ANTWERP (/ˈæntwɜːrp/ ( listen ), Dutch : ANTWERPEN ( listen ),
French : ANVERS ) is a Flemish city in
Belgium , and is the capital
Antwerp province in the community of
Flanders . With a population
of 520,504, it is the most populous city proper in Belgium. Its
metropolitan area houses around 1,200,000 people, which is second
Antwerp is on the River
Scheldt , linked to the
North Sea by the
Westerschelde estuary. It is about 40 kilometres (25 mi) north from
Brussels, and about 15 kilometres (9 mi) from the Dutch border. The
Port of Antwerp is one of the biggest in the world, ranking second in
Europe and within the top 20 globally .
Antwerp was also the place
of the world's oldest stock exchange (nl) building, originally built
in 1531 and re-built in 1872, it has been derelict since 1997.
Antwerp has long been an important city in the
Low Countries , both
economically and culturally, especially before the Spanish Fury (1576)
Dutch Revolt . The inhabitants of
Antwerp are nicknamed
Sinjoren, after the Spanish honorific señor or French seigneur,
"lord", referring to the Spanish noblemen who ruled the city in the
17th century. Today
Antwerp is a major trade and cultural centre, and
is the world's second most multi-cultural city (after
Amsterdam ) home
to 170 nationalities. It is also known as the "diamond capital" of
the world for its large diamond district . The city hosted the 1920
Summer Olympics .
* 1 History
* 1.1 Origin of the name
* 1.2 Pre-1500
* 1.3 16th century
* 1.4 17th–19th centuries
* 1.5 20th century
* 2 Municipality
* 3 Buildings and landmarks
* 4 Fortifications
* 5 Demographics
* 5.1 Historical population
* 5.2 Minorities
* 5.2.1 Jewish community
* 5.2.2 Jain community
* 5.2.3 Armenian community
* 6 Economy
* 7 Transportation
* 7.1 Road
* 7.2 Rail
* 7.3 Public transportation
* 7.4 Air
* 8 Politics
* 8.1 City council
* 8.2 Former mayors
* 9 Climate
* 10 Culture
* 10.1 Fashion
* 10.2 Local products
* 10.3 Missions to seafarers
* 10.4 Music
* 11 Sport
* 12 Higher education
* 13 International relations
Twin towns and sister cities
Twin towns and sister cities
* 13.2 Partnerships
* 14 Notable people
* 14.1 Born in
* 14.2 Lived in
* 15 Select neighbourhoods
* 16 See also
* 17 References
* 18 Further reading
* 19 External links
Timeline of Antwerp
ORIGIN OF THE NAME
According to folklore , notably celebrated by a statue in front of
the town hall , the city got its name from a legend about a giant
called Antigoon who lived near the
Scheldt river. He exacted a toll
from passing boatmen, and for those who refused, he severed one of
their hands and threw it into the river. Eventually the giant was
killed by a young hero named
Silvius Brabo , who cut off the giant's
own hand and flung it into the river. Hence the name Antwerpen, from
Dutch hand werpen, akin to Old English hand and wearpan (to throw),
which has evolved to today's warp.
A longstanding theory is that the name originated in the Gallo-Roman
period and comes from the Latin antverpia. Antverpia would come from
Ante (before) Verpia (deposition, sedimentation), indicating land that
forms by deposition in the inside curve of a river (which is in fact
the same origin as Germanic waerpen). Note that the river Scheldt,
before a transition period between 600 and 750, followed a different
track. This must have coincided roughly with the current ringway south
of the city, situating the city within a former curve of the river.
However, many historians think it unlikely that there was a large
settlement which would be named 'Antverpia', but more something like
an outpost with a river crossing.
John Lothrop Motley argues, and so do a lot of Dutch
etymologists and historians, that Antwerp's name derives from "anda"
(at) and "werpum" (wharf) to give an 't werf (on the wharf, in the
same meaning as the current English wharf ). Aan 't werp (at the warp)
is also possible. This "warp" (thrown ground) is a man-made hill or a
river deposit, high enough to remain dry at high tide, whereupon a
construction could be built that would remain dry. Another word for
werp is pol (dyke) hence polders (the dry land behind a dyke, that was
no longer flooded by the tide).
Alfred Michiels has suggested that derivations based on hand werpen,
Antverpia, "on the wharf", or "at the warp” lack historical backing
in the form of recorded past spellings of the placename. He points
instead to Dado ’s Life of
St. Eligius (Vita Eligii) from the 7th
century, which records the form Andoverpis. He sees in it a Celtic
origin indicating “those who live on both banks”.
Antwerp allegedly had its origins in a Gallo-Roman vicus .
Excavations carried out in the oldest section near the Scheldt,
1952–1961 (ref. Princeton), produced pottery shards and fragments of
glass from mid-2nd century to the end of the 3rd century. The earliest
Antwerp dates from the 4th century.
In the 4th century,
Antwerp was first named, having been settled by
Antwerp was evangelized by
Saint Amand in the 7th
century. At the end of the 10th century, the
Scheldt became the
boundary of the
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire .
Antwerp became a margraviate in
980, by the German emperor Otto II , a border province facing the
In the 11th century
Godfrey of Bouillon was for some years known as
the marquis of Antwerp. In the 12th century, Norbert of Xanten
established a community of his
Premonstratensian canons at St.
Michael\'s Abbey at Caloes.
Antwerp was also the headquarters of
Edward III during his early negotiations with
Jacob van Artevelde ,
and his son Lionel , the
Duke of Clarence , was born there in 1338.
Osias Beert the Elder, from Antwerp. Dishes with Oysters, Fruit,
and Wine, c. 1620/1625
After the silting-up of the
Zwin and the consequent decline of Bruges
, the city of Antwerp, then part of the
Duchy of Brabant , grew in
importance. At the end of the 15th century the foreign trading houses
were transferred from
Bruges to Antwerp, and the building assigned to
the English nation is specifically mentioned in 1510.
the sugar capital of Europe, importing the raw commodity from
Portuguese and Spanish plantations. The city attracted Italian and
German sugar refiners by 1550, and shipped their refined product to
Germany, especially Cologne. Moneylenders and financiers developed a
large business lending money all over Europe including the English
government in 1544–1574.
