The APPLE FILING PROTOCOL (AFP), formerly
AppleTalk Filing Protocol,
is a proprietary network protocol , and part of the APPLE FILE SERVICE
(AFS), that offers file services for macOS and the classic Mac OS . In
macOS, AFP is one of several file services supported, with others
Server Message Block (SMB),
Network File System (NFS), File
Transfer Protocol (FTP), and
WebDAV . AFP currently supports Unicode
POSIX and access control list permissions, resource forks
, named extended attributes, and advanced file locking . In Mac OS 9
and earlier, AFP was the primary protocol for file services.
* 1 Compatibility
* 2 History
* 3 The macOS client
* 4 Third-party implementations
* 5 See also
* 6 References
* 7 External links
AFP versions 3.0 and greater rely exclusively on TCP/IP (port 548 or
427) for establishing communication, supporting
AppleTalk only as a
service discovery protocol. The AFP 2.x family supports both TCP/IP
Data Stream Interface ) and
AppleTalk for communication and
service discovery. Many third-party AFP implementations use AFP 2.x,
AppleTalk as a connection method. Still earlier
versions rely exclusively on AppleTalk. For this reason, some older
literature refers to AFP as "
AppleTalk Filing Protocol". Other
literature may refer to AFP as "AppleShare", the name of the Mac OS 9
(and earlier) AFP client.
Notable current compatibility topics are:
Mac OS X v10.4
Mac OS X v10.4 and later eliminates support for AFP servers that
rely solely on
AppleTalk for communication.
* Computers using classic Mac OS can connect to AFP 3.x servers,
with some limitations. For example, the maximum file size in Mac OS 8
is 2 gigabytes . Typically, Mac OS 9.1 or later is recommended for
connecting to AFP 3.x servers; for versions of original Mac OS prior
to 9.1, installation of the
AppleShare client 3.8.8 is required.
* AFP 3.0 and later is required for network home directories, since
Mac OS X requires
POSIX permissions on user home directories. Single
sign-on using Kerberos requires AFP 3.1.
* APFS: AFP is currently deprecated in APFS .
Early implementations of AFP server software were available in Mac OS
starting with System 6, in
AppleShare IP, and in early
"1.x" releases of Mac OS X Server. In client operating systems, AFP
was called "Personal File Sharing", and supported up to ten
simultaneous connections. These AFP implementations relied on version
1.x or 2.x of the protocol.
AppleShare IP 5.x, 6.x, and the "1.x"
Mac OS X Server introduced AFP version 2.2. This was the
first version to offer transport connections using TCP/IP as well as
AppleTalk. It also increased the maximum share point size from four
gibibytes to two tebibytes , although the maximum file size that
could be stored remained at two gibibytes due to limitations in the
original Mac OS.
Changes made in AFP since version 3.0 represent major advances in the
protocol, introducing features designed specifically for Mac OS X
However, like the
AppleShare client in original Mac OS, the AFP
client in Mac OS X continues to support type and creator codes , along
with filename extensions .
AFP 3.0 was introduced in
Mac OS X Server 10.0.3, and was used
Mac OS X Server 10.1.5. It was the first version to use the
POSIX permissions model and
UTF-8 file name
encodings. Version 3.0 supported a maximum share point and file size
of two tebibytes, the maximum file size and volume size for Mac OS X
until version 10.2. (Note that the maximum file size changed from
version 2.2, described above.) Before AFP 3.0, 31 bytes was the
maximum length of a filename sent over AFP.
AFP 3.1 was introduced in
Mac OS X Server version 10.2. Notable
changes included support for Kerberos authentication, automatic client
reconnect, NFS resharing, and secure AFP connections via Secure Shell
(SSH). The maximum share point and file size increased to 8 tebibytes
Mac OS X Server 10.2, and then to 16 tebibytes with Mac OS X
AFP 3.2 adds support for Access Control Lists and extended attributes
Mac OS X Server 10.4. Maximum share point size is at least 16
tebibytes, although Apple has not published a limits document for Mac
OS X Server 10.4.
AFP 3.2+ was introduced in
Mac OS X Leopard
Mac OS X Leopard and adds case sensitivity
support and improves support for Time Machine (synchronization, lock
stealing, and sleep notifications).
AFP 3.3 mandates support for Replay Cache functionality (required for
Time Machine ).
AFP 3.4, introduced in
OS X Mountain Lion
OS X Mountain Lion , includes a minor change
in the mapping of
POSIX errors to AFP errors.
See Apple's Developer documentation on AFP Version Differences.
THE MACOS CLIENT
In Mac OS X Tiger, users can connect to AFP servers by browsing for
them in the Network globe or entering an AFP Uniform Resource Locator
(URL) into the Connect to Server dialog. In
Mac OS X Leopard
Mac OS X Leopard and later
releases, AFP shares are displayed in the Finder side-bar. AFP URLs
take the form: afp:///, where is the server's
IP address , Domain
Name System (DNS) name, or Bonjour name, and is the name of the share
point. In Snow Leopard and later, a URL of the form afp://// can be
used to mount a subdirectory underneath a share point.
macOS also offers Personal File Sharing, a "light" implementation of
the current version of AFP. In Mac OS X 10.4, users can share the
contents of their Public folders by checking Personal File Sharing in
the Sharing section of System Preferences.
AFP URLs for
AppleTalk servers took the form: afp://at/:. For
AppleTalk zones, an asterisk (*) would be substituted
for the zone name.
Third party server implementations of AFP are available from a number
* An open source AFP server called
Netatalk (AFP 3.4) is available
Unix-like operating systems.
Netatalk v3.1, released 2013-10-28,
adds Spotlight support.
Novell Open Enterprise Server supports AFP.
Microsoft includes AFP 2.2 server support as an option in some
Windows (NT , 2000 Services for Macintosh (SFM), was
Windows Server 2008 onwards.
NetWare supports AFP.
IOS UB+ supports AFP on a whole array of different Unix based
* The open source
Filesystem in Userspace (FUSE) and command-line
client implementation afpfs-ng for
ExtremeZ-IP (AFP 3.3) and MacServerIP for
AFP 3.x support - now
Acronis Access Connect.
* A few NAS solutions support AFP mostly by means of
LaCie EtherNet Disk ">
* ^ A B "
AppleShare IP File Sharing: Chart of All
Limitations". Retrieved 2012-06-10.
* ^ "Mac OS 8, 9: Mac OS Extended Format - Volume and File Limits".
* ^ A B C "Mac OS X: Mac OS Extended Format - Volume and File
Limits". Retrieved 2012-06-10.
* ^ "
Mac OS X Server 10.2: Tested and theoretical maximums
(limits)". Retrieved 2012-06-10.
* ^ "