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The Info List - Apple Filing Protocol


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The Apple Filing Protocol (AFP), formerly AppleTalk
AppleTalk
Filing Protocol, is a proprietary network protocol, and part of the Apple File Service (AFS), that offers file services for macOS and the classic Mac OS. In macOS, AFP is one of several file services supported, with others including Server Message Block (SMB), Network File System
Network File System
(NFS), File Transfer Protocol (FTP), and WebDAV. AFP currently supports Unicode file names, POSIX and access control list permissions, resource forks, named extended attributes, and advanced file locking. In Mac OS 9
Mac OS 9
and earlier, AFP was the primary protocol for file services.

Contents

1 Compatibility 2 History 3 The macOS client 4 Third-party implementations 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Compatibility[edit] AFP versions 3.0 and greater rely exclusively on TCP/IP (port 548 or 427) for establishing communication, supporting AppleTalk
AppleTalk
only as a service discovery protocol. The AFP 2.x family supports both TCP/IP (using Data Stream Interface) and AppleTalk
AppleTalk
for communication and service discovery. Many third-party AFP implementations use AFP 2.x, thereby supporting AppleTalk
AppleTalk
as a connection method. Still earlier versions rely exclusively on AppleTalk. For this reason, some older literature refers to AFP as " AppleTalk
AppleTalk
Filing Protocol". Other literature may refer to AFP as "AppleShare", the name of the Mac OS 9 (and earlier) AFP client. Notable current compatibility topics are:

Mac OS X v10.4
Mac OS X v10.4
and later eliminates support for AFP servers that rely solely on AppleTalk
AppleTalk
for communication. Computers using classic Mac OS can connect to AFP 3.x servers, with some limitations. For example, the maximum file size in Mac OS 8 is 2 gigabytes. Typically, Mac OS 9.1 or later is recommended for connecting to AFP 3.x servers; for versions of original Mac OS prior to 9.1, installation of the AppleShare client 3.8.8 is required. AFP 3.0 and later is required for network home directories, since Mac OS X requires POSIX permissions on user home directories. Single sign-on using Kerberos requires AFP 3.1. APFS: AFP is incompatible with sharing of APFS volumes but is still usable as a Time Machine destination in High Sierra.

