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Aosta
Aosta
(Italian: [aˈɔsta] ( listen); French: Aoste [ɔst];[2][3] Arpitan: Aoûta; Latin: Augústa Prætṓrĭa Salassṓrum) is the principal city of Aosta
Aosta
Valley, a bilingual region in the Italian Alps, 110 km (68 mi) north-northwest of Turin. It is situated near the Italian entrance of the Mont Blanc Tunnel, at the confluence of the Buthier
Buthier
and the Dora Baltea, and at the junction of the Great and Little St. Bernard routes. Aosta
Aosta
is not the capital of the province, because Aosta Valley
Aosta Valley
is the only Italian region not divided into provinces. Provincial administrative functions are instead shared by the region and the communes.

Contents

1 History 2 Climate 3 Main sights

3.1 Ancient remains 3.2 Other sights

4 Transport 5 Notable people 6 See also 7 Twin towns-sister cities 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

History[edit]

Arches of the Roman Theatre.

Porta Prætoria.

Aosta
Aosta
was settled in proto-historic times and later became a centre of the Salassi, many of whom were killed or sold into slavery by the Romans in 25 BC.[4] The campaign was led by Terentius Varro, who then founded the Roman colony of Augusta Praetoria Salassorum, housing 3,000 retired veterans. After 11 BC Aosta
Aosta
became the capital of the Alpes Graies ("Grey Alps") province of the Empire. Its position at the confluence of two rivers, at the end of the Great and the Little St Bernard Pass, gave it considerable military importance, and its layout was that of a Roman military camp. After the fall of the Western Empire, the city was conquered, in turn, by the Burgundians, the Ostrogoths, and the Byzantines. The Lombards, who had annexed it to their Italian kingdom, were expelled by the Frankish Empire
Frankish Empire
under Pepin the Short. Under his son, Charlemagne, Aosta
Aosta
acquired importance as a post on the Via Francigena, leading from Aachen
Aachen
to Italy. After 888 AD it was part of the renewed Kingdom of Italy
Italy
under Arduin of Ivrea
Arduin of Ivrea
and Berengar of Friuli. In the 10th century Aosta
Aosta
became part of the Kingdom of Burgundy. After the fall of the latter in 1032, it became part of the lands of Count Humbert I of Savoy.[5] The privilege of holding the assembly of the states-general was granted to the inhabitants in 1189. An executive council was nominated from this body in 1536, and continued to exist until 1802. After the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
restored the rule of Savoy it was reconstituted and formally recognized by Charles Albert of Sardinia, at the birth of his grandson Prince Amedeo, who was created duke of Aosta.[5] Climate[edit] Aosta
Aosta
has a transitional cool summer humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb) closely bordering on a cool summer humid oceanic climate (Köppen Cfb). It is considered temperate continental (Dc) in the Trewartha climate classification.

Climate data for Aosta

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 3.9 (39) 5.9 (42.6) 10.4 (50.7) 14.5 (58.1) 19.0 (66.2) 22.7 (72.9) 25.1 (77.2) 24.1 (75.4) 20.8 (69.4) 15.1 (59.2) 8.7 (47.7) 4.8 (40.6) 14.6 (58.3)

Daily mean °C (°F) −0.1 (31.8) 1.7 (35.1) 5.4 (41.7) 9.3 (48.7) 13.6 (56.5) 17.0 (62.6) 19.2 (66.6) 18.4 (65.1) 15.6 (60.1) 10.5 (50.9) 4.9 (40.8) 1.1 (34) 9.7 (49.5)

Average low °C (°F) −4.0 (24.8) −2.5 (27.5) 0.5 (32.9) 4.2 (39.6) 8.2 (46.8) 11.4 (52.5) 13.4 (56.1) 12.8 (55) 10.4 (50.7) 5.9 (42.6) 1.2 (34.2) −2.5 (27.5) 4.9 (40.8)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 51 (2.01) 60 (2.36) 56 (2.2) 64 (2.52) 81 (3.19) 81 (3.19) 64 (2.52) 82 (3.23) 68 (2.68) 65 (2.56) 75 (2.95) 58 (2.28) 805 (31.69)

Source: https://it.climate-data.org/location/3041/

Main sights[edit] Ancient remains[edit]

Tour du Lépreux.

The ancient town walls of Augusta Prætoria Salassorum are still preserved almost in their entirety, enclosing a rectangle 724 by 572 metres (2,375 by 1,877 ft).[6] They are 6.4 metres (21 ft) high, built of concrete faced with small blocks of stone. At the bottom, the walls are nearly 2.75 metres (9.0 ft) thick, and at the top 1.83 metres (6.0 ft). Towers stand at angles to the enceinte and others are positioned at intervals, with two at each of the four gates, making twenty towers in total. They are roughly 6.5 metres (21 ft) square, and project 4.3 metres (14 ft) from the wall. Of the 20 original towers, the following are well preserved:[7]

Tour du lépreux (French for Leper's Tower), was given this name after a leper called Pierre-Bernard Guasco was jailed there in the late 17th century. Le lépreux de la cité d'Aoste, a novel by Xavier de Maistre, is also named after this leper. Tourneuve (13th century). Tour du Pailleron. Tower
Tower
(Castle) of Bramafan, built in the 11th century over a Roman bastion. It was the residence of the Savoy viscounts. The Franco-Provençal term Bramafan is translated as "He who screams for hunger". Tour du Baillage. Tour Fromage.