London bankers were too small to operate on
that scale, and
Antwerp had a highly efficient bourse that itself
attracted rich bankers from around Europe. After the 1570s the city's
banking business declined: England ended its borrowing in
Fernand Braudel states that
Antwerp became "the centre of the entire
international economy, something
Bruges had never been even at its
Antwerp was the richest city in Europe at this time.
Antwerp's golden age is tightly linked to the "Age of Exploration ".
During the first half of the 16th century
Antwerp grew to become the
second-largest European city north of the
Alps . Many foreign
merchants were resident in the city.
Francesco Guicciardini , the
Venetian envoy, stated that hundreds of ships would pass in a day, and
2,000 carts entered the city each week. Portuguese ships laden with
pepper and cinnamon would unload their cargo. According to Luc-Normand
Tellier "It is estimated that the port of
Antwerp was earning the
Spanish crown seven times more revenues than the Americas ." The
Sack of Antwerp in 1576, in which about 7,000 people died.
Without a long-distance merchant fleet, and governed by an oligarchy
of banker-aristocrats forbidden to engage in trade, the economy of
Antwerp was foreigner-controlled, which made the city very
cosmopolitan, with merchants and traders from
Venice , Ragusa , Spain
Antwerp had a policy of toleration, which attracted a
large crypto-Jewish community composed of migrants from
Antwerp experienced three booms during its golden age: the first
based on the pepper market, a second launched by American silver
Seville (ending with the bankruptcy of
Spain in 1557), and
a third boom, after the stabilising Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis in
1559, based on the textiles industry. At the beginning of the 16th
Antwerp accounted for 40% of world trade. The boom-and-bust
cycles and inflationary cost-of-living squeezed less-skilled workers.
In the century after 1541, however, the city's economy and population
declined dramatically, while rival
Amsterdam experienced massive
growth. View of the Pier of
Antwerp from the Vlaams Hoofd
The religious revolution of the Reformation erupted in violent riots
in August 1566, as in other parts of the
Low Countries . The regent
Margaret, Duchess of Parma , was swept aside when Philip II sent the
Duke of Alba at the head of an army the following summer. When the
Eighty Years\' War broke out in 1568, commercial trading between
Antwerp and the Spanish port of
Bilbao collapsed and became
impossible. On 4 November 1576, Spanish soldiers sacked the city
during the so-called Spanish Fury : 7,000 citizens were massacred, 800
houses were burnt down, and over £2 million sterling of damage was
Subsequently, the city joined the
Union of Utrecht in 1579 and became
the capital of the Dutch revolt . In 1585, Alessandro Farnese, Duke of
Parma and Piacenza , captured it after a long siege and as part of the
terms of surrender its Protestant citizens were given two years to
settle their affairs before quitting the city. Most went to the
United Provinces in the north, starting the Dutch
Golden Age .
Antwerp's banking was controlled for a generation by
Genoa , and
Amsterdam became the new trading centre.
Antwerp and the river Scheldt,
photochrom ca. 1890–1900 "View of
Antwerp with the frozen
Scheldt" (1590) by
Lucas van Valckenborch
Lucas van Valckenborch .
The recognition of the independence of the United Provinces by the
Münster in 1648 stipulated that the
Scheldt should be
closed to navigation, which destroyed Antwerp's trading activities.
This impediment remained in force until 1863, although the provisions
were relaxed during French rule from 1795 to 1814, and also during the
Belgium formed part of the Kingdom of the United Netherlands
(1815 to 1830).
Antwerp had reached the lowest point in its fortunes
in 1800, and its population had sunk to under 40,000, when Napoleon ,
realizing its strategic importance, assigned funds to enlarge the
harbour by constructing a new dock (still named the Bonaparte Dock)
and an access- lock and mole and deepening the
Scheldt to allow for
larger ships to approach Antwerp. Napoleon hoped that by making
Antwerp's harbour the finest in Europe he would be able to counter the
London and hamper British growth. However, he was defeated at
Battle of Waterloo
Battle of Waterloo before he could see the plan through.
Antwerp, Belgium, from the left bank of the
Scheldt (c. 1890 – 1900)
In 1830, the city was captured by the Belgian insurgents, but the
citadel continued to be held by a Dutch garrison under General David
Hendrik Chassé . For a time Chassé subjected the town to periodic
bombardment which inflicted much damage, and at the end of 1832 the
citadel itself was besieged by the French Northern Army commanded by
Gerard . During this attack the town was further damaged. In
December 1832, after a gallant defence, Chassé made an honourable
surrender, ending the
Siege of Antwerp (1832) .
Later that century, a double ring of
Brialmont Fortresses was
constructed some 10 km (6 mi) from the city centre, as
considered vital for the survival of the young Belgian state. And in
the last decade
Antwerp presented itself to the world via a World\'s
Fair attended by 3 million.
Results of German bombardment of
Antwerp , October 1914
Antwerp was the first city to host the World Gymnastics Championships
, in 1903. During
World War I
World War I , the city became the fallback point of
Belgian Army after the defeat at Liège . The Siege of Antwerp
lasted for 11 days, but the city was taken after heavy fighting by the
German Army, and the Belgians were forced to retreat westwards.
Antwerp remained under German occupation until the Armistice.
Antwerp hosted the
1920 Summer Olympics . During
World War II
World War II , the
city was an important strategic target because of its port. It was
Germany in May 1940 and liberated by the British 11th
Armoured Division on 4 September 1944. After this, the Germans
attempted to destroy the
Port of Antwerp , which was used by the
Allies to bring new material ashore. Thousands of
Rheinbote , V-1 and
V-2 missiles were fired (more V-2s than used on all other targets
during the entire war combined), causing severe damage to the city but
failed to destroy the port due to poor accuracy. After the war,
Antwerp, which had already had a sizeable Jewish population before the
war, once again became a major European centre of Haredi (and
particularly Hasidic )
Orthodox Judaism .
A Ten-Year Plan for the port of
Antwerp (1956–1965) expanded and
modernized the port's infrastructure with national funding to build a
set of canal docks. The broader aim was to facilitate the growth of
Antwerp metropolitan region, which attracted new
industry based on a flexible and strategic implementation of the
project as a co-production between various authorities and private
parties. The plan succeeded in extending the linear layout along the
Scheldt river by connecting new satellite communities to the main
Starting in the 1990s,
Antwerp rebranded itself as a world-class
fashion centre. Emphasizing the avant-garde, it tried to compete with
London, Milan, New
York and Paris. It emerged from organized tourism
and mega-cultural events.
