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The Aptian
Aptian
is an age in the geologic timescale or a stage in the stratigraphic column. It is a subdivision of the Early or Lower Cretaceous
Cretaceous
epoch or series and encompasses the time from 125.0 ± 1.0 Ma to 113.0 ± 1.0 Ma (million years ago), approximately. The Aptian succeeds the Barremian
Barremian
and precedes the Albian, all part of the Lower/Early Cretaceous.[2] The Aptian
Aptian
partly overlaps the upper part of the regionally used (in Western Europe) stage Urgonian. The Selli Event, also known as OAE1a, was one of two oceanic Anoxic events in the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period, which occurred around 120 Ma and lasted approximately 1 to 1.3 million years.[3][4] The Aptian extinction was a minor extinction event hypothesized to have occurred around 116 to 117 Ma.[5]

Contents

1 Stratigraphic definitions

1.1 Subdivision

2 Lithostratigraphic units 3 Palaeontology

3.1 †Ammonitida 3.2 †Belemnitida 3.3 Nautilida 3.4 †Orthocerida 3.5 †Phylloceratida 3.6 Sepiida 3.7 †Ankylosaurs 3.8 Birds
Birds
(avian theropods) 3.9 †Ceratopsians 3.10 †Choristoderans 3.11 Crocodylomorpha 3.12 Fish 3.13 Mammalia 3.14 †Ornithopods 3.15 †Plesiosaurs 3.16 †Pterosaurs 3.17 †Sauropods 3.18 †Stegosaurs 3.19 †Non-Avian Theropods

4 See also 5 References

5.1 Notes 5.2 Literature

6 External links

Stratigraphic definitions[edit] The Aptian
Aptian
was named after the small city of Apt in the Provence region of France, which is also known for its crystallized fruits. The original type locality is in the vicinity of Apt. The Aptian
Aptian
was introduced in scientific literature by French palaeontologist Alcide d'Orbigny in 1840. The base of the Aptian
Aptian
stage is laid at magnetic anomaly M0r. A global reference profile for the base (a GSSP) had in 2009 not yet been appointed. The top of the Aptian
Aptian
(the base of the Albian) is at the first appearance of coccolithophore species Praediscosphaera columnata in the stratigraphic record. Subdivision[edit] In the Tethys domain, the Aptian
Aptian
contains eight ammonite biozones:

zone of Hypacanthoplites jacobi zone of Nolaniceras nolani zone of Parahoplites melchioris zone of Epicheloniceras subnodosocostatum zone of Duffrenoyia furcata zone of Deshayesites deshayesi zone of Deshayesites weissi zone of Deshayesites oglanlensis

Sometimes the Aptian
Aptian
is subdivided in three substages or subages: Bedoulian (early or lower), Gargasian (middle) and Clansayesian (late or upper). Lithostratigraphic units[edit] Examples of rock units formed during the Aptian
Aptian
are: Antlers Formation, Cedar Mountain Formation, Cloverly Formation, Elrhaz Formation, Jiufotang Formation, Little Atherfield, Mazong Shan, Potomac Formation, Santana Formation, Twin Mountains Formation, Xinminbao Group
Xinminbao Group
and Yixian Formation. Palaeontology[edit] †Ammonitida[edit]

Eogaudryceras Georgioceras Lithancylus Pictetia Salfeldiella Zuercherella

Australiceras

Lower

Ammonitoceras Australiceras Cheloniceras Cicatrites Colombiceras Dufrenoya Eotetragonites Helicancylus Melchiorites Parahoplites Procheloniceras Prodeshayesites Pseudosaynella Roloboceras Shastoceras

Tropaeum
Tropaeum
imperator

Upper

Acanthohoplites Acanthoplites Ammonoceratites Argonauticeras Beudanticeras Burckhardites Cloioceras Desmoceras Diadochoceras Diodochoceras Eodouvilleiceras Epancyloceras Epicheloniceras Gabbioceras Gargasiceras Gyaloceras Hamites Hulenites Hypacanthoplites Jauberticeras Kazanskyella Knemiceras Mathoceras Mathoceratites Megatyloceras Metahamites Miyakoceras Neosilesites Nodosohoplites Nolaniceras Protacanthoplites Protanisoceras Sinzovia Somalites Tetragonites Theganoceras Trochleiceras Tropaeum Uhligella

