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APARTHEID ( South African English pronunciation: /əˈpɑːrteɪd/ ; Afrikaans: ) was a system of institutionalised racial segregation and discrimination in South Africa
South Africa
between 1948 and 1991. Broadly speaking, apartheid was delineated into _petty apartheid_, which entailed the segregation of public facilities and social events, and _grand apartheid_, which dictated housing and employment opportunities by race. Prior to the 1940s, some aspects of apartheid had already emerged in the form of minority rule by white South Africans and the socially enforced separation of black South Africans from other races, which later extended to pass laws and land apportionment. Apartheid as a policy was embraced by the South African government shortly after the ascension of the National Party (NP) during the country's 1948 general elections .

A codified system of racial stratification began to take form in South Africa
South Africa
under the Dutch Empire in the late eighteenth century, although informal segregation was present much earlier due to social cleavages between Dutch colonists and a creolised, ethnically diverse slave population. With the rapid growth and industrialisation of the British Cape Colony in the nineteenth century, racial policies and laws became increasingly rigid. Cape legislation that discriminated specifically against black Africans began appearing shortly before 1900. The policies of the Boer republics were also racially exclusive; for instance, the Transvaal constitution barred nonwhite participation in church and state.

The first apartheid law was the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, 1949 , followed closely by the Immorality Act of 1950, which made it illegal for most South African citizens to marry or pursue sexual relationships across racial lines. The Population Registration Act, 1950 classified all South Africans into one of four racial groups based on appearance, known ancestry, socioeconomic status, and cultural lifestyle: "black", "white", "coloured ", and "Indian", the last two of which included several sub-classifications. Places of residence were determined by racial classification. From 1960 to 1983, 3.5 million nonwhite South Africans were removed from their homes, and forced into segregated neighbourhoods, in one of the largest mass removals in modern history. Most of these targeted removals were intended to restrict the black population to ten designated "tribal homelands", also known as _bantustans _, four of which became nominally independent states. The government announced that relocated persons would lose their South African citizenship as they were absorbed into the bantustans.

Apartheid
Apartheid
sparked significant international and domestic opposition, resulting in some of the most influential global social movements of the twentieth century. It was the target of frequent condemnation in the United Nations
United Nations
, and brought about an extensive arms and trade embargo on South Africa. During the 1970s and 1980s, internal resistance to apartheid became increasingly militant, prompting brutal crackdowns by the National Party administration and protracted sectarian violence that left thousands dead or in detention. Some reforms of the apartheid system were undertaken, including allowing for Indian and coloured political representation in parliament , but these measures failed in appeasing most activist groups.

Between 1987 and 1993 the National Party entered into bilateral negotiations with the African National Congress
African National Congress
, the leading anti-apartheid political movement, for ending segregation and introducing majority rule. In 1990, prominent ANC leaders such as Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
were released from detention. Apartheid
Apartheid
legislation was abolished in mid-1991, pending multiracial elections set for April 1994.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 Precursors

* 3 Institution

* 3.1 Election of 1948 * 3.2 Legislation * 3.3 Disenfranchisement of Coloured
Coloured
voters * 3.4 Division among whites

* 4 Homeland
Homeland
system

* 4.1 International recognition of the Bantustans

* 5 Forced removals * 6 Petty apartheid * 7 Coloured
Coloured
classification * 8 Women under apartheid * 9 Sport under apartheid * 10 Asians during apartheid * 11 Conservatism * 12 Internal resistance

* 13 International relations during apartheid

* 13.1 Commonwealth * 13.2 United Nations
United Nations
* 13.3 Catholic Church * 13.4 Organisation for African Unity * 13.5 Outward-looking policy

* 13.6 Sports and culture

* 13.6.1 Beginning

* 13.6.2 Isolation

* 13.6.2.1 Verwoerd years * 13.6.2.2 Vorster years

* 13.6.3 Cultural boycott

* 13.7 Western influence

* 13.8 The Cold War
Cold War
and Total Onslaught

* 13.8.1 Foreign military operations

* 14 State security

* 14.1 State of emergency

* 15 Final years of apartheid

* 15.1 Factors

* 15.1.1 Institutional racism * 15.1.2 Economic contradictions * 15.1.3 Western influence

* 15.2 Tricameral parliament * 15.3 Reforms and contact with the ANC under Botha * 15.4 Presidency of F.W. de Klerk * 15.5 Negotiations * 15.6 1994 election

* 16 Contrition * 17 See also * 18 References * 19 Further reading * 20 External links

ETYMOLOGY

_Apartheid_ is an Afrikaans word meaning "separateness", or "the state of being apart", literally "apart-hood." Its first recorded use was in 1929.

PRECURSORS

Main articles: History of South Africa (1815–1910) and History of South Africa
South Africa
(1910–1948)

Under the 1806 Cape Articles of Capitulation the new British colonial rulers were required to respect previous legislation enacted under Roman Dutch law and this led to a separation of the law in South Africa from English Common Law and a high degree of legislative autonomy. The governors and assemblies that governed the legal process in the various colonies of South Africa
South Africa
were launched on a different and independent legislative path from the rest of the British Empire
British Empire
.

In the days of slavery , slaves required passes to travel away from their masters. In 1797 the Landdrost and Heemraden of Swellendam and Graaff-Reinet
Graaff-Reinet
extended pass laws beyond slaves and ordained that all Khoikhoi (designated as _Hottentots_) moving about the country for any purpose should carry passes. This was confirmed by the British Colonial government in 1809 by the Hottentot Proclamation, which decreed that if a Khoikhoi were to move they would need a pass from their master or a local official. Ordinance No. 49 of 1828 decreed that prospective black immigrants were to be granted passes for the sole purpose of seeking work. These passes were to be issued for Coloureds and Khoikhoi, but not for other Africans, who were still forced to carry passes.

The United Kingdom's Slavery
Slavery
Abolition Act 1833 (3 "> the Native Land and Trust Act (1936) complemented the 1913 Native Land Act and, in the same year, the Representation of Natives Act removed previous black voters from the Cape voters' roll and allowed them to elect three whites to Parliament. One of the first pieces of segregating legislation enacted by Jan Smuts ' United Party government was the Asiatic Land Tenure Bill (1946) , which banned land sales to Indians.

The United Party government began to move away from the rigid enforcement of segregationist laws during World War II
World War II
. Amid fears integration would eventually lead to racial assimilation, the legislature established the Sauer Commission to investigate the effects of the United Party's policies. The commission concluded that integration would bring about a "loss of personality" for all racial groups .

INSTITUTION

ELECTION OF 1948

Main article: South African general election, 1948 Daniel François Malan , the first apartheid-era prime minister (1948–1954)

The Union of South Africa
South Africa
had allowed social custom and law to govern the consideration of multiracial affairs and of the allocation, in racial terms, of access to economic, social, and political status. Most white South Africans , regardless of their own differences, accepted the prevailing pattern. Nevertheless, by 1948 it remained apparent that there were occasional gaps in the social structure, whether legislated or otherwise, concerning the rights and opportunities of nonwhites. The rapid economic development of World War II attracted black migrant workers in large numbers to chief industrial centres, where they compensated for the wartime shortage of white labour. However, this escalated rate of black urbanisation went unrecognised by the South African government, which failed to accommodate the influx with parallel expansion in housing or social services. Overcrowding, spiking crime rates, and disillusionment resulted; urban blacks came to support a new generation of leaders influenced by the principles of self-determination and popular freedoms enshrined in such statements as the Atlantic Charter
Atlantic Charter
. Whites reacted negatively to the changes, allowing the Herenigde Nasionale Party (or simply National Party ) to convince a large segment of the voting bloc that the impotence of the United Party in curtailing the evolving position of nonwhites indicated that the organisation had fallen under the influence of Western liberals. Many Afrikaners , whites chiefly of Dutch descent but with early infusions of Germans and French Huguenots who were soon assimilated, also resented what they perceived as disempowerment by an underpaid black workforce and the superior economic power and prosperity of white English speakers. In addition, Jan Smuts, as a strong advocate of the United Nations
United Nations
, lost domestic support when South Africa
South Africa
was criticised for its colour bar and continued mandate of South West Africa by other UN member states.

Afrikaner nationalists proclaimed that they offered the voters a new policy to ensure continued white domination. This policy was initially expounded from a theory drafted by Hendrik Verwoerd and was presented to the National Party by the Sauer Commission . It called for a systematic effort to organise the relations, rights, and privileges of the races as officially defined through a series of parliamentary acts and administrative decrees. Segregation had thus been pursued only in major matters, such as separate schools, and local society rather than law had been depended upon to enforce most separation; it should now be extended to everything. The party gave this policy a name – _apartheid_ (apartness). Apartheid
Apartheid
was to be the basic ideological and practical foundation of Afrikaner politics for the next quarter of a century.

The National Party's election platform stressed that apartheid would preserve a market for white employment in which nonwhites could not compete. On the issues of black urbanisation, the regulation of nonwhite labour, influx control, social security, farm tariffs, and nonwhite taxation the United Party's policy remained contradictory and confused. Its traditional bases of support not only took mutually exclusive positions, but found themselves increasingly at odds with each other. Smuts' reluctance to consider South African foreign policy against the mounting tensions of the Cold War
Cold War
also stirred up discontent, while the nationalists promised to purge the state and public service of communist sympathisers.

First to desert the United Party were Afrikaner farmers, who wished to see a change in influx control due to problems with squatters, as well as higher prices for their maize and other produce in the face of the mineowners' demand for cheap food policies. Always identified with the affluent and capitalist, the party also failed to appeal to its working class constituents. Populist rhetoric allowed the National Party to sweep eight constituencies in the mining and industrial centres of the Witwatersrand and five more in Pretoria
Pretoria
. Barring the predominantly English-speaking landowner electorate of the Natal , the United Party was defeated in almost every rural district. Its urban losses in the nation's most populous province, the Transvaal , proved equally devastating. As the voting system was disproportionately weighted in favour of rural constituencies and the Transvaal in particular, the 1948 election catapulted the Herenigde Nasionale Party from a small minority party to a commanding position with an eight-vote parliamentary lead. Daniel François Malan became the first nationalist prime minister, with the aim of implementing the apartheid philosophy and silencing liberal opposition.

LEGISLATION

Apartheid
Apartheid
legislation in South Africa
South Africa

Precursors (before 1948) Franchise and Ballot Act (1892)

Glen Grey Act (1894) Natal Legislative Assembly Bill (1894) Transvaal Asiatic Registration Act (1906) South Africa
South Africa
Act (1909) Mines and Works Act (1911) Natives Land Act (1913) Natives (Urban Areas) Act (1923) Immorality Act (1927) Native Administration Act (1927) Women\'s Enfranchisement Act (1930) Franchise Laws Amendment Act (1931) Representation of Natives Act (1936) Native Trust and Land Act (1936) Native (Urban Areas) Consolidation Act (1945) Asiatic Land Tenure Act (1946)

Malan to Verwoerd (1948–66) Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act (1949)

Immorality Amendment Act † (1950) Population Registration Act (1950) Group Areas Act (1950) Suppression of Communism Act (1950) Native Building Workers Act (1951) Separate Representation of Voters Act (1951) Prevention of Illegal Squatting Act (1951) Bantu Authorities Act (1951) Native Laws Amendment Act † (1952) Pass Laws Act (1952) Public Safety Act (1953) Native Labour (Settlement of Disputes) Act (1953) Bantu Education Act (1953) Reservation of Separate Amenities Act (1953) Natives Resettlement Act (1954) Group Areas Development Act (1955) Riotous Assemblies Act (1956) Industrial Conciliation Act (1956) Natives (Prohibition of Interdicts) Act (1956) Immorality Act (1957) Bantu Investment Corporation Act (1959) Extension of University Education Act (1959) Promotion of Bantu Self-government Act (1959) Unlawful Organizations Act (1960) Indemnity Act (1961) Coloured
Coloured
Persons Communal Reserves Act (1961) Republic of South Africa
South Africa
Constitution Act (1961) Urban Bantu Councils Act (1961) General Law Amendment Act (1963) Coloured
Coloured
Persons Representative Council Act (1964)

After Verwoerd to Botha (1966–90) Terrorism
Terrorism
Act (1967)

Separate Representation of Voters Amendment Act (1968) Prohibition of Political Interference Act (1968) Bantu Homelands Citizenship Act (1970) Bantu Homelands Constitution Act (1971) Aliens Control Act (1973) Indemnity Act (1977) National Key Points Act (1980) List of National Key Points Internal Security Act (1982) Black Local Authorities Act (1982) Republic of South Africa
South Africa
Constitution Act (1983)

Abolishment (1990–96) Negotiations to end Apartheid
Apartheid
(1990–93)

Interim Constitution (1993) Promotion of National Unity and Reconciliation Act (1995) Constitution (1996)

† No new legislation introduced, rather the existing legislation named was amended.

* v * t * e

Main article: Apartheid legislation

NP leaders argued that South Africa
South Africa
did not comprise a single nation, but was made up of four distinct racial groups: white, black, coloured and Indian. Such groups were split into 13 nations or racial federations. White people encompassed the English and Afrikaans language groups; the black populace was divided into ten such groups.

The state passed laws that paved the way for "grand apartheid", which was centred on separating races on a large scale, by compelling people to live in separate places defined by race. This strategy was in part adopted from "left-over" British rule that separated different racial groups after they took control of the Boer republics in the Anglo-Boer war . This created the black-only "townships" or "locations", where blacks were relocated to their own towns. In addition, "petty apartheid" laws were passed. The principal apartheid laws were as follows.

The first grand apartheid law was the Population Registration Act of 1950, which formalised racial classification and introduced an identity card for all persons over the age of 18, specifying their racial group. Official teams or boards were established to come to a conclusion on those people whose race was unclear. This caused difficulty, especially for coloured people, separating their families when members were allocated different races.

The second pillar of grand apartheid was the Group Areas Act of 1950. Until then, most settlements had people of different races living side by side. This Act put an end to diverse areas and determined where one lived according to race. Each race was allotted its own area, which was used in later years as a basis of forced removal. The Prevention of Illegal Squatting Act of 1951 allowed the government to demolish black shanty town slums and forced white employers to pay for the construction of housing for those black workers who were permitted to reside in cities otherwise reserved for whites.

The Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act of 1949 prohibited marriage between persons of different races, and the Immorality Act of 1950 made sexual relations with a person of a different race a criminal offence .

Under the Reservation of Separate Amenities Act of 1953, municipal grounds could be reserved for a particular race, creating, among other things, separate beaches, buses, hospitals, schools and universities. Signboards such as "whites only" applied to public areas, even including park benches. Blacks were provided with services greatly inferior to those of whites, and, to a lesser extent, to those of Indian and coloured people.

Further laws had the aim of suppressing resistance, especially armed resistance, to apartheid. The Suppression of Communism Act of 1950 banned any party subscribing to Communism
Communism
. The act defined Communism and its aims so sweepingly that anyone who opposed government policy risked being labelled as a Communist. Since the law specifically stated that Communism
Communism
aimed to disrupt racial harmony, it was frequently used to gag opposition to apartheid. Disorderly gatherings were banned, as were certain organisations that were deemed threatening to the government.

Education was segregated by the 1953 Bantu Education Act , which crafted a separate system of education for black South African students and was designed to prepare black people for lives as a labouring class. In 1959 separate universities were created for black, coloured and Indian people. Existing universities were not permitted to enroll new black students. The Afrikaans Medium Decree of 1974 required the use of Afrikaans and English on an equal basis in high schools outside the homelands.

The Bantu Authorities Act of 1951 created separate government structures for blacks and whites and was the first piece of legislation to support the government's plan of separate development in the bantustans . The Promotion of Black Self-Government Act of 1959 entrenched the NP policy of nominally independent "homelands" for blacks. So-called "self–governing Bantu units" were proposed, which would have devolved administrative powers, with the promise later of autonomy and self-government . It also abolished the seats of white representatives of black South Africans and removed from the rolls the few blacks still qualified to vote. The Bantu Investment Corporation Act of 1959 set up a mechanism to transfer capital to the homelands to create employment there. Legislation of 1967 allowed the government to stop industrial development in "white" cities and redirect such development to the "homelands". The Black Homeland Citizenship Act of 1970 marked a new phase in the Bantustan strategy. It changed the status of blacks to citizens of one of the ten autonomous territories. The aim was to ensure a demographic majority of white people within South Africa
South Africa
by having all ten Bantustans achieve full independence.

Interracial contact in sport was frowned upon, but there were no segregatory sports laws.

The government tightened pass laws compelling blacks to carry identity documents, to prevent the immigration of blacks from other countries. To reside in a city, blacks had to be in employment there. Until 1956 women were for the most part excluded from these _pass_ requirements, as attempts to introduce _pass laws_ for women were met with fierce resistance.

DISENFRANCHISEMENT OF COLOURED VOTERS

Main article: Coloured vote constitutional crisis Cape Coloured children in Bonteheuwel Annual per capita personal income by race group in South Africa
South Africa
relative to white levels.

In 1950, D. F. Malan announced the NP's intention to create a Coloured
Coloured
Affairs Department. J.G. Strijdom , Malan's successor as Prime Minister, moved to strip voting rights from black and coloured residents of the Cape Province. The previous government had introduced the Separate Representation of Voters Bill into Parliament in 1951; however, four voters, G Harris, W D Franklin, W D Collins and Edgar Deane, challenged its validity in court with support from the United Party. The Cape Supreme Court upheld the act, but reversed by the Appeal Court, finding the act invalid because a two-thirds majority in a joint sitting of both Houses of Parliament was needed to change the entrenched clauses of the Constitution . The government then introduced the High Court of Parliament Bill (1952), which gave Parliament the power to overrule decisions of the court. The Cape Supreme Court and the Appeal Court declared this invalid too.

In 1955 the Strijdom government increased the number of judges in the Appeal Court from five to 11, and appointed pro-Nationalist judges to fill the new places. In the same year they introduced the Senate Act, which increased the Senate from 49 seats to 89. Adjustments were made such that the NP controlled 77 of these seats. The parliament met in a joint sitting and passed the Separate Representation of Voters Act in 1956, which transferred coloured voters from the common voters' roll in the Cape to a new coloured voters' roll. Immediately after the vote, the Senate was restored to its original size. The Senate Act was contested in the Supreme Court, but the recently enlarged Appeal Court, packed with government-supporting judges, upheld the act, and also the Act to remove coloured voters.

The 1956 law allowed Coloureds to elect four people to Parliament, but a 1969 law abolished those seats and stripped Coloureds of their right to vote. Since Asians had never been allowed to vote, this resulted in whites being the sole enfranchised group.

A 2016 study in the Journal of Politics suggests that disenfranchisement in South Africa
South Africa
had a significant negative impact on basic service delivery to the disenfranchized.

DIVISION AMONG WHITES

Before South Africa
South Africa
became a republic, politics among white South Africans was typified by the division between the mainly Afrikaner pro-republic conservative and the largely English anti-republican liberal sentiments, with the legacy of the Boer War still a factor for some people. Once South Africa
South Africa
became a republic, Prime Minister Hendrik Verwoerd called for improved relations and greater accord between people of British descent and the Afrikaners. He claimed that the only difference was between those in favor of apartheid and those against it. The ethnic division would no longer be between Afrikaans and English speakers, but between blacks and whites.

Most Afrikaners supported the notion of unanimity of white people to ensure their safety. White voters of British descent were divided. Many had opposed a republic, leading to a majority "no" vote in Natal . Later, some of them recognised the perceived need for white unity, convinced by the growing trend of decolonisation elsewhere in Africa, which concerned them. British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan\'s "Wind of Change " speech left the British faction feeling that Britain had abandoned them. The more conservative English speakers supported Verwoerd; others were troubled by the severing of ties with Britain and remained loyal to the Crown . They were displeased by having to choose between British and South African nationalities. Although Verwoerd tried to bond these different blocs, the subsequent voting illustrated only a minor swell of support, indicating that a great many English speakers remained apathetic and that Verwoerd had not succeeded in uniting the white population.

HOMELAND SYSTEM

Main article: Bantustan Map of South Africa
South Africa
showing the location of bantustans Rural area in Ciskei
Ciskei
, one of the apartheid era homelands

Under the homeland system, the government attempted to divide South Africa into a number of separate states, each of which was supposed to develop into a separate nation-state for a different ethnic group.

Territorial separation was hardly a new institution. There were, for example, the "reserves" created under the British government in the nineteenth century. Under apartheid, 13 percent of the land was reserved for black homelands, a relatively small amount compared with the total population, and generally in economically unproductive areas of the country. The Tomlinson Commission of 1954 justified apartheid and the homeland system, but stated that additional land ought to be given to the homelands, a recommendation that was not carried out.

When Verwoerd became Prime Minister in 1958, the policy of "separate development" came into being, with the homeland structure as one of its cornerstones. Verwoerd came to believe in the granting of independence to these homelands. The government justified its plans on the basis that "(the) government's policy is, therefore, not a policy of discrimination on the grounds of race or colour, but a policy of differentiation on the ground of nationhood, of different nations, granting to each self-determination within the borders of their homelands – hence this policy of separate development". Under the homelands system, blacks would no longer be citizens of South Africa, becoming citizens of the independent homelands who worked in South Africa as foreign migrant labourers on temporary work permits. In 1958 the Promotion of Black Self-Government Act was passed, and border industries and the Bantu Investment Corporation were established to promote economic development and the provision of employment in or near the homelands. Many black South Africans who had never resided in their identified homeland were forcibly removed from the cities to the homelands.

Ten homelands were allocated to different black ethnic groups: Lebowa (North Sotho , also referred to as Pedi), QwaQwa (South Sotho), Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
(Tswana ), KwaZulu
KwaZulu
(Zulu ), KaNgwane (Swazi ), Transkei and Ciskei
Ciskei
(Xhosa ), Gazankulu (Tsonga ), Venda ( Venda ) and KwaNdebele (Ndebele ). Four of these were declared independent by the South African government: Transkei
Transkei
in 1976, Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
in 1977, Venda in 1979, and Ciskei
Ciskei
in 1981 (known as the TBVC states). Once a homeland was granted its nominal independence, its designated citizens had their South African citizenship revoked and replaced with citizenship in their homeland. These people were then issued passports instead of passbooks. Citizens of the nominally autonomous homelands also had their South African citizenship circumscribed, meaning they were no longer legally considered South African. The South African government attempted to draw an equivalence between their view of black citizens of the homelands and the problems which other countries faced through entry of illegal immigrants .

INTERNATIONAL RECOGNITION OF THE BANTUSTANS

Bantustans within the borders of South Africa
South Africa
were classified as "self-governing" or "independent". In theory, self-governing Bantustans had control over many aspects of their internal functioning but were not yet sovereign nations. Independent Bantustans (Transkei, Bophutatswana, Venda and Ciskei; also known as the TBVC states) were intended to be fully sovereign. In reality, they had no significant economic infrastructure and with few exceptions encompassed swaths of disconnected territory. This meant all the Bantustans were little more than puppet states controlled by South Africa.

Throughout the existence of the independent Bantustans, South Africa remained the only country to recognise their independence. Nevertheless, internal organisations of many countries, as well as the South African government, lobbied for their recognition. For example, upon the foundation of Transkei, the Swiss-South African Association encouraged the Swiss government to recognise the new state. In 1976, leading up to a United States House of Representatives resolution urging the President to not recognise Transkei, the South African government intensely lobbied lawmakers to oppose the bill. Each TBVC state extended recognition to the other independent Bantustans while South Africa
South Africa
showed its commitment to the notion of TBVC sovereignty by building embassies in the TBVC capitals.

FORCED REMOVALS

See also: Group Areas Act and Abolition of Racially Based Land Measures Act, 1991

During the 1960s, 1970s and early 1980s, the government implemented a policy of "resettlement", to force people to move to their designated "group areas". Millions of people were forced to relocate. These removals included people relocated due to slum clearance programmes, labour tenants on white-owned farms, the inhabitants of the so-called "black spots" (black-owned land surrounded by white farms), the families of workers living in townships close to the homelands, and "surplus people" from urban areas, including thousands of people from the Western Cape
Western Cape
(which was declared a " Coloured
Coloured
Labour Preference Area") who were moved to the Transkei
Transkei
and Ciskei
Ciskei
homelands. The best-publicised forced removals of the 1950s occurred in Johannesburg , when 60,000 people were moved to the new township of Soweto (an abbreviation for South Western Townships).

Until 1955, Sophiatown had been one of the few urban areas where blacks were allowed to own land, and was slowly developing into a multiracial slum. As industry in Johannesburg
Johannesburg
grew, Sophiatown became the home of a rapidly expanding black workforce, as it was convenient and close to town. It had the only swimming pool for black children in Johannesburg. As one of the oldest black settlements in Johannesburg, it held an almost symbolic importance for the 50,000 blacks it contained, both in terms of its sheer vibrancy and its unique culture. Despite a vigorous ANC protest campaign and worldwide publicity, the removal of Sophiatown began on 9 February 1955 under the Western Areas Removal Scheme. In the early hours, heavily armed police forced residents out of their homes and loaded their belongings onto government trucks. The residents were taken to a large tract of land 19 kilometres (12 mi) from the city centre, known as Meadowlands , which the government had purchased in 1953. Meadowlands became part of a new planned black city called Soweto . Sophiatown was destroyed by bulldozers, and a new white suburb named Triomf
Triomf
(Triumph) was built in its place. This pattern of forced removal and destruction was to repeat itself over the next few years, and was not limited to black South Africans alone. Forced removals from areas like Cato Manor (Mkhumbane) in Durban
Durban
, and District Six in Cape Town
Cape Town
, where 55,000 coloured and Indian people were forced to move to new townships on the Cape Flats, were carried out under the Group Areas Act of 1950. Nearly 600,000 coloured, Indian and Chinese people were moved under the Group Areas Act. Some 40,000 whites were also forced to move when land was transferred from "white South Africa" into the black homelands.

PETTY APARTHEID

Signs enforcing petty apartheid Sign designating a public space as "for use by white persons" Sign reserving a Natal beach "for the sole use of members of the white race group", in English, Afrikaans , and Zulu

The NP passed a string of legislation that became known as _petty apartheid_. The first of these was the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act 55 of 1949 , prohibiting marriage between whites and people of other races. The Immorality Amendment Act 21 of 1950 (as amended in 1957 by Act 23) forbade "unlawful racial intercourse" and "any immoral or indecent act" between a white and a black, Indian or coloured person.

Blacks were not allowed to run businesses or professional practices in areas designated as "white South Africa" unless they had a permit. They were required to move to the black "homelands" and set up businesses and practices there. Transport and civil facilities were segregated. Trains, hospitals and ambulances were segregated. Because of the smaller numbers of white patients and the fact that white doctors preferred to work in white hospitals, conditions in white hospitals were much better than those in often overcrowded and understaffed black hospitals. Blacks were excluded from living or working in white areas, unless they had a pass, nicknamed the _dompas_, also spelt _dompass_ or _dom pass_. The most likely origin of this name is from the Afrikaans "verdomde pas" (meaning accursed pass), although some commentators ascribe it to the Afrikaans words meaning "dumb pass". Only blacks with "Section 10" rights (those who had migrated to the cities before World War II) were excluded from this provision. A pass was issued only to a black with approved work. Spouses and children had to be left behind in black homelands. A pass was issued for one magisterial district (usually one town) confining the holder to that area only. Being without a valid pass made a person subject to arrest and trial for being an illegal migrant. This was often followed by deportation to the person's homeland and prosecution of the employer for employing an illegal migrant. Police vans patrolled white areas to round up blacks without passes. Blacks were not allowed to employ whites in white South Africa.

Although trade unions for black and coloured (mixed race) workers had existed since the early 20th century, it was not until the 1980s reforms that a mass black trade union movement developed. Trade unions under apartheid were racially segregated, with 54 unions being white only, 38 for Indian and coloured and 19 for black people. The Industrial Conciliation Act (1956) legislated against the creation of multi-racial trade unions and attempted to split existing multi-racial unions into separate branches or organisations along racial lines.

