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Antwerp (; nl, Antwerpen ; french: Anvers ; es, Amberes) is the largest city in
Belgium
Belgium
by area at and the capital of Antwerp Province in the Flemish Region. With a population of 530,504,Statistics Belgium; ''Loop van de bevolking per gemeente'' (Excel file)
Population of all municipalities in Belgium, . Retrieved 1 November 2017.
it is the most populous municipality in Belgium, and with a metropolitan population of around 1,200,000 people, it is the second-largest metropolitan region in Belgium, after only
Brussels
Brussels
. Definitions of metropolitan areas in Belgium. Antwerp is on the river
Scheldt
Scheldt
, linked to the
North Sea
North Sea
by the river's Westerschelde estuary. It is about north of Brussels, and about south of the
Dutch
Dutch
border. The
Port of Antwerp
Port of Antwerp
is one of the biggest in the world, ranking second in Europe and within the top 20 globally. The city is also known as the hub of the world's diamond trade. In 2020, the Globalization and World Cities Research Network rated Antwerp as a Gamma + (third level/top tier) Global City. Both economically and culturally, Antwerp is and has long been an important city in the Low Countries, especially before and during the Spanish Fury (1576) and throughout and after the subsequent Dutch Revolt. The Bourse of Antwerp, originally built in 1531 and re-built in 1872, was the world's first purpose-built commodity exchange. It was founded before stocks and shares existed, so was not strictly a stock exchange. In 1920, the city hosted the Summer Olympics. The inhabitants of Antwerp are nicknamed ''Sinjoren'' (), after the Spanish honorific ''señor'' or French ''seigneur'', "lord", referring to the Spanish noblemen who ruled the city in the 17th century. The city's population is very diverse, coming from a range of 179 nationalities; As of 2019, more than 50% of its population has a parent that was not a Belgian citizen at birth. A particularly notable community among these is the close-knit Jewish one, as Antwerp is one of the only two cities in Europe (together with
London London is the capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom, with a population of just under 9 million. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a estuary dow ...

London
and its Stamford Hill neighbourhood) that kept a considerable Haredi population in the 21st century; They are also more much visible than in London, due to them being concentrated around the centre. The centre is also most notably home to the Antwerpen-Centraal railway station; eclectically built in a combination of Neo-Renaissance and
Art Nouveau Art Nouveau (; ) is an international style (visual arts), style of art, architecture, and applied art, especially the decorative arts. The style is known by different names in different languages: in German, in Italian, in Catalan, and also ...
, it is considered to be one of the most beautiful train stations in the world.


Toponymy


Etymology

Early recorded versions of the name include ''Ando Verpia'' on Roman coins found in the city centre,Brabo Antwerpen 1 (centrum) / Antwerpen
Germanic ''Andhunerbo'' from around the time Austrasia became a separate kingdom (that is, about 567 CE), and (possibly originally Celtic) ''Andoverpis'' in Dado's ''Life of St. Eligius'' ''(Vita Eligii)'' from about 700 CE. The form ''Antverpia'' is New Latin. A Germanic ( Frankish or Frisian) origin could contain prefix ''anda'' ("against") and a noun derived from the verb ''werpen'' ("to throw") and denote, for example: land thrown up at the riverbank; an alluvial deposit; a mound (like a terp) thrown up (as a defence) against (something or someone); or a wharf."Antwerp"
''Encyclopædia Britannica''
If ''Andoverpis'' is Celtic in origin, it could mean "those who live on both banks". There is a
folklore Folklore is shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group. This includes oral traditions such as Narrative, tales, legends, proverbs and jokes. They include material culture, r ...

folklore
tradition that the name ''Antwerpen'' is from Dutch ''handwerpen'' ("hand-throwing"). A
giant In folklore, giants (from Ancient Greek: ''wiktionary:gigas, gigas'', cognate wiktionary:giga-, giga-) are beings of human-like appearance, but are at times prodigious in size and strength or bear an otherwise notable appearance. The word ''gi ...
called Antigoon is said to have lived near the river and extracted a toll from passing boatmen. He severed the hand of anyone who did not pay, and threw it in the river. Eventually the giant was killed by a young hero named Silvius Brabo, who cut off the giant's own hand and flung that into the river. This is unlikely to be the true origin, but it is celebrated by a statue (illustrated further below) in the city's main market square, the Grote Markt.


History


Pre-1500

Historical Antwerp allegedly had its origins in a Gallo-Roman '' vicus''. Excavations carried out in the oldest section near the Scheldt, 1952–1961 (ref. Princeton), produced pottery shards and fragments of glass from mid-2nd century to the end of the 3rd century. In the 4th century, Antwerp was first named, having been settled by the
Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples whose name was first mentioned in 3rd-century Roman sources, and associated with tribes between the Lower Rhine and the Ems River, on the edge of the Roman Empire.H. Schutz: Tools, ...

Franks
. The
Merovingian The Merovingian dynasty () was the ruling family of the Franks from the middle of the 5th century until 751. They first appear as "Kings of the Franks" in the Roman army of northern Gaul. By 509 they had united all the Franks and northern Gauli ...

Merovingian
Antwerp was evangelized by Saint Amand in the 7th century. '''' Castle has its origins in the
Carolingian The Carolingian dynasty (; known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings, Karolinger or Karlings) was a Franks, Frankish noble family named after Charlemagne, grandson of Mayor of the palace, mayor Charles Martel and a descendant ...
period in the 9th century. The castle may have been built after the Viking incursions in the early Middle Ages; in 879 the
Normans The Normans (Norman language, Norman: ''Normaunds''; french: Normands; la, Nortmanni/Normanni) were a population arising in the medieval Duchy of Normandy from the intermingling between Norsemen, Norse Viking settlers and indigenous West Fran ...

Normans
invaded Flanders. The surviving structure was built between 1200 and 1225 as a gateway to a larger castle of the Dukes of Brabant which was demolished in the 19th century. It is Antwerp's oldest building. At the end of the 10th century, the Scheldt became the boundary of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire was a Polity, political entity in Western Europe, Western, Central Europe, Central, and Southern Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its Dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, dissolution i ...
. Antwerp became a margraviate in 980, by the German emperor , a border province facing the
County of Flanders The County of Flanders was a historic territory in the Low Countries. From 862 onwards, the counts of Flanders were among the original twelve Peerage of France#Under the Monarchy: feudal period and Ancien Régime, peers of the France in the Midd ...
. In the 11th century, the best-known leader of the
First Crusade The First Crusade (1096–1099) was the first of a series of religious wars, or Crusades, initiated, supported and at times directed by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The objective was the recovery of the Holy Land from Muslim conqu ...
(1096–1099), , was originally Margrave of Antwerp, from 1076 until his death in 1100, though he was later also Duke of Lower Lorraine (1087–1100) and Defender of the Holy Sepulchre (1099–1100). In the 12th century, Norbert of Xanten established a community of his Premonstratensian canons at St. Michael's Abbey at Caloes. Antwerp was also the headquarters of
Edward III Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377), also known as Edward of Windsor before his accession, was King of England and Lord of Ireland from January 1327 until his death in 1377. He is noted for his military success and for restoring ro ...

Edward III
during his early negotiations with Jacob van Artevelde, and his son , the
Duke of Clarence Duke of Clarence is a substantive title which has been traditionally awarded to junior members of the British Royal Family. All three creations were in the Peerage of England. The title was first granted to Lionel of Antwerp, the second son of ...
, was born there in 1338.


16th century

After the silting-up of the
Zwin The Zwin is a nature reserve at the North Sea coast, on the Belgium, Belgian-Netherlands, Dutch border. It consists of the entrance area of a former tidal inlet which during the Middle Ages connected the North Sea with the ports of Sluis and Br ...

Zwin
and the consequent decline of
Bruges Bruges ( , nl, Brugge ) is the capital and largest city A city is a human settlement of notable size.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Scienc ...