History[edit] Early implementations of AFP server software were available in Mac OS starting with System 6, in AppleShare and AppleShare IP, and in early "1.x" releases of Mac OS X Server. In client operating systems, AFP was called "Personal File Sharing", and supported up to ten simultaneous connections.[1] These AFP implementations relied on version 1.x or 2.x of the protocol. AppleShare IP 5.x, 6.x, and the "1.x" releases of Mac OS X Server
Mac OS X Server
introduced AFP version 2.2. This was the first version to offer transport connections using TCP/IP as well as AppleTalk. It also increased the maximum share point size from four gibibytes to two tebibytes,[1] although the maximum file size that could be stored remained at two gibibytes due to limitations in the original Mac OS.[2] Changes made in AFP since version 3.0 represent major advances in the protocol, introducing features designed specifically for Mac OS X clients. However, like the AppleShare client in original Mac OS, the AFP client in Mac OS X continues to support type and creator codes, along with filename extensions. AFP 3.0 was introduced in Mac OS X Server
Mac OS X Server
10.0.3, and was used through Mac OS X Server
Mac OS X Server
10.1.5. It was the first version to use the UNIX-style POSIX permissions model and Unicode
Unicode
UTF-8
UTF-8
file name encodings. Version 3.0 supported a maximum share point and file size of two tebibytes, the maximum file size and volume size for Mac OS X until version 10.2.[3] (Note that the maximum file size changed from version 2.2, described above.) Before AFP 3.0, 31 bytes was the maximum length of a filename sent over AFP. AFP 3.1 was introduced in Mac OS X Server
Mac OS X Server
version 10.2. Notable changes included support for Kerberos authentication, automatic client reconnect, NFS resharing, and secure AFP connections via Secure Shell (SSH). The maximum share point and file size increased to 8 tebibytes with Mac OS X Server
Mac OS X Server
10.2,[3][4] and then to 16 tebibytes with Mac OS X Server 10.3.[3][5] AFP 3.2 adds support for Access Control Lists and extended attributes in Mac OS X Server
Mac OS X Server
10.4. Maximum share point size is at least 16 tebibytes, although Apple has not published a limits document for Mac OS X Server 10.4. AFP 3.2+ was introduced in Mac OS X Leopard
Mac OS X Leopard
and adds case sensitivity support and improves support for Time Machine (synchronization, lock stealing, and sleep notifications). AFP 3.3 mandates support for Replay Cache functionality (required for Time Machine). AFP 3.4, introduced in OS X Mountain Lion, includes a minor change in the mapping of POSIX errors to AFP errors. See Apple's Developer documentation on AFP Version Differences.[6] The macOS client[edit] In Mac OS X Tiger, users can connect to AFP servers by browsing for them in the Network globe or entering an AFP Uniform Resource Locator (URL) into the Connect to Server dialog. In Mac OS X Leopard
Mac OS X Leopard
and later releases, AFP shares are displayed in the Finder side-bar. AFP URLs take the form: afp://<server>/<share>, where <server> is the server's IP address, Domain Name System
Domain Name System
(DNS) name, or Bonjour name, and <share> is the name of the share point. In Snow Leopard and later, a URL of the form afp://<server>/<share>/<path> can be used to mount a subdirectory underneath a share point. macOS also offers Personal File Sharing, a "light" implementation of the current version of AFP. In Mac OS X 10.4, users can share the contents of their Public folders by checking Personal File Sharing in the Sharing section of System Preferences. AFP URLs for AppleTalk
AppleTalk
servers took the form: afp://at/<AppleTalk name>:< AppleTalk
AppleTalk
zone>. For networks without AppleTalk
AppleTalk
zones, an asterisk (*) would be substituted for the zone name. Third-party implementations[edit] Third party server implementations of AFP are available from a number of companies.

An open source AFP server called Netatalk (AFP 3.4) is available for Unix-like
Unix-like
operating systems. Netatalk v3.1, released 2013-10-28, adds Spotlight support.[7] Novell Open Enterprise Server supports AFP. Microsoft
Microsoft
includes AFP 2.2 server support as an option in some versions of Windows
Windows
(NT, 2000 & 2003). Windows
Windows
NT Server (3 and 4) only supported AppleTalk, 2000 added AppleShare over IP; Services for Macintosh (SFM), was removed from Windows
Windows
Server 2008 onwards. Novell's NetWare supports AFP. HEL IOS
IOS
UB+ supports AFP on a whole array of different Unix based platforms. The open source Filesystem in Userspace
Filesystem in Userspace
(FUSE) and command-line client implementation afpfs-ng for Linux
Linux
and Unix-like
Unix-like
operating systems GroupLogic ExtremeZ-IP (AFP 3.3) and MacServerIP for Windows
Windows
offer AFP 3.x support - now Acronis
Acronis
Access Connect. A few NAS solutions support AFP mostly by means of Netatalk: LaCie EtherNet Disk & 12big (AFP 3.3), NETGEAR's ReadyNAS (AFP 3.2), QNAP (AFP 3.x), Synology's Disk Stations (AFP 3.4)[8], Thecus (AFP 3.x), Adaptec's Snap Server (AFP 3.1), Exanet's ExaStore
ExaStore
(AFP 3.1), Iomega's Home Media Network Hard Drive, and Apple's Time Capsule (AFP 3.2) being commercial examples and FreeNAS
FreeNAS
and napp-it (which use Netatalk) being free software examples. Jaffer is a Java implementation of Appletalk File Protocol v3.1. Xinet from North Plains Systems offers an AFP platform that can run on most *nix hosts. One of their products, ka-share, has been a main stay on Solaris (on Sparc only) and Irix platforms for the last decade. Columbia AppleTalk
AppleTalk
Protocol (CAP) was an open source implementation of AFP and AppleTalk
AppleTalk
from Columbia University that has been discontinued and has fallen out of use. supported by GVfs
GVfs
through gfvs-afp-volume-monitor[9]