In the 1970s the state spent ten times more per child on the education of white children than on black children within the Bantu Education system (the education system in black schools within white South Africa). Higher education was provided in separate universities and colleges after 1959. Eight black universities were created in the homelands. Fort Hare University in the Ciskei
Ciskei
(now Eastern Cape) was to register only Xhosa -speaking students. Sotho , Tswana , Pedi and Venda speakers were placed at the newly founded University College of the North at Turfloop, while the University College of Zululand was launched to serve Zulu students. Coloureds and Indians were to have their own establishments in the Cape and Natal respectively.

Each black homeland controlled its own education, health and police systems. Blacks were not allowed to buy hard liquor . They were able only to buy state-produced poor quality beer (although this was relaxed later). Public beaches were racially segregated. Public swimming pools, some pedestrian bridges, drive-in cinema parking spaces, graveyards, parks, and public toilets were segregated. Cinemas and theatres in white areas were not allowed to admit blacks. There were practically no cinemas in black areas. Most restaurants and hotels in white areas were not allowed to admit blacks except as staff. Blacks were prohibited from attending white churches under the Churches Native Laws Amendment Act of 1957, but this was never rigidly enforced and churches were one of the few places races could mix without the interference of the law. Blacks earning 360 rand a year or more had to pay taxes while the white threshold was more than twice as high, at 750 rand a year. On the other hand, the taxation rate for whites was considerably higher than that for blacks.

Blacks could never acquire land in white areas. In the homelands, much of the land belonged to a "tribe", where the local chieftain would decide how the land had to be used. This resulted in whites owning almost all the industrial and agricultural lands and much of the prized residential land. Most blacks were stripped of their South African citizenship when the "homelands" became "independent", and they were no longer able to apply for South African passports. Eligibility requirements for a passport had been difficult for blacks to meet, the government contending that a passport was a privilege, not a right, and the government did not grant many passports to blacks. Apartheid
Apartheid
pervaded culture as well as the law, and was entrenched by most of the mainstream media.

COLOURED CLASSIFICATION

Part of a series on

DISCRIMINATION

General forms

* Age * Caste
Caste
* Class * Color * Disability * Gender * Genotype * Hair * Height * Language * Looks * Mental condition * Race / Ethnicity / Nationality * Rank * Religion * Sex * Sexuality * Size * Species

SPECIFIC FORMS

Social

* AIDS stigma * Adultism * Anti-albinism * Anti-autism * Anti-homelessness * Anti-intellectualism * Anti-intersex * Anti-left handedness * Anti-Masonry * Audism * Binarism * Biphobia * Cronyism * Elitism * Ephebiphobia * Fatism * Genderism * Gerontophobia * Heteronormativity * Heterosexism * Homophobia * Leprosy stigma * Lesbophobia * Mentalism * Misandry * Misogyny * Nepotism * Pedophobia * Pregnancy * Reverse * Sectarianism * Shadism

* Supremacism

* Arab * Black * White

* Transmisogyny
Transmisogyny
* Transphobia * Xenophobia

Manifestations

* Animal cruelty * Animal testing * Blood libel * Blood sport * Carnism * Class conflict * Compulsory sterilization * Counter-jihad * Cultural genocide * Democide * Disability hate crime * Economic * Eliminationism * Employment * Enemy of the people * Ethnic cleansing * Ethnic hatred * Ethnic joke * Ethnocide * Forced conversion * Freak show * Gay bashing * Gendercide * Genital mutilation

* Genocide
Genocide

* examples

* Glass ceiling * Group libel * Hate crime
Hate crime
* Hate group * Hate speech
Hate speech
* Homeless dumping * Housing * Indian rolling * LGBT hate crime * Lavender scare * Lynching * Meat eating
Meat eating
* Mortgage * Persecution
Persecution
* Murder music * Occupational segregation * Persecution
Persecution
* Pogrom
Pogrom
* Purge * Race war * Red Scare * Religious persecution * Scapegoating * Segregation academy * Sex-selective abortion * Slavery
Slavery
* Slut-shaming * Trans bashing * Victimisation * White flight * White power music * Wife selling * Witch-hunt

Policies

* Segregation

* age * racial * religious * sex

* Age of candidacy
Age of candidacy
* Blood quantum * Cleanliness of blood * Crime of apartheid

* Disabilities

* Jewish * Catholic

* Ethnocracy * Gender pay gap
Gender pay gap
* Gender roles * Gerontocracy * Gerrymandering * Ghetto benches * Internment
Internment
* Jewish quota * Jim Crow laws * Law for Protection of the Nation
Law for Protection of the Nation
* McCarthyism * MSM blood donor controversy * Nonpersons * _Numerus clausus_ (as religious or racial quota) * Nuremberg Laws
Nuremberg Laws
* One-drop rule * Racial quota * Racial steering * Redlining * Same-sex marriage (laws and issues prohibiting) * Sodomy law * Ugly law * Voter suppression

Countermeasures

* Affirmative action * Animal rights * Anti-discrimination law * Cultural assimilation * Cultural pluralism * Desegregation * Diversity training * Empowerment * Ethnopluralism * Feminism * Fighting Discrimination
Discrimination
* Human rights
Human rights
* Intersex rights * Masculism * Multiculturalism * Racial integration * Self-determination * Social integration * Toleration
Toleration

Related topics

* Allophilia
Allophilia
* Anti-cultural sentiment * Assimilation * Bias * Christian privilege * Diversity * Ethnic penalty * Eugenics * Intersectionality * Male privilege * Multiculturalism * Neurodiversity * Oppression * Police brutality * Political correctness * Power distance * Prejudice
Prejudice
* Racial bias in criminal news * Racism
Racism
by country * Regressive left * Religious intolerance * Second-generation gender bias * Snobbery * Social exclusion * Social stigma

* Stereotype
Stereotype

* threat

* White privilege

Discrimination
Discrimination
portal

* v * t * e

Main article: Coloured
Coloured

The population was classified into four groups: Black, White, Indian, and Coloured
Coloured
(capitalised to denote their legal definitions in South African law). The Coloured
Coloured
group included people regarded as being of mixed descent, including of Bantu , Khoisan , European and Malay ancestry. Many were descended from people brought to South Africa
South Africa
from other parts of the world, such as India
India
, Madagascar
Madagascar
, and China as slaves and indentured workers .

The apartheid bureaucracy devised complex (and often arbitrary) criteria at the time that the Population Registration Act was implemented to determine who was Coloured. Minor officials would administer tests to determine if someone should be categorised either Coloured
Coloured
or Black, or if another person should be categorised either Coloured
Coloured
or White. Different members of the same family found themselves in different race groups. Further tests determined membership of the various sub-racial groups of the Coloureds. Many of those who formerly belonged to this racial group are opposed to the continuing use of the term "coloured" in the post-apartheid era, though the term no longer signifies any legal meaning. The expressions "so-called Coloured" ( Afrikaans _sogenaamde Kleurlinge_) and "brown people" (_bruinmense_) acquired a wide usage in the 1980s.

Discriminated against by apartheid, Coloureds were as a matter of state policy forced to live in separate townships , in some cases leaving homes their families had occupied for generations, and received an inferior education, though better than that provided to Blacks. They played an important role in the anti-apartheid movement : for example the African Political Organization established in 1902 had an exclusively Coloured
Coloured
membership.

Voting rights were denied to Coloureds in the same way that they were denied to Blacks from 1950 to 1983. However, in 1977 the NP caucus approved proposals to bring Coloureds and Indians into central government. In 1982, final constitutional proposals produced a referendum among Whites, and the Tricameral Parliament was approved. The Constitution was reformed the following year to allow the Coloured and Asian minorities participation in separate Houses in a Tricameral Parliament, and Botha became the first Executive State President. The idea was that the Coloured
Coloured
minority could be granted voting rights, but the Black majority were to become citizens of independent homelands. These separate arrangements continued until the abolition of apartheid. The Tricameral reforms led to the formation of the (anti-apartheid) United Democratic Front as a vehicle to try to prevent the co-option of Coloureds and Indians into an alliance with Whites. The battles between the UDF and the NP government from 1983 to 1989 were to become the most intense period of struggle between left-wing and right-wing South Africans.

WOMEN UNDER APARTHEID

Colonialism and apartheid had a major impact on black and coloured women, since they suffered both racial and gender discrimination . Jobs were often hard to find. Many black and coloured women worked as agricultural or domestic workers, but wages were extremely low, if existent. Children suffered from diseases caused by malnutrition and sanitation problems, and mortality rates were therefore high. The controlled movement of black and coloured workers within the country through the Natives Urban Areas Act of 1923 and the pass laws separated family members from one another, because men could prove their employment in urban centres while most women were merely dependents; consequently, they risked being deported to rural areas.

SPORT UNDER APARTHEID

See also: Rugby union and apartheid

By the 1930s, association football mirrored the balkanised society of South Africa; football was divided into numerous institutions based on race: the (White) South African Football Association , the South African Indian Football Association (SAIFA), the South African African Football Association (SAAFA) and its rival the South African Bantu Football Association, and the South African Coloured
Coloured
Football Association (SACFA). Lack of funds to provide proper equipment would be noticeable in regards to black amateur football matches; this revealed the unequal lives black South Africans were subject to, in contrast to Whites, who were obviously much better off financially. Apartheid's social engineering made it more difficult to compete across racial lines. Thus, in an effort to centralise finances, the federations merged in 1951, creating the South African Soccer Federation (SASF), which brought Black, Indian, and Coloured
Coloured
national associations into one body that opposed apartheid. This was generally opposed more and more by the growing apartheid government, and – with urban segregation being reinforced with ongoing racist policies – it was harder to play football along these racial lines. In 1956, the Pretoria
Pretoria
regime – the administrative capital of South Africa
South Africa
– passed the first apartheid sports policy; by doing so, it emphasised the White-led government's opposition to inter-racialism.

While football was plagued by racism, it also played a role in protesting apartheid and its policies. With the international bans from FIFA
FIFA
and other major sporting events, South Africa
South Africa
would be in the spotlight internationally. In a 1977 survey, white South Africans ranked the lack of international sport as one of the three most damaging consequences of apartheid. By the mid-1950s, Black South Africans would also use media to challenge the "racialisation" of sports in South Africa; anti-apartheid forces had begun to pinpoint sport as the "weakness" of white national morale. Black journalists for the _ Johannesburg
Johannesburg
Drum_ magazine were the first to give the issue public exposure, with an intrepid special issue in 1955 that asked, "Why shouldn't our blacks be allowed in the SA team?" As time progressed, international standing with South Africa
South Africa
would continue to be strained. In the 1980s, as the oppressive system was slowly collapsing the ANC and National Party started negotiations on the end of apartheid. Football associations also discussed the formation of a single, non-racial controlling body. This unity process accelerated in the late 1980s and led to the creation, in December 1991, of an incorporated South African Football Association. On 3 July 1992, FIFA finally welcomed South Africa
South Africa
back into international football.

Sport has long been an important part of life in South Africa, and the boycotting of games by international teams had a profound effect on the white population, perhaps more so than the trade embargoes did. After the re-acceptance of South Africa's sports teams by the international community, sport played a major unifying role between the country's diverse ethnic groups. Mandela's open support of the predominantly white rugby fraternity during the 1995 Rugby World Cup was considered instrumental in bringing together South African sports fans of all races.

ASIANS DURING APARTHEID

Further information: Indian South Africans , Asian South Africans , and Chinese South Africans

Defining its Asian population, a minority that did not appear to belong to any of the initial three designated non-white groups, was a constant dilemma for the apartheid government.

For political reasons, the classification of "honorary white " was granted to immigrants from Japan
Japan
, South Korea
South Korea
and Taiwan
Taiwan
– countries with which South Africa
South Africa
maintained diplomatic and economic relations – and to their descendants.

Indian South Africans during apartheid were classified many ranges of categories from "Asian" to "black" to "Coloured" and even the mono-ethnic category of "Indian", but never as white, having been considered "nonwhite" throughout South Africa's history. The group faced severe discrimination during the apartheid regime and were subject to numerous racialist policies.

Chinese South Africans – who were descendants of migrant workers who came to work in the gold mines around Johannesburg
Johannesburg
in the late 19th century – were initially either classified as "Coloured" or "Other Asian" and were subject to numerous forms of discrimination and restriction. It was not until 1984 that South African Chinese, increased to about 10,000, were given the same official rights as the Japanese, to be treated as whites in terms of the Group Areas Act, although they still faced discrimination and did not receive all the benefits/rights of their newly obtained honorary white status such as voting.

Indonesians arrived at the Cape of Good Hope as slaves until the abolishment of slavery during the 1800s. They were predominantly Muslim, were allowed religious freedom and formed their own ethnic group/community known as Cape Malays . They were classified as part of the Coloured
Coloured
racial group. This was the same for South Africans of Malaysian descent who were also classified as part of the Coloured race and thus considered "not-white". South Africans of Filipino descent were classified as "black" due to historical outlook on Filipinos by White South Africans, and many of them lived in Bantustans.

CONSERVATISM

Alongside apartheid the NP government implemented a programme of social conservatism . Pornography and gambling were banned. Cinemas, shops selling alcohol and most other businesses were forbidden from operating on Sundays. Abortion
Abortion
, homosexuality and sex education were also restricted; abortion was legal only in cases of rape or if the mother's life was threatened.

Television was not introduced until 1976 because the government viewed English programming as a threat to the Afrikaans language. Television was run on apartheid lines – TV1 broadcast in Afrikaans and English (geared to a white audience), TV2 in Zulu and Xhosa and TV3 in Sotho, Tswana and Pedi (both geared to a black audience), and TV4 mostly showed programmes for an urban-black audience.

INTERNAL RESISTANCE

Main article: Internal resistance to apartheid Painting of the Sharpeville
Sharpeville
Massacre of March 1960

Apartheid
Apartheid
sparked significant internal resistance. The government responded to a series of popular uprisings and protests with police brutality, which in turn increased local support for the armed resistance struggle. Internal resistance to the apartheid system in South Africa
South Africa
came from several sectors of society and saw the creation of organisations dedicated variously to peaceful protests, passive resistance and armed insurrection.