†Belemnitida[edit]

Conoteuthis Vectibelus Lower

Parahibolites Peratobelus Tetrabelus

Nautilida[edit]

Carinonautilus Heminautilus

†Orthocerida[edit]

Upper

Zhuralevia

†Phylloceratida[edit]

Upper

Euphylloceras

Sepiida[edit]

Upper

Adygeya Naefia

†Ankylosaurs[edit]

Ankylosauria
Ankylosauria
of the Aptian

Taxa Presence Location Description Images

†Cedarpelta

Cedarpelta
Cedarpelta
bilbeyhallorum

Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah, USA

Gobisaurus

Minmi

Sauropelta

†Gobisaurus

Gobisaurus
Gobisaurus
domoculus

Ulansuhai Formation, Inner Mongolia, China

†Liaoningosaurus

Liaoningosaurus
Liaoningosaurus
paradoxus

Yixian Formation, Liaoning, China Nodosaurid with ventral armor plating

†Minmi

†Minmi paravertebra

Bungil Formation, Queensland, Australia Small (1 metre (3 feet)) primitive ankylosaur

†Sauropelta

Sauropelta
Sauropelta
edwardsorum

Aptian
Aptian
to Albian Cloverly Formation, Wyoming, Montana, Utah, USA A medium-sized nodosaurid, measuring about 5 metres (16 feet) long, Sauropelta
Sauropelta
had a distinctively long tail which made up about half of its body length. Its neck and back were protected by an extensive bony body armor including characteristically large spines

†Shamosaurus

Shamosaurus
Shamosaurus
scutatus

Mongolia Ankylosaurid

Birds
Birds
(avian theropods)[edit]

Boluochia zhengi Changchengornis hengdaoziensis Chaoyangia beishanensis Confuciusornis sanctus Cuspirostrisornis houi Jeholornis prima Jixiangornis orientalis Largirostrornis sexdentoris Longchengornis sanyanensis Longipteryx chaoyangensis Sapeornis chaoyangensis Sinornis santensis/Cathayornis yandica Songlingornis linghensis Yanornis martini Yixianornis grabaui

†Ceratopsians[edit]

Ceratopsia
Ceratopsia
of the Aptian

Taxa Presence Location Description Images

†Archaeoceratops

Archaeoceratops
Archaeoceratops
oshimai

Mazong Shan, Gansu, China A basal neoceratopsian, appears to have been bipedal and quite small (about 1 metre (3.3 feet) long) with a comparatively large head. Unlike many later ceratopsians it doesn't have any horns and has only a small bony frill projecting from the back of its head.

Archaeoceratops

Auroraceratops

Psittacosaurus
Psittacosaurus
meileyingensis

Psittacosaurus
Psittacosaurus
mongoliensis

†Auroraceratops

Auroraceratops
Auroraceratops
rugosus

Xinminbao Group, Gansu, China, South Korea Basal neoceratopsian

†Psittacosaurus

Psittacosaurus
Psittacosaurus
meileyingensis † Psittacosaurus
Psittacosaurus
mongoliensis

China, Mongolia, Russia Psittacosaurid Ceratopsian

†Serendipaceratops

Serendipaceratops arthurcclarkei

Victoria, Australia 2-metre (7-foot) long early ceratopsian

†Choristoderans[edit]

†Choristoderans of the Aptian

Taxa Presence Description Images

Genus:

†Hyphalosaurus

Hyphalosaurus
Hyphalosaurus
lingyuanensis † Hyphalosaurus
Hyphalosaurus
baitaigouensis

Yixian Formation, Liaoning Province, China

Hyphalosaurus

Monjurosuchus

Genus:

