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Aqidah
Aqidah
(Arabic: عقيدة‎, translit. ʿaqīdah, plural عقائد ʿaqāʾid, also rendered ʿaqīda, aqeeda etc.) is an Islamic term meaning "creed"[1] (Arabic pronunciation: [ʕɑˈqiːdæ, ʕɑˈqɑːʔɪd]). Many schools of Islamic theology expressing different views on aqidah exist. Any religious belief system, or creed, can be considered an example of aqidah. However, this term has taken a significant technical usage in Muslim
Muslim
history and theology, denoting those matters over which Muslims hold conviction. It is a branch of Islamic studies describing the beliefs of Islam.

Contents

1 Introduction

1.1 Six articles of belief 1.2 Tawhid 1.3 Iman

2 Hadith
Hadith
of Gabriel

2.1 Salat 2.2 Sawm 2.3 Zakat 2.4 Hajj

3 Other tenets

3.1 Jihad 3.2 Dawah

4 Eschatology 5 Schools of theology

5.1 Traditional Sunni
Sunni
Schools

5.1.1 Kalām 5.1.2 Athari

5.2 Shiʿi beliefs and practices

5.2.1 Twelver's Roots of Religion (Uṣūl ad-Dīn) 5.2.2 Ismaili beliefs

5.3 Cross-sectarian

5.3.1 Muʿtazilite view

6 Literature pertaining to creed

6.1 Sunni
Sunni
literature 6.2 Shia literature

7 Gallery 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Introduction[edit] According to Muslim
Muslim
scholar Cyril Glasse, "systematic statements of belief became necessary, from early Islam
Islam
on, initially to refute heresies, and later to distinguish points of view and to present them, as the divergences of schools of theology or opinion increased."[2] The "first" creed written as "a short answer to the pressing heresies of the time" is known as Fiqh
Fiqh
Akbar and ascribed to Abu Hanifa.[2][3] Two well known creeds were the Fiqh
Fiqh
Akbar II[4] "representative" of the Ash'ari, and Fiqh
Fiqh
Akbar III, "representative" of the Shafi'i.[2] Al-Ghazali
Al-Ghazali
also had a ʿaqīdah.[2] These creeds were more detailed than those described below. Six articles of belief[edit] The six articles of faith or belief, derived from the Quran
Quran
and Sunnah (Arkan al-Iman).[5] is accepted by all Muslims. While there are differences between Shia and Sunni
Sunni
Islam
Islam
and other different schools or sects concerning issues such as the attributes of God or about the purpose of angels, the six articles are not disputed. The six Sunni
Sunni
articles of belief are:

Belief in God and tawhid (monotheism) Belief in the angels Belief in the Islamic holy books[6] Belief in the prophets and messengers Belief in the Last Judgment
Last Judgment
and Resurrection Belief in predestination.

The first five are based on several Qurʾānic creeds:

Whoever disbelieveth in God and His angels and His scriptures and His messengers and the Last Day, he verily wandered far stray (4:136) Who is an enemy of God, His Angels, His Messengers, Gabriel and Michael! Then, lo! God is an enemy to the disbelievers (2:98) ...righteous is he who believeth in God and the Last Day and the angels and the scripture and the prophets (2:177) ...believer believe in God and His angels and His scriptures and His messengers (2:285)

The sixth point made it into the creed because of the first theological controversy in Islām. Although not connected with the sunni-shiʿi controversy about the succession, the majority of Twelfer Shiʿites do not stress God's limitless power (qadar), but rather His boundless justice (ʿadl) as the sixth point of belief – this does not mean that Sunnis deny His justice, or Shiʿites negate His power, just that the emphasis is different[citation needed]. In Sunni
Sunni
and Shia view, having Iman literally means having belief in Six Articles. However the importance of Iman relies heavily upon reason. Islam
Islam
explicitly asserts that belief should be maintained in that which can be proven using faculties of perception and conception.[citation needed] Tawhid[edit]

