Apollinaris the Younger (died 382) was a bishop of Laodicea in
Syria. He collaborated with his father Apollinaris the Elder in
Old Testament in the form of Homeric and Pindaric
poetry, and the
New Testament after the fashion of Platonic dialogues,
when the emperor Julian had forbidden Christians to teach the
classics. He is best known, however, as a noted opponent of Arianism.
Apollinaris's eagerness to emphasize the deity of
Jesus and the unity
of his person led him so far as to deny the existence of a rational
human soul (νοῦς, nous) in Christ's human nature, this being
replaced in him by the Logos, so that his body was a glorified and
spiritualized form of humanity.
The orthodox and catholic position (maintained by Catholicism, Eastern
Orthodoxy, the Church of the East, Oriental Orthodoxy, Anglicanism,
and Protestantism) was that God as his Logos assumed human nature in
its entirety, including the νοῦς, for only thus could he be
humanity's perfect redeemer and prototype. It was alleged that the
Apollinarian approach implied docetism, that if the Godhead without
constraint swayed the manhood there was no possibility of real human
probation or of real advance in Christ's manhood. The position was
accordingly condemned by several synods and in particular by that of
First Council of Constantinople
First Council of Constantinople in 381.
This did not prevent its having a considerable following, which after
Apollinaris's death divided into two sects, the more conservative
taking its name (Vitalians) from Vitalis, the Apollinarist claimant to
the see of Antioch, the other (Polemeans) adding the further assertion
that the two natures were so blended that even the body of Christ was
a fit object of adoration. The Apollinarian emphasis on the unity
of human and divine in Christ and on the divine element in that unity
was later restated in the form of
Eutychianism and persisted in what
was later the radically anti-Nestorian monophysite school.
Although Apollinaris was a prolific writer, scarcely anything has
survived under his own name. But a number of his writings are
concealed under the names of orthodox Fathers, e.g. ἡ κατὰ
μέρος πίστις, long ascribed to Gregory Thaumaturgus. These
have been collected and edited by Hans Lietzmann.
Two letters of his correspondence with
Basil of Caesarea
Basil of Caesarea are also
extant, although there is scholarly debate regarding their
authenticity because they record the orthodox theologian Basil asking
Apollinaris for theological advice on the orthodox term 'homoousios'.
These concerns may be unfounded, as before Apollinaris began
promulgating what were seen as heretical doctrines, he was a highly
respected bishop and friend of
Athanasius and Basil.
^ Dilling, D. (2015). Theological Anthropology. LULU Press. p. 9.
^ a b c d One or more of the preceding
sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public
domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Apollinaris". Encyclopædia
Britannica. 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
p. 183. This cites:
Adolf von Harnack, History of Dogma, vols. iii. and iv. passim
Robert Lawrence Ottley, The Doctrine of the Incarnation
Guillaume Voisin, L'Apollinarisme (Louvain, 1901)
Hans Lietzmann, Apollinaris von Laodicea und seine Schule (Tübingen,
Alessandro Capone, "La polemica apollinarista alla fine del IV secolo:
la lettera di Gregorio di Nissa a Teofilo di Alessandria", in Gregory
of Nyssa: The Minor Treatises on Trinitarian Theology and
Apollinarism. Proceedings of the 11th International Colloquium on
Gregory of Nyssa (Tübingen, 17–20 September 2008), ed. By V.H.
Drecoll, M. Berghaus, Leiden – Boston 2011, pp. 499–517.
Edwards, Mark (2009). Catholicity and Heresy in the Early Church.
Alessandro Capone, "Apollinarismo e geografia ecclesiastica" in
Auctores nostri 9, 2011, pp. 457–473.
Christopher Beeley, The Unity of Christ: Continuity and Conflict in
Patristic Tradition (Yale, 2012), chapter 4.
English translations of the writings of Apollinaris and his followers
ISNI: 0000 0001 1027 2585
BNF: cb11995288q (data)