Bruges
, the city of Antwerp, then part of the
Duchy of Brabant The Duchy of Brabant was a Imperial State, State of the Holy Roman Empire established in 1183. It developed from the Landgraviate of Brabant and formed the heart of the historic Low Countries, part of the Burgundian Netherlands from 1430 and of t ...
, grew in importance, with the city doubling its population between 1500 and 1569. At the end of the 15th century the foreign trading houses were transferred from Bruges to Antwerp, and the building assigned to the association of English merchants active in the city is specifically mentioned in 1510. During this time, the old Mediterranean trade routes were gradually losing importance and the discovery of new sea routes via Africa to Asia and via the Atlantic to America helped push Antwerp to a position of prominence. By 1504, the Portuguese had established Antwerp as one of their main shipping bases, bringing in spices from Asia and trading them for textiles and metal goods. The city's trade expanded to include cloth from England, Italy and Germany,
wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from Fermentation in winemaking, fermented grapes. Yeast in winemaking, Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and carbon dioxide, releasing heat in the process. Different ...

wine
s from Germany, France and Spain, salt from France, and
wheat Wheat is a Poaceae, grass widely Agriculture, cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain that is a worldwide staple food. The Taxonomy of wheat, many species of wheat together make up the genus ''Triticum'' ; the most widely grown is common wheat ...

wheat
from the Baltic. The city's skilled workers processed soap, fish, sugar, and especially cloth. Banks helped finance the trade, the merchants, and the manufacturers. The city was a cosmopolitan center; its bourse opened in 1531, "To the merchants of all nations." Antwerp became the
sugar Sugar is the generic name for Sweetness, sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. Simple sugars, also called monosaccharides, include glucose, fructose, and galactose. Compound sugars, also called disaccharides o ...

sugar
capital of Europe, importing the raw commodity from Portuguese and Spanish plantations on both sides of the Atlantic, where it was grown by a mixture of free and forced labour, increasingly with enslaved Africans as the century progressed. The city attracted Italian and German sugar refiners by 1550, and shipped their refined product to Germany, especially Cologne. Antwerp also had an unusually high number of painters, around 360 in 1560, in a city with a population of roughly 89,000 in 1569 (250 people per painter), it was known as the best city for painters north of the Alps, serving notable painters such as Pieter Bruegel. Moneylenders and financiers developed a large business lending money all over Europe including the English government in 1544–1574. London bankers were too small to operate on that scale, and Antwerp had a highly efficient bourse that itself attracted rich bankers from around Europe. After the 1570s, the city's banking business declined: England ceased its borrowing in Antwerp in 1574. Fernand Braudel states that Antwerp became "the centre of the ''entire'' international economy, something Bruges had never been even at its height." Antwerp had the highest growth rate and was the richest city in Europe at the time. Antwerp's is tightly linked to the "
Age of Exploration The Age of Discovery (or the Age of Exploration), also known as the early modern period, was a period largely overlapping with the Age of Sail, approximately from the 15th century to the 17th century in History of Europe, European history, duri ...
". During the first half of the 16th century Antwerp grew to become the second-largest European city north of the Alps. Many foreign merchants were resident in the city. , the Florentine envoy, stated that hundreds of ships would pass in a day, and 2,000 carts entered the city each week. Portuguese ships laden with and
cinnamon Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus ''Cinnamomum''. Cinnamon is used mainly as an aromatic condiment and flavouring additive in a wide variety of cuisines, sweet and savoury dishes, breakfast ...

cinnamon
would unload their cargo. According to Luc-Normand Tellier "It is estimated that the port of Antwerp was earning the Spanish crown seven times more revenues than the Spanish colonization of the Americas". Without a long-distance merchant fleet, and governed by an oligarchy of banker-aristocrats forbidden to engage in trade, the economy of Antwerp was foreign-controlled, which made the city very cosmopolitan, with merchants and traders from
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto Regions of Italy, region. It is built on a group of 118 small islands that are separated by canals and linked by over 400  ...
,
Genoa Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; lij, Zêna ). is the capital of the Regions of Italy, Italian region of Liguria and the List of cities in Italy, sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived within the city's administrative limits. As of t ...
, ,
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = ''Plus ultra'' (Latin)(English: "Further Beyond") , national_anthem = (English: "Royal March") , i ...

Spain
and Portugal. Antwerp had a policy of toleration, which attracted a large crypto-
Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים, , ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a combination of shared features such as language, history, ethnicity, culture and/or ...
community composed of migrants from Spain and Portugal. Antwerp experienced three booms during its golden age: the first based on the pepper market, a second launched by American silver coming from
Seville Seville (; es, Sevilla, ) is the capital and largest city of the Spain, Spanish autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville. It is situated on the lower reaches of the Guadalquivir, River Gua ...

Seville
(ending with the bankruptcy of Spain in 1557), and a third boom, after the stabilising
Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually made by and between sovereign states, but can include international organizations, individuals, business entities, and other legal perso ...
in 1559, based on the textiles industry. At the beginning of the 16th century Antwerp accounted for 40% of world trade.Luc-Normand Tellier (2009). "
Urban world history: an economic and geographical perspective
'". PUQ. p.308.
The boom-and-bust cycles and inflationary cost-of-living squeezed less-skilled workers. In the century after 1541, the city's economy and population declined dramatically The Portuguese merchants left in 1549, and there was much less trade in English cloth. Numerous financial bankruptcies began around 1557.
Amsterdam Amsterdam ( , , , lit. ''The Dam on the River Amstel'') is the Capital of the Netherlands, capital and Municipalities of the Netherlands, most populous city of the Netherlands, with The Hague being the seat of government. It has a population ...

Amsterdam
replaced Antwerp as the major trading center for the region.


Reformation era

The religious revolution of the
Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Catholic Church and in ...
erupted in violent riots in August 1566, as in other parts of the Low Countries. The regent Margaret, Duchess of Parma, was swept aside when sent the Duke of Alba at the head of an army the following summer. When the Dutch revolt against Spain broke out in 1568, commercial trading between Antwerp and the Spanish port of
Bilbao ) , motto = , image_map = , mapsize = 275 px , map_caption = Interactive map outlining Bilbao , pushpin_map = Spain Basque Country#Spain#Europe , pushpin_map_caption ...

Bilbao
collapsed and became impossible. On 4 November 1576, Spanish soldiers sacked the city during the so-called Spanish Fury: 7,000 citizens were massacred, 800 houses were burnt down, and over £2 million sterling of damage was done.


Dutch revolt

Subsequently, the city joined the in 1579 and became the capital of the Dutch Revolt. In 1585,
Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma and Piacenza Alessandro is both a given name and a surname, the Italian language, Italian form of the name Alexander. Notable people with the name include: People with the given name Alessandro * Alessandro Allori (1535–1607), Italian portrait painter * A ...
, captured it after a long siege and as part of the terms of surrender its
Protestant Protestantism is a branch of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Na ...
citizens were given two years to settle their affairs before quitting the city. Most went to the United Provinces in the north, starting the
Dutch Golden Age The Dutch Golden Age ( nl, Gouden Eeuw ) was a period in the history of the Netherlands, roughly spanning the era from 1588 (the birth of the Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, also known as the (Seven) United Provin ...
. Antwerp's banking was controlled for a generation by
Genoa Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; lij, Zêna ). is the capital of the Regions of Italy, Italian region of Liguria and the List of cities in Italy, sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived within the city's administrative limits. As of t ...
, and
Amsterdam Amsterdam ( , , , lit. ''The Dam on the River Amstel'') is the Capital of the Netherlands, capital and Municipalities of the Netherlands, most populous city of the Netherlands, with The Hague being the seat of government. It has a population ...

Amsterdam
became the new trading centre.


17th–19th centuries

The recognition of the independence of the United Provinces by the Treaty of Münster in 1648 stipulated that the should be closed to navigation, which destroyed Antwerp's trading activities. This impediment remained in force until 1863, although the provisions were relaxed during French rule from 1795 to 1814, and also during the time Belgium formed part of the
Kingdom of the United Netherlands The United Kingdom of the Netherlands ( nl, Verenigd Koninkrijk der Nederlanden; french: Royaume uni des Pays-Bas) is the unofficial name given to the Kingdom of the Netherlands as it existed between 1815 and 1839. The United Netherlands was cr ...
(1815 to 1830). Antwerp had reached the lowest point in its fortunes in 1800, and its population had sunk to under 40,000, when
Napoleon Napoleon Bonaparte ; it, Napoleone Bonaparte, ; co, Napulione Buonaparte. (born Napoleone Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821), later known by his regnal name Napoleon I, was a French military commander and political leader who ...
, realizing its strategic importance, assigned funds to enlarge the harbour by constructing a new dock (still named the Bonaparte Dock), an access-lock and mole, and deepening the Scheldt to allow larger ships to approach Antwerp. Napoleon hoped that by making Antwerp's harbour the finest in Europe he would be able to counter the Port of London and hamper British growth. However, he was defeated at the
Battle of Waterloo The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday 18 June 1815, near Waterloo, Belgium, Waterloo (at that time in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, now in Belgium). A French army under the command of Napoleon was defeated by two of the armie ...
before he could see the plan through. In 1830, the city was captured by the Belgian insurgents, but the citadel continued to be held by a Dutch garrison under General David Hendrik Chassé. For a time Chassé subjected the town to periodic bombardment which inflicted much damage, and at the end of 1832 the citadel itself was besieged by the French Northern Army commanded by Marechal
Gerard Gerard is a masculine forename of Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Germanic origin, variations of which exist in many Germanic and Romance languages. Like many other Germanic name, early Germanic names, it is dithematic, consisting of two meaningfu ...
. During this attack the town was further damaged. In December 1832, after a gallant defence, Chassé made an honourable surrender, ending the Siege of Antwerp (1832). Later that century, a double ring of Brialmont Fortresses was constructed some from the city centre, as Antwerp was considered vital for the survival of the young Belgian state. And in 1894 Antwerp presented itself to the world via a
World's Fair A world's fair, also known as a universal exhibition or an expo, is a large international exhibition designed to showcase the achievements of nations. These exhibitions vary in character and are held in different parts of the world at a specif ...
attended by 3 million.