Part of a series on

God in Islam

Allah
Allah
Jalla Jalālah in Arabic calligraphy

List

Allah Names Phrases and expressions Theology Oneness Islamic creed Negation Transcendence Nearness

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portal  · Category

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Tawhid
Tawhid
("doctrine of Oneness") is the concept of monotheism in Islam. It is the religion's most fundamental concept and holds that God (Allah) is one (wāḥid) and unique (āḥad), and the Only One worthy of Worship which is exactly what Jews and Christians also believe that only the Uncreated can be worshiped. A creature cannot be worshiped. This is idolatry. According to Islamic belief, Allah
Allah
is the proper name of God, and humble submission to his will, divine ordinances and commandments is the pivot of the Muslim
Muslim
faith. "He is the only God, creator of the universe, and the judge of humankind." "He is unique (wāḥid) and inherently one (aḥad), all-merciful and omnipotent." The Qur'an declares "the reality of Allah, His inaccessible mystery, His 99 descriptive names expressing a quality characteristic , and His actions on behalf of His creatures. Iman[edit] Iman, in Islamic theology denotes a believer's faith in the metaphysical aspects of Islam.[7][8] Its most simple definition is the belief in the six articles of faith, known as arkān al-īmān. Hadith
Hadith
of Gabriel[edit] The Hadith
Hadith
of Gabriel includes the Five Pillars of Islam
Islam
(Tawhid, Salat, Sawm, Zakat, Hajj) in answer to the question, "O messenger of God, what is Islam?" This hadith is sometimes called the "truly first and most fundamental creed."[2] Salat[edit]

An Imam
Imam
leading prayers in Cairo, Egypt, in 1865.

The Mughal emperor
Mughal emperor
Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
performing Salat.

Salat
Salat
is the practice of formal worship in Islam. Its importance for Muslims is indicated by its status as one of the Five Pillars of Islam, with a few dispensations for those for whom it would be difficult. People who find it physically difficult can perform Salat in a way suitable for them. To perform valid Salat, Muslims must be in a state of ritual purity, which is mainly achieved by ritual ablution, (wuḍūʾ), according to prescribed procedures. Sawm[edit]

Ending the fast at a mosque.

In the terminology of Islamic law, sawm means to abstain from eating, drinking (including water) and sexual intercourse from dawn until dusk. The observance of sawm during the holy month of Ramadan
Ramadan
is one of the Five Pillars of Islam, but is not confined to that month. Zakat[edit] Zakat
Zakat
is the practice of charitable giving by Muslims based on accumulated wealth and is obligatory for all who are able to do so. It is considered to be a personal responsibility for Muslims to ease economic hardship for others and eliminate inequality. Hajj[edit]

A 16th century illustration of Islam's holiest shrine, the Ka'aba.

The Hajj
Hajj
is an Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca
Mecca
and the largest gathering of Muslims in the world every year. It is one of the five pillars of Islam, and a religious duty which must be carried out by every able-bodied Muslim
Muslim
who can afford to do so at least once in his or her lifetime. Other tenets[edit]

Part of a series on

Islam
Islam
and Iman

Islam Iman Ihsan

Individuals

Mumin – Believer Muslim
Muslim
– Submitter [to God] Fasiq – Open sinner, corrupt Fajir – Sinner (by action) Kafir
Kafir
– Disbeliever Munafiq – Hypocrite