Districts of Antwerp. Main article:
Districts of Antwerp
Districts of Antwerp
The municipality comprises the city of
Antwerp proper and several
towns. It is divided into nine entities (districts):
In 1958 in preparation of the 10-year development plan for the Port
Antwerp , the municipalities of
integrated into the city territory and lost their administrative
independence. During the 1983 merger of municipalities, conducted by
the Belgian government as an administrative simplification, the
Borgerhout , Deurne ,
Ekeren , Hoboken ,
Wilrijk were merged into the city. At that time the city
was also divided into the districts mentioned above. Simultaneously,
districts received an appointed district council; later district
councils became elected bodies.
BUILDINGS AND LANDMARKS
Antwerp City Hall at the Grote Markt (Main Square).
16th-century Guildhouses at the Grote Markt. The
Cathedral of our Lady), here seen from
the Groenplaats, is the tallest cathedral in the
Low Countries and
home to several triptychs by
Baroque painter Rubens . It remains the
tallest building in the city. Statue of Brabo and the giant's
In the 16th century,
Antwerp was noted for the wealth of its citizens
("Antwerpia nummis"). The houses of these wealthy merchants and
manufacturers have been preserved throughout the city. However, fire
has destroyed several old buildings, such as the house of the
Hanseatic League on the northern quays, in 1891. During
World War II
World War II ,
the city also suffered considerable damage by V-bombs , and in recent
years, other noteworthy buildings were demolished for new
Antwerp Zoo opened in 1843 and is one of the oldest in the world.
Antwerp City Hall dates from 1565, and is a Belfry in Renaissance
Antwerp Central Station is a railway station designed by Louis
Delacenserie which was completed in 1905.
Cathedral of Our Lady . This church was begun in the 14th century
and finished in 1518. The church has four works by Rubens , viz. "The
Descent from the Cross ", "The Elevation of the Cross ", "The
Resurrection of Christ " and "The Assumption "
* St. James\' Church , is more ornate than the cathedral. It
contains lots of famous noble burials, amongst them a major part of
the family of Rubens .
* The Church of St. Paul has a beautiful baroque interior. It is a
few hundred yards north of the Grote Markt
Vleeshuis (Butchers' Hall) is a fine Gothic brick-built
building, situated a short distance to the North-West of the Grote
Plantin-Moretus Museum preserves the house of the printer
Christoffel Plantijn and his successor
Saint-Boniface Church is an
Anglican church and headseat of
the archdeanery North-West Europe.
Boerentoren (Farmers' Tower) or KBC Tower, a 26-storey building
built in 1932, is the oldest skyscraper in Europe. It is the tallest
Antwerp and the second tallest structure after the
Cathedral of our Lady. The building was designed by Emiel van
Averbeke, R. Van Hoenacker and Jos Smolderen.
* Royal Museum of Fine Arts
Rubenshuis is the former home and studio of Peter Paul Rubens
(1577–1640) in Antwerp. It is now a museum.
Rockox House is the former 17th century Residence of Nicolaas II
Rockox , lord Mayor of Antwerp.
* Exchange or Bourse . The current building was built in 1872.
* Law Courts , designed by the
Richard Rogers Partnership, Arup and
VK Studio, and opened by King Albert II , in April 2006. This building
is the antithesis of the heavy, dark court building , designed by
Joseph Poelaert , which dominates the skyline of
Brussels . The
courtrooms sit on top of six fingers that radiate from an airy central
hall, and are surmounted by spires , which provide north light and
resemble oast houses or the sails of barges on the nearby River
Scheldt. It is built on the site of the old Zuid ("South") station, at
the end of a magnificent 1.5 kilometres (1 mile) perspective at the
southern end of Amerikalei. The road neatly disappears into an
underpass under oval Bolivarplaats to join the motorway ring. This
leaves peaceful surface access by foot, bicycle or tram (route 12).
The building's highest 'sail' is 51 m (167 ft) high, has a floor area
of 77,000 m2 (830,000 sq ft), and cost €130 million.
Zurenborg , a late 19th century
Belle Époque neighbourhood, on
the border of
Berchem , with many Art Nouveau
architectural elements. The area counts as one of the most original
Belle Époque urban expansion areas in Europe.
Museum aan de Stroom
Den Botaniek or Antwerp's Botanical Garden, created in 1825.
Located in the city centre, at the Leopoldstraat, it covers an area of
almost 1 hectare.
Fortifications of Antwerp
Het Steen (literally:
Antwerp was formerly a fortified city, hardly anything
remains of the former enceinte , only some remains of the city wall
can be seen near the
Vleeshuis museum at the corner of Bloedberg and
Burchtgracht. A replica of a castle named Steen has been partly
rebuilt near the Scheldt-quais in the 19th century. Antwerp's
development as a fortified city is documented between the 10th and the
20th century. The fortifications were developed in different phases:
* 10th century : fortification of the wharf with a wall and a ditch
* 12th and 13th century : canals (so called "vlieten" and "ruien")
* 16th century : Spanish fortifications
* 19th century : double ring of
Brialmont forts around the city,
dismantling of the Spanish fortifications
* 20th century : 1960 dismantling of the inner ring of forts,
decommissioning of the outer ring of forts
Population time-line of Antwerp.
This is the population of the city of
Antwerp only, not of the larger
current municipality of the same name.
* 1374: 18,000
* 1486: 40,000
* 1500: around 44/49,000 inhabitants
* 1526: 50,000
* 1567: 105,000 (90,000 permanent residents and 15,000 "floating
population", including foreign merchants and soldiers. At the time
only 10 cities in Europe reached this size.)
* 1584: 84,000 (after the Spanish Fury , the
French Fury and the
* 1586 (May): 60,000 (after siege )
* 1586 (October): 50,000
* 1591: 46,000
* 1612: 54,000
* 1620: 66,000 (Twelve Years\' Truce )
* 1640: 54,000 (after the
Black Death epidemics)
* 1700: 66,000
* 1765: 40,000
* 1784: 51,000
* 1800: 45,500
* 1815: 54,000
* 1830: 73,500
* 1856: 111,700
* 1880: 179,000
* 1900: 275,100
* 1925: 308,000
* 1959: 260,000
THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (June
LARGEST GROUPS OF FOREIGN RESIDENTS
In 2010, 36 to 39% of the inhabitants of
Antwerp had a migrant
background. A study projects that in 2020, 55% of the population will
be of migrant background.