20th century

Antwerp was the first city to host the World Gymnastics Championships, in 1903. During
World War I World War I (28 July 1914 11 November 1918), often abbreviated as WWI, was List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll, one of the deadliest global conflicts in history. Belligerents included much of Europe, the Russian Empire, ...
, the city became the fallback point of the
Belgian Army The Land Component ( nl, Landcomponent, french: Composante terre) is the land branch of the Belgian Armed Forces. The King of the Belgians is the commander in chief. The current chief of staff of the Land Component is Major-General Pierre Gérard. ...
after the defeat at
Liège Liège ( , , ; wa, Lîdje ; nl, Luik ; german: Lüttich ) is a major City status in Belgium, city and Municipalities in Belgium, municipality of Wallonia and the capital of the Belgium, Belgian Liège Province, province of Liège. The city is ...
. The Siege of Antwerp lasted for 11 days, but the city was taken after heavy fighting by the German Army, and the Belgians were forced to retreat westwards. Antwerp remained under German occupation until the Armistice. Antwerp hosted the
1920 Summer Olympics The 1920 Summer Olympics (french: Jeux olympiques d'été de 1920; nl, Olympische Zomerspelen van 1920; german: Olympische Sommerspiele 1920), officially known as the Games of the VII Olympiad (french: Jeux de la VIIe olympiade; nl, Spelen van ...
. During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a world war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the World War II by country, vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great power ...
, the city was an important strategic target because of its port. It was occupied by Germany on May 18th 1940 and liberated by the British 11th Armoured Division on September 4th 1944. After this, the Germans attempted to destroy the , which was used by the Allies to bring new material ashore. Thousands of Rheinbote, V-1 and
V-2 The V-2 (german: V-weapons, Vergeltungswaffe 2, lit=Retaliation Weapon 2), with the technical name ''Aggregat (rocket family), Aggregat 4'' (A-4), was the world’s first long-range missile guidance, guided ballistic missile. The missile, power ...
missiles were fired (more V-2s than used on all other targets during the entire war combined), causing severe damage to the city but failed to destroy the port due to poor accuracy. After the war, Antwerp, which had already had a sizeable Jewish population before the war, once again became a major European centre of
Haredi Haredi Judaism ( he, ', ; also spelled ''Charedi'' in English; plural ''Haredim'' or ''Charedim'') consists of groups within Orthodox Judaism that are characterized by their strict adherence to ''halakha'' (Jewish law) and traditions, in oppos ...
(and particularly
Hasidic Hasidism, sometimes spelled Chassidism, and also known as Hasidic Judaism (Ashkenazi Hebrew: חסידות ''Ḥăsīdus'', ; originally, "piety"), is a Judaism, Jewish religious group that arose as a spiritual revival movement in the territory ...
)
Orthodox Judaism Orthodox Judaism is the collective term for the traditionalist and theologically conservative branches of contemporary Judaism. Jewish theology, Theologically, it is chiefly defined by regarding the Torah, both Torah, Written and Oral Torah, Or ...
. A Ten-Year Plan for the port of Antwerp (1956–1965) expanded and modernized the port's infrastructure with national funding to build a set of canal docks. The broader aim was to facilitate the growth of the north-eastern Antwerp metropolitan region, which attracted new industry based on a flexible and strategic implementation of the project as a co-production between various authorities and private parties. The plan succeeded in extending the linear layout along the Scheldt river by connecting new satellite communities to the main strip. Starting in the 1990s, Antwerp rebranded itself as a world-class fashion centre. Emphasizing the avant-garde, it tried to compete with London,
Milan Milan ( , , Lombard language, Lombard: ; it, Milano ) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the List of cities in Italy, second-most populous city proper in Italy after Rome. The city proper has a population of about 1.4  ...
, New York and
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,165,423 residents in 2019 in an area of more than 105 km² (41 sq mi), ma ...
. It emerged from organized tourism and mega-cultural events.


Municipality

The municipality comprises the city of Antwerp proper and several towns. It is divided into nine entities (districts): #
Antwerp Antwerp (; nl, Antwerpen ; french: Anvers ; es, Amberes) is the largest city in Belgium by area at and the capital of Antwerp Province in the Flemish Region. With a population of 530,504,
#
Berchem Berchem () is a southern district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by the local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or county, cou ...
# Berendrecht-Zandvliet-Lillo # Borgerhout # Deurne #
Ekeren Ekeren () is a northern district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by the local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or county, coun ...
#
Hoboken Hoboken ( ; Unami language, Unami: ') is a City (New Jersey), city in Hudson County, New Jersey, Hudson County in the U.S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2020 United States census, 2020 U.S. census, the city's population was 60,417. The United ...
# Merksem # Wilrijk In 1958, in preparation of the 10-year development plan for the , the municipalities of Berendrecht-Zandvliet-Lillo were integrated into the city territory and lost their administrative independence. During the 1983 merger of municipalities, conducted by the Belgian government as an administrative simplification, the municipalities of
Berchem Berchem () is a southern district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by the local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or county, cou ...
, Borgerhout, Deurne,
Ekeren Ekeren () is a northern district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by the local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or county, coun ...
,
Hoboken Hoboken ( ; Unami language, Unami: ') is a City (New Jersey), city in Hudson County, New Jersey, Hudson County in the U.S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2020 United States census, 2020 U.S. census, the city's population was 60,417. The United ...
, Merksem and Wilrijk were merged into the city. At that time the city was also divided into the districts mentioned above. Simultaneously, districts received an appointed district council; later district councils became elected bodies.