Groups

Ahl al-Kitâb Ahl al-Fatrah

Terms

Din

v t e

In addition, some Muslims include Jihad
Jihad
and Dawah
Dawah
as part of ʿAqīdah Jihad[edit] Jihad
Jihad
(to struggle) and literally means to endeavor, strive, labor to apply oneself, to concentrate, to work hard, to accomplish. It could be used to refer to those who physically, mentally or economically serve in the way of God.[9] Dawah[edit] Main article: Dawah Da‘wah ("invitation") means the proselytizing or preaching of Islam. Da‘wah literally means "issuing a summon" or "making an invitation," being an active participle of a verb meaning variously "to summon" or "to invite." A Muslim
Muslim
who practices da‘wah, either as a religious worker or in a volunteer community effort, is called a dā‘ī (داعي plural du‘āh, gen: du‘āt دعاة). A dā‘ī is thus a person who invites people to understand Islam through dialogue, not unlike the Islamic equivalent of a missionary inviting people to the faith, prayer and manner of Islamic life. Eschatology[edit] Main article: Islamic eschatology Eschatology
Eschatology
is literally understood as the last things or ultimate things and in Muslim
Muslim
theology, eschatology refers to the end of this world and what will happen in the next world or hereafter. Eschatology covers the death of human beings, their souls after their bodily death, the total destruction of this world, the resurrection of human souls, the Last Judgment
Last Judgment
of human deeds by God after the resurrection, and the rewards and punishments for the believers and non-believers respectively. The places for the believers in the hereafter are known as Paradise
Paradise
and for the non-believers as Hell. Schools of theology[edit] Main article: Schools of Islamic theology Muslim
Muslim
theology is the theology and interpretation of creed (aqidah) that derived from the Qur'an
Qur'an
and Hadith. The contents of Muslim theology can be divided into theology proper such as theodicy, eschatology, anthropology, apophatic theology, and comparative religion. In the history of Muslim
Muslim
theology, there have been theological schools among Muslims displaying both similarities and differences with each other in regard to beliefs. Traditional Sunni
Sunni
Schools[edit] Kalām[edit] Main article: Kalam Kalām is the Islamic philosophy
Islamic philosophy
of seeking theological principles through dialectic. In Arabic, the word literally means "speech/words." A scholar of kalām is referred to as a mutakallim ( Muslim
Muslim
theologian; plural mutakallimūn). There are many schools of Kalam, the main ones being the Ash'ari
Ash'ari
and Maturidi
Maturidi
schools in Sunni
Sunni
Islam. Athari[edit] Main article: Athari For the Atharis, the "clear" meaning of the Qur'an
Qur'an
and especially the prophetic traditions have sole authority in matters of belief, as well as law, and to engage in rational disputation, even if one arrives at the truth, is absolutely forbidden.[10] Atharis engage in an amodal reading of the Qur'an, as opposed to one engaged in Ta'wil (metaphorical interpretation). They do not attempt to rationally conceptualize the meanings of the Qur'an
Qur'an
and believe that the real meanings should be consigned to God alone (tafwid).[11] This theology was taken from exegesis of the Quran
Quran
and statements of the early Muslims and later codified by a number of scholars including Ahmad ibn Hanbal and Ibn Qudamah. Shiʿi beliefs and practices[edit] Shiʿi Muslims hold that there are five articles of belief. Similar to the Sunnis, the Shiʿis do not believe in complete predestination, or complete free will. They believe that in human life there is both free will and predestination. Twelver's Roots of Religion (Uṣūl ad-Dīn)[edit] Main article: Theology
Theology
of Twelvers

Tawhid: The Oneness of God. Adalah: The Justice of God. Nubuwwah (Prophethood): God has appointed perfect and infallible prophets and messengers to teach mankind the religion (i.e. a perfect system on how to live in "peace.") Imamate: (Leadership): God has appointed specific leaders to lead and guide mankind — a prophet appoints a custodian of the religion before his demise. Last Judgment: God will raise mankind for Judgment

Ismaili beliefs[edit] The branch of Islam
Islam
known as Isma'ilism
Isma'ilism
is the second largest Shiʿi community. They observe the following extra pillars:

Belief in the Imamate Belief in the prophets and messengers Beliefs about the Last Judgment

Cross-sectarian[edit] Muʿtazilite view[edit] In terms of the relationship between human beings and their creator, the Muʿtazila
Muʿtazila
emphasize human free will over predestination. They also reduced the divine attributes to the divine essence.[12] Literature pertaining to creed[edit] Many Muslim
Muslim
scholars have attempted to explain Islamic creed in general, or specific aspects of aqidah. The following list contains some of the most well-known literature. Sunni
Sunni
literature[edit]

