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The APTIAN is an age in the geologic timescale or a stage in the stratigraphic column . It is a subdivision of the Early or Lower Cretaceous
Cretaceous
epoch or series and encompasses the time from 125.0 ± 1.0 Ma to 113.0 ± 1.0 Ma (million years ago), approximately. The Aptian succeeds the Barremian and precedes the Albian
Albian
, all part of the Lower/Early Cretaceous.

The Aptian
Aptian
partly overlaps the upper part of the regionally used (in Western Europe
Western Europe
) stage Urgonian .

Selli Event or OAE 1a was one of two anoxic extinction events in the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period (in the Aptian).

CONTENTS

* 1 Stratigraphic definitions

* 1.1 Subdivision

* 2 Lithostratigraphic units

* 3 Palaeontology

* 3.1 † Ammonitida
Ammonitida
* 3.2 † Belemnitida * 3.3 Nautilida * 3.4 † Orthocerida * 3.5 † Phylloceratida * 3.6 Sepiida * 3.7 † Ankylosaurs * 3.8 Birds
Birds
(avian theropods) * 3.9 † Ceratopsians * 3.10 †Choristoderans * 3.11 Crocodylomorpha * 3.12 Fish
Fish
* 3.13 Mammalia * 3.14 † Ornithopods * 3.15 † Plesiosaurs * 3.16 † Pterosaurs * 3.17 † Sauropods
Sauropods
* 3.18 † Stegosaurs * 3.19 †Non-Avian Theropods

* 4 See also

* 5 References

* 5.1 Notes * 5.2 Literature

* 6 External links

STRATIGRAPHIC DEFINITIONS

The Aptian
Aptian
was named after the small city of Apt in the Provence region of France
France
, which is also known for its crystallized fruits. The original type locality is in the vicinity of Apt. The Aptian
Aptian
was introduced in scientific literature by French palaeontologist Alcide d\'Orbigny in 1840.

The base of the Aptian
Aptian
stage is laid at magnetic anomaly M0r . A global reference profile for the base (a GSSP
GSSP
) had in 2009 not yet been appointed. The top of the Aptian
Aptian
(the base of the Albian) is at the first appearance of coccolithophore species Praediscosphaera columnata in the stratigraphic record.

SUBDIVISION

In the Tethys domain , the Aptian
Aptian
contains eight ammonite biozones :

* zone of Hypacanthoplites jacobi * zone of Nolaniceras nolani * zone of Parahoplites melchioris * zone of Epicheloniceras subnodosocostatum * zone of Duffrenoyia furcata * zone of Deshayesites deshayesi * zone of Deshayesites weissi * zone of Deshayesites oglanlensis

Sometimes the Aptian
Aptian
is subdivided in three substages or subages: Bedoulian (early or lower), Gargasian (middle) and Clansayesian (late or upper).

LITHOSTRATIGRAPHIC UNITS

Examples of rock units formed during the Aptian
Aptian
are: Antlers Formation , Cedar Mountain Formation , Cloverly Formation , Elrhaz Formation , Jiufotang Formation , Little Atherfield , Mazong Shan , Potomac Formation , Santana Formation , Twin Mountains Formation , Xinminbao Group and Yixian Formation .

PALAEONTOLOGY

†AMMONITIDA

* Eogaudryceras * Georgioceras * Lithancylus * Pictetia * Salfeldiella * Zuercherella

* Lower

* Ammonitoceras * Australiceras * Cheloniceras * Cicatrites * Colombiceras * Dufrenoya * Eotetragonites * Helicancylus * Melchiorites * Parahoplites * Procheloniceras * Prodeshayesites * Pseudosaynella * Roloboceras * Shastoceras