Buildings and landmarks

In the 16th century, Antwerp was noted for the wealth of its citizens ("Antwerpia nummis"). The houses of these wealthy merchants and manufacturers have been preserved throughout the city. However, fire has destroyed several old buildings, such as the house of the
Hanseatic League The Hanseatic League (; gml, Hanse, , ; german: label=German language, Modern German, Deutsche Hanse) was a Middle Ages, medieval commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Central Europe, Central and Norther ...
on the northern quays, in 1891. During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a world war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the World War II by country, vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great power ...
, the city also suffered considerable damage from V-bombs, and in recent years, other noteworthy buildings have been demolished for new developments. *
Antwerp Zoo Antwerp Zoo ( nl, ZOO Antwerpen) is a zoo A zoo (short for zoological garden; also called an animal park or menagerie) is a facility in which animals are kept within enclosures for public exhibition and often bred for Conservation biology, c ...
opened in 1843 and is one of the oldest in the world. *
Antwerp City Hall The City Hall ( Dutch: ) of Antwerp Antwerp (; nl, Antwerpen ; french: Anvers ; es, Amberes) is the largest city in Belgium by area at and the capital of Antwerp Province in the Flemish Region. With a population of 530,504,Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a Periodization, period in History of Europe, European history marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity and covering the 15th and 16th centuries, characterized by an e ...
style. * Antwerp Central Station is a railway station designed by Louis Delacenserie which was completed in 1905. * Cathedral of Our Lady is the tallest
cathedral A cathedral is a church (building), church that contains the ''cathedra'' () of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, Annual conferences within Methodism, conference, or episcopate. Churches with the function of "cathedral ...
in the Low Countries and remains the tallest building in the city. Construction of the church began in the 14th century and finished in 1518. It is home to several
triptych A triptych ( ; from the Greek language, Greek adjective ''τρίπτυχον'' "''triptukhon''" ("three-fold"), from ''tri'', i.e., "three" and ''ptysso'', i.e., "to fold" or ''ptyx'', i.e., "fold") is a work of art (usually a panel painting) t ...
s by the
Baroque The Baroque (, ; ) is a Style (visual arts), style of Baroque architecture, architecture, Baroque music, music, Baroque dance, dance, Baroque painting, painting, Baroque sculpture, sculpture, poetry, and other arts that flourished in Europe from ...
painter
Rubens Sir Peter Paul Rubens (; ; 28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish people, Flemish artist and diplomat from the Duchy of Brabant in the Southern Netherlands (modern-day Kingdom of Belgium, Belgium). He is considered the most influential art ...
, viz. '' The Descent from the Cross'', '' The Elevation of the Cross'', '' The Resurrection of Christ'' and ''
The Assumption The Assumption of Mary is one of the four Catholic_Mariology#Dogmatic_teachings, Marian dogmas of the Catholic Church. Pope Pius XII defined it in 1950 in his apostolic constitution ''Munificentissimus Deus'' as follows: We proclaim and d ...
''. * St. James' Church, is more ornate than the cathedral. It contains the remains of numerous famous nobles, among them a major part of the family of
Rubens Sir Peter Paul Rubens (; ; 28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish people, Flemish artist and diplomat from the Duchy of Brabant in the Southern Netherlands (modern-day Kingdom of Belgium, Belgium). He is considered the most influential art ...
. * The Church of St. Paul has a Baroque interior. It is a few hundred yards north of the Grote Markt. * St. Andrew's Church * St. Charles Borromeo Church * Museum Vleeshuis (Butchers' Hall) is a fine Gothic brick-built building, situated a short distance to the North-West of the Grote Markt. * Plantin-Moretus Museum preserves the house of the printer Christoffel Plantijn and his successor Jan Moretus * The Saint-Boniface Church is an
Anglican church Anglicanism is a Western Christianity, Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation, in the context of the Protestant Reformation in Euro ...
and headseat of the arch-deanery North-West Europe. * Boerentoren (Farmers' Tower) or KBC Tower, a 26-storey building built in 1932, is the oldest skyscraper in Europe. It is the tallest building in Antwerp and the second tallest structure after the Cathedral of our Lady. The building was designed by Emiel van Averbeke, R. Van Hoenacker and Jos Smolderen. * Royal Museum of Fine Arts * Museum Mayer van den Bergh, with works from the Gothic and Renaissance period in the Netherlands and Belgium, including paintings by
Pieter Brueghel the Elder Pieter Bruegel (also Brueghel or Breughel) the Elder (, ; ; – 9 September 1569) was the most significant artist of Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting, a painter and printmaking, printmaker, known for his landscape art, landscapes and peas ...
. * Rubenshuis is the former home and studio of Rubens in Antwerp. It is now a museum. * Rockox House is the former 17th-century Residence of Nicolaas II Rockox, Mayor of Antwerp. * Bourse of Antwerp. Originally built 1531; extensively restored 1872; now Antwerp Trade Fair. * Palace of Justice, designed by the
Richard Rogers Partnership RSHP is a British architectural firm In the United States, an architectural firm or architecture firm is a business that employs one or more licensure, licensed architects and practices the profession of architecture; while in South Africa, t ...
, Arup and VK Studio, and opened by King Albert II, in April 2006. This building is the antithesis of the heavy, dark court building, designed by Joseph Poelaert, which dominates the skyline of . The courtrooms sit on top of six fingers that radiate from an airy central hall, and are surmounted by
spire A spire is a tall, slender, pointed structure on top of a roof of a building or tower, especially at the summit of church steeples. A spire may have a square, circular, or polygonal plan, with a roughly conical or pyramidal shape. Spires are ...
s, which provide north light and resemble oast houses or the
sail A sail is a tensile structure—which is made from fabric or other membrane materials—that uses wind power to propel sailing craft, including sailing ships, sailboats, Windsurfing, windsurfers, ice boats, and even land sailing, sail-powered l ...
s of
barge Barge nowadays generally refers to a flat-bottomed boat, flat-bottomed inland waterway vessel which does not have its own means of mechanical propulsion. The first modern barges were pulled by tugs, but nowadays most are pushed by Pusher (boat) ...
s on the nearby River Scheldt. It is built on the site of the old ''Zuid'' ("South") station, at the end of a magnificent perspective at the southern end of Amerikalei. The road neatly disappears into an
underpass A tunnel is an underground passageway, dug through surrounding soil, earth or rock, and enclosed except for the entrance and exit, commonly at each end. A pipeline is not a tunnel, though some recent tunnels have used immersed tube const ...
under
oval An oval () is a closed curve in a plane (geometry), plane which resembles the outline of an egg. The term is not very specific, but in some areas (projective geometry, technical drawing, etc.) it is given a more precise definition, which may inc ...
Bolivarplaats to join the motorway ring. This leaves peaceful surface access by foot, bicycle or tram (route 12). The building's highest 'sail' is high, has a floor area of , and cost €130 million. * Zurenborg, a late-19th-century '' Belle Époque'' neighbourhood, on the border of Antwerp and
Berchem Berchem () is a southern district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by the local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or county, cou ...
, with many
Art Nouveau Art Nouveau (; ) is an international style (visual arts), style of art, architecture, and applied art, especially the decorative arts. The style is known by different names in different languages: in German, in Italian, in Catalan, and also ...
architectural elements. The area counts as one of the most original ''Belle Époque'' urban expansion areas in Europe. * Museum aan de Stroom * Den Botaniek or Antwerp's Botanical Garden, created in 1825. Located in the city centre, at the Leopoldstraat, it covers an area of almost 1 hectare. * Harmonium Art museuM, a museum on
pump organ The pump organ is a type of free reed aerophone, free-reed Organ (music), organ that generates sound as air flows past a vibrating piece of thin metal in a frame. The piece of metal is called a reed. Specific types of pump organ include the reed ...
s in Klein- Willebroek * Museum of Contemporary Art (M HKA) File:Antwerpen Stadhuis crop2 2006-05-28.jpg,
Antwerp City Hall The City Hall ( Dutch: ) of Antwerp Antwerp (; nl, Antwerpen ; french: Anvers ; es, Amberes) is the largest city in Belgium by area at and the capital of Antwerp Province in the Flemish Region. With a population of 530,504,Guild A guild ( ) is an association of artisans and merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area. The earliest types of guild formed as organizations of tradesmen belonging to a professional association. They sometimes ...
houses at the ''Grote Markt'' File:Antwerpen kathedraal02.jpg, The ''Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekathedraal'' (the Cathedral of Our Lady), here seen from the '' Groenplaats'' File:Antwerpen-Brabo.JPG, Statue of Brabo and the giant's hand File:Antwerp lawcourts.JPG, Antwerp lawcourts


Fortifications

Although Antwerp was formerly a fortified city, hardly anything remains of the former
enceinte Enceinte (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally a dialect spoken in the lower Tiber area (then known as Latium) around pre ...
, only some remains of the city wall can be seen near the
Vleeshuis The Vleeshuis (Butcher's Hall, or literally Meat House) in Antwerp, Belgium is a former guildhall. It is now a museum located between the Drie Hespenstraat, the Repenstraat and the Vleeshouwersstraat. The slope where the Drie Hespenstraat meets t ...
museum at the corner of Bloedberg and Burchtgracht. '' Steen'' castle on the Scheldt-quai is the gate wing of the demolished castle of the Dukes of Brabant. It was partly reconstructed in the 19th century. Antwerp's development as a fortified city is documented between the 10th and the 20th century. The fortifications were developed in different phases: * 10th century: fortification of the wharf with a wall and a ditch * 12th and 13th century: canals (so called "vlieten" and "ruien") were made * 16th century: Spanish fortifications * 19th century: double ring of Brialmont forts around the city, dismantling of the Spanish fortifications * 20th century: 1960 dismantling of the inner ring of forts, decommissioning of the outer ring of forts


Demographics


Historical population

This is the population of the city of Antwerp only, not of the larger current municipality of the same name.


Ethnicity

In 2010, 36% to 39% of the inhabitants of Antwerp had a migrant background. A study projected that in 2020, 55% of the population would be of immigrant background, either first, second, or third generation.