Mukhtasar Shu'ab al-Imān or "The 77 branches of faith" by the Imām al-Bayhaqi al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya ("The Fundamentals of Islamic Creed by al-Tahawi). This has been accepted by almost all Sunnis (Atharis, Ash'aris and Maturidis). Several Islamic scholars have written about the Tahawiyya creed, including Ali al-Qari, al-Maydani, ibn Abi al-Izz and Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz. al-ʿAqīdah al-Wāsiṭiyyah ("The Wasit Creed") by ibn Taymiyyah. Sharh as Sunnah
Sunnah
or the Explanation of the Sunna by al-Hasan ibn 'Ali al-Barbahari. Lists approximately 170 points pertaining to the fundamentals of ʿaqidah. Khalq Afʿāl al-ʿIbād ("The Creation of the Acts of Servants") by Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Bukhari. It shows the opinion of early scholars (Salaf) but it does not cover all topics. Lum'at al-Itiqād by ibn Qudamah. Details the creed of the early Imams of the Sunni
Sunni
Muslims and one of the key works in the Athari
Athari
creed. al-ʿUluww by al-Dhahabī. Details the opinions of early scholars on matters of creed. Ibaanah by Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari. Risālah al-Qudsiyyah ("The Jerusalem Tract") by al-Ghazali, where the rules of faith are discussed. Sa'd al-Din al-Taftazani on the creed of Abu Hafs Umar an-Nasafi

Shia literature[edit]

Shiʿite Islam
Islam
Muhammad
Muhammad
Husayn Tabataba'i: translated by Hossein Nasr; (also reprinted under the title Shi'a.)" Root and Branches of Faith
Faith
by Maqbul Hussein Rahim Shi'ism Doctrines, Thought and Spirituality by Hossein Nasr

Gallery[edit]

Bosniak
Bosniak
"Book of the Science of Conduct" lists 54 religious duties that each Muslim
Muslim
must know about, believe in, and fulfill. Published in 1831, the handbook is by the Bosnian author and poet Abdulwahāb Žepčewī.

"Book of Wisdom" based on Islamic Theology
Theology
by Khoja Akhmet Yassawi (died 1166)

“Safeguards of Transmission” by Ubayd Allāh ibn Masūd ibn Mahmud ibn Ahmad al-Mahbūbī (died 1346).

See also[edit]

Islam
Islam
portal

Contemporary Islamic philosophy Shahada

References[edit]

^ Mohammad Taqi al-Modarresi
Mohammad Taqi al-Modarresi
(26 March 2016). The Laws of Islam
Islam
(PDF). Enlight Press. ISBN 978-0994240989. Retrieved 22 December 2017.  p. 470. From the root ʿ-q-d "to tie; knot", and hence the class VIII verb iʿtaqada "to firmly believe", verbal noun iʿtiqād "belief, faith, trust, confidence, conviction; creed, doctrine", participle muʿtaqad "creed, doctrine, dogma, conviction, belief, opinion". Wehr, Hans, “عقد” in: J. Milton Cowan (ed.), A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, 4th edition (1979). ^ a b c d e Glasse, Cyril (2001). New Encyclopedia of Islam
Islam
(Revised ed.). Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 105.  ^ Abu Hanifah An-Nu^man. "Al- Fiqh
Fiqh
Al-Akbar" (PDF). aicp.org. Retrieved 14 March 2014.  ^ Al- Fiqh
Fiqh
Al-Akbar II With Commentary by Al-Ninowy ^ Joel Beversluis (ed.). Sourcebook of the World's Religions: An Interfaith Guide to Religion and ... New World Library. pp. 68–9.  ^ http://al-quran.info/#&&sura=2&aya=177&trans=en-arthur_arberry&show=both,quran-uthmani&format=rows&ver=1.00 ^ Farāhī, Majmū‘ah Tafāsīr, 2nd ed. (Faran Foundation, 1998), 347. ^ Frederick M. Denny, An Introduction to Islam, 3rd ed., p. 405 ^ Khalid Mahmood Shaikh ^ Jeffry R. Halverson, Theology
Theology
and Creed
Creed
in Sunni
Sunni
Islam. ISBN 0230106587, p 36. ^ Jeffry R. Halverson, Theology
Theology
and Creed
Creed
in Sunni
Sunni
Islam. ISBN 0230106587, p 36-37. ^ Nader El-Bizri, ‘God: essence and attributes’, in The Cambridge Companion to Classical Islamic theology, ed. Tim Winter (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008), pp. 121-140