In 1949, the youth wing of the African National Congress
African National Congress
(ANC) took control of the organisation and started advocating a radical black nationalist programme. The new young leaders proposed that white authority could only be overthrown through mass campaigns. In 1950 that philosophy saw the launch of the Programme of Action, a series of strikes, boycotts and civil disobedience actions that led to occasional violent clashes with the authorities.

In 1959, a group of disenchanted ANC members formed the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC), which organised a demonstration against pass books on 21 March 1960. One of those protests was held in the township of Sharpeville
Sharpeville
, where 69 people were killed by police in the Sharpeville massacre .

In the wake of Sharpeville, the government declared a state of emergency. More than 18,000 people were arrested, including leaders of the ANC and PAC, and both organisations were banned. The resistance went underground, with some leaders in exile abroad and others engaged in campaigns of domestic sabotage and terrorism .

In May 1961, before the declaration of South Africa
South Africa
as a Republic, an assembly representing the banned ANC called for negotiations between the members of the different ethnic groupings, threatening demonstrations and strikes during the inauguration of the Republic if their calls were ignored.

When the government overlooked them, the strikers (among the main organisers was a 42-year-old, Thembu -origin Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
) carried out their threats. The government countered swiftly by giving police the authority to arrest people for up to twelve days and detaining many strike leaders amid numerous cases of police brutality. Defeated, the protesters called off their strike. The ANC then chose to launch an armed struggle through a newly formed military wing, Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK), which would perform acts of sabotage on tactical state structures. Its first sabotage plans were carried out on 16 December 1961, the anniversary of the Battle of Blood River .

In the 1970s, the Black Consciousness Movement was created by tertiary students influenced by the American Black Power movement. BC endorsed black pride and African customs and did much to alter the feelings of inadequacy instilled among black people by the apartheid system. The leader of the movement, Steve Biko
Steve Biko
, was taken into custody on 18 August 1977 and was beaten to death in detention.

In 1976, secondary students in Soweto took to the streets in the Soweto uprising to protest against the imposition of Afrikaans as the only language of instruction. On 16 June, police opened fire on students protesting peacefully. According to official reports 23 people were killed, but the number of people who died is usually given as 176, with estimates of up to 700. In the following years several student organisations were formed to protest against apartheid, and these organisations were central to urban school boycotts in 1980 and 1983 and rural boycotts in 1985 and 1986.

In parallel with student protests, labour unions started protest action in 1973 and 1974. After 1976 unions and workers are considered to have played an important role in the struggle against apartheid, filling the gap left by the banning of political parties. In 1979 black trade unions were legalised and could engage in collective bargaining, although strikes were still illegal. Economist Thomas Sowell wrote that basic supply and demand led to violations of Apartheid
Apartheid
"on a massive scale" throughout the nation, simply because there were not enough white South African business owners to meet the demand for various goods and services. Large portions of the garment industry and construction of new homes, for example, were effectively owned and operated by blacks, who either worked surreptitiously or who circumvented the law with a white person as a nominal, figurehead manager.

In 1983, anti-apartheid leaders determined to resist the tricameral parliament assembled to form the United Democratic Front (UDF) in order to coordinate anti-apartheid activism inside South Africa. The first presidents of the UDF were Archie Gumede , Oscar Mpetha and Albertina Sisulu ; patrons were Archbishop Desmond Tutu
Desmond Tutu
, Dr Allan Boesak , Helen Joseph , and Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
. Basing its platform on abolishing apartheid and creating a nonracial democratic South Africa, the UDF provided a legal way for domestic human rights groups and individuals of all races to organise demonstrations and campaign against apartheid inside the country. Churches and church groups also emerged as pivotal points of resistance. Church leaders were not immune to prosecution, and certain faith-based organisations were banned, but the clergy generally had more freedom to criticise the government than militant groups did. The UDF, coupled with the protection of the church, accordingly permitted a major role for Archbishop Desmond Tutu
Desmond Tutu
, who served both as a prominent domestic voice and international spokesperson denouncing apartheid and urging the creation of a shared nonracial state.

Although the majority of whites supported apartheid, some 20 percent did not. Parliamentary opposition was galvanised by Helen Suzman , Colin Eglin and Harry Schwarz , who formed the Progressive Federal Party . Extra-parliamentary resistance was largely centred in the South African Communist Party and women's organisation the Black Sash . Women were also notable in their involvement in trade union organisations and banned political parties.

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS DURING APARTHEID

International opposition to apartheid in South Africa
South Africa

Campaigns

* Academic boycott * Sporting boycott * Disinvestment * Constructive engagement * Free South Africa
South Africa
Movement * International anti-apartheid music

Instruments and legislation

* 1962 UN Resolution 1761 * 1973 Crime of Apartheid
Apartheid
Convention * 1977 Gleneagles Agreement * 1977 Sullivan principles * 1986 Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act

Organisations

* Anti-Apartheid Movement * Artists United Against Apartheid * Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
* Halt All Racist Tours * Organisation of African Unity * TransAfrica
TransAfrica
* UN Special
Special
Committee against Apartheid
Apartheid

Conferences

* 1964 Conference for Economic Sanctions * 1978 World Conference against Racism
Racism

UN Security Council
UN Security Council
Resolutions

* Resolution 134 ( Sharpeville
Sharpeville
massacre) * Resolution 181 (voluntary arms embargo) * Resolution 191 (sanctions feasibility) * Resolution 282 (arms embargo strengthening) * Resolution 418 (mandatory arms embargo) * Resolution 435 ( South-West Africa ceasefire) * Resolution 591 (arms embargo strengthening)

Other aspects

* Elimination of Racism
Racism
Day * "Biko" (song) * Activists * Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
70th Birthday Tribute * Equity television programming ban * Rugby union and apartheid

* v * t * e

Main article: Foreign relations of South Africa
South Africa
during apartheid

COMMONWEALTH

South Africa's policies were subject to international scrutiny in 1960, when Macmillan criticised them during his celebrated Wind of Change speech in Cape Town. Weeks later, tensions came to a head in the Sharpeville
Sharpeville
Massacre , resulting in more international condemnation. Soon afterwards Verwoerd announced a referendum on whether the country should become a republic. Verwoerd lowered the voting age for whites to 18 and included whites in South West Africa on the roll. The referendum on 5 October that year asked whites, "Are you in favour of a Republic for the Union?", and 52 percent voted "Yes".

As a consequence of this change of status, South Africa
South Africa
needed to reapply for continued membership of the Commonwealth , with which it had privileged trade links. India
India
had become a republic within the Commonwealth in 1950, but it became clear that African and Asian member states would oppose South Africa
South Africa
due to its apartheid policies. As a result, South Africa
South Africa
withdrew from the Commonwealth on 31 May 1961, the day that the Republic came into existence.

UNITED NATIONS

We stand here today to salute the United Nations
United Nations
Organisation and its Member States, both singly and collectively, for joining forces with the masses of our people in a common struggle that has brought about our emancipation and pushed back the frontiers of racism. — Nelson Mandela , address to the United Nations
United Nations
as South African President, 3 October 1994

At the first UN gathering in 1946, South Africa
South Africa
was placed on the agenda. The primary subject in question was the handling of South African Indians, a great cause of divergence between South Africa
South Africa
and India. In 1952, apartheid was again discussed in the aftermath of the Defiance Campaign, and the UN set up a task team to keep watch on the progress of apartheid and the racial state of affairs in South Africa. Although South Africa's racial policies were a cause for concern, most countries in the UN concurred that this was a domestic affair, which fell outside the UN's jurisdiction.

In April 1960, the UN's conservative stance on apartheid changed following the Sharpeville massacre , and the Security Council for the first time agreed on concerted action against the apartheid regime, demanding an end to racial separation and discrimination. From 1960 the ANC began a campaign of armed struggle of which there would later be a charge of 193 acts of terrorism from 1961 to 1963, mainly bombings and murders of civilians.

Instead, the South African government began further suppression, banning the ANC and PAC. In 1961, UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld stopped over in South Africa
South Africa
and subsequently stated that he had been unable to reach agreement with Prime Minister Verwoerd.

In 1961, dismissing an Israeli vote against South African apartheid at the United Nations, Verwoerd famously said, " Israel
Israel
is not consistent in its new anti-apartheid attitude … they took Israel away from the Arabs after the Arabs lived there for a thousand years. In that, I agree with them. Israel, like South Africa, is an apartheid state."

On 6 November 1962, the United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly passed Resolution 1761 , condemning apartheid policies. In 1966, the UN held the first of many colloquiums on apartheid. The General Assembly announced 21 March as the International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, in memory of the Sharpeville
Sharpeville
massacre. In 1971, the General Assembly formally denounced the institution of homelands, and a motion was passed in 1974 to expel South Africa
South Africa
from the UN, but this was vetoed by France, the United Kingdom and the United States, all key trade associates of South Africa.

On 7 August 1963 the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council passed Resolution 181 , calling for a voluntary arms embargo against South Africa. In the same year a Special
Special
Committee Against Apartheid
Apartheid
was established to encourage and oversee plans of action against the regime. From 1964 the US and Britain discontinued their arms trade with South Africa. The Security Council also condemned the Soweto massacre in Resolution 392 . In 1977, the voluntary UN arms embargo became mandatory with the passing of Resolution 418 .

Economic sanctions against South Africa
South Africa
were also frequently debated as an effective way of putting pressure on the apartheid government. In 1962, the UN General Assembly requested that its members sever political, fiscal and transportation ties with South Africa. In 1968, it proposed ending all cultural, educational and sporting connections as well. Economic sanctions, however, were not made mandatory, because of opposition from South Africa's main trading partners.

In 1973, the UN adopted the Apartheid
Apartheid
Convention which defines apartheid and even qualifies it as a crime against humanity which might lead to international criminal prosecution of the individuals responsible for perpetrating it. This convention has however only been ratified by 107 of the 193 member states as of August 2008. The convention was initially drafted by the former USSR and Guinea, before being presented to the UN General Assembly. The convention was adopted with a vote of 91 for, and 4 (Portugal, South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States) against the convention.

In 1978 and 1983 the UN condemned South Africa
South Africa
at the World Conference Against Racism
Racism
.

After much debate, by the late 1980s the United States, the United Kingdom, and 23 other nations had passed laws placing various trade sanctions on South Africa. A disinvestment from South Africa
South Africa
movement in many countries was similarly widespread, with individual cities and provinces around the world implementing various laws and local regulations forbidding registered corporations under their jurisdiction from doing business with South African firms, factories, or banks.

CATHOLIC CHURCH

Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
was an outspoken opponent of apartheid. In 1985, while visiting the Netherlands
Netherlands
, he gave an impassioned speech at the International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
condemning apartheid, proclaiming that "no system of apartheid or separate development will ever be acceptable as a model for the relations between peoples or races." In September 1988 he made a pilgrimage to countries bordering South Africa, while demonstratively avoiding South Africa
South Africa
itself. During his visit to Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
, he called for economic sanctions against South Africa's government.

ORGANISATION FOR AFRICAN UNITY

See also: Lusaka Manifesto

The Organisation of African Unity (OAU) was created in 1963. Its primary objectives were to eradicate colonialism and improve social, political and economic situations in Africa. It censured apartheid and demanded sanctions against South Africa. African states agreed to aid the liberation movements in their fight against apartheid. In 1969, fourteen nations from Central and East Africa gathered in Lusaka , Zambia
Zambia
, and formulated the _ Lusaka Manifesto _, which was signed on 13 April by all of the countries in attendance except Malawi . This manifesto was later taken on by both the OAU and the United Nations.

The Lusaka Manifesto summarised the political situations of self-governing African countries, condemning racism and inequity, and calling for black majority rule in all African nations. It did not rebuff South Africa
South Africa
entirely, though, adopting an appeasing manner towards the apartheid government, and even recognising its autonomy. Although African leaders supported the emancipation of black South Africans, they preferred this to be attained through peaceful means.

South Africa's negative response to the Lusaka Manifesto and rejection of a change to its policies brought about another OAU announcement in October 1971. The _Mogadishu Declaration_ stated that South Africa's rebuffing of negotiations meant that its black people could only be freed through military means, and that no African state should converse with the apartheid government.

OUTWARD-LOOKING POLICY

In 1966 B. J. Vorster became Prime Minister. He was not prepared to dismantle apartheid, but he did try to redress South Africa's isolation and to revitalise the country's global reputation, even those with black-ruled nations in Africa. This he called his "Outward-Looking" policy.

Vorster's willingness to talk to African leaders stood in contrast to Verwoerd's refusal to engage with leaders such as Abubakar Tafawa Balewa of Nigeria
Nigeria
in 1962 and Kenneth Kaunda of Zambia
Zambia
in 1964. In 1966, he met the heads of the neighbouring states of Lesotho , Swaziland
Swaziland
and Botswana
Botswana
. In 1967, he offered technological and financial aid to any African state prepared to receive it, asserting that no political strings were attached, aware that many African states needed financial aid despite their opposition to South Africa's racial policies. Many were also tied to South Africa
South Africa
economically because of their migrant labour population working on the South African mines. Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland
Swaziland
remained outspoken critics of apartheid, but depended on South Africa's economic aid.

Malawi was the first country not on South African borders to accept South African aid. In 1967, the two states set out their political and economic relations, and, in 1969, Malawi became the only country at the assembly which did not sign the Lusaka Manifesto condemning South Africa' apartheid policy. In 1970, Malawian president Hastings Banda made his first and most successful official stopover in South Africa.

Associations with Mozambique
Mozambique
followed suit and were sustained after that country won its sovereignty in 1975. Angola
Angola
was also granted South African loans. Other countries which formed relationships with South Africa
South Africa
were Liberia
Liberia
, Ivory Coast , Madagascar, Mauritius
Mauritius
, Gabon, Zaire
Zaire
(now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) and the Central African Republic . Although these states condemned apartheid (more than ever after South Africa's denunciation of the Lusaka Manifesto), South Africa's economic and military dominance meant that they remained dependent on South Africa
South Africa
to varying degrees.