The east and south gates exist intact. The latter, a double gate with three arches flanked by two towers known as the Porta Praetoria (1st century AD) was the eastern gate to the city, and has preserved its original forms apart from the marble covering.[8] It is formed by two series of arches enclosing a small square. The rectangular arrangement of the streets is modeled on a Roman plan dividing the town into 64 blocks (insulae). The main road, about 10 metres (33 ft) wide, divides the city into two equal halves, running from east to west. This arrangement makes it clear that guarding the road was the main raison d'être of the city. The Roman theatre, of which the southern façade remains today, is 22 metres (72 ft) tall.[9][10] The structure, dating from the late reign of Augustus, occupied an area of 81 by 64 metres (266 by 210 ft); it could contain up to 4,000 spectators. In the nearby was the amphitheatre, built under Claudius. A marketplace surrounded by storehouses on three sides with a temple in the centre with two on the open (south) side, as well as a thermae, have also been discovered.

Arch of Augustus.

Outside the town walls is the Arch of Augustus, a triumphal arch in honour of Augustus, built in 35 BC to celebrate the victory of consul Varro Murena over the Salassi.[11] About 8 kilometres (5 miles) to the west is a single-arched Roman bridge, called the Pont d'Aël. It has a closed passage, lighted by windows for foot passengers in winter, and above it an open footpath.

Aosta
Aosta
Cathedral.

There are considerable remains of the ancient road from Eporedia (modern Ivrea) to Augusta Praetoria into the Aosta
Aosta
Valley. The modern railway follows this route, notable for the Pont Saint-Martin, which has a single arch with a span of 35 metres (115 ft) and a roadway 4.5 metres (15 ft) wide; the cutting of Donnas; and the Roman bridges of Châtillon (Pont Saint-Vincent) and Aosta
Aosta
(Pont de Pierre). Other sights[edit]

The Cathedral, built in the 4th century and replaced in the 11th century by a new edifice dedicate to the Madonna. It is annexed to the Roman Forum. The Romanesque-Gothic Sant'Orso
Sant'Orso
(Saint-Ours). Its most evocative feature is the cloister, which can be entered through a hall on the left of the façade. It is dedicated to Ursus of Aosta. The Saint-Bénin College, built about 1000 by the Benedictines. It is now an exhibition site. The Bridge of Grand Arvou, a medieval arch bridge-aqueduct, is located in the frazione.

Transport[edit] Aosta
Aosta
lies on the crossroad of two major trans-alpine trunk roads: SS 26 connecting the city of Chivasso
Chivasso
to Little St Bernard Pass
Little St Bernard Pass
on the Italy- France
France
border, and SS 27 connecting the city of Aosta
Aosta
to the Great St Bernard Pass
Great St Bernard Pass
on the Italy- Switzerland
Switzerland
border. Aosta
Aosta
is also served by the A5 motorway between Turin
Turin
and Courmayeur.[12] Aosta
Aosta
railway station, opened in 1886, forms part of the Chivasso–Ivrea– Aosta
Aosta
railway. Direct trains only connect Aosta
Aosta
up to the city of Ivrea. The branch line to nearby Pré-Saint-Didier, in the Valdigne, on the way towards Courmayeur
Courmayeur
was closed in 2015. Train service is operated by Trenitalia.[13] The main bus hub is located near the Aosta
Aosta
train station. Buses connect the city of Aosta
Aosta
to the nearby valleys and to destinations outside the region, including Turin, Milan, Chamonix
Chamonix
(France) and Martigny
Martigny
(Switzerland).[14] Aosta
Aosta
airport is located 5 km to the east of the city. Notable people[edit]

Anselm of Canterbury
Anselm of Canterbury
(1033–1109), archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. Xavier de Maistre
Xavier de Maistre
(1763–1852), writer of Le lépreux de la cité d'Aoste ("The leper from Aosta", 1811)

See also[edit]

Italy
Italy
portal

Duke of Aosta Franco-Provençal language
Franco-Provençal language
- Valdôtain
Valdôtain
dialect. Category:Towers in Italy Category:Tribes involved in the Gallic Wars

Twin towns-sister cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy Aosta
Aosta
is twinned with:[15]

Albertville, Savoie, Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France[15] Narbonne, Aude, Occitanie, France[15] Chamonix-Mont-Blanc, Haute-Savoie, Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France[15] Kaolack, Senegal[15] San Giorgio Morgeto, Reggio Calabria, Calabria, Italy[15] Sinaia, Romania[15] Martigny, Valais, Switzerland[15]

References[edit]