†Monjurosuchus

Monjurosuchus
Monjurosuchus
splendens

China and Japan

Crocodylomorpha[edit]

Sarcosuchus

Fish[edit]

Hybodus Jinanichthys longicephalus Lycoptera davidi Lycoptera muroii Peipiaosteus pani Protosephurus liui Sinamia zdanskyi

Mammalia[edit]

Mammals
Mammals
of the Hauterivian

Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Eobaatar

several species from Hauterivian
Hauterivian
to Albian Spain, Mongolia

Jeholodens

Repenomamus

Yanoconodon

Jeholodens

Yixian Formation, Liaoning, China A long-tailed, nocturnal tetrapod (with prensile fingers and toes) which hunted insects, its food, during the night

Repenomamus

Yixian Formation, Liaoning, China The largest mammal known from the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period of the Mesozoic, and the one for which there is the best evidence that it fed on dinosaurs.

Sinobaatar

Yixian Formation, Liaoning, China

Teinolophos

Flat Rocks, Victoria, Australia The earliest known monotreme.

Yanoconodon

Yixian Formation, Hebei, China A small mammal, barely 13 centimetres (5 inches) long. It was lightly built and fed on insects, worms and other invertebrates, probably hunting at night. Like most early mammals, Yanoconodon
Yanoconodon
had short, sprawling legs and claws that were most likely used for burrowing underground or digging

Zhangheotherium

Yixian Formation, Liaoning, China

†Ornithopods[edit]

Ornithopoda
Ornithopoda
of the Aptian

Taxa Presence Location Description Images

†Altirhinus

Aptian-Albian

Khukhtek Formation, Mongolia

Atlascopcosaurus

Dollodon

Iguanodon

Lurdusaurus

Mantellisaurus

Ouranosaurus

Qantassaurus

Tenontosaurus
Tenontosaurus
tilletti

Theiophytalia

†Atlascopcosaurus

Atlascopcosaurus
Atlascopcosaurus
loadsi

Aptian/Albian Eumeralla Formation, Victoria, Australia 2-to-3-metre (7-to-10-foot) long hypsilophodont

†Changchunsaurus

Changchunsaurus
Changchunsaurus
parvus

Quantou Formation, Jilin, China As a small basal ornithopod, Changchunsaurus
Changchunsaurus
would have been a swift bipedal herbivore, feeding close to the ground.

†Dollodon

Dollodon
Dollodon
bampingi

Barremian-?Aptian Bernissart, Belgium; ?England; ?Germany A lightly constructed iguanodont, about 6 metres (20 feet) long, estimated to weigh about 1 tonne (1 long ton; 1 short ton)

†Equijubus

Equijubus
Equijubus
normani

Mazong Shan, Gansu, China Primitive hadrosaur or iguanodont

†Iguanodon

Iguanodon
Iguanodon
bernissartensis

Europe Worldwide distributed, type genus of the Iguanodontia. 10 metres (33 feet) long

†Lurdusaurus

Lurdusaurus
Lurdusaurus
arenatus

Niger 9-metre (30-foot) long heavily built Iguanodont

†Mantellisaurus

Mantellisaurus
Mantellisaurus
atherfieldensis

Atherfield, England, UK formerly known as Iguanodon
Iguanodon
atherfieldensis

†Osmakasaurus

Osmakasaurus depressus

Lakota Formation, South Dakota, USA A genus intermediate between Camptosaurus
Camptosaurus
and more derived iguanodonts.

†Ouranosaurus

Ouranosaurus
Ouranosaurus
nigeriensis

Echkar Formation, Niger 7-metre (23-foot) long hadrosauroid, possibly with a sail on the back

†Planicoxa

Planicoxa venenica

Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah A genus of advanced iguanodont

†Qantassaurus

Qantassaurus
Qantassaurus
intrepidus

Victoria, Australia 1.8-metre (6-foot) long hypsilophodontid

†Siluosaurus

Siluosaurus zhanggiani

Xinminbao Group, Gansu, China A hypsilophodontid or other basal ornithopod, Siluosaurus would have been a bipedal herbivore.