SPORTS AND CULTURE

Main articles: Sporting boycott of South Africa
South Africa
and Rugby union and apartheid

Beginning

South Africa's isolation in sport began in the mid-1950s and increased throughout the 1960s. Apartheid
Apartheid
forbade multiracial sport, which meant that overseas teams, by virtue of their having players of diverse races, could not play in South Africa. In 1956, the International Table Tennis Federation severed its ties with the all-white South African Table Tennis Union, preferring the non-racial South African Table Tennis Board. The apartheid government responded by confiscating the passports of the Board's players so that they were unable to attend international games.

Isolation

Verwoerd Years

In 1959, the non-racial South African Sports Association (SASA) was formed to secure the rights of all players on the global field. After meeting with no success in its endeavours to attain credit by collaborating with white establishments, SASA approached the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1962, calling for South Africa's expulsion from the Olympic Games. The IOC sent South Africa
South Africa
a caution to the effect that, if there were no changes, they would be barred from the 1964 Olympic Games . The changes were initiated, and in January 1963, the South African Non-Racial Olympic Committee (SANROC) was set up. The Anti-Apartheid Movement persisted in its campaign for South Africa's exclusion, and the IOC acceded in barring the country from the 1964 Games in Tokyo. South Africa
South Africa
selected a multi-racial team for the next Games, and the IOC opted for incorporation in the 1968 Games in Mexico . Because of protests from AAMs and African nations, however, the IOC was forced to retract the invitation.

Foreign complaints about South Africa's bigoted sports brought more isolation. Racially selected New Zealand sports teams toured South Africa, until the 1970 All Blacks rugby tour allowed Maori to go under the status of "honorary whites". Huge and widespread protests occurred in New Zealand in 1981 against the Springbok tour – the government spent $8 million protecting games using the army and police force. A planned All Black tour to South Africa
South Africa
in 1985 remobilised the New Zealand protesters and it was cancelled. A "rebel tour" – not government sanctioned – went ahead in 1986, but after that sporting ties were cut, and New Zealand made a decision not to convey an authorised rugby team to South Africa
South Africa
until the end of apartheid.

Vorster Years

Vorster replaced Verwoerd as Prime Minister in 1966 following the latter's assassination and declared that South Africa
South Africa
would no longer dictate to other countries what their teams should look like. Although this reopened the gate for international sporting meets, it did not signal the end of South Africa's racist sporting policies. In 1968 Vorster went against his policy by refusing to permit Basil D\'Oliveira , a Coloured
Coloured
South African-born cricketer, to join the English cricket team on its tour to South Africa. Vorster said that the side had been chosen only to prove a point, and not on merit. After protests, however, "Dolly" was eventually included in the team. Protests against certain tours brought about the cancellation of a number of other visits, including that of an England rugby team touring South Africa
South Africa
in 1969/70.

The first of the "White Bans" occurred in 1971 when the Chairman of the Australian Cricketing Association – Sir Don Bradman – flew to South Africa
South Africa
to meet Vorster. Vorster had expected Bradman to allow the tour of the Australian cricket team to go ahead, but things became heated after Bradman asked why black sportsmen were not allowed to play cricket. Vorster stated that blacks were intellectually inferior and had no finesse for the game. Bradman – thinking this ignorant and repugnant – asked Vorster if he had heard of a man named Garry Sobers . On his return to Australia, Bradman released a one sentence statement: "We will not play them until they choose a team on a non-racist basis."

In South Africa, Vorster vented his anger publicly against Bradman, while the African National Congress
African National Congress
rejoiced. This was the first time a predominantly white nation had taken the side of multiracial sport, producing an unsettling resonance that more "White" boycotts were coming. Almost twenty years later, on his release from prison, Nelson Mandela asked a visiting Australian statesman if Donald Bradman, his childhood hero, was still alive (Bradman lived until 2001).

In 1971, Vorster altered his policies even further by distinguishing multiracial from multinational sport. Multiracial sport, between teams with players of different races, remained outlawed; multinational sport, however, was now acceptable: international sides would not be subject to South Africa's racial stipulations.

In 1978 , Nigeria
Nigeria
boycotted the Commonwealth Games because New Zealand's sporting contacts with the South African government were not considered to be in accordance with the 1977 Gleneagles Agreement . Nigeria
Nigeria
also led the 32-nation boycott of the 1986 Commonwealth Games because of British prime minister Margaret Thatcher\'s ambivalent attitude towards sporting links with South Africa, significantly affecting the quality and profitability of the Games and thus thrusting apartheid into the international spotlight.

Cultural Boycott

In the 1960s, the Anti- Apartheid
Apartheid
Movements began to campaign for _cultural_ boycotts of apartheid South Africa. Artists were requested not to present or let their works be hosted in South Africa. In 1963, 45 British writers put their signatures to an affirmation approving of the boycott, and, in 1964, American actor Marlon Brando
Marlon Brando
called for a similar affirmation for films. In 1965, the Writers\' Guild of Great Britain called for a proscription on the sending of films to South Africa. Over sixty American artists signed a statement against apartheid and against professional links with the state. The presentation of some South African plays in Britain and the United States was also vetoed. After the arrival of television in South Africa in 1975, the British Actors Union, Equity , boycotted the service, and no British programme concerning its associates could be sold to South Africa. Sporting and cultural boycotts did not have the same impact as economic sanctions, but they did much to lift consciousness amongst normal South Africans of the global condemnation of apartheid.

WESTERN INFLUENCE

London " Boycott
Boycott
Apartheid" bus, 1989

While international opposition to apartheid grew, the Nordic countries – and Sweden
Sweden
in particular – provided both moral and financial support for the ANC . On 21 February 1986 – a week before he was murdered – Sweden\'s prime minister Olof Palme made the keynote address to the _Swedish People's Parliament Against Apartheid_ held in Stockholm
Stockholm
. In addressing the hundreds of anti-apartheid sympathisers as well as leaders and officials from the ANC and the Anti-Apartheid Movement such as Oliver Tambo
Oliver Tambo
, Palme declared: " Apartheid
Apartheid
cannot be reformed; it has to be eliminated."

Other Western countries adopted a more ambivalent position. In Switzerland
Switzerland
, the Swiss-South African Association lobbied on behalf of the South African government. In the 1980s, the US Reagan and UK Thatcher administrations followed a "constructive engagement " policy with the apartheid government, vetoing the imposition of UN economic sanctions, justified by a belief in free trade and a vision of South Africa as a bastion against Marxist forces in Southern Africa. Thatcher declared the ANC a terrorist organisation, and in 1987 her spokesman, Bernard Ingham , famously said that anyone who believed that the ANC would ever form the government of South Africa
South Africa
was "living in cloud cuckoo land ". The American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC), a conservative lobbying organisation, actively campaigned against divesting from South Africa
South Africa
throughout the 1980s.

By the late 1980s, with the tide of the Cold War
Cold War
turning and no sign of a political resolution in South Africa, Western patience began to run out. By 1989, a bipartisan Republican /Democratic initiative in the US favoured economic sanctions (realised as the _Comprehensive Anti- Apartheid
Apartheid
Act _ of 1986), the release of Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
and a negotiated settlement involving the ANC. Thatcher too began to take a similar line, but insisted on the suspension of the ANC's armed struggle.

Britain's significant economic involvement in South Africa
South Africa
may have provided some leverage with the South African government, with both the UK and the US applying pressure and pushing for negotiations. However, neither Britain nor the US was willing to apply economic pressure upon their multinational interests in South Africa, such as the mining company Anglo American . Although a high-profile compensation claim against these companies was thrown out of court in 2004, the US Supreme Court
US Supreme Court
in May 2008 upheld an appeal court ruling allowing another lawsuit that seeks damages of more than US$400 billion from major international companies which are accused of aiding South Africa's apartheid system.

THE COLD WAR AND TOTAL ONSLAUGHT

Propaganda leaflet issued to South African military personnel in the 1980s. The pamphlet decries "Russian colonialism and oppression".

During the 1950s, South African military strategy was decisively shaped by fears of communist espionage and a conventional Soviet threat to the strategic Cape trade route between the south Atlantic and Indian Oceans. The apartheid government supported the U.S.-led North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), as well as its policy of regional _containment _ against Soviet-backed regimes and insurgencies worldwide. By the late 1960s, the rise of Soviet client states on the African continent, as well as Soviet aid for militant anti-apartheid movements, was considered one of the primary external threats to the apartheid system. South African officials frequently accused domestic opposition groups of being communist proxies. For its part the Soviet Union viewed South Africa
South Africa
as a bastion of neocolonialism and a regional Western ally, which helped fuel its support for various anti-apartheid causes. From 1973 onward much of South Africa's white population increasingly looked upon their country as a bastion of the free world besieged militarily, politically, and culturally by communism and radical black nationalism. The apartheid government perceived itself as being locked in a proxy struggle with the Warsaw Pact and by implication, armed wings of black nationalist forces such as Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK) and the People\'s Liberation Army of Namibia (PLAN), which often received Soviet arms and training. This was described as "Total Onslaught".

South African initiatives designed to counter "Total Onslaught" were known as "Total Strategy" and involved building up a formidable conventional military and counter-intelligence capability. Total Strategy was built on the principles of counter-revolution as espoused by noted French tactician André Beaufre . Considerable effort was devoted towards circumventing international arms sanctions , and the government even went so far as to develop nuclear weapons , allegedly with covert assistance from Israel
Israel
. In 2010, _ The Guardian
The Guardian
_ released South African government documents that revealed an Israeli offer to sell the apartheid regime nuclear weapons. Israel categorically denied these allegations and claimed that the documents were minutes from a meeting which did not indicate any concrete offer for a sale of nuclear weapons. Shimon Peres
Shimon Peres
said that _The Guardian_'s article was based on "selective interpretation... and not on concrete facts."

From the late 1970s to the late 1980s, defence budgets in South Africa were raised exponentially. Covert operations focused on espionage and domestic political manipulation became common, the number of special forces units swelled, and the South African Defence Force had amassed enough sophisticated conventional weaponry to pose a serious threat to the "front-line states ", a regional alliance of neighbouring countries opposed to apartheid.

Foreign Military Operations

See also: South African Border War
South African Border War
South African paratroops on a raid in Angola, 1980s

South Africa
South Africa
had a policy of attacking insurgent bases and safe houses of PLAN and MK in neighbouring countries beginning in the early 1980s. These attacks were in retaliation for acts of sabotage, urban terrorism, and guerrilla raids by MK, PLAN, and the Azanian People\'s Liberation Army (APLA). The country also aided organisations in surrounding countries who were actively combating the spread of communism in southern Africa. The results of these policies included:

* Support for guerrilla groups such as UNITA in Angola
Angola
and RENAMO in Mozambique * South African Defence Force
South African Defence Force
(SADF) raids into front-line states (e.g. the Raid on Gaborone ). Bombing raids were also conducted into neighbouring states. Air and commando raids into Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Botswana
Botswana
occurred the same day, against ANC targets. * An assassination attempt on Robert Mugabe , Prime Minister and future President of Zimbabwe, on 18 December 1981. * A full-scale intervention into Angola
Angola
: this was partly in support of UNITA, but was also an attempt to strike at PLAN bases. * Bomb attacks in Lesotho . * Kidnapping of refugees and ANC members in Swaziland
Swaziland
by security services. * An unsuccessful South African organised coup in the Seychelles
Seychelles
on 25 November 1981. * Targeting of exiled ANC leaders abroad: Joe Slovo's wife Ruth First was killed by a parcel bomb in Maputo, and "death squads" of the Civil Cooperation Bureau and the Directorate of Military Intelligence attempted to carry out assassinations on ANC targets in Brussels
Brussels
, Paris, Stockholm
Stockholm
, and London.

In 1984, Mozambican president Samora Machel signed the Nkomati Accord with South Africa's president P.W. Botha , in an attempt to end South African support for the opposition group RENAMO . South Africa
South Africa
agreed to cease supporting anti-government forces, while the MK was prohibited from operating in Mozambique. This was a setback for the ANC. Machel hoped the agreement would alliterate the civil war and allow Mozambique
Mozambique
to rebuild its economy. Two years later, President Machel was killed in an air crash in mountainous terrain in South Africa near the Mozambican border after returning from a meeting in Zambia. South Africa
South Africa
was accused by the Mozambican government and US Secretary of State George P. Shultz of continuing its aid to RENAMO. The Mozambican government also made an unproven allegation that the accident was caused intentionally by a false radio navigation beacon that scrambled the aircraft's navigational system. These charges were never proven and is still a subject of some controversy, despite the South African Margo Commission finding that the crash was an accident. A Soviet delegation that did not participate in the investigation issued a minority report implicating South Africa.

Beginning in 1966, PLAN, armed wing of the South West African People\'s Organisation (SWAPO), contested South Africa's occupation of South West Africa (now Namibia). This conflict deepened after Angola gained its independence in 1975 under the leadership of the leftist Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola
Angola
(MPLA) aided by Cuba
Cuba
. South Africa, Zaire
Zaire
and the United States sided with the Angolan rival UNITA party against the MPLA's armed force, FAPLA (People\'s Armed Forces for the Liberation of Angola
Angola
). The following struggle turned into one of several late Cold War
Cold War
flashpoints. The Angolan civil war developed into a conventional war with South Africa
South Africa
and UNITA on one side against the MPLA government, the Soviet Union, the Cubans and SWAPO
SWAPO
on the other.

STATE SECURITY

During the 1980s the government, led by P.W. Botha, became increasingly preoccupied with security. It set up a powerful state security apparatus to "protect" the state against an anticipated upsurge in political violence that the reforms were expected to trigger. The 1980s became a period of considerable political unrest, with the government becoming increasingly dominated by Botha's circle of generals and police chiefs (known as securocrats), who managed the various States of Emergencies.

Botha's years in power were marked also by numerous military interventions in the states bordering South Africa, as well as an extensive military and political campaign to eliminate SWAPO
SWAPO
in Namibia. Within South Africa, meanwhile, vigorous police action and strict enforcement of security legislation resulted in hundreds of arrests and bans, and an effective end to the ANC's sabotage campaign.

The government punished political offenders brutally. 40,000 people annually were subjected to whipping as a form of punishment. The vast majority had committed political offences and were lashed ten times for their crime. If convicted of treason, a person could be hanged, and the government executed numerous political offenders in this way.