Jewish community

After
the Holocaust The Holocaust, also known as the Shoah, was the genocide of History of the Jews in Europe, European Jews during World War II. Between 1941 and 1945, Nazi Germany and #Collaboration, its collaborators systematically murdered some Holoc ...
and the murder of its many Jews, Antwerp became a major centre for Orthodox Jews. At present, about 15,000
Haredi Haredi Judaism ( he, ', ; also spelled ''Charedi'' in English; plural ''Haredim'' or ''Charedim'') consists of groups within Orthodox Judaism that are characterized by their strict adherence to ''halakha'' (Jewish law) and traditions, in oppos ...
Jews, many of them
Hasidic Hasidism, sometimes spelled Chassidism, and also known as Hasidic Judaism (Ashkenazi Hebrew: חסידות ''Ḥăsīdus'', ; originally, "piety"), is a Judaism, Jewish religious group that arose as a spiritual revival movement in the territory ...
, live in Antwerp. The city has three official Jewish Congregations: Shomrei Hadass, headed by Rabbi Dovid Moishe Lieberman, Machsike Hadass, headed by Rabbi Aron Schiff (formerly by Chief Rabbi Chaim Kreiswirth) and the Portuguese Community Ben Moshe. Antwerp has an extensive network of synagogues, shops, schools and organizations. Significant Hasidic movements in Antwerp include Pshevorsk, based in Antwerp, as well as branches of
Satmar Satmar (Yiddish: סאַטמאַר, Hebrew language, Hebrew: סאטמר) is a Hasidic Judaism, Hasidic group founded in 1905 by Grand Rebbe Joel Teitelbaum, in the city of Satu Mare, Szatmárnémeti, Kingdom of Hungary, Hungary (now Satu Mare in ...
,
Belz Belz ( uk, Белз; pl, Bełz; yi, בעלז ') is a small city in Lviv Oblast of Western Ukraine, near the border with Poland, located between the Solokiya river (a tributary of the Bug River) and the Richytsia stream. Belz hosts the administ ...
, Bobov, Ger, Skver, Klausenburg, Vizhnitz and several others. Rabbi Chaim Kreiswirth, chief rabbi of the Machsike Hadas community, who died in 2001, was arguably one of the better known personalities to have been based in Antwerp. An attempt to have a street named after him has received the support of the Town Hall and is in the process of being implemented.


Jain community

The Jains in Belgium are estimated to be around about 1,500 people. The majority live in Antwerp, mostly involved in the very lucrative
diamond Diamond is a solid form of the element carbon with its atoms arranged in a crystal structure In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystal, crystalline material ...
business. Belgian Indian Jains control two-thirds of the rough diamonds trade and supplied India with roughly 36% of their rough diamonds. A major temple, with a cultural centre, has been built in Antwerp (Wilrijk). Mr Ramesh Mehta, a Jain, is a full-fledged member of the Belgian Council of Religious Leaders, put up on 17 December 2009.


Armenian community

There are significant Armenian communities that reside in Antwerp, many of them are descendants of traders who settled during the 19th century. Most Armenian Belgians are adherents of the
Armenian Apostolic Church , native_name_lang = hy , icon = Armenian Apostolic Church logo.svg , icon_width = 100px , icon_alt = , image = Էջմիածնի_Մայր_Տաճար.jpg , imagewidth = 250px , a ...
, with a smaller numbers are adherents of the
Armenian Catholic Church , native_name_lang = hy , image = St Elie - St Gregory Armenian Catholic Cathedral.jpg , imagewidth = 260px , alt = , caption = Cathedral of Saint Elias and Saint Gregory the Illuminat ...
and
Armenian Evangelical Church The Armenian Evangelical Church ( hy, Հայաստանեայց Աւետարանական Եկեղեցի) was established on July 1, 1846, by thirty-seven men and three women in Constantinople. History In the 19th century there was an intellectua ...
. One of the important sectors that Armenian communities in Antwerp excel and involved in is the
diamond Diamond is a solid form of the element carbon with its atoms arranged in a crystal structure In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystal, crystalline material ...
trade business, that based primarily in the diamond district. Some of the famous Armenian families involved in the diamond business in the city are the Artinians, Arslanians, Aslanians, Barsamians and the Osganians.


Economy


Port

According to the
American Association of Port Authorities The American Association of Port Authorities (AAPA) is a Industry trade group, trade association founded in 1912 that represents 150 port authority, port authorities in the Western Hemisphere, including the United States, Canada, the Caribbean, an ...
, the
port of Antwerp The Port of Antwerp-Bruges is the port of the Antwerp, City of Antwerp. It is located in Flanders (Belgium), mainly in the province of Antwerp Province, Antwerp but also partially in the province of East Flanders. It is a port, seaport in th ...
was the seventeenth largest (by tonnage) port in the world in 2005 and second only to
Rotterdam Rotterdam ( , , , lit. ''The Dam on the River Rotte'') is the second largest city A city is a human settlement of notable size.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., ed ...
in Europe. It handled 235.2 million tons of cargo in 2018. Importantly it handles high volumes of economically attractive
general A general officer is an Officer (armed forces), officer of highest military ranks, high rank in the army, armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, and marines or naval infantry. In some usages the term "general officer" refers t ...
and project cargo, as well as
bulk cargo Bulk cargo is commodity cargo that is transported packaging, unpackaged in large quantities. Description Bulk cargo refers to material in either liquid or granular, particulate form, as a mass of relatively small solids, such as petroleum/ ...
. Antwerp's docklands, with five
oil refineries An oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial processes, industrial process Factory, plant where petroleum (crude oil) is transformed and refining, refined into useful products such as gasoline (petrol), diesel fuel, asphalt, asphalt ...
, are home to a massive concentration of
petrochemical Petrochemicals (sometimes abbreviated as petchems) are the product (chemistry), chemical products obtained from petroleum by refining. Some chemical compounds made from petroleum are also obtained from other fossil fuels, such as coal or natural ...
industries, second only to the petrochemical cluster in
Houston Houston (; ) is the List of cities in Texas by population, most populous city in Texas, the Southern United States#Major cities, most populous city in the Southern United States, the List of United States cities by population, fourth-most pop ...
,
Texas Texas (, ; Spanish language, Spanish: ''Texas'', ''Tejas'') is a state in the South Central United States, South Central region of the United States. At 268,596 square miles (695,662 km2), and with more than 29.1 million residents in 2 ...
.
Electricity generation Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy. For electric utility, utilities in the electric power industry, it is the stage prior to its Electricity delivery, delivery (Electric power transmi ...
is also an important activity, with four
nuclear power Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions to produce electricity. Nuclear power can be obtained from nuclear fission, nuclear decay and nuclear fusion reactions. Presently, the vast majority of electricity from nuclear power is produced b ...
plants at Doel, a conventional power station in Kallo, as well as several smaller
combined cycle A combined cycle power plant is an assembly of heat engines that work in tandem from the same source of heat, converting it into mechanical energy. On land, when used to electric power generation, make electricity the most common type is called ...
plants. There is a
wind farm A wind farm or wind park, also called a wind power station or wind power plant, is a group of wind turbines in the same location used Wind power, to produce electricity. Wind farms vary in size from a small number of turbines to several hundre ...
in the northern part of the port area. There are plans to extend this in the period 2014–2020. The old Belgian
bluestone Bluestone is a cultural or commercial name for a number of dimension stone, dimension or building stone varieties, including: * basalt in Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia, and in New Zealand * diabase, dolerites in Tasmania, Australi ...
quay A wharf, quay (, also ), staith, or staithe is a structure on the shore of a harbour or on the bank of a river or canal where ships may dock to load and unload cargo or passengers. Such a structure includes one or more Berth (moorings), berths ...
s bordering the for a distance of to the north and south of the city centre have been retained for their sentimental value and are used mainly by
cruise ship Cruise ships are large passenger ships used mainly for vacationing. Unlike ocean liners, which are used for transport, cruise ships typically embark on round-trip voyages to various ports-of-call, where passengers may go on Tourism, tours know ...
s and short sea shipping.


Diamonds

Antwerp's other great mainstay is the diamond trade that takes place largely within the diamond district. 85 percent of the world's rough diamonds pass through the district annually, and in 2011 turnover in the industry was $56 billion. The city has four diamond bourses: the Diamond Club of Antwerp, the Beurs voor Diamanthandel, the Antwerpsche Diamantkring and the Vrije Diamanthandel. Antwerp's history in the diamond trade dates back to as early as the sixteenth century, with the first diamond cutters guild being introduced in 1584. The industry never disappeared from Antwerp, and even experienced a second boom in the early twentieth century. By the year 1924, Antwerp had over 13,000 diamond finishers.' Since World War II families of the large Hasidic Jewish community have dominated Antwerp's diamond trading industry, although the last two decades have seen Indian and
Maronite The Maronites ( ar, الموارنة; syr, ܡܖ̈ܘܢܝܐ) are a Christianity, Christian ethnoreligious group native to the Eastern Mediterranean and Levant region of the Middle East, whose members traditionally belong to the Maronite Church, wi ...
Christians Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of ...
from
Lebanon Lebanon ( , ar, لُبْنَان, translit=lubnān, ), officially the Republic of Lebanon () or the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia. It is located between Syria to Lebanon–Syria border, the north and east and Israel to Blue ...
and Armenian,Recession takes the sparkle out of Antwerp's diamond quarter , World news
''The Guardian''. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
traders become increasingly important. Antwerp World Diamond Centre, (AWDC) the successor to the ''Hoge Raad voor Diamant'', plays an important role in setting standards, regulating professional ethics, training and promoting the interests of Antwerp as the capital of the diamond industry. However, in recent years Antwerp has seen a downturn in the diamond business, with the industry shifting to cheaper labor markets such as Dubai or India. The industry has avoided the 2022 European sanctions against Russia although the imports from Alrosa have diminished. If banned, the AWDC claims 10,000 jobs would be at risk.