†Tenontosaurus

Tenontosaurus
Tenontosaurus
tilletti † Tenontosaurus
Tenontosaurus
dossi

Cloverly Formation, Wyoming and Montana, Antlers Formation, Oklahoma, Twin Mountains Formation, Texas, USA 8-metre (26-foot) long early iguanodont

†Theiophytalia

Theiophytalia
Theiophytalia
kerri

Aptian
Aptian
to Albian Purgatoire Formation, Colorado, USA An iguanodont described as intermediate in derivation between Camptosaurus
Camptosaurus
and Iguanodon

†Zephyrosaurus

Zephyrosaurus
Zephyrosaurus
schaffi

Cloverly Formation, Montana, USA Hypsilophodont

†Plesiosaurs[edit]

Plesiosaurs
Plesiosaurs
of the Aptian

Taxa Presence Location Description Images

*†Callawayasaurus

Callawayasaurus
Callawayasaurus
colombiensis

Paja Formation, Colombia 8-metre (26-foot) long elasmosaurid

Kronosaurus

Umoonasaurus

†Kronosaurus

Kronosaurus
Kronosaurus
boyacensis

Aptian
Aptian
to Albian Boyaca, Colombia Among the largest pliosaurs, body-length estimates put the total length of Kronosaurus
Kronosaurus
at 9 to 10 metres (30 to 33 feet)

†Umoonasaurus

Umoonasaurus
Umoonasaurus
demoscyllus

Australia Relatively small cryptocleidid, around 2.5 metres (8 feet) long, identified by the three crest-ridges on its skull.

†Pterosaurs[edit]

Amblydectes Anhanguera Araripedactylus dehmi Araripesaurus castilhoi Arthurdactylus conandoylei Boreopterus cuiae Brasileodactylus araripensis Cearadactylus atrox Chaoyangopterus zhangi Dsungaripterus
Dsungaripterus
weii Dsungaripterus
Dsungaripterus
brancai Eoazhdarcho liaoxiensis Eopteranodon lii Gegepterus changi Haopterus gracilis Hongshanopterus lacustris Huaxiapterus benxiensis Huaxiapterus corollatus Huaxiapterus jii Istiodactylus
Istiodactylus
latidens Istiodactylus
Istiodactylus
sinensis Jidapterus edentus Liaoningopterus gui Liaoxipterus brachyognathus Lonchodectes Longchengpterus zhaoi Ludodactylus sibbicki Nemicolopterus crypticus Nurhachius ignaciobritoi Ornithocheirus
Ornithocheirus
simus Ornithocheirus
Ornithocheirus
mesembrinus Pricesaurus megalodon Santanadactylus Sinopterus dongi Sinopterus gui Tapejara navigans Tapejara wellnhoferi Thalassodromeus
Thalassodromeus
sethi Tropeognathus
Tropeognathus
mesembrinus Tropeognathus
Tropeognathus
robustus Tupandactylus imperator

†Sauropods[edit]

Sauropods
Sauropods
of the Aptian

Taxa Presence Location Description Images

†Amazonsaurus

Amazonsaurus
Amazonsaurus
maranhensis

Itapecuru Formation, Maranhão, Brazil A genus of 12 metres (39 feet) long diplodocoid.

Amazonsaurus

Malawisaurus

Nigersaurus

Sauroposeidon

†Cedarosaurus

Cedarosaurus weiskopfae

Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah; Paluxy Formation, Texas A brachiosaurid

†Fusuisaurus

Fusuisaurus zhaoi

Napai Formation, Guangxi, China Probably a basal titanosaur, known by fragmentary postcranial remains

†Karongasaurus

Karongasaurus gittelmani

Malawi Titanosaurid which fossils consist solely of parts of a lower mandible and a few teeth