As the 1980s progressed, more and more anti-apartheid organisations were formed and affiliated with the UDF. Led by the Reverend
Reverend
Allan Boesak and Albertina Sisulu, the UDF called for the government to abandon its reforms and instead abolish apartheid and eliminate the homelands completely.

STATE OF EMERGENCY

Serious political violence was a prominent feature from 1985 to 1989, as black townships became the focus of the struggle between anti-apartheid organisations and the Botha government. Throughout the 1980s, township people resisted apartheid by acting against the local issues that faced their particular communities. The focus of much of this resistance was against the local authorities and their leaders, who were seen to be supporting the government. By 1985, it had become the ANC's aim to make black townships "ungovernable" (a term later replaced by "people's power") by means of rent boycotts and other militant action. Numerous township councils were overthrown or collapsed, to be replaced by unofficial popular organisations, often led by militant youth. People's courts were set up, and residents accused of being government agents were dealt extreme and occasionally lethal punishments. Black town councillors and policemen, and sometimes their families, were attacked with petrol bombs, beaten, and murdered by necklacing , where a burning tyre was placed around the victim's neck, after they were restrained by wrapping their wrists with barbed wire. This signature act of torture and murder was embraced by the ANC and its leaders.

On 20 July 1985, Botha declared a State of Emergency in 36 magisterial districts. Areas affected were the Eastern Cape
Eastern Cape
, and the PWV region (" Pretoria
Pretoria
, Witwatersrand , Vereeniging "). Three months later the Western Cape
Western Cape
was included. An increasing number of organisations were banned or listed (restricted in some way); many individuals had restrictions such as house arrest imposed on them. During this state of emergency about 2,436 people were detained under the Internal Security Act. This act gave police and the military sweeping powers. The government could implement curfews controlling the movement of people. The president could rule by decree without referring to the constitution or to parliament. It became a criminal offence to threaten someone verbally or possess documents that the government perceived to be threatening, to advise anyone to stay away from work or oppose the government, and to disclose the name of anyone arrested under the State of Emergency until the government released that name, with up to ten years' imprisonment for these offences. Detention without trial became a common feature of the government's reaction to growing civil unrest and by 1988, 30,000 people had been detained. The media was censored, thousands were arrested and many were interrogated and tortured .

On 12 June 1986, four days before the tenth anniversary of the Soweto uprising, the state of emergency was extended to cover the whole country. The government amended the Public Security Act, including the right to declare "unrest" areas, allowing extraordinary measures to crush protests in these areas. Severe censorship of the press became a dominant tactic in the government's strategy and television cameras were banned from entering such areas. The state broadcaster, the South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC), provided propaganda in support of the government. Media opposition to the system increased, supported by the growth of a pro-ANC underground press within South Africa.

In 1987, the State of Emergency was extended for another two years. Meanwhile, about 200,000 members of the National Union of Mineworkers commenced the longest strike (three weeks) in South African history. 1988 saw the banning of the activities of the UDF and other anti-apartheid organisations.

Much of the violence in the late 1980s and early 1990s was directed at the government, but a substantial amount was between the residents themselves. Many died in violence between members of Inkatha and the UDF-ANC faction. It was later proven that the government manipulated the situation by supporting one side or the other when it suited it. Government agents assassinated opponents within South Africa
South Africa
and abroad; they undertook cross-border army and air-force attacks on suspected ANC and PAC bases. The ANC and the PAC in return exploded bombs at restaurants, shopping centres and government buildings such as magistrates courts. Between 1960 and 1994, according to statistics from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, the Inkatha Freedom Party was responsible for 4,500 killings, South African security forces were responsible for 2,700 killings and the ANC was responsible for 1,300 killings.

The state of emergency continued until 1990, when it was lifted by State President F.W. de Klerk .

FINAL YEARS OF APARTHEID

Main article: Negotiations to end apartheid in South Africa

FACTORS

Institutional Racism

Apartheid
Apartheid
developed by racism of colonial factors and due to South Africa's "unique industrialization". The policies of industrialisation led to segregation of and classing of people, which was "specifically developed to nurture early industry such as mining and capitalist culture". Cheap labour was the basis of the economy and this was taken from what the state classed as peasant groups and the migrants. Furthermore, Philip Bonner highlights the "contradictory economic effects" as the economy did not have a manufacturing sector, therefore promoting short term profitability but limiting labour productivity and the size of local markets. This also led to its collapse as "Clarkes emphasises the economy could not provide and compete with foreign rivals as they failed to master cheap labour and complex chemistry".

Economic Contradictions

The contradictions in the traditionally capitalist economy of the apartheid state led to considerable debate about racial policy, and division and conflicts in the central state. To a large extent the political ideology of apartheid had emerged from the colonisation of Africa by European powers which institutionalised racial discrimination and exercised a paternal philosophy of "civilising inferior natives." Some scholars have argued that this can be reflected in Afrikaner Calvinism , with its parallel traditions of racialism; for example, as early as 1933 the executive council of the Broederbond formulated a recommendation for mass segregation.

Western Influence

Anti-apartheid protest at South Africa
South Africa
House in London, 1989

External western influence can be seen as one of the factors that arguably greatly influenced political ideology, particularly due to the influences of colonisation. South Africa
South Africa
in particular is argued to be an "unreconstructed example of western civilisation twisted by racism". However, western influence also helped end apartheid. "Once the power of the Soviet Union declined along with its Communist influence, western nations felt Apartheid
Apartheid
could no longer be tolerated and spoke out, encouraging a move towards democracy and self-determination".

In the 1960s, South Africa
South Africa
experienced economic growth second only to that of Japan. Trade with Western countries grew, and investment from the United States, France and Britain poured in.

In 1974, resistance to apartheid was encouraged by Portugal\'s withdrawal from Mozambique
Mozambique
and Angola
Angola
, after the 1974 Carnation Revolution . South African troops withdrew from Angola
Angola
in early 1976, failing to prevent the MPLA from gaining power there, and black students in South Africa
South Africa
celebrated.

The Mahlabatini Declaration of Faith , signed by Mangosuthu Buthelezi and Harry Schwarz in 1974, enshrined the principles of peaceful transition of power and equality for all. Its purpose was to provide a blueprint for South Africa
South Africa
by consent and racial peace in a multi-racial society, stressing opportunity for all, consultation, the federal concept, and a Bill of Rights. It caused a split in the United Party that ultimately realigned opposition politics in South Africa, with the formation of the Progressive Federal Party in 1977. It was the first of such agreements by acknowledged black and white political leaders in South Africa.

In 1978, the defence minister of the NP, Pieter Willem Botha , became Prime Minister. Botha's white regime was worried about the Soviet Union helping revolutionaries in South Africa, and the economy had slowed down. The new government noted that it was spending too much money trying to maintain the segregated homelands that had been created for blacks and the homelands were proving to be uneconomical.

Nor was maintaining blacks as a third class working well. The labour of blacks remained vital to the economy, and illegal black labour unions were flourishing. Many blacks remained too poor to make much of a contribution to the economy through their purchasing power – although they were more than 70 percent of the population. Botha's regime was afraid that an antidote was needed to prevent the blacks from being attracted to Communism.

In July 1979, the Nigerian government claimed that the Shell-BP Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria
Nigeria
Limited (SPDC) was selling Nigerian oil to South Africa, although there was little evidence or commercial logic for such sales. The alleged sanctions-breaking was used to justify the seizure of some of BP's assets in Nigeria including their stake in SPDC, although it appears the real reasons were economic nationalism and domestic politics ahead of the Nigerian elections. Many South Africans attended schools in Nigeria, and Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
several times acknowledged the role of Nigeria
Nigeria
in the struggle against apartheid.

In the 1980s, the anti-apartheid movements in the United States and Europe were gaining support for boycotts against South Africa, for the withdrawal of US firms from South Africa
South Africa
and for the release of Mandela. South Africa
South Africa
was becoming an outlaw in the world community of nations. Investing in South Africa
South Africa
by Americans and others was coming to an end and an active policy of disinvestment ensued.

TRICAMERAL PARLIAMENT

Main article: Tricameral Parliament

In the early 1980s, Botha's National Party government started to recognise the inevitability of the need to reform apartheid. Early reforms were driven by a combination of internal violence, international condemnation, changes within the National Party's constituency, and changing demographics – whites constituted only 16 percent of the total population, in comparison to 20 percent fifty years earlier.

In 1983, a new constitution was passed implementing what was called the Tricameral Parliament, giving coloureds and Indians voting rights and parliamentary representation in separate houses – the House of Assembly (178 members) for whites, the House of Representatives (85 members) for coloureds and the House of Delegates (45 members) for Indians. Each House handled laws pertaining to its racial group's "own affairs", including health, education and other community issues. All laws relating to "general affairs" (matters such as defence, industry, taxation and Black affairs) were handled by a cabinet made up of representatives from all three houses. However, the white chamber had a large majority on this cabinet, ensuring that effective control of the country remained in white hands. Blacks, although making up the majority of the population, were excluded from representation; they remained nominal citizens of their homelands. The first Tricameral elections were largely boycotted by Coloured
Coloured
and Indian voters, amid widespread rioting.

REFORMS AND CONTACT WITH THE ANC UNDER BOTHA

Concerned over the popularity of Mandela, Botha denounced him as an arch- Marxist committed to violent revolution, but to appease black opinion and nurture Mandela as a benevolent leader of blacks, the government moved him from Robben Island to Pollsmoor Prison in a rural area just outside Cape Town, where prison life was easier. The government allowed Mandela more visitors, including visits and interviews by foreigners, to let the world know that he was being treated well.

Black homelands were declared nation-states and pass laws were abolished. Black labour unions were legitimised, the government recognised the right of blacks to live in urban areas permanently and gave blacks property rights there. Interest was expressed in rescinding the law against interracial marriage and also rescinding the law against sex between the races, which was under ridicule abroad. The spending for black schools increased, to one-seventh of what was spent per white child, up from on one-sixteenth in 1968. At the same time, attention was given to strengthening the effectiveness of the police apparatus.

In January 1985, Botha addressed the government's House of Assembly and stated that the government was willing to release Mandela on condition that Mandela pledge opposition to acts of violence to further political objectives. Mandela's reply was read in public by his daughter Zinzi – his first words distributed publicly since his sentence to prison twenty-one years before. Mandela described violence as the responsibility of the apartheid regime and said that with democracy there would be no need for violence. The crowd listening to the reading of his speech erupted in cheers and chants. This response helped to further elevate Mandela's status in the eyes of those, both internationally and domestically, who opposed apartheid.

Between 1986 and 1988, some petty apartheid laws were repealed. Botha told white South Africans to "adapt or die" and twice he wavered on the eve of what were billed as "rubicon " announcements of substantial reforms, although on both occasions he backed away from substantial changes. Ironically, these reforms served only to trigger intensified political violence through the remainder of the eighties as more communities and political groups across the country joined the resistance movement. Botha's government stopped short of substantial reforms, such as lifting the ban on the ANC, PAC and SACP and other liberation organisations, releasing political prisoners, or repealing the foundation laws of grand apartheid. The government's stance was that they would not contemplate negotiating until those organisations "renounced violence".

By 1987, South Africa's economy was growing at one of the lowest rates in the world, and the ban on South African participation in international sporting events was frustrating many whites in South Africa. Examples of African states with black leaders and white minorities existed in Kenya and Zimbabwe. Whispers of South Africa
South Africa
one day having a black President sent more hardline whites into Rightist parties. Mandela was moved to a four-bedroom house of his own, with a swimming pool and shaded by fir trees, on a prison farm just outside Cape Town. He had an unpublicised meeting with Botha. Botha impressed Mandela by walking forward, extending his hand and pouring Mandela's tea. The two had a friendly discussion, with Mandela comparing the African National Congress' rebellion with that of the Afrikaner rebellion and talking about everyone being brothers.

A number of clandestine meetings were held between the ANC-in-exile and various sectors of the internal struggle, such as women and educationalists. More overtly, a group of white intellectuals met the ANC in Senegal
Senegal
for talks.

PRESIDENCY OF F.W. DE KLERK

De Klerk and Mandela in Davos
Davos
, 1992

Early in 1989, Botha suffered a stroke; he was prevailed upon to resign in February 1989. He was succeeded as president later that year by F.W. de Klerk . Despite his initial reputation as a conservative, de Klerk moved decisively towards negotiations to end the political stalemate in the country. In his opening address to parliament on 2 February 1990, de Klerk announced that he would repeal discriminatory laws and lift the 30-year ban on leading anti-apartheid groups such as the African National Congress, the Pan Africanist Congress, the South African Communist Party (SACP) and the United Democratic Front . The Land Act was brought to an end. De Klerk also made his first public commitment to release Nelson Mandela, to return to press freedom and to suspend the death penalty. Media restrictions were lifted and political prisoners not guilty of common law crimes were released.

On 11 February 1990, Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
was released from Victor Verster Prison after more than 27 years of confinement.

Having been instructed by the UN Security Council
UN Security Council
to end its long-standing involvement in South West Africa / Namibia
Namibia
, and in the face of military stalemate in Southern Angola, and an escalation in the size and cost of the combat with the Cubans, the Angolans, and SWAPO
SWAPO
forces and the growing cost of the border war, South Africa negotiated a change of control; Namibia
Namibia
became independent on 21 March 1990.

NEGOTIATIONS

Main article: Negotiations to end apartheid in South Africa

Apartheid
Apartheid
was dismantled in a series of negotiations from 1990 to 1993, culminating in elections in 1994 , the first in South Africa with universal suffrage .

From 1990 to 1996 the legal apparatus of apartheid was abolished. In 1990 negotiations were earnestly begun, with two meetings between the government and the ANC. The purpose of the negotiations was to pave the way for talks towards a peaceful transition of power. These meetings were successful in laying down the preconditions for negotiations – despite the considerable tensions still abounding within the country.

At the first meeting, the NP and ANC discussed the conditions for negotiations to begin. The meeting was held at Groote Schuur , the President's official residence. They released the Groote Schuur Minute, which said that before negotiations commenced political prisoners would be freed and all exiles allowed to return.