Transportation


Road

A six-lane motorway bypass encircles much of the city centre and runs through the urban residential area of Antwerp. Known locally as the "Ring" it offers motorway connections to ,
Hasselt Hasselt (, , ; la, Hasseletum, Hasselatum) is a Kingdom of Belgium, Belgian City status in Belgium, city and Municipalities in Belgium, municipality, and capital and largest city of the Provinces of Belgium, province of Limburg (Belgium), Limb ...
and
Liège Liège ( , , ; wa, Lîdje ; nl, Luik ; german: Lüttich ) is a major City status in Belgium, city and Municipalities in Belgium, municipality of Wallonia and the capital of the Belgium, Belgian Liège Province, province of Liège. The city is ...
,
Ghent Ghent ( nl, Gent ; french: Gand ; traditional English: Gaunt) is a city and a Municipalities of Belgium, municipality in the Flemish Region of Belgium. It is the capital and largest city of the East Flanders province, and the third largest i ...
,
Lille Lille ( , ; nl, Rijsel ; pcd, Lile; vls, Rysel) is a city in the northern part of France, in French Flanders. On the river Deûle, near France's border with Belgium, it is the capital of the Hauts-de-France Regions of France, region, the Pref ...
and
Bruges Bruges ( , nl, Brugge ) is the capital and largest city A city is a human settlement of notable size.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Scienc ...

Bruges
and
Breda Breda () is a List of cities in the Netherlands by province, city and List of municipalities of the Netherlands, municipality in the southern part of the Netherlands, located in the Provinces of the Netherlands, province of North Brabant. The name ...
and
Bergen op Zoom Bergen op Zoom (; called ''Berrege'' in the local dialect) is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unit,Article 3(1). country subdivision, administrative reg ...
(Netherlands). The banks of the Scheldt are linked by three road tunnels (in order of construction): the Waasland Tunnel (1934), the Kennedy Tunnel (1967) and the Liefkenshoek Tunnel (1991). Daily congestion on the Ring led to a fourth high-volume highway link called the " Oosterweelconnection" being proposed. It would have entailed the construction of a long viaduct and bridge (the ''Lange Wapper'') over the docks on the north side of the city in combination with the widening of the existing motorway into a 14-lane motorway; these plans were eventually rejected in a 2009 public referendum. In September 2010 the
Flemish Government The Flemish Government ( nl, Vlaamse regering ) is the executive branch of the Flemish Community and the Flemish Region of Belgium. It consists of a government cabinet, headed by the Minister-President of Flanders, Minister-President and accountabl ...
decided to replace the bridge by a series of tunnels. There are ideas to cover the Ring in a similar way as happened around Paris,
Hamburg (male), (female) en, Hamburger(s), Hamburgian(s) , timezone1 = Central (CET) , utc_offset1 = +1 , timezone1_DST = Central (CEST) , utc_offset1_DST = +2 , postal ...
,
Madrid Madrid ( , ) is the capital and most populous city of Spain. The city has almost 3.4 million inhabitants and a Madrid metropolitan area, metropolitan area population of approximately 6.7 million. It is the Largest cities of the Europ ...
and other cities. This would reconnect the city with its suburbs and would provide development opportunities to accommodate part of the foreseen population growth in Antwerp which currently are not possible because of the pollution and noise generated by the traffic on the Ring. An old plan to build an R2 outer ring road outside the built up urban area around the Antwerp agglomeration for port related traffic and transit traffic never materialized.


Rail

Antwerp is the focus of lines to the north to Essen and the Netherlands, east to Turnhout, south to Mechelen, Brussels and Charleroi, and southwest to Ghent and Ostend. It is served by international trains to
Amsterdam Amsterdam ( , , , lit. ''The Dam on the River Amstel'') is the Capital of the Netherlands, capital and Municipalities of the Netherlands, most populous city of the Netherlands, with The Hague being the seat of government. It has a population ...

Amsterdam
and Paris, and national trains to
Ghent Ghent ( nl, Gent ; french: Gand ; traditional English: Gaunt) is a city and a Municipalities of Belgium, municipality in the Flemish Region of Belgium. It is the capital and largest city of the East Flanders province, and the third largest i ...
,
Bruges Bruges ( , nl, Brugge ) is the capital and largest city A city is a human settlement of notable size.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Scienc ...

Bruges
,
Ostend Ostend ( nl, Oostende, ; french: link=no, Ostende ; german: link=no, Ostende ; vls, Ostende) is a coastal City status in Belgium, city and Municipalities in Belgium, municipality, located in the Provinces of Belgium, province of West Flanders ...
, ,
Charleroi Charleroi ( , , ; wa, Tchålerwè ) is a city and a Municipalities in Belgium, municipality of Wallonia, located in the Provinces of Belgium, province of Hainaut (province), Hainaut, Belgium. By 1 January 2008, the total population of Charlero ...
,
Hasselt Hasselt (, , ; la, Hasseletum, Hasselatum) is a Kingdom of Belgium, Belgian City status in Belgium, city and Municipalities in Belgium, municipality, and capital and largest city of the Provinces of Belgium, province of Limburg (Belgium), Limb ...
,
Liège Liège ( , , ; wa, Lîdje ; nl, Luik ; german: Lüttich ) is a major City status in Belgium, city and Municipalities in Belgium, municipality of Wallonia and the capital of the Belgium, Belgian Liège Province, province of Liège. The city is ...
,
Leuven Leuven (, ) or Louvain (, , ; german: link=no, Löwen ) is the capital and largest City status in Belgium, city of the Provinces of Belgium, province of Flemish Brabant in the Flemish Region of Belgium. It is located about east of Brussels. Th ...
and Turnhout. Antwerp Central station is an architectural monument in itself, and is mentioned in W G Sebald's haunting novel ''Austerlitz''. Prior to the completion in 2007 of a tunnel that runs northwards under the city centre to emerge at the old Antwerp Dam station, Central was a terminus. Trains from Brussels to the Netherlands had to either reverse at Central or call only at Berchem station, to the south, and then describe a semicircle to the east, round the Singel. Now, they call at the new lower level of the station before continuing in the same direction. Antwerp is also home to Antwerpen-Noord, the largest
classification yard A classification yard (American English, American and Canadian English (Canadian National Railway use)), marshalling yard (British English, British, Hong Kong English, Hong Kong, Indian English, Indian, Australian English, Australian, and Canadian ...
for freight in Belgium and second largest in Europe. The majority of freight trains in Belgium depart from or arrive here. It has two classification humps and over a hundred tracks.


Public transportation

The city has a web of tram and bus lines operated by De Lijn and providing access to the city centre, suburbs and the Left Bank. The tram network has 14 lines, of which the underground section is called the " premetro" and includes a tunnel under the river. The Franklin Rooseveltplaats functions as the city's main hub for local and regional bus lines.


