

Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Land The Holy")

In the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
(excluding Madyan)

Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills")

Iram dhāṫ al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars)

Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib) ‘Arafāṫ Al-Ḥijr (Hegra) Badr Ḥunayn Makkah (Mecca)

Bakkah Ka‘bah (Kaaba) Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham) Safa and Marwah

Saba’ (Sheba)

‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba)

Rass

Jahannam
Jahannam
(Hell) Jannah
Jannah
(Paradise, literally 'Garden') In Mesopotamia:

Al-Jūdiyy

Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed")

Bābil (Babylon) Qaryaṫ Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh)

Door of Hittah Madyan (Midian) Majma' al-Bahrain Miṣr (Mainland Egypt) Salsabîl (A river in Paradise) Sinai
Sinai
Region or Tīh Desert

Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa)

Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of Tuwa and Mount Sinai)

Mount Sinai
Sinai
or Mount Tabor

Implied

Antioch

Antakya

Arabia Ayla Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn Bayt al-Muqaddas
Bayt al-Muqaddas
& 'Ariha Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia) Canaan Cave of Seven Sleepers Dār al-Nadwa Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier")

Black Stone
Black Stone
(Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il Cave of Hira
Hira
& Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull) Ta'if

Hudaybiyyah Jordan
Jordan
River Nile
Nile
River Palestine River Paradise
Paradise
of Shaddad

Religious locations

Bay'a (Church) Mihrab Monastery Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration")

Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
("The Monument the Sacred") Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The Place-of-Prostration The Farthest") Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque
Mosque
of Mecca) Masjid al-Dirar A Mosque
Mosque
in the area of Medina, possibly:

Masjid Qubâ’ (Quba Mosque) The Prophet's Mosque

Salat (Synagogue)

Plant
Plant
matter

Fruits

Ḥabb dhul-‘aṣf (Corn of the husk) Rummān (Pomegranate) Ṫīn (Fig) Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba) Zayṫūn (Olive) In Paradise

Forbidden fruit of Adam

Bushes, trees or plants

Plants of Sheba

Athl (Tamarisk) Sidr (lote-tree)

Līnah (Tender palm tree) Nakhl (date palm) Rayḥān (Scented plant) Sidraṫ al-Munṫahā Zaqqūm

Texts

Al-Injîl (The Gospel
Gospel
of Jesus) Al-Qur’ân (The Book of Muhammad) Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrâhîm (Scroll(s) of Abraham) Aṫ-Ṫawrâṫ (The Torah)

Ṣuḥuf-i-Mûsâ (Scroll(s) of Moses) Tablets of Stone

Az-Zabûr (The Psalms
Psalms
of David) Umm al-Kiṫâb ("Mother of the Book(s)")

Objects of people or beings

Heavenly Food of Christian
Christian
Apostles Noah's Ark Staff of Musa Ṫābūṫ as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah) Throne of Bilqis Trumpet of Israfil

Mentioned idols (cult images)

'Ansāb Idols of Israelites:

Baal The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites

Idols of Noah's people:

Nasr Suwā‘ Wadd Yaghūth Ya‘ūq

Idols of Quraysh:

Al-Lāṫ Al-‘Uzzá Manāṫ

Jibṫ and Ṭâghûṫ

Celestial bodies

Maṣābīḥ (literally 'lamps'):

Al-Qamar (The Moon) Kawâkib (Planets)

Al-Arḍ (The Earth)

Nujūm (Stars)

Ash-Shams (The Sun)

Liquids

Mā’ ( Water
Water
or fluid)

Nahr (River) Yamm ( River
River
or sea)

Sharâb (Drink)

Events

Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates") Battle of Badr Battle of Hunayn Battle of Khaybar Battle of Tabouk Battle of Uhud Conquest of Mecca Incident of Ifk Laylat al-Mabit Mubahala Sayl al-‘Arim
Sayl al-‘Arim
(Flood of the Great Dam of Marib
Marib
in Sheba) The Farewell Pilgrimage
The Farewell Pilgrimage
(Hujja al-Wada') Treaty of Hudaybiyyah Umrah al-Qaza Yawm al-Dār

Implied

Event of Ghadir Khumm

Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name / Biblical name (title or relationship)

Authority control

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