There were fears that the change of power would be violent. To avoid this, it was essential that a peaceful resolution between all parties be reached. In December 1991, the Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA) began negotiations on the formation of a multiracial transitional government and a new constitution extending political rights to all groups. CODESA adopted a Declaration of Intent and committed itself to an "undivided South Africa".

Reforms and negotiations to end apartheid led to a backlash among the right-wing white opposition, leading to the Conservative Party winning a number of by-elections against NP candidates. De Klerk responded by calling a whites-only referendum in March 1992 to decide whether negotiations should continue. A 68 per cent majority gave its support, and the victory instilled in de Klerk and the government a lot more confidence, giving the NP a stronger position in negotiations.

When negotiations resumed in May 1992, under the tag of CODESA II, stronger demands were made. The ANC and the government could not reach a compromise on how power should be shared during the transition to democracy. The NP wanted to retain a strong position in a transitional government, and the power to change decisions made by parliament.

Persistent violence added to the tension during the negotiations. This was due mostly to the intense rivalry between the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) and the ANC and the eruption of some traditional tribal and local rivalries between the Zulu and Xhosa historical tribal affinities, especially in the Southern Natal provinces. Although Mandela and Buthelezi met to settle their differences, they could not stem the violence. One of the worst cases of ANC-IFP violence was the Boipatong massacre of 17 June 1992, when 200 IFP militants attacked the Gauteng township of Boipatong, killing 45. Witnesses said that the men had arrived in police vehicles, supporting claims that elements within the police and army contributed to the ongoing violence. Subsequent judicial inquiries found the evidence of the witnesses to be unreliable or discredited, and that there was no evidence of National Party or police involvement in the massacre. When de Klerk visited the scene of the incident he was initially warmly welcomed, but he was suddenly confronted by a crowd of protesters brandishing stones and placards. The motorcade sped from the scene as police tried to hold back the crowd. Shots were fired by the police, and the PAC stated that three of its supporters had been gunned down. Nonetheless, the Boipatong massacre offered the ANC a pretext to engage in brinkmanship. Mandela argued that de Klerk, as head of state, was responsible for bringing an end to the bloodshed. He also accused the South African police of inciting the ANC-IFP violence. This formed the basis for ANC's withdrawal from the negotiations, and the CODESA forum broke down completely at this stage.

The Bisho massacre on 7 September 1992 brought matters to a head. The Ciskei
Ciskei
Defence Force killed 29 people and injured 200 when they opened fire on ANC marchers demanding the reincorporation of the Ciskei homeland into South Africa. In the aftermath, Mandela and de Klerk agreed to meet to find ways to end the spiralling violence. This led to a resumption of negotiations.

Right-wing violence also added to the hostilities of this period. The assassination of Chris Hani
Chris Hani
on 10 April 1993 threatened to plunge the country into chaos. Hani, the popular general secretary of the South African Communist Party (SACP), was assassinated in 1993 in Dawn Park in Johannesburg
Johannesburg
by Janusz Waluś , an anti-communist Polish refugee who had close links to the white nationalist Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (AWB). Hani enjoyed widespread support beyond his constituency in the SACP and ANC and had been recognised as a potential successor to Mandela; his death brought forth protests throughout the country and across the international community, but ultimately proved a turning point, after which the main parties pushed for a settlement with increased determination. On 25 June 1993, the AWB used an armoured vehicle to crash through the doors of the Kempton Park World Trade Centre where talks were still going ahead under the Negotiating Council, though this did not derail the process.

In addition to the continuing "black-on-black" violence, there were a number of attacks on white civilians by the PAC's military wing, the Azanian People\'s Liberation Army (APLA). The PAC was hoping to strengthen their standing by attracting the support of the angry, impatient youth. In the St James Church massacre on 25 July 1993, members of the APLA opened fire in a church in Cape Town, killing 11 members of the congregation and wounding 58.

In 1993 de Klerk and Mandela were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize "for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa".

Violence persisted right up to the 1994 elections. Lucas Mangope , leader of the Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
homeland, declared that it would not take part in the elections. It had been decided that, once the temporary constitution had come into effect, the homelands would be incorporated into South Africa, but Mangope did not want this to happen. There were strong protests against his decision, leading to a coup d\'état in Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
on 10 March that deposed Mangope, despite the intervention of white right-wingers hoping to maintain him in power. Three AWB militants were killed during this intervention, and harrowing images were shown on national television and in newspapers across the world.

Two days before the elections, a car bomb exploded in Johannesburg, killing nine. The day before the elections, another one went off, injuring 13. At midnight on 26–27 April 1994 the old flag was lowered, and the old (now co-official) national anthem _Die Stem _ ("The Call") was sung, followed by the raising of the new rainbow flag and singing of the other co-official anthem, _Nkosi Sikelel\' iAfrika _ ("God Bless Africa").

1994 ELECTION

The new multicoloured flag of South Africa
South Africa
adopted in 1994 to mark the end of Apartheid
Apartheid
Main article: South African general election, 1994

The election was held on 27 April 1994 and went off peacefully throughout the country as 20 million South Africans cast their votes. There was some difficulty in organising the voting in rural areas, but people waited patiently for many hours to vote amidst a palpable feeling of goodwill. An extra day was added to give everyone the chance. International observers agreed that the elections were free and fair. The European Union's report on the election compiled at the end of May 1994, published two years after the election, criticised the Independent Electoral Commission's lack of preparedness for the polls, the shortages of voting materials at many voting stations, and the absence of effective safeguards against fraud in the counting process. In particular, it expressed disquiet that "no international observers had been allowed to be present at the crucial stage of the count when party representatives negotiated over disputed ballots." This meant that both the electorate and the world were "simply left to guess at the way the final result was achieved."

The ANC won 62.65 percent of the vote, less than the 66.7 percent that would have allowed it to rewrite the constitution. 252 of the 400 seats went to members of the African National Congress. The NP captured most of the white and coloured votes and became the official opposition party. As well as deciding the national government, the election decided the provincial governments, and the ANC won in seven of the nine provinces, with the NP winning in the Western Cape
Western Cape
and the IFP in KwaZulu-Natal . On 10 May 1994, Mandela was sworn in as South Africa's president. The Government of National Unity was established, its cabinet made up of 12 ANC representatives, six from the NP, and three from the IFP. Thabo Mbeki and de Klerk were made deputy presidents.

The anniversary of the elections, 27 April, is celebrated as a public holiday known as Freedom Day .

CONTRITION

The following individuals, who had previously supported apartheid, made public apologies:

* F. W. de Klerk : "I apologise in my capacity as leader of the NP to the millions who suffered wrenching disruption of forced removals; who suffered the shame of being arrested for pass law offences; who over the decades suffered the indignities and humiliation of racial discrimination." * Marthinus van Schalkwyk : "The National Party brought development to a section of South Africa, but also brought suffering through a system grounded on injustice", in a statement shortly after the National Party voted to disband. * Adriaan Vlok washed the feet of apartheid victim Frank Chikane in an act of apology for the wrongs of the Apartheid
Apartheid
regime. * Leon Wessels : "I am now more convinced than ever that apartheid was a terrible mistake that blighted our land. South Africans did not listen to the laughing and the crying of each other. I am sorry that I had been so hard of hearing for so long".

SEE ALSO

* Apartheid legislation in South Africa
South Africa
* Africa Hinterland (arms smuggling operation) * Apartheid in art and literature * Apartheid Museum * Anti-Apartheid Movement * Belhar Confession * Born a Crime * Chris Barnard (executioner) * Day of Reconciliation * Desmond Tutu
Desmond Tutu
* Disinvestment from South Africa * Foreign relations of South Africa
South Africa
during apartheid * Hendrik Verwoerd * Israel
Israel
and the apartheid analogy * J. B. M. Hertzog * Jan Smuts * Jim Crow laws * Legacies of apartheid * Liberation before education * Music in the movement against apartheid * Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
* Oliver Tambo
Oliver Tambo
* Pieter Botha * Paris Peace Conference, 1919#Japanese approach * Racial segregation * Sandra Laing * Second-class citizen * Steve Biko
Steve Biko
* United Democratic Front (South Africa) * Truth and Reconciliation Commission (South Africa) * White Australia policy

* South Africa
South Africa
portal * 1950s portal * 1960s portal * 1970s portal * 1980s portal * 1990s portal * 2000s portal

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by the apartheid government 1961 - 1989". South African History Online. Retrieved 10 May 2017. * ^ Pomeroy, William J. (1986). _Apartheid, imperialism, and African freedom._ International Publishers. p. 226. ISBN 978-0-7178-0640-9 . * ^ Legum, Colin (1989). _Africa contemporary record: annual survey and documents, Volume 20._ Africana Pub. Co. p. 668. * ^ McKendrick, Brian; Hoffmann, Wilman (1990). _People and violence in South Africa._ Oxford University Press. p. 62. * ^ Blond, Rebecca; Fitzpatrick, Mary (2004). _South Africa, Lesotho ">'", The Journal of African History, 33(1992) pp. 209–237 (pp. 209, 211) * ^ L.H, Gann, "Apartheids Genesis 1935–1962", Business Library, (1994) pp. 1–6. (p. 1.) * ^ Legasick, Martin (1974). "Legislation, Ideology and Economy in Post-1948 South Africa." _Journal of South African Studies._ 1 (1): 5–35. * ^ Giliomee, Hermann (1995). "Democratization in South Africa". _Political Science Quarterly_. * ^ Weymouth Genova, Ann (2007). _Oil and Nationalism in Nigeria, 1970–1980_. ProQuest. p. 123. ISBN 978-0-549-26666-2 . Retrieved 11 April 2012. Weymouth Genova covers the possibility of Nigerian oil going to South Africa
South Africa
in detail from page 113. Heavily laden tankers have to respect the ocean currents which means they travel clockwise around Africa; oil for South Africa
South Africa
would likely come from the Middle East rather than West Africa. Nigeria
Nigeria
had been taking over other oil marketing companies to reduce price differentials across the country; they needed to fill a budget shortfall due to low oil prices and had a history of disputes with BP and the British government so BP assets were seized when Shell's stake in SPDC was not. * ^ Weymouth Genova, Ann (2007). _Oil and Nationalism in Nigeria, 1970–1980_. ProQuest. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-549-26666-2 . Retrieved 11 April 2012. * ^ Knox, Colin; Quirk, Pádraic (2000). _Peace building in Northern Ireland, Israel
Israel
and South Africa: transition, transformation and reconciliation._ Palgrave Macmillan. p. 151. * ^ Beinart, William (2001). _Twentieth-century South Africa_. Oxford University Press. p. 202. ISBN 978-0-19-289318-5 . * ^ Taylor & Francis Group (2004). _Europa World Year Book 2, Book 2._ Taylor White-Led Parliament Votes for Constitution Canceling Its Powers." _ The Washington Post _. * ^ Wople, Harold (1990). _Race, class & the apartheid state._ Africa World Press. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-86543-142-3 . * ^ Marais, D. (1989). _South Africa: constitutional development, a multi-disciplinary approach._ Southern Book Publishers. p. 258. ISBN 978-1-86812-159-5 . * ^ Lötter, Hennie P. P. (1997). _Injustice, violence and peace: the case of South Africa._ Rodopi. p. 49. ISBN 978-90-420-0264-7 . * ^ "Cops fight crowds at S. Africa elections." _Philadelphia Daily News ._ 28 August 1984. * ^ South Africa: Adapt or Die. _Time_. * ^ Lieberfeld, Daniel (2002). "Evaluating the Contributions of Track-two Diplomacy to Conflict Termination in South Africa, 1984–90." _Journal of Peace Research._ 39 (3): 355–372. doi :10.1177/0022343302039003006 * ^ Roherty, James Michael (1992). _State security in South Africa: civil-military relations under P.W. Botha._ M.E. Sharpe. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-87332-877-7 . * ^ Macleod, Scott (7 July 1992). "Enemies: Black vs. Black vs. White". _Time_. * ^ "Turning Points in History Book 6: Negotiation, Transition and Freedom". Archived from the original on 9 March 2008. Retrieved 3 December 2007. * ^ Kemp, Arthur (2008). _Victory Or Violence – The Story of the Awb of South Africa._ Lulu.com. pp. 165–166. ISBN 978-1-4092-0187-8 . * ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
1993". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 20 June 2006. Retrieved 27 April 2007. * ^ Christian Century (11 May 1994). "Dawn of liberation – 1994 South African election". BNet, a CBS Company. Retrieved 13 July 2008. * ^ Truth and reconciliation commission . "New cut-off date opens amnesty doors for pre-election bombers". South African Department of Justice and Constitutional Development. Retrieved 13 July 2008. * ^ Deegan, Heather (2001). _The politics of the new South Africa: apartheid and after._ Pearson Education. p. 194. ISBN 978-0-582-38227-5 . * ^ Jeffery, A. _People's War: New Light on the Struggle for South Africa_. Jonathan Ball. * ^ "Elections \'94". Independent Electoral Commission (IEC). Archived from the original on 28 June 2008. Retrieved 13 July 2008. * ^ Lijphart, Arend. "Spotlight Three: South Africa\'s 1994 Elections". FairVote. Retrieved 13 July 2008. * ^ De Klerk apologises again for apartheid. South African Press Association . 14 May 1997. * ^ Meldrum, Andrew (11 April 2005). Apartheid
Apartheid
party bows out with apology. _ The Guardian
The Guardian
_. * ^ Macharia, James (11 April 2005). South Africa
South Africa
apartheid party votes to dissolve. _ The Boston Globe
The Boston Globe
_. * ^ "Mr Adrian Vlok extends gesture of penance to Rev Frank Chikane, Director-General in the Presidency". South African Government Information. 28 August 2006. Archived from the original on 28 August 2009. Retrieved 22 February 2009. * ^ Volume Five Chapter Six – Findings and Conclusions. Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.