Jewish Community of Antwerp
After the Holocaust and the destruction of its many semi-assimilated
Antwerp became a major centre for Orthodox Jews. At present,
about 15,000 Haredi Jews, many of them Hasidic , live in Antwerp. The
city has three official Jewish Congregations: Shomrei Hadass, headed
by Rabbi Dovid Moishe Lieberman, Machsike Hadass, headed by Rabbi
Sekkel Pollack of
Brussels (formerly by Chief Rabbi
Chaim Kreiswirth )
and the Portuguese Community Ben Moshe.
Antwerp has an extensive
network of synagogues, shops, schools and organizations. Significant
Hasidic movements in
Antwerp include Pshevorsk , based in Antwerp, as
well as branches of Satmar , Belz , Bobov , Ger , Skver , Klausenburg
and several others. Rabbi
Chaim Kreiswirth , chief rabbi of the
Machsike Hadas community, who died in 2003, was arguably one of the
better known personalities to have been based in Antwerp. An attempt
to have a street named after him has received the support of the Town
Hall and is in the process of being implemented.
Main article: Jainism in
Jain temple in
The Jains in
Belgium are estimated to be around about 1,500 people.
The majority live in Antwerp, mostly involved in the very lucrative
diamond business. Belgian Indian Jains control two-thirds of the
rough diamonds trade and supplied
India with roughly 36% of their
rough diamonds. A major temple, with a cultural centre, has been built
Antwerp (Wilrijk). Their spiritual leader, Ramesh Mehta, is a
full-fledged member of the Belgian Council of Religious Leaders, put
up on 17 December 2009.
There are significant Armenian communities that reside in Antwerp,
many of them are descendants of traders who settled during the 19th
century. Most Armenian Belgians are adherents of the Armenian
Apostolic Church , with a smaller numbers are adherents of the
Armenian Catholic Church and
Armenian Evangelical Church
Armenian Evangelical Church .
One of the important sectors that Armenian communities in Antwerp
excel and involved in is the diamonds trade business, that based
primarily in the diamond district . Some of the famous Armenian
families involved in the diamond business in the city are the
Artinians, Arslanians, Aslanians, Barsamians and the Osganians.
Delwaidedok (nl) terminal at the
Port of Antwerp .
According to the
American Association of Port Authorities , the port
Antwerp was the seventeenth largest (by tonnage) port in the world
in 2005 and second only to
Rotterdam in Europe. Importantly it handles
high volumes of economically attractive general and project cargo , as
well as bulk cargo . Antwerp's docklands, with five oil refineries ,
are home to a massive concentration of petrochemical industries,
second only to the petrochemical cluster in
Electricity generation is also an important activity, with four
nuclear power plants at
Doel , a conventional power station in Kallo,
as well as several smaller combined cycle plants. There is a wind farm
in the northern part of the port area. There are plans to extend this
in the period 2014–2020. The old Belgian bluestone quays bordering
Scheldt for a distance of 5.6 km (3.5 mi) to the north and south
of the city centre have been retained for their sentimental value and
are used mainly by cruise ships and short sea shipping .
Antwerp's other great mainstay is the diamond trade that takes place
largely within the diamond district . The city has four diamond
bourses : the
Diamond Club of Antwerp, the Beurs voor Diamanthandel,
Antwerpsche Diamantkring and the Vrije Diamanthandel. Since World
War II families of the large Hasidic Jewish community have dominated
Antwerp's diamond trading industry, although the last two decades have
seen Indian and
Lebanon and Armenian ,
traders become increasingly important.
the successor to the Hoge Raad voor Diamant, plays an important role
in setting standards, regulating professional ethics, training and
promoting the interests of
Antwerp as the capital of the diamond
A six-lane motorway bypass encircles much of the city centre and runs
through the urban residential area of Antwerp. Known locally as the
"Ring" it offers motorway connections to
Hasselt and Liège
Bergen op Zoom (Netherlands).
The banks of the
Scheldt are linked by three road tunnels (in order of
construction): the Waasland
Tunnel (1934), the Kennedy
and the Liefkenshoek
Daily congestion on the Ring led to a fourth high-volume highway link
called the "
Oosterweelconnection " being proposed. It would have
entailed the construction of a long viaduct and bridge (the Lange
Wapper) over the docks on the north side of the city in combination
with the widening of the existing motorway into a 14-lane motorway;
these plans were eventually rejected in a 2009 public referendum.
In September 2010 the
Flemish Government decided to replace the
bridge by a series of tunnels. There are ideas to cover the Ring in a
similar way as happened around Paris, Hamburg,
Madrid and other
cities. This would reconnect the city with its suburbs and would
provide development opportunities to accommodate part of the foreseen
population growth in
Antwerp which currently are not possible because
of the pollution and noise generated by the traffic on the Ring. An
old plan to build an R2 outer ring road outside the built up urban
area around the
Antwerp agglomeration for port related traffic and
transit traffic never materialized.
Antwerp Central Station
Antwerp is the focus of lines to the north to Essen and the
Netherlands, east to Turnhout, south to Mechelen,
Charleroi, and southwest to
Ghent and Ostend. It is served by
international trains to
Amsterdam and Paris, and national trains to
Hasselt , Liège ,
Antwerp Central station is an architectural monument in itself, and
is mentioned in W G Sebald 's haunting novel Austerlitz . Prior to the
completion in 2007 of a tunnel that runs northwards under the city
centre to emerge at the old
Antwerp Dam station, Central was a
terminus. Trains from
Brussels to the
Netherlands had to either
reverse at Central or call only at
Berchem station, 2 kilometres (1
mile) to the south, and then describe a semicircle to the east, round
the Singel. Now, they call at the new lower level of the station
before continuing in the same direction.
Antwerp is also home to Antwerpen-Noord, the largest classification
yard for freight in
Belgium and second largest in Europe. The majority
of freight trains in
Belgium depart from or arrive here. It has two
classification humps and over a hundred tracks.