Tropaeum
Tropaeum
imperator

* Upper

* Acanthohoplites * Acanthoplites * Ammonoceratites * Argonauticeras * Beudanticeras * Burckhardites * Cloioceras * Desmoceras * Diadochoceras * Diodochoceras * Eodouvilleiceras * Epancyloceras * Epicheloniceras * Gabbioceras * Gargasiceras * Gyaloceras * Hamites * Hulenites * Hypacanthoplites * Jauberticeras * Kazanskyella * Knemiceras * Mathoceras * Mathoceratites * Megatyloceras * Metahamites * Miyakoceras * Neosilesites * Nodosohoplites * Nolaniceras * Protacanthoplites * Protanisoceras * Sinzovia * Somalites * Tetragonites * Theganoceras * Trochleiceras * Tropaeum
Tropaeum
* Uhligella

†BELEMNITIDA

* Conoteuthis * Vectibelus

* Lower

* Parahibolites * Peratobelus * Tetrabelus

NAUTILIDA

* Carinonautilus * Heminautilus

†ORTHOCERIDA

* Upper

* Zhuralevia

†PHYLLOCERATIDA

* Upper

* Euphylloceras

SEPIIDA

* Upper

* Adygeya * Naefia

†ANKYLOSAURS

†ANKYLOSAURIA OF THE APTIAN

TAXA PRESENCE LOCATION DESCRIPTION IMAGES

* † Cedarpelta

* † Cedarpelta bilbeyhallorum

Cedar Mountain Formation , Utah, USA

gobisaurus Minmi Sauropelta

* † Gobisaurus

* † Gobisaurus domoculus

Ulansuhai Formation , Inner Mongolia, China

* † Liaoningosaurus

* † Liaoningosaurus paradoxus

Yixian Formation , Liaoning, China Nodosaurid with ventral armor plating

* †Minmi

* †Minmi paravertebra

Bungil Formation , Queensland, Australia Small (1 metre (3 feet)) primitive ankylosaur

* † Sauropelta

* † Sauropelta edwardsorum

Aptian
Aptian
to Albian
Albian
Cloverly Formation , Wyoming, Montana, Utah, USA A medium-sized nodosaurid, measuring about 5 metres (16 feet) long, Sauropelta had a distinctively long tail which made up about half of its body length. Its neck and back were protected by an extensive bony body armor including characteristically large spines

* † Shamosaurus

* † Shamosaurus scutatus

Mongolia Ankylosaurid

BIRDS (AVIAN THEROPODS)

* Boluochia zhengi * Changchengornis hengdaoziensis * Chaoyangia beishanensis * Confuciusornis sanctus * Cuspirostrisornis houi * Jeholornis prima * Jixiangornis orientalis * Largirostrornis sexdentoris * Longchengornis sanyanensis * Longipteryx chaoyangensis * Sapeornis chaoyangensis * Sinornis santensis / Cathayornis yandica
Cathayornis yandica
* Songlingornis linghensis * Yanornis martini * Yixianornis grabaui
Yixianornis grabaui

†CERATOPSIANS

†CERATOPSIA OF THE APTIAN

TAXA PRESENCE LOCATION DESCRIPTION IMAGES

* † Archaeoceratops

* † Archaeoceratops oshimai

Mazong Shan , Gansu, China A basal neoceratopsian, appears to have been bipedal and quite small (about 1 metre (3.3 feet) long) with a comparatively large head. Unlike many later ceratopsians it doesn't have any horns and has only a small bony frill projecting from the back of its head. Archaeoceratops Auroraceratops Psittacosaurus meileyingensis Psittacosaurus mongoliensis

* † Auroraceratops

* † Auroraceratops rugosus

Xinminbao Group , Gansu, China, South Korea Basal neoceratopsian

* † Psittacosaurus

* † Psittacosaurus meileyingensis * † Psittacosaurus mongoliensis

China, Mongolia, Russia Psittacosaurid Ceratopsian

* † Serendipaceratops

* † Serendipaceratops arthurcclarkei

Victoria, Australia 2-metre (7-foot) long early ceratopsian

†CHORISTODERANS

†CHORISTODERANS OF THE APTIAN

TAXA PRESENCE DESCRIPTION IMAGES

GENUS:

* † Hyphalosaurus

* † Hyphalosaurus lingyuanensis * † Hyphalosaurus baitaigouensis

Yixian Formation, Liaoning Province, China Hyphalosaurus Monjurosuchus
Monjurosuchus

GENUS:

* † Monjurosuchus
Monjurosuchus

* † Monjurosuchus
Monjurosuchus
splendens

China and Japan

CROCODYLOMORPHA

* Sarcosuchus

FISH

* Hybodus * Jinanichthys longicephalus * Lycoptera davidi
Lycoptera davidi
* Lycoptera muroii
Lycoptera muroii
* Peipiaosteus pani * Protosephurus liui * Sinamia zdanskyi

MAMMALIA

MAMMALS OF THE HAUTERIVIAN

TAXA PRESENCE LOCATION DESCRIPTION IMAGES

* Eobaatar

several species from Hauterivian to Albian
Albian
Spain, Mongolia

Jeholodens Repenomamus Yanoconodon

* Jeholodens

Yixian Formation , Liaoning, China A long-tailed, nocturnal tetrapod (with prensile fingers and toes) which hunted insects, its food, during the night

* Repenomamus

Yixian Formation , Liaoning, China The largest mammal known from the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period of the Mesozoic, and the one for which there is the best evidence that it fed on dinosaurs.

* Sinobaatar

Yixian Formation , Liaoning, China

* Teinolophos

Flat Rocks , Victoria, Australia The earliest known monotreme.

* Yanoconodon

Yixian Formation , Hebei, China A small mammal, barely 13 centimetres (5 inches) long. It was lightly built and fed on insects, worms and other invertebrates, probably hunting at night. Like most early mammals, Yanoconodon had short, sprawling legs and claws that were most likely used for burrowing underground or digging

Zhangheotherium Yixian Formation , Liaoning, China

†ORNITHOPODS

†ORNITHOPODA OF THE APTIAN

TAXA PRESENCE LOCATION DESCRIPTION IMAGES

* † Altirhinus

Aptian- Albian
Albian
Khukhtek Formation , Mongolia

Atlascopcosaurus Dollodon Iguanodon Lurdusaurus Mantellisaurus Ouranosaurus
Ouranosaurus
Qantassaurus Tenontosaurus tilletti Theiophytalia

* † Atlascopcosaurus

* † Atlascopcosaurus loadsi

Aptian/ Albian
Albian
Eumeralla Formation , Victoria , Australia
Australia
2-to-3-metre (7-to-10-foot) long hypsilophodont

* † Changchunsaurus

* † Changchunsaurus parvus

Quantou Formation , Jilin, China As a small basal ornithopod, Changchunsaurus would have been a swift bipedal herbivore, feeding close to the ground.

* † Dollodon

* † Dollodon bampingi

Barremian -?Aptian Bernissart , Belgium; ?England; ?Germany A lightly constructed iguanodont, about 6 metres (20 feet) long, estimated to weigh about 1 tonne (1 long ton; 1 short ton)

* † Equijubus

* † Equijubus normani

Mazong Shan , Gansu, China Primitive hadrosaur or iguanodont

* † Iguanodon

* † Iguanodon bernissartensis

Europe Worldwide distributed, type genus of the Iguanodontia. 10 metres (33 feet) long

* † Lurdusaurus

* † Lurdusaurus arenatus

Niger 9-metre (30-foot) long heavily built Iguanodont

* † Mantellisaurus

* † Mantellisaurus atherfieldensis

Atherfield , England, UK formerly known as Iguanodon atherfieldensis

* † Osmakasaurus

* † Osmakasaurus depressus

Lakota Formation , South Dakota, USA A genus intermediate between Camptosaurus
Camptosaurus
and more derived iguanodonts.