Air

A small airport, Antwerp International Airport, is located in the district of Deurne, with passenger service to various European destinations. A bus service connects the airport to the city centre. The now defunct
VLM Airlines VLM Airlines was a Belgian airline An airline is a company that provides civil aviation, air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines use aircraft to supply these services and may form partnerships or Airline al ...
had its head office on the grounds of Antwerp International Airport. This office is also CityJet's Antwerp office. When
VG Airlines VG Airlines, later Delsey Airlines, (airline code IV, later assigned to Windjet) was an airline with its head office in Merksem, Antwerp, Belgium. History VG Airlines was founded in 2002 to operate flights from Belgium to North America in the ...
(Delsey Airlines) existed, its head office was located in the district of Merksem. Belgium's major
international airport An international airport is an airport An airport is an aerodrome with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport. Airports usually consists of a landing area, which comprises an aerially accessible open space includin ...
,
Brussels Airport Brussels Airport, nl, Luchthaven Brussel, vls, Vliegpling Brussel, german: Flughafen Brüssel is an international airport northeast of Brussels Brussels (french: Bruxelles or ; nl, Brussel ), officially the Brussels-Capital Regio ...
, is about from the city of Antwerp, and connects the city worldwide. It is connected to the city centre by bus, and also by train. The new ''Diabolo'' rail connection provides a direct fast train connection between Antwerp and Brussels Airport as of the summer of 2012. There is also a direct rail service between Antwerp (calling at Central and Berchem stations) and
Charleroi Charleroi ( , , ; wa, Tchålerwè ) is a city and a Municipalities in Belgium, municipality of Wallonia, located in the Provinces of Belgium, province of Hainaut (province), Hainaut, Belgium. By 1 January 2008, the total population of Charlero ...
South station, with a connecting buslink to
Brussels South Charleroi Airport Brussels South Charleroi Airport, nl, Luchthaven Zuid-Brussel Charleroi, german: Flughafen Brüssel-Charleroi (BSCA), also unofficially called Brussels-Charleroi Airport, Charleroi Airport or rarely ''Gosselies Airport'', is an internationa ...
, which runs twice every hour on working days. The runway has increased in length, and there is now direct connectivity to Spain, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, and Greece from the city of Antwerp. In September 2019 Air Antwerp began operations with their first route to
London City Airport London City Airport is a regional airport in London, England. It is located in the Royal Docks in the London Borough of Newham, Borough of Newham, approximately east of the City of London and east of Canary Wharf. These are the twin centr ...
with old
VLM Airlines VLM Airlines was a Belgian airline An airline is a company that provides civil aviation, air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines use aircraft to supply these services and may form partnerships or Airline al ...
Fokker 50 The Fokker 50 is a turboprop-powered airliner, designed as an improved version of the successful Fokker F27 Friendship. The Fokker 60 is a stretched freighter version of the Fokker 50. Both aircraft were manufactured and supported by Dutch airc ...
's.


Politics


City council

The current city council was elected in the October 2018 elections. The current majority consists of N-VA, sp.a and Open Vld, led by mayor
Bart De Wever Bart Albert Liliane De Wever ( born 21 December 1970) is a Belgium, Belgian politician. Since 2004 De Wever has been the leader of the New Flemish Alliance (N-VA), a political party advocating for the independence of Flanders. He is also a membe ...
(N-VA).


Former mayors

In the 16th and 17th century important mayors include
Philips of Marnix, Lord of Saint-Aldegonde Philips of Marnix, Lord of Saint-Aldegonde, Lord of West-Souburg (Dutch: Filips van Marnix, heer van Sint-Aldegonde, heer van West-Souburg, French: Philippe de Marnix, seigneur de Sainte-Aldegonde; 7 March/20 July 1540 – 15 December 1598) was a ...
, Anthony van Stralen, Lord of Merksem and Nicolaas II Rockox. In the early years after Belgian independence, Antwerp was governed by Catholic-Unionist mayors. Between 1848 and 1921, all mayors were from the Liberal Party (except for the so-called Meeting-intermezzo between 1863 and 1872). Between 1921 and 1932, the city had a Catholic mayor again: Frans Van Cauwelaert. From 1932 onwards and up until 2013, all mayors belonged to the
Social Democrat Social democracy is a Political philosophy, political, Social philosophy, social, and economic philosophy within socialism that supports Democracy, political and economic democracy. As a policy regime, it is described by academics as advocati ...
party: Camille Huysmans, Lode Craeybeckx, Frans Detiège and Mathilde Schroyens, and after the municipality fusion: , Leona Detiège en Patrick Janssens. Since 2013, the mayor is the Flemish nationalist
Bart De Wever Bart Albert Liliane De Wever ( born 21 December 1970) is a Belgium, Belgian politician. Since 2004 De Wever has been the leader of the New Flemish Alliance (N-VA), a political party advocating for the independence of Flanders. He is also a membe ...
, belonging to the Flemish separatist party
N-VA The New Flemish Alliance ( nl, Nieuw-Vlaamse Alliantie, N-VA) is a Flemish Movement, Flemish nationalist and Conservatism, conservative Political parties in Belgium, political party in Belgium. The party was founded in 2001 by the right-leaning ...
(
New Flemish Alliance The New Flemish Alliance ( nl, Nieuw-Vlaamse Alliantie, N-VA) is a Flemish Movement, Flemish nationalist and Conservatism, conservative Political parties in Belgium, political party in Belgium. The party was founded in 2001 by the right-leaning ...
).


Climate

Antwerp has an
oceanic climate An oceanic climate, also known as a marine climate, is the humid temperate climate sub-type in Köppen climate classification, Köppen classification ''Cfb'', typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, generally featuring ...
( Köppen: ''Cfb''), with cool winters, warm summers and frequent, though light, precipitation throughout the year.


Culture

Antwerp had an artistic reputation in the 17th century, based on its school of painting, which included
Rubens Sir Peter Paul Rubens (; ; 28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish people, Flemish artist and diplomat from the Duchy of Brabant in the Southern Netherlands (modern-day Kingdom of Belgium, Belgium). He is considered the most influential art ...
, Van Dyck, Jordaens, the Teniers and many others. Informally, most Antverpians (in Dutch ''Antwerpenaren'', people from Antwerp) speak Antverpian daily (in Dutch ''Antwerps''), a dialect that Dutch-speakers know as distinctive from other Brabantic dialects for its characteristic pronunciation of vowels: an 'aw' sound approximately like that in 'bore' is used for one of its long 'a'-sounds while other short 'a's are very sharp like the 'a' in 'hat'. The ''Echt Antwaarps Teater'' ("Authentic Antverpian Theatre") brings the dialect on stage. Antwerp was designated as the World Book Capital for the year 2004 by
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a List of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) aimed at promoting world peace and security through international coope ...
.


Fashion

Antwerp is a rising fashion city, and has produced designers such as the Antwerp Six. The city has a cult status in the fashion world, due to the Royal Academy of Fine Arts, one of the most important fashion academies in the world. It has served as the learning centre for many Belgian
fashion design Fashion design is the Art (skill), art of applying design, aesthetics, clothing construction and natural beauty to clothing and its Fashion accessory, accessories. It is influenced by culture and different trends, and has varied over time and plac ...
ers. Since the 1980s, several graduates of the Belgian Royal Academy of Fine Arts have become internationally successful fashion designers in Antwerp. The city has had a huge influence on other Belgian fashion designers such as Raf Simons, Veronique Branquinho, Olivier Theyskens and Kris Van Assche.


Local products

Antwerp is famous for its local products. In August every year the Bollekesfeest takes place. The Bollekesfeest is a showcase for such local products as Bolleke, an amber beer from the
De Koninck Brewery De Koninck Brewery (Brouwerij De Koninck) is a Beer in Belgium, Belgian brewery based in Antwerp (''Antwerpen'' in Dutch language, Dutch). The glass in which De Koninck's flagship beer is served is called a ''bolleke'', although this term is m ...
. The city's historical ale, Seefbier, dating back to the 16th century and brewed at the Antwerpse Brouw Compagnie is a testament to the city's long brewing history and one of Belgium's oldest existing beerstyles. The Mokatine sweets made by Confiserie Roodthooft, Elixir D'Anvers, a locally made liquor, locally roasted
coffee Coffee is a drink prepared from roasted coffee beans. Darkly colored, bitter, and slightly acidic, coffee has a stimulant, stimulating effect on humans, primarily due to its caffeine content. It is the most popular hot drink in the world. S ...
from Koffie Verheyen, sugar from Candico, Poolster pickled herring and Equinox horse meat, are other examples of local specialities. One of the most known products of the city are its biscuits, the ''Antwerpse Handjes'', literally "Antwerp Hands". Usually made from a short pastry with
almond The almond (''Prunus amygdalus'', Synonym (taxonomy)#Botany, syn. ''Prunus dulcis'') is a species of tree native to Iran and surrounding countries, including the Levant. The almond is also the name of the edible and widely cultivated seed of th ...
s or
milk chocolate Milk chocolate is a solid chocolate confectionery containing Chocolate liquor, cocoa, sugar and milk. Chocolate was originally sold and consumed as a beverage in pre-Columbian times, and upon its introduction to Western Europe. Major milk chocol ...
, they symbolize the Antwerp trademark and folklore. The local products are represented by a non-profit organization, Streekproducten Provincie Antwerpen vzw.


Missions to Seafarers

A number of Christian missions to seafarers are based in Antwerp. These include the Mission to Seafarers, British & International Sailors' Society, the Finnish Seamen's Mission, the Norwegian Sjømannskirken and the Apostleship of the Sea. They provide cultural and social activities as well as religious services. The iconic Italiëlei premises have been closed down and all activities have been moved to the Antwerp Harbour Hotel on Noorderlaan.