†Ligabuesaurus

Ligabuesaurus
Ligabuesaurus
leanza

Argentina A basal titanosaurid

†Malawisaurus

Malawisaurus
Malawisaurus
dixeyi

Malawi One of the few titanosaurs for which skull material has been found

†Nigersaurus

Nigersaurus
Nigersaurus
taqueti

Elrhaz Formation, Niger Diplodocoid dinosaur, one of the most common genera found in the rich fossil vertebrate fauna of the Elrhaz Formation

†Paluxysaurus

Paluxysaurus
Paluxysaurus
jonesi

Twin Mountains Formation, Texas, USA A basal titanosauriform

Phuwiangosaurus

Sao Khua Formation, Thailand

†Sauroposeidon

Sauroposeidon
Sauroposeidon
proteles

Antlers Formation, Oklahoma, USA The last known giant brachiosaurid; extrapolations indicate that the head of Sauroposeidon
Sauroposeidon
could reach 17 metres (56 feet) in height, making it the tallest known dinosaur. With an estimated length of 30 metres (98 feet) and a mass of 36 to 40 tonnes (35 to 39 long tons; 40 to 44 short tons) it also ranks among the longest and heaviest.

†Tangvayosaurus

Tangvayosaurus
Tangvayosaurus
hoffeti

Grès Supérior Formation, Laos A basal titanosaur, known from the remains of two or three individuals.

†Venenosaurus

Venenosaurus dicrocei

Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah, USA A titanosaur, known from an incomplete skeleton of an adult and a juvenile

†Stegosaurs[edit]

Stegosauria
Stegosauria
of the Aptian

Taxa Presence Location Description Images

†Wuerhosaurus

Wuerhosaurus
Wuerhosaurus
homheni † Wuerhosaurus
Wuerhosaurus
ordosensis

Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, China 7-metre (23-foot) long stegosaurid

Wuerhosaurus

†Non-Avian Theropods[edit]

†Non Avian Theropods
Theropods
of the Aptian

Taxa Presence Location Description Images

†Acrocanthosaurus

Acrocanthosaurus
Acrocanthosaurus
atokensis

Texas, Oklahoma, ?Maryland, USA Likely an apex predator, up to 12 metres (39 feet) long. Classification disputed (Carcharodontosaurid or Allosaurid)

Acrocanthosaurus

Deinonychus

Genyodectes

Huaxiagnathus

Kryptops

Neovenator

Protarchaeopteryx

Sinornithoides

Sinosauropteryx

Suchomimus

Tyrannotitan

Utahraptor

†Beipiaosaurus

Yixian Formation

†Deinonychus

Deinonychus
Deinonychus
antirrhopus

Cloverly Formation, Montana and Wyoming, Antlers Formation, Oklahoma, Potomac Formation, Maryland, USA 3-to-4-metre (10-to-13-foot) long carnivorous dromaeosaurid

†?Genyodectes

Genyodectes
Genyodectes
serus

Chubut Province, Argentina Possibly ceratosaurian

†Huaxiagnathus

Huaxiagnathus
Huaxiagnathus
orientalis

Yixian Formation, Liaoning, China Large (1.8 metres (6 feet) long) compsognathid

†Kakuru

Kakuru
Kakuru
kujani

Marree Formation, South Australia, Australia A little-known maniraptoran known primarily from a single fossilized tibia, which had been fossilized through a rare process in which the bone through hydration turned to opal. Apart from the tibia, the first find included some small probable fibula fragments. Later a foot digit was referred that might have come from the same species, but the assignment is dubious. The tibia is broken into about ten larger pieces and roughly 33 centimetres (13 inches) long. It is very slender in build and shows the impression of the ascending process of the astragalus, an ankle bone itself lost. The process seems to have been very long and narrow. Kakuru
Kakuru
is believed to have been carnivorous, was bipedal and about 2 to 3 metres (7 to 10 feet) in length. This small dinosaur seems to have had long, slender legs.