* † Ouranosaurus
Ouranosaurus

* † Ouranosaurus
Ouranosaurus
nigeriensis

Echkar Formation , Niger 7-metre (23-foot) long hadrosauroid, possibly with a sail on the back

* † Planicoxa

* † Planicoxa venenica

Cedar Mountain Formation , Utah A genus of advanced iguanodont

* † Qantassaurus

* † Qantassaurus intrepidus

Victoria, Australia 1.8-metre (6-foot) long hypsilophodontid

* † Siluosaurus

* † Siluosaurus zhanggiani

Xinminbao Group , Gansu, China A hypsilophodontid or other basal ornithopod, Siluosaurus would have been a bipedal herbivore.

* † Tenontosaurus

* † Tenontosaurus tilletti * † Tenontosaurus dossi

Cloverly Formation , Wyoming and Montana, Antlers Formation , Oklahoma, Twin Mountains Formation , Texas, USA 8-metre (26-foot) long early iguanodont

* † Theiophytalia

* † Theiophytalia kerri

Aptian
Aptian
to Albian
Albian
Purgatoire Formation , Colorado, USA An iguanodont described as intermediate in derivation between Camptosaurus
Camptosaurus
and Iguanodon

* † Zephyrosaurus

* † Zephyrosaurus schaffi

Cloverly Formation , Montana, USA Hypsilophodont

†PLESIOSAURS

†PLESIOSAURS OF THE APTIAN

TAXA PRESENCE LOCATION DESCRIPTION IMAGES

*† Callawayasaurus

*

* † Callawayasaurus colombiensis

Paja Formation, Colombia 8-metre (26-foot) long elasmosaurid Kronosaurus
Kronosaurus
Umoonasaurus

* † Kronosaurus
Kronosaurus

* † Kronosaurus
Kronosaurus
boyacensis

Aptian
Aptian
to Albian
Albian
Boyaca , Colombia Among the largest pliosaurs, body-length estimates put the total length of Kronosaurus
Kronosaurus
at 9 to 10 metres (30 to 33 feet)

* † Umoonasaurus

* † Umoonasaurus demoscyllus

Australia Relatively small cryptocleidid, around 2.5 metres (8 feet) long, identified by the three crest-ridges on its skull.

†PTEROSAURS

* Amblydectes * Anhanguera * Araripedactylus dehmi * Araripesaurus castilhoi * Arthurdactylus conandoylei * Boreopterus cuiae * Brasileodactylus araripensis * Cearadactylus atrox * Chaoyangopterus zhangi * Dsungaripterus
Dsungaripterus
weii * Dsungaripterus
Dsungaripterus
brancai * Eoazhdarcho liaoxiensis * Eopteranodon lii * Gegepterus changi * Haopterus gracilis * Hongshanopterus lacustris * Huaxiapterus benxiensis * Huaxiapterus corollatus * Huaxiapterus jii * Istiodactylus latidens * Istiodactylus sinensis * Jidapterus edentus * Liaoningopterus gui * Liaoxipterus brachyognathus * Lonchodectes * Longchengpterus zhaoi * Ludodactylus sibbicki * Nemicolopterus crypticus * Nurhachius ignaciobritoi * Ornithocheirus
Ornithocheirus
simus * Ornithocheirus
Ornithocheirus
mesembrinus * Pricesaurus megalodon
Pricesaurus megalodon
* Santanadactylus * Sinopterus dongi * Sinopterus gui * Tapejara navigans * Tapejara wellnhoferi * Thalassodromeus sethi * Tropeognathus mesembrinus * Tropeognathus robustus * Tupandactylus imperator

†SAUROPODS

†SAUROPODS OF THE APTIAN

TAXA PRESENCE LOCATION DESCRIPTION IMAGES

* † Amazonsaurus

* † Amazonsaurus maranhensis

Itapecuru Formation, Maranhão, Brazil A genus of 12 metres (39 feet) long diplodocoid. Malawisaurus
Malawisaurus
Nigersaurus
Nigersaurus
Sauroposeidon
Sauroposeidon