Inline citations

^ Bilancio demografico Anno 2013 Novembre (dati provvisori). Provincia: Valle d'Aosta/Vallée d'Aoste, Istat. ^ Aostan French
Aostan French
pronunciation - Jean-Marie Pierret, Phonétique historique du français et notions de phonétique générale, Peeters, Louvain-la-Neuve, 1994, p.104. ^ Pronounced [ɔst] in Aostan French, [aˈɔst] in standard French. ^ John Lemprière, Lorenzo DaPonte, & John David Ogilby (1839), Bibliotheca Classica: Or, A Dictionary of All the Principal Names and Terms, (Tenth American Edition), New York: W.E. Dean. Salassi, p. 281 ^ a b  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Aosta". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 158.  ^ " Comune
Comune
di Aosta
Aosta
- The Town Walls". www.aostalife.it. Retrieved 2017-02-13.  ^ " Comune
Comune
di Aosta
Aosta
- The Towers". www.aostalife.it. Retrieved 2017-02-13.  ^ Toy, Sidney. Castles: Their Construction and History. New York: Dover Publications, 1985. p. 30. ^ " Comune
Comune
di Aosta
Aosta
- The Roman Theatre". www.aostalife.it. Retrieved 2017-02-13.  ^ "Roman Theatre Aosta
Aosta
Valley". www.lovevda.it. Retrieved 2017-02-13.  ^ " Comune
Comune
di Aosta
Aosta
- The Arch of Augustus". www.aostalife.it. Retrieved 2017-02-13.  ^ "Our Network - Autostrade per l'Italia". www.autostrade.it. Retrieved 2017-02-13.  ^ "Acquista il biglietto con le nostre offerte - Trenitalia". www.trenitalia.com (in Italian). Retrieved 2017-02-09.  ^ Sanson, Fabrizio. "Home SAVDA Autoservizi e Autolinee della Valle d'Aosta". savda.it (in Italian). Retrieved 2017-02-09.  ^ a b c d e f g h Annuaire-Mairie.fr. "Ville d'Aoste" (in French). Retrieved 2013-06-18. 

General references

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Aosta". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

Further reading[edit]

Lin Colliard, La vieille Aoste, éd. Musumeci, Aoste, 1972. Aimé Chenal, Promenade archéologique de la ville d'Aoste, ITLA, Aoste, 1965. Mauro Caniggia Nicolotti & Luca Poggianti, Aoste inconnue : traces cachées, oubliées ou invisibles de la vieille ville, typog. La Vallée, Aoste, 2010. Carlo Promis, Le antichità di Aosta, (Turin, 1862); Édouard Bérard, Atti della Società di Archeologia di Torino, iii. 119 seq.; Notizie degli Scavi, passim.

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Aosta.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Aosta.

Virtual Museum Vallée (VMV), virtual museum of Aosta
Aosta
city Augusta Praetoria Site plan & photos from the Aosta
Aosta
Valley Regional Authority. Ancient Places TV: HD Video of Aosta, Italy

v t e

Comuni
Comuni
of Aosta
Aosta
Valley

Allein Antey-Saint-André Aosta Arnad Arvier Avise Ayas Aymavilles Bard Bionaz Brissogne Brusson Challand-Saint-Anselme Challand-Saint-Victor Chambave Chamois Champdepraz Champorcher Charvensod Châtillon Cogne Courmayeur Donnas Doues Emarèse Etroubles Fontainemore Fénis Gaby Gignod Gressan Gressoney-La-Trinité Gressoney-Saint-Jean Hône Introd Issime Issogne Jovençan La Magdeleine La Salle La Thuile Lillianes Montjovet Morgex Nus Ollomont Oyace Perloz Pollein Pont-Saint-Martin Pontboset Pontey Pré-Saint-Didier Quart Rhêmes-Notre-Dame Rhêmes-Saint-Georges Roisan Saint-Christophe Saint-Denis Saint-Marcel Saint-Nicolas Saint-Oyen Saint-Pierre Saint-Rhémy-en-Bosses Saint-Vincent Sarre Torgnon Valgrisenche Valpelline Valsavarenche Valtournenche Verrayes Verrès Villeneuve

v t e

Regional capitals of Italy

   

L'Aquila, Abruzzo Aosta, Aosta
Aosta
Valley Bari, Apulia Potenza, Basilicata

Catanzaro, Calabria Naples, Campania Bologna, Emilia-Romagna Trieste, Friuli-Venezia Giulia

Rome, Lazio Genoa, Liguria Milan, Lombardy Ancona, Marche

Campobasso, Molise Turin, Piedmont Cagliari, Sardinia Palermo, Sicily

Trento, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol Florence, Tuscany Perugia, Umbria Venice, Veneto

v t e

Landmarks of Piedmont
Piedmont
and Aosta
Aosta
Valley

Basilica di Sant'Andrea Basilica of Superga Castello della Manta Cittadella of Alessandria Fenestrelle Fort Fénis
Fénis
Castle Fort Bard Gran Paradiso National Park Historic center of Aosta Mole Antonelliana Museo Egizio Residences of the Royal House of Savoy Sacra di San Michele Sacri Monti of Piedmont

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 179144783069493379

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