HOME
The Info List - Apocrita


--- Advertisement ---



The Apocrita
Apocrita
are a suborder of insects in the order Hymenoptera. It includes wasps, bees, and ants, and consists of many families. It contains the most advanced hymenopterans and is distinguished from Symphyta by the narrow "waist" (petiole) formed between the first two segments of the actual abdomen; the first abdominal segment is fused to the thorax, and is called the propodeum. Therefore, it is general practice, when discussing the body of an apocritan in a technical sense, to refer to the mesosoma and metasoma (or "gaster") rather than the "thorax" and "abdomen", respectively. The evolution of a constricted waist was an important adaption for the parasitoid lifestyle of the ancestral apocritan, allowing more maneuverability of the female's ovipositor.[1] The ovipositor either extends freely or is retracted, and may be developed into a stinger for both defense and paralyzing prey. Larvae are legless and blind, and either feed inside a host (plant or animal) or in a nest cell provisioned by their mothers.

Apis dorsata, the giant honeybee, from family Apidae
Apidae
on Tribulus terrestris flower in Hyderabad, India

The Apocrita
Apocrita
have historically been split into two groups, "Parasitica" and Aculeata, but these are rankless groupings in present classifications, if they appear at all. The term Parasitica is an artificial (paraphyletic) group comprising the majority of hymenopteran insects, with respective members living as parasitoids on what amounts to nearly "every other species of insect", and many noninsects. Most species are small, with the ovipositor adapted for piercing. In some hosts, the parasitoids induce metamorphosis prematurely, and in others it is prolonged. There are even species that are hyperparasites (that which are parasitoids on other parasitoids). The Parasitica lay their eggs inside or on another insect (egg, larva or pupa) and their larvae grow and develop within or on that host. The host is nearly always killed. Many parasitic hymenopterans are used as biological control agents to control pests, such as caterpillars, true bugs and hoppers, flies, and weevils. The Aculeata
Aculeata
are a monophyletic group that includes those species in which the female's ovipositor is modified into a "stinger" to inject venom. Groups include the familiar ants, bees, and various types of parasitic and predatory wasps; it also includes all of the social hymenopterans. Among the nonparasitic and nonsocial Aculeata, larvae are fed with captured prey (typically alive and paralyzed) or may be fed pollen and nectar. The social Aculeata
Aculeata
feed their young prey (paper wasps and hornets), or pollen and nectar (bees), or perhaps seeds, fungi, or even nonviable eggs (ants). Extant families and superfamilies[edit] The Apocrita
Apocrita
contains a large number of families. Some traditional taxa such as the Parasitica (containing many families of parasitoid wasps) have been found on molecular analysis to be paraphyletic. The cladogram gives a condensed overview of the phylogeny, illustrated with major groups.[2][3][4][5]

Hymenoptera

Sawflies
Sawflies

parasitoidy

Orussoidea
Orussoidea
(parasitoid wood wasps)

wasp waist Apocrita

Ichneumonoidea
Ichneumonoidea

Cynipoidea
Cynipoidea

Chalcidoidea
Chalcidoidea

stinging Aculeata

Chrysididae
Chrysididae
(jewel wasps)

Vespidae
Vespidae
(yellowjackets, hornets)

Mutillidae, Pompilidae
Pompilidae
etc.

Formicidae
Formicidae
(ants)

Apoidea
Apoidea
(bees)

Suborder Apocrita

(unranked) Aculeata

Superfamily Apoidea
Apoidea
(bees and sphecoid wasps)

Family Ampulicidae
Ampulicidae
(cockroach wasps) Family Andrenidae
Andrenidae
(mining bees) Family Apidae
Apidae
(carpenter bees, digger bees, cuckoo bees, bumble bees, orchid bees, stingless bees, and honeybees) Family Colletidae
Colletidae
(yellow-faced bees and plasterer bees) Family Crabronidae
Crabronidae
(sand wasps, bee wolves, etc.) Family Halictidae
Halictidae
("sweat bees") Family Heterogynaidae Family Megachilidae
Megachilidae
(leaf-cutting bees) Family Melittidae Family Stenotritidae Family Sphecidae
Sphecidae
(digger wasps)

Superfamily Chrysidoidea

Family Bethylidae Family Chrysididae
Chrysididae
(cuckoo wasps) Family Dryinidae Family Embolemidae Family Plumariidae Family Sclerogibbidae Family Scolebythidae