* † Cedarosaurus

* † Cedarosaurus weiskopfae

Cedar Mountain Formation , Utah; Paluxy Formation , Texas A brachiosaurid

* † Fusuisaurus

* † Fusuisaurus zhaoi

Napai Formation, Guangxi, China Probably a basal titanosaur, known by fragmentary postcranial remains

* † Karongasaurus

* † Karongasaurus gittelmani

Malawi Titanosaurid which fossils consist solely of parts of a lower mandible and a few teeth

* † Ligabuesaurus

* † Ligabuesaurus leanza

Argentina A basal titanosaurid

* † Malawisaurus
Malawisaurus

* † Malawisaurus
Malawisaurus
dixeyi

Malawi One of the few titanosaurs for which skull material has been found

* † Nigersaurus
Nigersaurus

* † Nigersaurus
Nigersaurus
taqueti

Elrhaz Formation , Niger Diplodocoid dinosaur, one of the most common genera found in the rich fossil vertebrate fauna of the Elrhaz Formation

* † Paluxysaurus
Paluxysaurus

* † Paluxysaurus
Paluxysaurus
jonesi

Twin Mountains Formation , Texas, USA A basal titanosauriform

* Phuwiangosaurus

Sao Khua Formation , Thailand

* † Sauroposeidon
Sauroposeidon

* † Sauroposeidon
Sauroposeidon
proteles

Antlers Formation , Oklahoma, USA The last known giant brachiosaurid; extrapolations indicate that the head of Sauroposeidon
Sauroposeidon
could reach 17 metres (56 feet) in height, making it the tallest known dinosaur. With an estimated length of 30 metres (98 feet) and a mass of 36 to 40 tonnes (35 to 39 long tons; 40 to 44 short tons) it also ranks among the longest and heaviest.

* † Tangvayosaurus

* † Tangvayosaurus hoffeti

Grès Supérior Formation, Laos A basal titanosaur, known from the remains of two or three individuals.

* † Venenosaurus

* † Venenosaurus dicrocei

Cedar Mountain Formation , Utah, USA A titanosaur, known from an incomplete skeleton of an adult and a juvenile

†STEGOSAURS

†STEGOSAURIA OF THE APTIAN

TAXA PRESENCE LOCATION DESCRIPTION IMAGES

* † Wuerhosaurus
Wuerhosaurus

* † Wuerhosaurus
Wuerhosaurus
homheni * † Wuerhosaurus
Wuerhosaurus
ordosensis

Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, China 7-metre (23-foot) long stegosaurid Wuerhosaurus
Wuerhosaurus

†NON-AVIAN THEROPODS

†NON AVIAN THEROPODS OF THE APTIAN

TAXA PRESENCE LOCATION DESCRIPTION IMAGES

* † Acrocanthosaurus

* † Acrocanthosaurus atokensis

Texas, Oklahoma, ?Maryland, USA Likely an apex predator, up to 12 metres (39 feet) long. Classification disputed (Carcharodontosaurid or Allosaurid) Acrocanthosaurus Deinonychus Genyodectes Huaxiagnathus
Huaxiagnathus
Kryptops Neovenator
Neovenator
Protarchaeopteryx Sinornithoides
Sinornithoides
Sinosauropteryx
Sinosauropteryx
Suchomimus Tyrannotitan Utahraptor

* † Beipiaosaurus
Beipiaosaurus

Yixian Formation

* † Deinonychus

* † Deinonychus antirrhopus

Cloverly Formation , Montana and Wyoming, Antlers Formation , Oklahoma, Potomac Formation , Maryland, USA 3-to-4-metre (10-to-13-foot) long carnivorous dromaeosaurid

* †? Genyodectes

* † Genyodectes serus

Chubut Province, Argentina Possibly ceratosaurian

* † Huaxiagnathus
Huaxiagnathus

* † Huaxiagnathus
Huaxiagnathus
orientalis

Yixian Formation , Liaoning, China Large (1.8 metres (6 feet) long) compsognathid