External links[edit]

Exhaustive Books & Articles on Aqeedah The development of Aqeedah.

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Abd al-Jabbar ibn Ahmad Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani Abdul Hosein Amini Abdulhakim Arvasi Abū Ḥanīfa Abu l-A‘la Mawdudi Abu Yusuf Ahmad ibn Hanbal Ahmad Sirhindi Ahmad Yasavi Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi Akhtar Raza Khan al-Ash‘ari al-Ballūṭī al-Baydawi al-Dhahabi al-Ghazali al-Hilli al-Jahiz al-Jubba'i al-Kindi al-Masudi al-Maturidi al-Mufid Al-Qasim al-Qushayri al-Razi Al-Shafi‘i al-Shahrastani al-Shirazi al-Tirmidhi Allameh Majlesi Amr ibn Ubayd Dawud al-Zahiri Fazlur Rahman Malik Hasan of Basra Hacı Bayram-ı Veli Haji Bektash Veli Hüseyin Hilmi Işık ibn ‘Arabī ibn al-Jawzi ibn ‘Aqil ibn Hazm ibn Qudamah Ibn Taymiyyah Ja’far al-Sadiq Jalal al-Din Muhammad
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Tahir-ul-Qadri Muhammad
Muhammad
Taqi Usmani Nasir Khusraw Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi Said Nursî Shaykh Tusi Sheikh Bedreddin Wasil ibn Ata Zayd ibn Ali Zayn al-Abidin

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books

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Buyruks Kitab al Majmu Masnavi Nahj al-Balagha Epistles of Wisdom Risale-i Nur

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Ash'ari Maturidi Traditionalism

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Kaysanites

Mukhtar

Abu Muslim Sunpadh Ishaq al-Turk

Muhammerah

Khurramites

Babak Mazyar Ismail I / Pir Sultan Abdal
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– Qizilbash / Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam

al-Muqanna

Zaidiyyah

Jarudi Batriyya Alid dynasties of northern Iran

Hasan al-Utrush

List of extinct Shia sects

Dukayniyya Khalafiyya Khashabiyya

Imami Isma'ilism

Batiniyyah

Sevener Qarmatians Hamza / al-Muqtana Baha'uddin / ad-Darazi – Druzes

Musta'li

Hafizi Taiyabi

Nizari

Assassins Nizaris

Nasir Khusraw
Nasir Khusraw
Badakhshan
Badakhshan
Alevism

Imami Twelver

Theology
Theology
of Twelvers

Ja'fari

Akhbari Shaykhi Usuli

Alevism

Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar
Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar
– Qalandariyya Baba Ishak
Baba Ishak
– Babai Revolt Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
– Rifa'i-Galibi Order

Ghulat

al-Khaṣībī / ibn Nusayr – Alawites Fazlallah Astarabadi (Naimi) / Imadaddin Nasimi
Imadaddin Nasimi
– Hurufism / Bektashism and folk religion

Independent

Ibadi

ibn Ibāḍ Jābir ibn Zayd

Jabriyyah

Ibn Safwan

Murji'ah Karramiyya Qadariyah

Ma'bad al-Juhani Muʿtazila Bahshamiyya

Khawarij

Azariqa Najdat Sufri

Abu Qurra

Nakkariyyah

Abu Yazi

.