†Kryptops

Kryptops
Kryptops
palaios

Elrhaz Formation, Niger Earliest-known abelisaurid

†Microraptor

Microraptor
Microraptor
gui

Jiufotang Formation, Liaoning, China Small (90 centimetres (35 inches) long) feathered dromaeosaurid, possibly the same species as Microraptor
Microraptor
zhaoianus

"Nanshiungosaurus" bohlini

†Neovenator

Neovenator
Neovenator
salerii

Isle of Wight, England, UK 7.5-metre (25-foot) long allosaurid

†Protarchaeopteryx

Protarchaeopteryx
Protarchaeopteryx
robusta

Yixian Formation, Liaoning, China Primitive oviraptosaur, possibly synonymous with Incisivosaurus

†Similicaudipteryx

Similicaudipteryx
Similicaudipteryx
yixianensis

Jiufotang Formation, Liaoning, China Caudipterid oviraptosaur

†Sinornithoides

Sinornithoides
Sinornithoides
youngi

China 1-metre (3-foot) long troodontid

†Sinosauropteryx

Sinosauropteryx
Sinosauropteryx
prima

Liaoning, China 1.2-metre (4-foot) long compsognathid, fossilized with traces of color pigmentation in its feathers

†Suchomimus

Suchomimus
Suchomimus
tenerensis

Tenere, Niger 12-metre (39-foot) long spinosaurid

†Tyrannotitan

Tyrannotitan
Tyrannotitan
chubutensis

Chubut Province, Argentina 12-metre (39-foot) long carcharodontosaurid

†Utahraptor[6]

Utahraptor
Utahraptor
ostrommaysorum

North America The largest known dromaeosaurid

†Yutyrannus

Yutyrannus
Yutyrannus
huali

Aptian Yixian Formation, China A 9-metre (30-foot) tyrannosauroid and the largest dinosaur with feathers preserved

See also[edit]

Aptian
Aptian
extinction

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ http://www.stratigraphy.org/index.php/ics-chart-timescale ^ Gradstein et al. (2004) ^ Li, Yong-Xiang; Bralower, Timothy J.; Montañez, Isabel P.; Osleger, David A.; Arthur, Michael A.; Bice, David M.; Herbert, Timothy D.; Erba, Elisabetta; Premoli Silva, Isabella (2008-07-15). "Toward an orbital chronology for the early Aptian
Aptian
Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE1a, ~ 120 Ma)". Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 271 (1–4): 88–100. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2008.03.055.  ^ Leckie, R.; Bralower, T.; Cashman, R. (2002). "Oceanic anoxic events and plankton evolution: Biotic response to tectonic forcing during the mid-Cretaceous" (PDF). Paleoceanography. 17 (3): 1–29. Bibcode:2002PalOc..17.1041L. doi:10.1029/2001pa000623.  ^ Archangelsky, Sergio. "The Ticó Flora (Patagonia) and the Aptian Extinction Event." Acta Paleobotanica 41(2), 2001, pp. 115-22. ^ Mortimer, Mickey. "List of Dromaeosaurids". Archived from the original on October 3, 2011. Retrieved July 8, 2011. 

Literature[edit]

Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G. & Smith, A.G.; 2004: A Geologic Time Scale 2004, Cambridge University Press. d'Orbigny, A.C.V.M.; 1842: Paléontologie française: Terrains crétacés, vol. ii. (in French)

External links[edit]

GeoWhen Database - Aptian Mid- Cretaceous
Cretaceous
timescale, at the website of the subcommission for stratigraphic information of the ICS Stratigraphic charts of the Lower Cretaceous: [1] and [2], at the website of Norges Network of offshore records of geology and stratigraphy

v t e

Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period

Lower/Early Cretaceous Upper/Late Cretaceous

Berriasian Valanginian Hauterivian Barremian Aptian Albian

Cenomanian Turonian Coniacian Santonian Campanian Maastrichtian

v t e

Geologic history of Earth

Cenozoic
Cenozoic
era¹ (present–66.0 Mya)

Quaternary
Quaternary
(present–2.588 Mya)