The city has a web of tram and bus lines operated by
De Lijn and
providing access to the city centre, suburbs and the Left Bank. The
tram network has 12 lines, of which the underground section is called
the "premetro " and includes a tunnel under the river. The Franklin
Rooseveltplaats functions as the city's main hub for local and
regional bus lines.
Antwerp International Airport
Antwerp International Airport
A small airport,
Antwerp International Airport
Antwerp International Airport , is located in the
district of Deurne , with passenger service to various European
destinations. A bus service connects the airport to the city centre.
The now defunct
VLM Airlines had its head office on the grounds of
Antwerp International Airport. This office is also
CityJet 's Antwerp
VG Airlines (Delsey Airlines) existed, its head office
was located in the district of
Belgium's major international airport ,
Brussels Airport is about 45
kilometres (28 miles) from the city of Antwerp, and connects the city
worldwide. It is connected to the city centre by bus, and also by
train. The new Diabolo rail connection provides a direct fast train
Brussels Airport as of the summer of
There is also a direct rail service between
Antwerp (calling at
Berchem stations) and
Charleroi South station, with a
connecting buslink to
Charleroi Airport , which runs
twice every hour (on working days).
The current city council was elected in the October 2012 elections .
The next elections are scheduled for October 2018.
The current majority consists of N-VA, CD&V and Open Vld, led by
Bart De Wever (N-VA).
New Flemish Alliance (N-VA)
Socialist Party Differently (sp.a)
Christian Democratic and Flemish (CD color:#000000;">6.2
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 1.0 MM)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
Source: Royal Meteorological Institute of
Antwerp had an artistic reputation in the 17th century, based on its
school of painting , which included Rubens , Van Dyck , Jordaens , the
Teniers and many others. One of the many Marian statues
which feature on
Antwerp street corners
Informally, most Antverpians (in Dutch Antwerpenaren, people from
Antwerp) daily speak Antverpian (in Dutch Antwerps), a dialect that
Dutch-speakers know as distinctive from other Brabantic dialects
through its typical vowel pronunciations: approximating the vowel
sound in 'bore' – for one of its long 'a'-sounds while other short
'a's are very sharp like the vowel sound in 'hat'. The Echt Antwaarps
Teater ("Authentic Antverpian Theatre") brings the dialect on stage.
Antwerp is a rising fashion city, and has produced designers such as
Antwerp Six . The city has a cult status in the fashion world, due
to the Royal Academy of Fine Arts , one of the most important fashion
academies in the world. It has served as the learning centre for many
Belgian fashion designers . Since the 1980s, several graduates of the
Belgian Royal Academy of Fine Arts have become internationally
successful fashion designers in Antwerp. The city has had a huge
influence on other Belgian fashion designers such as Raf Simons,
Veronique Branquinho, Olivier Theyskens and Kris Van Assche.
Antwerp is famous for its local products. In August every year the
Bollekesfeest takes place. The Bollekesfeest is a showcase for such
local products as Bolleke, an amber beer from the
De Koninck Brewery .
The Mokatine sweets made by
Confiserie Roodthooft , Elixir D'Anvers, a
locally made liquor, locally roasted coffee from Koffie Verheyen,
sugar from Candico, Poolster pickled herring and Equinox horse meat,
are other examples of local specialities. One of the most known
products of the city are its biscuits, the Antwerpse Handjes,
Antwerp Hands". Usually made from a short pastry with
almonds or milk chocolate, they symbolize the
Antwerp trademark and
folklore. The local products are represented by a non-profit
organization, Streekproducten Provincie Antwerpen vzw.
MISSIONS TO SEAFARERS
A number of
Christian missions to seafarers are based in Antwerp,
notably on the Italiëlei. These include the
Mission to Seafarers ,
British "> Official poster of the
1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp.
Antwerp held the
1920 Summer Olympics , which were the first games
First World War
First World War and also the only ones to be held in
Belgium. The road cycling events took place in the streets of the
Royal Antwerp F.C. , currently playing in the Belgian First Division
, were founded in 1880 and is known as 'The Great Old' for being the
first club registered to the
Royal Belgian Football Association in
1895. Since 1998, the club has taken
Manchester United players on
loan in an official partnership. Another club in the city was
Beerschot VAC , founded in 1899 by former Royal
Antwerp players. They
played at the Olympisch Stadion , the main venue of the 1920 Olympics.
Nowadays KFCO Beerschot
Wilrijk plays at the Olympisch Stadion in the
Belgian Second Division .
Antwerp Giants play in Basketball League
Belgium and Topvolley
Antwerpen play in the
Belgium men\'s volleyball League .
For the year 2013,
Antwerp was awarded the title of European Capital
of Sport .
Antwerp hosted the
2013 World Artistic Gymnastics Championships .
Antwerp hosted the start of stage 3 of the
2015 Tour de France on 6
Main building of the Middelheim campus at the University of
Antwerp has a university and several colleges. The University of
Antwerp (Universiteit Antwerpen) was established in 2003, following
the merger of the RUCA, UFSIA and UIA institutes. Their roots go back
to 1852. The University has approximately 13,000 registered students,
making it the third-largest university in Flanders, as well as 1,800
foreign students. It has 7 faculties, spread over four campus
locations in the city centre and in the south of the city.
The city has several colleges, including Charlemagne University
College (Karel de Grote Hogeschool), Plantin University College
(Plantijn Hogeschool), and Artesis University College (Artesis
Hogeschool). Artesis University College has about 8,600 students and
1,600 staff, and Charlemagne University College has about 10,000
students and 1,300 staff. Plantin University College has approximately
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in
TWIN TOWNS AND SISTER CITIES
This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please
help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources .
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2016)
(Learn how and when to remove this template message )
The following places are twinned with or sister cities to Antwerp:
* Fes , Morocco, 2000
Rotterdam , the Netherlands, 1940
Mulhouse , France, 1954
Saint Petersburg , Russia, 1958
Rostock , Germany,1963
Shanghai , China, 1984
Akhisar , Turkey, 1988
Haifa , Israel, 1995
Cape Town , South Africa, 1996
Ludwigshafen , Germany, 1998
Within the context of development cooperation,
Antwerp is also linked
Paramaribo , Suriname
Durban , South Africa
Notable people from Antwerp
BORN IN ANTWERP
Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence , son of Edward III of
Samuel Blommaert , Director of the Dutch West
Frans Floris , painter (1520–1570)
Abraham Ortelius , cartographer and geographer (1527–98)
Gillis van Coninxloo
Gillis van Coninxloo , painter of forest landscapes (1544–1607)
Bartholomeus Spranger , painter, draughtsman , and etcher
* Martín Antonio del Río ,
Jesuit theologian (1551–1608)
Matthijs Bril , landscape painter (1550–1583)
Paul Bril , landscape painter (1554–1626)
Willem Usselincx , Flemish merchant and investor, one of the
founders of the
Dutch West India Company (1567–1647)
Abraham Janssens , painter (c. 1570 – 1632)
Rodrigo Calderón, Count of Oliva
Rodrigo Calderón, Count of Oliva , Spanish favourite and
adventurer (died 1621)
Frans Snyders , still life and animal painter (1579–1657)
Osias Beert the Elder (1580–1623)
Frans Hals , painter (1580–1666)
Caspar de Crayer
Caspar de Crayer , painter (1582–1669)
Teniers the Elder , painter (1582–1649)
Jacob Jordaens , painter (1593–1678)
Anthony van Dyck
Anthony van Dyck , painter (1599–1641)
Teniers the Younger , painter (1610–1690)
Jan Fyt , animal painter (1611–1661)
Jacob Leyssens ,
Baroque painter (1661–1710)
Nicolaes Maes ,
Baroque painter (1634–1693)
Hendrik Abbé , engraver, painter and architect (1639-?)
Gerard Edelinck , copperplate engraver (1649–1707)
Peter Tillemans , painter (c. 1684 – 1734)
John Michael Rysbrack , sculptor (1694–1770)
Francis Palms , Belgian-American landholder and businessman
Hendrik Conscience , writer and author of De Leeuw van Vlaanderen
("The Lion of Flanders") (1812–1883)
Johann Coaz , Swiss forester, topographer and mountaineer
Jef Lambeaux , sculptor of the Brabo fountain in the Grote Markt
Georges Eekhoud , novelist (1854–1927)
Hippolyte Delehaye ,
Jesuit Priest and hagiographic scholar
Ferdinand Perier ,
Jesuit Priest and 3rd Archbishop of Calcutta
Willem Elsschot , writer and poet (1882–1960)
Constant Permeke , expressionist painter (1886–1952)
Paul van Ostaijen , poet and writer (1896–1928)
Alice Nahon , poet (1896–1933)
Albert Lilar , Minister of Justice (1900–1976)
Maurice Gilliams , writer (1900–1982)
Michel Seuphor , painter, designer (1901–1999)
André Cluytens , conductor (1905–1967)
Daniel Sternefeld , composer and conductor (1905–1986)
Maurice van Essche , Belgian-born South African painter
Antoinette Feuerwerker , French jurist and member of the
Jean Bingen , Belgian papyrologist and epigrapher (1920–2012)
* Karl Gotch , professional wrestler (1924–2007)
Simon Kornblit , American advertising and film studio executive
Bernard de Walque , architect (born 1938)
Ferre Grignard , rock singer/songwriter, known for "Ring Ring,
I've Got To Sing" (1939–1982)
Paul Buysse , businessman (born 1945)
Carl Verbraeken , composer (born 1950)
Tom Barman , Belgian musician and film director (born 1972)
Matthias Schoenaerts , actor (born 1977)
Tia Hellebaut , Olympic high jump champion (born 1978)
Evi Goffin , vocalist (born 1981)
Jessica Van Der Steen , model (born 1984)
Laetitia Beck , Israeli golfer (born 1992)
Romelu Lukaku , professional footballer (born 1993)
LIVED IN ANTWERP
Wenceslas Hollar .
Erasmus II Schetz
Erasmus II Schetz , Lord of Grobbendonk
Abraham Mayer , German-born physician (1848)
Quentin Matsys ,
Renaissance painter, founder of the Antwerp
Jan Mabuse , painter (c. 1478–1532)
Joachim Patinir , landscape and religious painter (c. 1480–1524)
* John Rogers ,
Christian minister, Bible translator and
commentator, and martyr (c. 1500–1555)
Joos van Cleve , painter (c. 1500–1540/41)
Damião de Góis , Portuguese humanist philosopher (1502–1574)
Thomas Gresham , English merchant and financier (c.
* Sir Anthony More , portrait painter (1520–c. 1577)
* Christoffel Plantijn , humanist, book printer and publisher (c.
* Pieter Brueghel the Elder , painter and printmaker (1525–1569)
* Philip van Marnix , writer and statesman (1538–1598)
Simon Stevin , mathematician and engineer (c. 1548/49–1620)
Federigo Giambelli , Italian military and civil engineer (c.
* John Bull , English/Welsh composer , musician, and organ builder
Jan Brueghel the Elder
Jan Brueghel the Elder , also known as "Velvet" Brueghel, painter
* Pieter Paul Rubens , painter (1577–1640)
* William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Newcastle , English soldier,
politician, and writer (c. 1592 – 1676)
Adriaen Brouwer , painter (1605–1638)
Jan Davidszoon de Heem , painter (1606–1684)
Wenceslas Hollar ,
Bohemian etcher (1607–1677)
Jan Lievens , painter (1607–1674)
Ferdinand van Apshoven the Younger , painter (c. 1630–1694)
Frédéric Théodore Faber , painter (1782–1799)
Jan Frans Willems , writer (1793–1846)
* Henri Alexis
Brialmont , military engineer (1821–1903)
Lawrence Alma-Tadema , painter (1836–1912)
Vincent van Gogh
Vincent van Gogh , impressionist Dutch painter who lived in
Antwerp for about four months (1853–1890)
Camille Huysmans , Socialist politician, former mayor of Antwerp
and former Prime Minister of
* Moshe Yitzchok Gewirtzman , leader of the Hasidic Pshevorsk
movement based in
Romi Goldmuntz , businessman (1882–1960)
Gerard Walschap , writer (1898–1989)
Albert Lilar , Minister of Justice (1900–1976)
Suzanne Lilar , essayist, novelist, and playwright (1901–1992)
Heaven Tanudiredja , designer, artist
Eric de Kuyper , award-winning novelist, filmmaker, semiotician
Philip Sessarego , former British Army soldier, conman, hoaxer,
mercenary lived in
Antwerp and found dead in a garage (1952–2008)
Jean Genet , French writer and political activist (1909–1986),
Antwerp for short period in the 1930s
George du Maurier
George du Maurier , came to
Antwerp to study art and lost the
sight in one eye; cartoonist, author and grandfather of Daphne du
Chaim Kreiswirth , Talmudist and Rabbi of the Machsike Hadas
William Tyndale , Bible translator, arrested in
Antwerp 1535 and
burnt at Vilvoorde in 1536 (c. 1494–1536)
Akiba Rubinstein , Polish grandmaster of chess (1882–1961).