FURTHER READING

* Bernstein, Hilda. _For their Triumphs and for their Tears: Women in Apartheid
Apartheid
South Africa. International Defence and Aid Fund for Southern Africa_. London, 1985. * Davenport, T. R. H. _South Africa. A Modern History_. MacMillan , 1977. * Davies, Rob, Dan O'Meara and Sipho Dlamini. _The Struggle For South Africa: A reference guide to movements, organisations and institution_. Volume Two. London: Zed Books , 1984 * De Klerk, F. W. _The last Trek. A New Beginning_. MacMillan, 1998. * Du Pre, R. H. _Separate but Unequal – The 'Coloured' People of South Africa
South Africa
– A Political History._. Jonathan Ball, 1994. * Eiselen, W. W. N. The Meaning of Apartheid, _Race Relations_, 15 (3), 1948. * Federal Research Division. _ South Africa
South Africa
– a country study_. Library of Congress
Library of Congress
, 1996. * Giliomee, Herman _The Afrikaners_. Hurst & Co., 2003. * Hexham, Irving, _The Irony of Apartheid: The Struggle for National Independence of Afrikaner Calvinism against British Imperialism." Edwin Mellen, 1981._ * Keable, Ken _London Recruits: The Secret War Against Apartheid
Apartheid
_. Pontypool , UK : Merlin Press. 2012. * Lapchick, Richard and Urdang, Stephanie. Oppression and Resistance. The Struggle of Women in Southern Africa. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press . 1982. * Louw, P. Eric. _The Rise, Fall and Legacy of Apartheid_. Praeger, 2004. * Meredith, Martin. _In the name of apartheid: South Africa
South Africa
in the postwar period_. 1st US ed. New York: Harper padding:0.75em; background:#f9f9f9;"> Find more aboutAPARTHEIDat's sister projects

* _Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Commons * News from Wikinews * Quotations from Wikiquote * Texts from Wikisource * Textbooks from Wikibooks * Learning resources from Wikiversity * Data from Wikidata

* Understanding Apartheid
Apartheid
Learner\'s Book * The evolution of the white right * History of the freedom charter SAHO * Apartheid Museum in Johannesburg * Cape Town\'s District Six Museum which examines forced removals * The African Activist Archive Project website has material on the struggle against apartheid * South Africa: Cuba
Cuba
and the South African Anti- Apartheid
Apartheid
Struggle by Nicole Sarmiento * Interview with Dr. Ranginui Walker about the \'No Maoris\' tours to South Africa
South Africa
under apartheid RadioLIVE interview on the exclusion of Maori from the All Blacks during the tours of South Africa
South Africa
under apartheid. * The International Centre for Transitional Justice (ICTJ) provides resources on the legacy of apartheid and transitional justice in South Africa. * "JSTOR\'s Struggles for Freedom digital archive on www.aluka.org". about.jstor.org_. Collection of primary source historical materials about apartheid South Africa
South Africa

* v * t * e

Political history of South Africa
South Africa

DEFUNCT POLITIES

* Kingdom of Mapungubwe
Kingdom of Mapungubwe
(c. 1075–c. 1220) * Dutch Cape Colony
Dutch Cape Colony
(1652–1806) * Mthethwa Paramountcy (c. 1780–1817) * Ndwandwe Kingdom (c. 1780–1819) * Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1795–1910) * Zulu Kingdom (1816–97) * Natalia Republic (1839–43) * Natal Colony (1843–1910) * Orange Free State (1854–1902) * South African Republic
South African Republic
(1856–1902) * Griqualand East (1861–79) * Griqualand West (1870–73) * Goshen (1882–83) * Stellaland (1882–85) * Nieuwe Republiek (1884–88) * Upingtonia (1885–87) * Klein Vrystaat (1886–91) * Orange River Colony (1902–10) * Transvaal Colony (1902–10) * Union of South Africa
South Africa
(1910–61) * Transkei
Transkei
(1976–94) * Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
(1977–94) * Venda (1979–94) * Ciskei
Ciskei
(1981–94)

EVENTS

1652–1815

* Dutch settlement * French Huguenot settlement * Khoikhoi–Dutch Wars * Xhosa Wars * Battle of Muizenberg
Battle of Muizenberg
* Battle of Blaauwberg * Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814

1815–1910

* Mfecane * 1820 Settlers
1820 Settlers
* Great Trek * Boer Republics * Mineral Revolution * Witwatersrand Gold Rush * South African Wars * South Africa
South Africa
Act 1909

1910–1948

* Maritz Rebellion * Rand Rebellion * Great Depression * 1946 African Mine Workers\' Union strike * Bantustans

APARTHEID ERA

* 1948 general election

* Apartheid legislation

* Pass laws

* Internal resistance * Coloured-vote constitutional crisis * Defiance Campaign

* Congress of the People

* Freedom Charter

* Women\'s March 1956 * 1957 Alexandra bus boycott * Sharpeville massacre * 1960 republic referendum

* International isolation

* Academic boycott * Disinvestment

* Sporting boycott

* Olympics * Rugby union

* Rivonia Trial * Tar Baby Option * Durban
Durban
Moment * Border War

* Israeli alliance

* Israel– South Africa
South Africa
Agreement

* Soweto Uprising * Weapons of mass destruction * Project Coast * Constructive engagement * Church Street bombing * 1983 constitutional reform referendum * Rubicon speech * Dakar Conference * Third Force * CODESA * 1992 apartheid referendum * Saint James Church massacre * Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
crisis * Shell House massacre

POST-APARTHEID

* 1994 general election * Government of National Unity * Reconstruction and Development Programme
Reconstruction and Development Programme
* Truth and Reconciliation Commission * Arms Deal * Floor crossing * African Renaissance * Xenophobia * Marikana massacre * 2012 Western Cape
Western Cape
farm workers\' strike * Nkandlagate * 2014 platinum strike * #RhodesMustFall protests * # FeesMustFall
FeesMustFall
student protests * 2016 Tshwane riots

POLITICAL CULTURE

* African nationalism * Afrikaner Calvinism * Afrikaner nationalism * Azania * _ Baasskap _ * _ Boerehaat _ * Black Consciousness Movement * Day of the Vow * Greater South Africa
South Africa
* Honorary whites * _ Rooi gevaar _ * Slavery
Slavery
* _ Swart gevaar _ * _ Uitlander _ * _ Volkstaat
Volkstaat
_

Defunct organisations

Civic and political organisations

* Afrikaner Bond * Afrikaner Broederbond * Afrikaner Party * AITUP * APO * AVF * BPC * Black Sash
Black Sash
* CDA * CTEG * COD * Congress Alliance * COSG * CP * Dominion
Dominion
Party * DP (1973–1977) * DP (1989–2000) * DPP * ECC * FA * FD * Genootskap van Regte Afrikaners * GNP * Het Volk * HNP * IDASA * ID * IP * ISL * Jeugkrag * Johannesburg
Johannesburg
Reform Committee * Labour Party (1910–1958) * Labour Party (1969–1994) * Liberal Party (1953–1968) * NA * NCP * NIC * NLP * NNP * NP * NPP * NRP * NUSAS * PFP * Progressive Party (Cape Colony) * Progressive Party * PRP * Radio Freedom * Reform Party * SABP * SADECO * SAIC * SASO * SAYCO * SAYRCO * South African Party (Cape Colony) * South African Party (1911–1934) * South African Party (1977–1980) * TNIP * Torch Commando * UFP * United Party * Unionist Party * Volksparty * Workers Party * WOSA

Trade unions and social movements

* APF * BCM * BLATU * CNETU * CTSWU * FCWU * FNETU * FOSATU * ICU * IWW (SA) * MUSA * NEUM * NURHS * PAWE * SAAPAWU * SACTU * SAIF * SARHU * SATUC * Die Spoorbund * UDF * Umkosi Wezintaba

Paramilitary and terrorist organisations

* APLA * ARM * BBB * Boeremag * Greyshirts * MK * Ossewabrandwag
Ossewabrandwag
* Orde van die Dood * SANF

Histories of political parties

* African National Congress
African National Congress
* Democratic Alliance * Pan Africanist Congress of Azania

CATEGORY

* v * t * e

Racism
Racism

TYPES OF RACISM

* Against Jews * Aversive * Among White people * Among LGBT people

* Among US minorities

* Colorism

* Among Hipsters * Consumer * Covert * Cultural * Environmental * Gendered * Institutional * Internalized * Islamophobia * Nationalist

* New racism

* Neo-racism

* Reverse

* Romantic

* Love

* Sexual * Scientific * Societal * Symbolic

Manifestations of racism

* Anti-miscegenation laws

* Expression

* in the media * in Charles Dickens\' works * in music

* in early US films

* Censored Eleven

* in horror films * in porn

* online

* on

* in sport

* baseball * martial arts * soccer

* in school curricula * in US politics * Jokes * Slurs

* Racial antagonism * Racial determinism * Racial hatred

* Racial hierarchy

* Casta

* Racial polarization * Racial quota * Racial vilification

* Racial violence

* Race war

RACISM BY REGION

* Africa * Arab world * Asia * Australia * Europe * Middle East * North America * South America

RELATED TOPICS

* Anti-racism

* Psychological impact

* Psychoanalysis

* Racial transformation * Passing * Racial democracy * Racial fetishism * Race traitor * List of racism-related articles * List of anti-ethnic terms

Category
Category

* v * t * e

Segregation in countries by type

Geographical (religious )

* Bosnia and Herzegovina * Partition of India
India
* Israel
Israel
* Northern Ireland * Greece and Turkey * Partition of Bengal * Saudi Arabia

RACIAL

* Australia * Argentina * Bahrain * Brazil * Dominican Republic * Fiji * France * Malaysia * Nazi Germany * Poland * Portugal
Portugal
* Rhodesia * South Africa * Spain * Saudization * Emiratisation

* United States

* schools * Anti-miscegenation laws in the United States

GENDER

* Islam (in Iran ) * Taliban * Saudi Arabia * Judaism * Separatist feminism

DYNAMICS

* Auto-segregation * Balkanization * Ethnic cleansing * Exclusionary zoning * Forced migration

* Internment
Internment

* labor camps

* Residential segregation in the United States * Social exclusion

Related topics

* Apartheid
Apartheid

* laws

* Anti-miscegenation laws * Black Codes * Corporative federalism * Discrimination
Discrimination
* Hafrada * Jim Crow laws * Nativism * Nuremberg Laws
Nuremberg Laws
* Racism
Racism
* Rankism * Religious intolerance * Reservation in India
India
* Second-class citizen * Separate but equal * Separate school (Canada) * Shunning * Social apartheid * Xenophobia

* See also: Desegregation

* busing

* Pillarisation
Pillarisation

* CATEGORY

* caste * gender * racial

* COMMONS

* v * t * e

South Africa
South Africa
articles

HISTORY

Timeline (years )

* Early history * Cape Colony
Cape Colony
* Orange Free State * Transvaal * First Boer War * Second Boer War * Great Depression * World War II
World War II
* Apartheid * Border War * Since 1994

BY TOPIC

* Economic * Military

GEOGRAPHY

* Districts * Earthquakes * Estuaries * Forests * Islands * Lakes * Mountain ranges * Municipalities * National parks * Populated places * Provinces * Rivers * Wildlife

POLITICS

* Constitution * Courts * Elections * Foreign relations * Government * Human rights
Human rights
* Law * Parliament * Political parties * President

State security and intelligence

* Minister * Co-ordinating committee (NICC) * Intelligence agency (NIA) * Communications centre (NCC) * Communications security (COMSEC) * Secret Service (SASS) * Intelligence academy (SANAI)

LAW ENFORCEMENT

* Department of Police

* Police Service

* Criminal intelligence (SAPS) * Special
Special
Task Force * National Intervention Unit * NFDD

* Municipal Police * Independent Complaints Directorate * Department of Correctional Services * Biometrics use

MILITARY

* Department of Defence * Defence Force * Air Force * Army * Navy * Military Health Service * Special
Special
Forces * Commando System * Intelligence

ECONOMY

* Agriculture * Communications * Economic history * Energy * Foreign trade * Mining industry * Rand (currency) * Stock exchange * Taxation * Tourism * Trade unions * Transportation * Water and sanitation

SOCIETY

* Crime * Education * Feminism * Health * Healthcare * Immigration * Intersex * Languages * LGBT * Racism
Racism
* Religion * Sexual violence * Social movements * Xenophobia

CULTURE

* Architecture * Art * Cinema * Cuisine * Flag * HIV/AIDS * Homelessness * Literature * Media * Music * Public holidays * Sports

DEMOGRAPHICS

* Asian

* Indian * Chinese

* Bantu

* Ndebele * Pedi * Sotho * Swazi * Tsonga * Tswana * Venda * Xhosa * Zulu

* Coloured
Coloured

* Cape Coloured
Coloured
* Cape Malay * Griqua

* Khoisan

* White

* Afrikaner * British

* Outline * Index

* Category
Category
* Portal
Portal

* v * t * e

Years in South Africa
South Africa
(1910 –present)

* Pre-1910 * 1910 * 1911 * 1912 * 1913 * 1914 * 1915 * 1916 * 1917 * 1918 * 1919 * 1920 * 1921 * 1922 * 1923 * 1924 * 1925 * 1926 * 1927 * 1928 * 1929 * 1930 * 1931 * 1932 * 1933 * 1934 * 1935 * 1936 * 1937 * 1938 * 1939 * 1940 * 1941 * 1942 * 1943 * 1944 * 1945 * 1946 * 1947 * 1948 * 1949 * 1950 * 1951 * 1952 * 1953 * 1954 * 1955 * 1956 * 1957 * 1958 * 1959 * 1960 * 1961 * 1962 * 1963 * 1964 * 1965 * 1966 * 1967 * 1968 * 1969 * 1970 * 1971 * 1972 * 1973 * 1974 * 1975 * 1976 * 1977 * 1978 * 1979 * 1980 * 1981 * 1982 * 1983 * 1984 * 1985 * 1986 * 1987 * 1988 * 1989 * 1990 * 1991 * 1992 * 1993 * 1994 * 1995 * 1996 * 1997 * 1998 * 1999 * 2000 * 2001 * 2002 * 2003 * 2004 * 2005 * 2006 * 2007 * 2008 * 2009 * 2010 * 2011 * 2012 * 2013 * 2014 * 2015 * 2016 * 2017 * 2018 * 2019

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* LCCN : sh85005905 * GND : 4002394-1 * BNF : cb11998012n (data) * NDL : 00574822

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Apartheid
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