* † Kakuru

* † Kakuru kujani

Marree Formation , South Australia
Australia
, Australia A little-known maniraptoran known primarily from a single fossilized tibia, which had been fossilized through a rare process in which the bone through hydration turned to opal. Apart from the tibia, the first find included some small probable fibula fragments. Later a foot digit was referred that might have come from the same species, but the assignment is dubious. The tibia is broken into about ten larger pieces and roughly 33 centimetres (13 inches) long. It is very slender in build and shows the impression of the ascending process of the astragalus, an ankle bone itself lost. The process seems to have been very long and narrow. Kakuru is believed to have been carnivorous, was bipedal and about 2 to 3 metres (7 to 10 feet) in length. This small dinosaur seems to have had long, slender legs.

* † Kryptops

* † Kryptops palaios

Elrhaz Formation , Niger Earliest-known abelisaurid

* † Microraptor

* † Microraptor gui

Jiufotang Formation , Liaoning, China Small (90 centimetres (35 inches) long) feathered dromaeosaurid, possibly the same species as Microraptor zhaoianus

" Nanshiungosaurus " bohlini

* † Neovenator
Neovenator

* † Neovenator
Neovenator
salerii

Isle of Wight, England, UK 7.5-metre (25-foot) long allosaurid

* † Protarchaeopteryx

* † Protarchaeopteryx robusta

Yixian Formation , Liaoning, China Primitive oviraptosaur, possibly synonymous with Incisivosaurus

* † Similicaudipteryx

* † Similicaudipteryx yixianensis

Jiufotang Formation , Liaoning, China Caudipterid oviraptosaur

* † Sinornithoides
Sinornithoides

* † Sinornithoides
Sinornithoides
youngi

China 1-metre (3-foot) long troodontid

* † Sinosauropteryx
Sinosauropteryx

* † Sinosauropteryx
Sinosauropteryx
prima

Liaoning, China 1.2-metre (4-foot) long compsognathid, fossilized with traces of color pigmentation in its feathers

* † Suchomimus

* † Suchomimus tenerensis

Tenere, Niger 12-metre (39-foot) long spinosaurid

* † Tyrannotitan

* † Tyrannotitan chubutensis

Chubut Province, Argentina 12-metre (39-foot) long carcharodontosaurid

* † Utahraptor

* † Utahraptor ostrommaysorum

North America The largest known dromaeosaurid

* † Yutyrannus

* † Yutyrannus huali

Aptian Yixian Formation, China A 9-metre (30-foot) tyrannosauroid and the largest dinosaur with feathers preserved

SEE ALSO

* Aptian extinction

REFERENCES

NOTES

* ^ Gradstein et al. (2004) * ^ Li, Yong-Xiang; Bralower, Timothy J.; Montañez, Isabel P.; Osleger, David A.; Arthur, Michael A.; Bice, David M.; Herbert, Timothy D.; Erba, Elisabetta; Premoli Silva, Isabella (2008-07-15). "Toward an orbital chronology for the early Aptian
Aptian
Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE1a, ~ 120 Ma)". Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 271 (1–4): 88–100. doi :10.1016/j.epsl.2008.03.055 . * ^ Mortimer, Mickey. "List of Dromaeosaurids". Archived from the original on October 3, 2011. Retrieved July 8, 2011.

LITERATURE

* Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G. 2004: A Geologic Time Scale 2004, Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press
. * d\'Orbigny, A.C.V.M. ; 1842: Paléontologie française: Terrains crétacés, vol. ii. (in French)

EXTERNAL LINKS

* GeoWhen Database - Aptian * Mid- Cretaceous
Cretaceous
timescale, at the website of the subcommission for stratigraphic information of the ICS * Stratigraphic charts of the Lower Cretaceous: and , at the website of Norges Network of offshore records of geology and stratigraphy

CRETACEOUS PERIOD

.