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Apigeninidin
Apigeninidin
(Also, apigenidin,[1] or Gesneridin) is a chemical compound belonging to the 3-deoxyanthocyanidins and that can be found in the Patagonian plant Ephedra frustillata[2] and in the soybean.[3] Apigeninidin
Apigeninidin
is one of the principal pigments found in sorghum.[4] Extremely high level of apigeninidin (49 mg/g) has been documented in sorghum leaf sheath.[5] Like all anthocyanidins it exists in a variety of tautomers depending on pH and hydration, several of these bare the distinctive pyrylium core.[6] References[edit]

^ Asahina, Yasuhiko; Inubuse, Mototaro (1928). "Über die Reduktion der Flavon- und Flavanon-Derivate (III. Mitteilung über die Flavanon-glucoside)". Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft (A and B Series). 61 (8): 1646–1650. doi:10.1002/cber.19280610810. ISSN 0365-9488.  ^ Gurni, Alberto A.; Wagner, Marcelo L. (1982). " Apigeninidin
Apigeninidin
as a leucoderivative in Ephedra frustillata". Phytochemistry. 21 (9): 2428–2429. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(82)85229-1. ISSN 0031-9422.  ^ Boveris, AD; Galatro, A; Sambrotta, L; Ricco, R; Gurni, AA; Puntarulo, S (December 2001). "Antioxidant capacity of a 3-deoxyanthocyanidin
3-deoxyanthocyanidin
from soybean". Phytochemistry. 58 (7): 1097–105. doi:10.1016/s0031-9422(01)00378-8. PMID 11730874.  ^ Awika, Joseph M.; Rooney, Lloyd W.; Waniska, Ralph D. (2004). "Properties of 3-Deoxyanthocyanins from Sorghum". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 52 (14): 4388–4394. doi:10.1021/jf049653f. ISSN 0021-8561.  ^ Geera, Bhimalingeswarappa; Ojwang, Leonnard O.; Awika, Joseph M. (2012). "New Highly Stable Dimeric 3-Deoxyanthocyanidin
3-Deoxyanthocyanidin
Pigments from Sorghum bicolor Leaf Sheath". Journal of Food Science. 77 (5): C566–C572. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.02668.x. ISSN 0022-1147.  ^ Costantino, Luca; Rastelli, Giulio; Rossi, Maria C.; Albasini, Albano (1995). "Quantitative measurement of proton dissociation and tautomeric constants of apigeninidin". Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 2 (2): 227. doi:10.1039/P29950000227. 

v t e

Anthocyanidins and their anthocyanin glucosides

3-hydroxyanthocyanidins

5-Desoxy-peonidin Aurantinidin Cyanidin 6-Hydroxycyanidin Delphinidin Fisetinidin Guibourtinidin Pelargonidin Robinetinidin

3-deoxyanthocyanidins

Apigeninidin Columnidin Diosmetinidin Gesneridin Luteolinidin Tricetinidin

O-methylated anthocyanidins

5-Desoxy-malvidin Capensinidin Europinidin Hirsutidin Kaempferidinidin Malvidin Peonidin Petunidin Pulchellidin Rosinidin

Anthocyanins (anthocyaninidin glycosides)

Glucosides:

Callistephin
Callistephin
( Pelargonidin
Pelargonidin
3-O-glucoside) Chrysanthemin
Chrysanthemin
(Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside) Myrtillin
Myrtillin
(Delphinidin-3-O-glucoside) Oenin
Oenin
(Malvidin-3-O-glucoside) Peonidin-3-O-glucoside Petunidin-3-O-glucoside Pulchellidin
Pulchellidin
3-glucoside

Diglucosides:

Cyanin (Cyanidin-3,5-O-diglucoside) Delphin (Delphinidin-3,5-O-diglucoside) Malvin
Malvin
( Malvidin
Malvidin
3,5-diglucoside) Pelargonin
Pelargonin
(Pelargonidin-3,5-O-diglucoside) Peonin ( Peonidin
Peonidin
3,5-O-diglucoside) Petunin ( Petunidin
Petunidin
3,5-O-diglucoside)

Others glycosides:

Antirrhinin
Antirrhinin
(Cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside) Ideain
Ideain
( Cyanidin
Cyanidin
3-O-galactoside) Delphinidin
Delphinidin
3-O-rhamnoside Petunidin
Petunidin
3-O-arabinoside Petunidin
Petunidin
3-O-galactoside Petunidin
Petunidin
3-O-rhamnoside Petunidin-3-O-rutinoside Primulin (Malvidin-3-O-galactoside) Pulchellidin
Pulchellidin
3-rhamnoside Tulipanin
Tulipanin
( Delphinidin
Delphinidin
3-O-rutinoside)

Acylated anthocyanins

Acetylated anthocyanins

Cyanidin-3-O-(6-acetyl)-glucoside Delphinidin-3-O-(6-acetyl)-glucoside Malvidin-3-O-(6-acetyl)-glucoside Petunidin-3-O-(6-acetyl)-galactoside Petunidin-3-O-(6-acetyl)-glucoside Peonidin-3-O-(6-acetyl)-glucoside

Coumaroylated anthocyanins (cis- and trans-)

Cyanidin-3-O-(6-p-coumaroyl)glucoside Delphinidin-3-O-(6-p-coumaroyl)glucoside Malvidin-3-O-(6-p-coumaroyl)glucoside Petunidin-3-O-(6-p-coumaroyl)glucoside Peonidin-3-O-(6-p-coumaroyl)glucoside

Caffeoylated anthocyanins

Malvidin-3-O-(6-p-caffeoyl)glucoside Peonidin-3-O-(6-p-caffeoyl)glucoside

Malonylated anthocyanins

Malonylmalvin (malvidin 3-(6″-malonylglucoside)-5-glucoside)

Acylated anthocyanin diglycosides

Cyanidin-3-O-(di-p-coumarylglucoside)-5-glucoside Gentiodelphin (delphinidin 3-O-glucosyl-5-O-(6-O-caffeoyl-glucosyl)-3′-O-(6-O-caffeoyl-glucoside)) Nasunin (Delphinidin-3-(p-coumaroylrutinoside)-5-glucoside) Petanin (petunidin 3-[6-O-(4-O-E-p-coumaroyl-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-d-glucopyranoside]-5-O-β-d-glucopyranoside) Violdelphin
Violdelphin
(Delphinidin 3-rutinoside-7-O-(6-O-(4-(6-O-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)-beta-D-glucosyl)oxybenzoyl)-beta-D-glucoside)

Flavanol-anthocyanin adducts

Malvidin
Malvidin
glucoside-ethyl-catechin Catechin(4α→8)pelargonidin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside Epicatechin(4α→8)pelargonidin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside Afzelechin(4α→8)pelargonidin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside Epiafzelechin(4α→8)pelargonidin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside

Misc.

Metalloanthocyanins (Commelinin Cyanosalvianin Protocyanin Protodelphin) Pyranoanthocyanins Copigmentation Anthocyanone A
Anthocyanone A
(degradation product of oenin) Malvone (oxidation

.