Superfamily Vespoidea

Family Bradynobaenidae Family Formicidae
Formicidae
(ants) Family Mutillidae
Mutillidae
(velvet ants) Family Pompilidae
Pompilidae
(spider wasps) Family Rhopalosomatidae Family Sapygidae Family Scoliidae Family Sierolomorphidae Family Tiphiidae Family Vespidae
Vespidae
(paper wasps, potter wasps, hornets, pollen wasps, yellowjackets)

(unranked) Parasitica

Superfamily Ceraphronoidea

Family Ceraphronidae Family Megaspilidae

Superfamily Chalcidoidea

Family Agaonidae
Agaonidae
(fig wasps) Family Aphelinidae Family Chalcididae
Chalcididae
(chalcid wasps) Family Encyrtidae Family Eucharitidae Family Eulophidae Family Eupelmidae Family Eurytomidae
Eurytomidae
(seed chalcids) Family Leucospidae Family Mymaridae
Mymaridae
(fairyflies) – the smallest of all insects Family Ormyridae Family Perilampidae Family Pteromalidae Family Rotoitidae Family Signiphoridae Family Tanaostigmatidae Family Tetracampidae Family Torymidae Family Trichogrammatidae

Superfamily Cynipoidea

Family Austrocynipidae Family Cynipidae
Cynipidae
(gall wasps) Family Figitidae Family Ibaliidae Family Liopteridae

Superfamily Diaprioidea

Family Austroniidae Family Diapriidae Family Maamingidae Family Monomachidae

Superfamily Evanioidea

Family Aulacidae Family Evaniidae
Evaniidae
(ensign wasps) Family Gasteruptiidae

Superfamily Ichneumonoidea

Family Braconidae Family Ichneumonidae
Ichneumonidae
(ichneumon wasps)

Superfamily Megalyroidea

Family Megalyridae

Superfamily Mymarommatoidea – sometimes called Serphitoidea

Family Mymarommatidae

Superfamily Platygastroidea

Family Platygastridae Family Scelionidae

Superfamily Proctotrupoidea

Family Heloridae Family Pelecinidae Family Peradeniidae Family Proctorenyxidae Family Proctotrupidae Family Roproniidae Family Vanhorniidae

Superfamily Stephanoidea

Family Stephanidae

Superfamily Trigonaloidea

Family Trigonalidae

References[edit]

^ Grimaldi, David; Engel, Michael S. (2005). Evolution of the Insects. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 414. ISBN 978-0-521-82149-0.  ^ Branstetter, Michael G.; Danforth, Bryan N.; Pitts, James P.; Faircloth, Brant C.; Ward, Philip S.; Buffington, Matthew L.; Gates, Michael W.; Kula, Robert R.; Brady, Seán G. (2017). "Phylogenomic Insights into the Evolution of Stinging Wasps and the Origins of Ants and Bees". Current Biology. 27 (7): 1019–1025. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2017.03.027.  ^ Schulmeister, S. (2003). "Simultaneous analysis of basal Hymenoptera (Insecta), introducing robust-choice sensitivity analysis". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 79: 245–275. doi:10.1046/j.1095-8312.2003.00233.x.  ^ Schulmeister, S. "'Symphyta'". Retrieved 28 November 2016.  ^ Peters, Ralph S.; Krogmann, Lars; Mayer, Christoph; Donath, Alexander; Gunkel, Simon; Meusemann, Karen; Kozlov, Alexey; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Petersen, Malte. "Evolutionary History of the Hymenoptera". Current Biology. 27 (7): 1013–1018. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2017.01.027. 

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Apocrita.

Grimaldi, D. & Engel, M.S. (2005). Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-82149-5. 

External links[edit]

Look up apocrita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Apocrita

Suborder Apocrita
Apocrita
– Ants, Bees and Wasps – BugGuide.Net — images and other information Science Direct — Apocrita. An Overview Tree of Life Balades Entomologiques — "entomological walks" with images (in French)

v t e

Extant Hymenopteran families

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Subclass: Pterygota Infraclass: Neoptera Superorder: Endopterygota

S y m p h y t a

Xyeloidea

Xyelidae

Pamphilioidea

Megalodontesidae Pamphiliidae
Pamphiliidae
(web-spinning sawflies)

Tenthredinoidea

Argidae
Argidae
(argid sawflies) Blasticotomidae
Blasticotomidae
(fern sawflies) Cimbicidae
Cimbicidae
(cimbicid sawflies) Diprionidae
Diprionidae
(conifer sawflies) Pergidae
Pergidae
(pergid sawflies) Tenthredinidae
Tenthredinidae
(common sawflies)

U n i c.