See also[edit]

List of network protocols List of file systems

References[edit]

^ a b " AppleShare & AppleShare IP File Sharing: Chart of All Limitations". Retrieved 2012-06-10.  ^ "Mac OS 8, 9: Mac OS Extended Format - Volume and File Limits". Retrieved 2012-06-10.  ^ a b c "Mac OS X: Mac OS Extended Format - Volume and File Limits". Retrieved 2012-06-10.  ^ " Mac OS X Server
Mac OS X Server
10.2: Tested and theoretical maximums (limits)". Retrieved 2012-06-10.  ^ " Mac OS X Server
Mac OS X Server
10.3: Tested and theoretical maximums (limits)". Retrieved 2012-06-10.  ^ "Apple's Developer documentation on AFP Version Differences". Retrieved 2011-09-15.  ^ " Netatalk Release Notes". Retrieved 2014-01-02.  ^ "Synology DSM 5.1 supported AFP versions". Retrieved 2018-03-16.  ^ "Back-ends for GVfs". 

External links[edit]

File Services Manual for Mac OS X Server
Mac OS X Server
10.4 Apple Filing Protocol Programming Guide Apple Filing Protocol Reference Mac OS X: Some Mac OS X Applications and Services Require AFP 3.0 or Later Inside AppleTalk
AppleTalk
- original specification for the AppleTalk
AppleTalk
protocol stack including AFP Glossary of Networking Terms NewsFactor Network article, A Macintosh: File System Specifications and Terms Apple Technical Note TN1150 on the HFS Plus
HFS Plus
Volume Format Apple shifts from AFP to SMB2

v t e

File systems

Comparison of file systems

distributed

Unix filesystem

Disk

ADFS AdvFS Amiga FFS Amiga OFS APFS AthFS BFS

Be File System Boot File System

Btrfs CVFS CXFS DFS EFS

Encrypting File System Extent File System

Episode ext

ext2 ext3 ext3cow ext4

FAT

exFAT

Files-11 Fossil HAMMER HFS HFS+ HPFS HTFS IBM General Parallel File System JFS LFS MFS

Macintosh File System TiVo Media File System

MINIX NetWare File System Next3 NILFS

NILFS2

NSS NTFS OneFS PFS QFS QNX4FS ReFS ReiserFS

Reiser4

Reliance Reliance Nitro RFS SFS SNFS Soup (Apple) Tux3 UBIFS UFS VxFS WAFL Xiafs XFS Xsan zFS ZFS

Optical disc

HSF ISO 9660 ISO 13490 UDF

Flash memory
Flash memory
and SSD

APFS FAT exFAT CHFS TFAT FFS2 F2FS HPFS JFFS JFFS2 JFS LogFS NILFS

NILFS2

NVFS YAFFS UBIFS

Distributed

CXFS GFS2 Google File System OCFS2 OrangeFS PVFS QFS Xsan more...

NAS

AFS (OpenAFS) AFP Coda DFS GPFS Google File System Lustre NCP NFS POHMELFS Hadoop SMB (CIFS) SSHFS more...

Specialized

Aufs AXFS Boot File System CDfs Compact Disc File System cramfs Davfs2 FTPFS FUSE GmailFS Lnfs LTFS NOVA MVFS SquashFS UMSDOS OverlayFS UnionFS WBFS

Pseudo and virtual

configfs devfs debugfs kernfs procfs specfs sysfs tmpfs WinFS

Encrypted

eCryptfs EncFS EFS Rubberhose SSHFS ZFS

Types

Clustered

Global Grid Self-certifying

Flash Journaling Log-structured Object Record-oriented Semantic Steganographic Synthetic Versioning

Features

Case preservation Copy-on-write Data deduplication Data scrubbing Execute in place Extent File attribute

Extended file attributes

File change log Fork Links

Hard Symbolic

Access control

Access control list Filesystem-level encryption Permissions

Modes Sticky bit

Interfaces

File manager File system
File system
API

Installable File System

Virtual file system

Lists

Cryptographic Default Lo

.