Veerle Casteleyn , performer
Ray Cokes , English TV host
Robert Barrett Browning , or "Pen", only child of Robert and
Elizabeth Barrett Browning, studied painting in Antwerp
Ford Madox Brown
Ford Madox Brown , leading
Preraphaelite painter. Studied art at
August De Boodt , politician (1895–1986)
Bernoulli family , renowned family of mathematicians and
Den Dam – an area in northern Antwerp
* The diamond district – an area consisting of several square
blocks, it is Antwerp's centre for the cutting, polishing, and trading
Antwerp on the left bank of the
Scheldt with a lot
of apartment buildings
* Meir – Antwerp's largest shopping street
Van Wesenbekestraat – the city's Chinatown
* Het Zuid – the south of Antwerp, notable for its museums and
Zurenborg – an area between Central and
Berchem station with a
Art Nouveau townhouses
Antwerp Book Fair
Antwerp Water Works (AWW)
AMVC Archief en Museum voor het Vlaams Cultuurleven
Jewish Community of Antwerp
List of mayors of Antwerp
* Pshevorsk – Hassidic Jewish movement based in Antwerp
Royal Antwerp F.C. , local football club
* ^ Population per municipality as of 1 January 2016 (XLS; 397 KB)
* ^ Statistics Belgium; Loop van de bevolking per gemeente
(EXCEL-FILE) Population of all municipalities in Belgium, as of 1
January 2017. Retrieved on 1 November 2017.
* ^ The capital region of
Brussels , whose metropolitan area
comprises the city itself plus 18 independent communal entities,
counts over 1,700,000 inhabitants, but these communities are counted
separately by the Belgian Statistics Office Statbel the Belgian
* ^ "De Belgische Stadsgewesten 2001" (PDF). Statistics Belgium.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 October 2008. Retrieved 19
October 2008. Definitions of metropolitan areas in Belgium.
* ^ "
Antwerp is Europe\'s second largest port". 9 November 2016.
* ^ "The World According to GaWC 2012". Globalization and World
Cities (GaWC) Study Group and Network.
Loughborough University .
Retrieved 9 December 2014.
* ^ "A look inside one of the world\'s oldest stock exchange
buildings". Barcroft TV.
* ^ Geert Cole; Leanne Logan,
Belgium & Luxembourg p.218 Lonely
Planet Publishing (2007) ISBN 1-74104-237-2
* ^ "Discovering the secrets of Antwerp". Stuff.
* ^ "Visit Antwerp: Belgium\'s city of surprises".
* ^ "Jewel in the diamond capital - PA Life". 13 July 2017.
* ^ Legenden en Mythen Legende van Brabo en de reus Antigoon.
Archived 1 December 2010 at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ Brabo Antwerpen 1 (centrum) / Antwerpen (in Dutch)
Antwerp Tourist Information – Meredith Booney, "The name
'Antwerp' has been linked to the word "aanwerp" (alluvial mound),
which was the geographical feature in the early settlement period in
* ^ Room, Adrian (1 August 1997). Placenames of the World.
McFarland & Company. p. 32. ISBN 0-7864-0172-9 .
* ^ "Naam Antwerpen heeft keltische oorsprong". Gazet van Antwerpen
(in Dutch). 13 September 2007. Retrieved 18 August 2017. For the
passage in the Vita Eligii from the Monumenta Germaniae Historica
(provided by the Bavarian State Library), see Monumenta Germaniae
Historica (page 700) retrieved 18 August 2017 (in Latin). Jo Ann
McNamara’s English translation of the Vita Eligii is at Fordham
University retrieved 18 August 2017
* ^ "Antwerp" Britannica
* ^ A B C D E F One or more of the preceding sentences
incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain :
Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Antwerp". Encyclopædia Britannica . 2
(11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 155–156.
* ^ Donald J. Harreld, "Atlantic Sugar and Antwerp's Trade with
Germany in the Sixteenth Century,"
Journal of Early Modern History ,
2003, Vol. 7 Issue 1/2, pp 148–163
* ^ R. B. Ouithwaite, "The Trials of Foreign Borrowing: the English
Crown and the
Antwerp Money Market in the Mid-Sixteenth Century,"
Economic History Review , August 1966, Vol. 19 Issue 2, pp 289–305
* ^ (Braudel 1985 p. 143.)
* ^ A B Dunton, Larkin (1896). The World and Its People. Silver,
Burdett. p. 163.
* ^ A B Luc-Normand Tellier (2009). "Urban world history: an
economic and geographical perspective". PUQ. p.308. ISBN 2-7605-1588-5
* ^ Boxer Charles Ralph, The Dutch seaborne empire, 1600–1800, p.
18, Taylor & Francis, 1977 ISBN 0-09-131051-2 , ISBN 978-0-09-131051-6
* ^ Dunton, Larkin (1896). The World and Its People. Silver,
Burdett. p. 164.
* ^ Pelle, Kimberley D. Findling, John E, ed. Encyclopedia of
World's Fairs and Expositions. McFarland & Company, Inc. p. 414. ISBN
* ^ Michael Ryckewaert,
Planning Perspectives , July 2010, Vol. 25
Issue 3, pp 303–322,
* ^ Javier Gimeno Martínez, "Selling Avant-garde: How Antwerp
Became a Fashion Capital (1990–2002)," Urban Studies November 2007,
Vol. 44 Issue 1３, pp 2449–2464
* ^ "De Ceuninck", Koenraad (2009). De gemeentelijke fusies van
1976. Een mijlpaal voor de lokale besturen in België. Die keure,
* ^ Emporis. Retrieved 23 October 2006.