Cephoidea

Cephidae
Cephidae
(stem sawflies)

Siricoidea

Anaxyelidae
Anaxyelidae
(cedar wood wasps) Siricidae (horntails)

Xiphydrioidea

Xiphydriidae
Xiphydriidae
(wood wasps)

Orussoidea

Orussidae
Orussidae
(parasitic wood wasps)

A p o c r i t a

U n i c a l c a r i d a

P a r a s i t i c a

Ichneumonoidea

Braconidae
Braconidae
(braconids) Ichneumonidae
Ichneumonidae
(ichneumon wasps)

Ceraphronoidea

Ceraphronidae Megaspilidae

Proctotrupomorpha

Platygastroidea

Platygastridae Scelionidae

Cynipoidea

Austrocynipidae Cynipidae
Cynipidae
(gall wasps) Figitidae Ibaliidae Liopteridae

Proctotrupoidea
Proctotrupoidea
(s.str.)

Proctorenyxidae Roproniidae Heloridae Pelecinidae Peradeniidae Proctotrupidae Vanhorniidae

Diaprioidea

Austroniidae Diapriidae Maamingidae Monomachidae

Mymarommatoidea

Mymarommatidae

Chalcidoidea (chalcid wasps)

Agaonidae
Agaonidae
(fig wasps) Aphelinidae Chalcididae Encyrtidae Eucharitidae Eulophidae Eupelmidae Eurytomidae Leucospidae Mymaridae
Mymaridae
(fairyflies) Ormyridae Perilampidae Pteromalidae Rotoitidae Signiphoridae Tanaostigmatidae Tetracampidae Torymidae Trichogrammatidae

Evanioidea

Aulacidae Evaniidae
Evaniidae
(ensign wasps) Gasteruptiidae

Stephanoidea

Stephanidae

Megalyroidea

Megalyridae

Trigonaloidea

Trigonalidae

A c u l e a t a

Chrysidoidea

Bethylidae Chrysididae
Chrysididae
(cuckoo wasps) Dryinidae Embolemidae Plumariidae Sclerogibbidae Scolebythidae

Vespoidea

Rhopalosomatidae
Rhopalosomatidae
(rhopalosomatid wasps) Vespidae
Vespidae
(paper wasps, potter wasps, pollen wasps, yellowjackets, hornets)

Tiphioidea

Bradynobaenidae Tiphiidae (tiphiid wasps)

Thynnoidea

Chyphotidae Thynnidae
Thynnidae
(flower wasps) Sierolomorphidae
Sierolomorphidae
(sierolomorphid wasps)

Pompiloidea

Mutillidae
Mutillidae
(velvet ants) Myrmosidae Pompilidae
Pompilidae
(spider wasps) Sapygidae
Sapygidae
(sapygid, or club-horned wasps)

Scolioidea

Scoliidae
Scoliidae
(scoliid wasps)

Formicoidea

Formicidae
Formicidae
(ants)

Apoidea

Spheciformes (sphecoid wasps)

Ampulicidae
Ampulicidae
(cockroach wasps) Crabronidae
Crabronidae
(sand wasps, bee wolves) Heterogynaidae Sphecidae
Sphecidae
(thread-waisted wasps)

Anthophila (bees)

Andrenidae
Andrenidae
(mason bees) Apidae
Apidae
(honey bees, bumblebees, cuckoo bees, carpenter bees, orchid bees, stingless bees) Colletidae
Colletidae
(plasterer bees) Halictidae
Halictidae
(sweat bees) Megachilidae
Megachilidae
(mason bees, leafcutter bees) Melittidae Stenotritidae

Italic are paraphyletic groups Based on Malm and Nyman (2015) and Peters et al (2017)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q22864 EoL: 2717184 Fauna Europaea: 11274 iNaturalist: 124417 ITIS: 152864 NCBI:

.