Holocene
Holocene
(present–11.784 kya) Pleistocene
Pleistocene
(11.784 kya–2.588 Mya)

Neogene
Neogene
(2.588–23.03 Mya)

Pliocene
Pliocene
(2.588–5.333 Mya) Miocene
Miocene
(5.333–23.03 Mya)

Paleogene (23.03–66.0 Mya)

Oligocene
Oligocene
(23.03–33.9 Mya) Eocene
Eocene
(33.9–56.0 Mya) Paleocene
Paleocene
(56.0–66.0 Mya)

Mesozoic
Mesozoic
era¹ (66.0–251.902 Mya)

Cretaceous
Cretaceous
(66.0–145.0 Mya)

Late (66.0–100.5 Mya) Early (100.5–145.0 Mya)

Jurassic
Jurassic
(145.0–201.3 Mya)

Late (145.0–163.5 Mya) Middle (163.5–174.1 Mya) Early (174.1–201.3 Mya)

Triassic
Triassic
(201.3–251.902 Mya)

Late (201.3–237 Mya) Middle (237–247.2 Mya) Early (247.2–251.902 Mya)

Paleozoic
Paleozoic
era¹ (251.902–541.0 Mya)

Permian
Permian
(251.902–298.9 Mya)

Lopingian
Lopingian
(251.902–259.8 Mya) Guadalupian
Guadalupian
(259.8–272.3 Mya) Cisuralian
Cisuralian
(272.3–298.9 Mya)

Carboniferous
Carboniferous
(298.9–358.9 Mya)

Pennsylvanian (298.9–323.2 Mya) Mississippian (323.2–358.9 Mya)

Devonian
Devonian
(358.9–419.2 Mya)

Late (358.9–382.7 Mya) Middle (382.7–393.3 Mya) Early (393.3–419.2 Mya)

Silurian
Silurian
(419.2–443.8 Mya)

Pridoli (419.2–423.0 Mya) Ludlow (423.0–427.4 Mya) Wenlock (427.4–433.4 Mya) Llandovery (433.4–443.8 Mya)

Ordovician
Ordovician
(443.8–485.4 Mya)

Late (443.8–458.4 Mya) Middle (458.4–470.0 Mya) Early (470.0–485.4 Mya)

Cambrian
Cambrian
(485.4–541.0 Mya)

Furongian (485.4–497 Mya) Series 3 (497–509 Mya) Series 2 (509–521 Mya) Terreneuvian
Terreneuvian
(521–541.0 Mya)

Proterozoic
Proterozoic
eon² (541.0 Mya–2.5 Gya)

Neoproterozoic era (541.0 Mya–1 Gya)

Ediacaran
Ediacaran
(541.0-~635 Mya) Cryogenian (~635-~720 Mya) Tonian (~720 Mya-1 Gya)

Mesoproterozoic era (1–1.6 Gya)

Stenian (1-1.2 Gya) Ectasian (1.2-1.4 Gya) Calymmian (1.4-1.6 Gya)

Paleoproterozoic era (1.6–2.5 Gya)

Statherian (1.6-1.8 Gya) Orosirian
Orosirian
(1.8-2.05 Gya) Rhyacian (2.05-2.3 Gya) Siderian
Siderian
(2.3-2.5 Gya)

Archean
Archean
eon² (2.5–4 Gya)

Eras

Neoarchean (2.5–2.8 Gya) Mesoarchean (2.8–3.2 Gya) Paleoarchean
Paleoarchean
(3.2–3.6 Gya) Eoarchean
Eoarchean
(3.6–4 Gya)

Hadean
Hadean
eon² (4–4.6 Gya)

 

 

kya = thousands years ago. Mya = millions years ago. Gya = billions years ago.¹ = Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eon. ² = Precambrian
Precambrian
supereon. Source: (2017/02). International Commission on Stratigraphy. Retrieved 13 July 2015. Divisions of Geologic Time—Major Chronostratigraphic and Geochronologic Units USGS Retrie

.