* ^ "KBC Tower - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com.
* ^ "
Antwerp timeline 1300–1399". Strecker.be. Archived from the
original on 7 May 2008. Retrieved 13 April 2010.
* ^ "
Antwerp timeline 1400–1499". Strecker.be. Archived from the
original on 10 May 2008. Retrieved 13 April 2010.
* ^ Braudel, Fernand The Perspective of the World, 1985
* ^ A B "
Antwerp timeline 1500–1599". Strecker.be. Archived from
the original on 2 May 2008. Retrieved 13 April 2010.
* ^ Coornaert, Émile (1961). Les Français et le commerce
international à Anvers : fin du XVe, XVIe siècle. Paris: Marcel
Rivière et cie. p. 96.
* ^ Boumans, R; Craeybeckx, J (1947). Het bevolkingscijfer van
Antwerpen in het derde kwart der XVIe eeuw. T.G. pp. 394–405.
* ^ van Houtte, J. A. (1961). "Anvers aux XVe et XVIe siècles :
expansion et apogée". Annales. Économies, sociétés, civilisations.
16 (2): 249. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
* ^ Description of the
French Fury matter, see chapter
\'Declaration of independence\' in article \'William the Silent\'
* ^ "
Antwerp timeline 1600–1699". Strecker.be. Archived from the
original on 7 May 2008. Retrieved 13 April 2010.
* ^ "
Antwerp timeline 1700–1799". Strecker.be. Archived from the
original on 4 August 2008. Retrieved 13 April 2010.
* ^ "
Antwerp timeline 1800–1899". Strecker.be. Retrieved 13 April
* ^ "
Antwerp timeline 1900–1999". Strecker.be. Archived from the
original on 7 January 2008. Retrieved 13 April 2010.
* ^ Auteur: Dajo Hermans. "56 procent van Antwerpse kinderen is
allochtoon – Het Nieuwsblad". Nieuwsblad.be. Retrieved 12 March
* ^ "Antwerpen in 2020 voor 55% allochtoon" (in Dutch). Express.be.
Retrieved 12 March 2013.
* ^ "An Introduction to Jainism: History, Religion, Gods,
Scriptures and Beliefs". Commisceo Global. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
* ^ Inside Knowledge: Streetwise in Asia p.163
* ^ Vanneste, Tijl (6 October 2015). "Global Trade and Commercial
Diamond Merchants". Routledge – via
* ^ Indians shine antwerp diamond centre polls International
Belgium Real Estate Yearbook 2009 p.23
* ^ A B Recession takes the sparkle out of Antwerp\'s diamond
quarter World news. The Guardian. Retrieved on 2011-06-02.
* ^ "
Antwerp and diamonds, the facts - Baunat Diamonds".
* ^ The Global
Diamond Industry: Economics and Development, Volume
* ^ "THE ARMENIAN OF BELGIUM: AN UNINTERRUPTED PRESENCE SINCE THE
4TH CENTURY". AGBU - Armenian non-profit organization.
* ^ "Armenia: Report On Kotayk Province". WikiLeaks. 26 August
2011. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
* ^ "
Wind farm Sustainable Port of Antwerp". Archived from the
original on 2014-04-30. Retrieved 2 August 2015.
* ^ John Tagliabue (5 November 2012). "An Industry Struggles to
Keep Its Luster". The New
York Times. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
* ^ "The industry
Diamond Centre". awdc.be.
Archived from the original on 26 June 2015. Retrieved 2 August 2015.
* ^ A B "WSJ: Indians Unseat Antwerp\'s Jews As the Biggest Diamond
Traders". Stefangeens.com. 27 May 2003. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
* ^ ""Your VLM contacts."". Archived from the original on 1 August
2003. Retrieved 2017-03-29. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status
unknown (link )
VLM Airlines . 1 August 2003. Retrieved on 6 July
Belgium NV Luchthavengebouw B50 B
2100 Deurne Antwerpen."
* ^ "Our Offices Archived 14 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine
CityJet . Retrieved on 6 July 2010. "
Antwerp office VLM Airlines
Belgium NV Luchthavengebouw B50 B 2100
registration number 0446.670.251."
* ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 December 2002.
Retrieved 2002-12-03. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown
Delsey Airlines . 3 December 2002. Retrieved on 8 September
* ^ "Statistiques climatiques des communes belges: Antwerpen (ins
11002)" (PDF) (in French). Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 January 2017. Retrieved 25
* ^ Martínez, "Selling Avant-garde: How
Antwerp Became a Fashion
Capital (1990–2002)" (2007)
* ^ "Verenigingen gevestigd in "Den Bengel". ANTWERPSE JAZZCLUB".
Cafe Den Bengel. 27 February 2016. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
* ^ "Cycling at the 1920 Antwerpen Summer Games: Men\'s Road Race,
Individual Olympics at Sports-Reference.com". sports-reference.com.
Retrieved 2 August 2015.
* ^ Sports-reference.com
1920 Summer Olympics cycling team road
race, team Olympics at Sports-Reference.com
* ^ "ROYAL ANTWERP FOOTBALL CLUB". Archived from the original on 3
July 2013. Retrieved 3 June 2017.
* ^ Manchester United\'s Royal
Antwerp Loanees – Five Cantonas
* ^ "Tour de
France 2015 : de l\'eau, et du diamant" (in French).
letour.fr. 24 May 2014. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
* ^ "
Akhisar Belediyesi - ATİK - UEMP". www.uemp.eu.
* ^ Grossblat, R.M. (15 July 2010). "Simon Korblit, a Profile
Atlanta Jewish News. Retrieved 23 July 2010.
See also: Bibliography of the history of
* Lindemann, Mary. The
Merchant Republics: Amsterdam, Antwerp, and
Hamburg, 1648-1790 (Cambridge University Press, 2014) 356 pp.
* Van der Wee, Herman. The Growth of the
Antwerp Market and the
European Economy (14th–16th Centuries) (The Hague, 1963)
* Richard Stillwell, ed. Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites,
Wikimedia Commons has media related to ANTWERP .
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for ANTWERP .
* Official website
* Tourism Antwerp
PLACES ADJACENT TO ANTWERP
Reimerswaal (NL -ZE )
Woensdrecht (NL -NB ),
Beveren (VOV )