Music

Antwerp is the home of the Antwerp Jazz Club (AJC), founded in 1938 and located on the square Grote Markt since 1994. The band
dEUS ''Deus'' (, ) is the Latin word for "God (word), god" or "deity". Latin ''deus'' and ''dīvus'' ("divine") are in turn descended from Proto-Indo-European language, Proto-Indo-European *''deiwos'', "celestial" or "shining", from the same root ( ...
was formed in 1991 in Antwerp. dEUS began their career as a covers band, but soon began writing their own material. Their musical influences range from folk and punk to jazz and progressive rock. Confetti's were a new beat band at the end of the 80's. Their name stems from the name of a nightclub in the Antwerps affluent suburb of Brasschaat. Their 1st video for 'The Sound of C' was shot on the main Antwerp shopping street. Pump Up the Jam the eurobeat/dance song that reached top positions in charts worldwide in 1989 was produced in Antwerp. Belgian-Congolese singer Ya Kid K had Antwerp as her Belgian home base.


Music festivals

Cultuurmarkt van Vlaanderen is a musical festival and a touristic attraction that takes place annually on the final Sunday of August in the city center of Antwerp. Where international and local musicians and actors, present their stage and street performances. Linkerwoofer is a pop- rock music festival located at the left bank of the . This
music festival A music festival is a community event with performances of singing and instrument playing that is often presented with a theme such as musical genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging ...
starts in August and mostly local Belgian musicians play and perform in this event.
Tomorrowland (festival) Tomorrowland is a Belgian electronic dance music Music festival, festival held in Boom, Belgium, Boom, Flanders, since 2005. History 2005 The first edition of the festival took place on 15 August 2005. Manu Beers, Michiel Beers and ID&T organ ...
is probably the most famous festival to arise from Antwerp. Though the festival is effectively located 15 km (10 mi) south of the city its founders in the past organised a festival ('Antwerp is burning') within city limits. The office of the company behind Tomorrowland (weareone.world bvba) is located in the heart of the city. The company founders are involved in conceptualising urban planning concepts for specific Antwerp areas and are known to invite their favourite Antwerp food places to set up a pop-up at the festival. Other popular festivals Fire Is Gold, and focuses more on urban music, and Summerfestival.


World Choir Games

The city of Antwerp will co-host the 2020 World Choir Games together with the city of
Ghent Ghent ( nl, Gent ; french: Gand ; traditional English: Gaunt) is a city and a Municipalities of Belgium, municipality in the Flemish Region of Belgium. It is the capital and largest city of the East Flanders province, and the third largest i ...
. Organised by the Interkultur Foundation, the World Choir Games is the biggest choral competition and festival in the world.


Sport

Antwerp held the
1920 Summer Olympics The 1920 Summer Olympics (french: Jeux olympiques d'été de 1920; nl, Olympische Zomerspelen van 1920; german: Olympische Sommerspiele 1920), officially known as the Games of the VII Olympiad (french: Jeux de la VIIe olympiade; nl, Spelen van ...
, which were the first games after the
First World War World War I (28 July 1914 11 November 1918), often abbreviated as WWI, was List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll, one of the deadliest global conflicts in history. Belligerents included much of Europe, the Russian Empire, ...
and also the only ones to be held in Belgium. The road cycling events took place in the streets of the city. Royal Antwerp F.C., currently playing in the Belgian First Division, were founded in 1880 and is known as 'The Great Old' for being the first club registered to the
Royal Belgian Football Association The Royal Belgian Football Association (RBFA; ; ; ) is the governing body of association football, football in Belgium. It was a founding member of FIFA in 1904 and UEFA in 1954 and was based in Brussels, not far from the King Baudouin Stadium. S ...
in 1895. Since 1998, the club has taken
Manchester United Manchester () is a city in Greater Manchester, England. It had a population of 552,000 in 2021. It is bordered by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east, and the neighbouring city of City of Salford, Salford to ...
players on loan in an official partnership. Another club in the city was Beerschot VAC, founded in 1899 by former Royal Antwerp players. They played at the Olympisch Stadion, the main venue of the 1920 Olympics. Nowadays K. Beerschot V.A. plays at the Olympisch Stadion in the Belgian first division. Between these two football teams there has always been a big rivalry. When the two play against each other the stadiums are packed and the passioned fans give a great display of their passion, but this has also led to fights, hooliganism and vandalism. The
Antwerp Giants Antwerp Giants, named Telenet Giants Antwerp for sponsorship reasons, are a Belgians, Belgian professional basketball club based in Antwerp. Their home arena is Lotto Arena. The club plays in the BNXT League, the highest tier of Belgian basketbal ...
play in Basketball League Belgium and Topvolley Antwerpen play in the Belgium men's volleyball League. For the year 2013, Antwerp was awarded the title of European Capital of Sport. Antwerp hosted the
2013 World Artistic Gymnastics Championships The 2013 World Artistic Gymnastics Championships were held in Antwerp, Belgium, from 30 September to 6 October 2013 at Antwerp's Sports Palace. Kōhei Uchimura won the men's all-around gold medal and finished the competition with four total meda ...
. Antwerp hosted the start of stage 3 of the
2015 Tour de France The 2015 Tour de France was the 102nd edition of the Tour de France, one of cycling's Grand Tour (cycling), Grand Tours. The -long race consisted of 21 race stage, stages, starting on 4 July in Utrecht, the Netherlands, and concluding on 26 July ...
on 6 July 2015. The city's Groenplaats will host the official 2022
FIBA 3x3 World Cup The FIBA 3x3 World Cup is a 3x3 (basketball), 3x3 basketball tournament for national teams organized by the International Basketball Federation (FIBA). The debut of the tournament then named as the FIBA 3x3 World Championship was held in August 20 ...
.Antwerp to host FIBA 3x3 World Cup 2022
FIBA The International Basketball Federation (FIBA ; French language, French: ) is an association of national organizations which governs the sport of basketball worldwide. Originally known as the (hence FIBA), in 1989 it dropped the word ''amate ...
, 18 January 2021. Accessed 30 April 2021.


Higher education

Antwerp has a university and several colleges. The University of Antwerp (''Universiteit Antwerpen'') was established in 2003, following the merger of the RUCA, UFSIA and UIA institutes. Their roots go back to 1852. The university has approximately 23,000 registered students, making it the third-largest university in Flanders, as well as 1,800 foreign students. It has 7 faculties, spread over four campus locations in the city centre and in the south of the city. The university is part of Young Universities for the Future of Europe (YUFE) and Young European Research Universities Network (YERUN). The city has several colleges, including Antwerp Management School (AMS), Charlemagne University College (''Karel de Grote Hogeschool''), Plantin University College (''Plantijn Hogeschool''), and Artesis University College (''Artesis Hogeschool''). Artesis University College has about 8,600 students and 1,600 staff, and Charlemagne University College has about 10,000 students and 1,300 staff. Plantin University College has approximately 3,700 students.


International relations


Twin towns and sister cities

The following places are twinned with or are
sister cities A sister city or a twin town relationship is International relations, a form of legal or social agreement between two geographically and politically distinct localities for the purpose of promoting cultural and commercial ties. While there are ...
to Antwerp: * Fes, Morocco, 2000 *
Rotterdam Rotterdam ( , , , lit. ''The Dam on the River Rotte'') is the second largest city A city is a human settlement of notable size.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., ed ...
, the Netherlands, 1940 *
Mulhouse Mulhouse (; Alsatian language, Alsatian: or , ; ; meaning ''Mill (grinding), mill house'') is a city of the Haut-Rhin Departments of France, department, in the Grand Est Regions of France, region, eastern France, close to the France–Switzerl ...
, France, 1954 *
Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), i ...
, Russia, 1958 *
Rostock Rostock (), officially the Hanseatic and University City of Rostock (german: link=no, Hanse- und Universitätsstadt Rostock), is the largest city in the German States of Germany, state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and lies in the Mecklenburgian p ...
, Germany, 1963 *
Shanghai Shanghai (; , , Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ) is one of the four direct-administered municipalities of the People's Republic of China (PRC). The city is located on the southern estuary of the Yangtze River, with the Huangpu River flow ...
, China, 1984 *
Akhisar Akhisar ( ota, آق حصار) is a town and a district in Manisa Province; in the Aegean Region of western Turkey. Akhisar is also the ancient city of Thyatira (also known as ''Thyateira''). With archaeology, archaeological findings that are pro ...
, Turkey, 1988 *
Haifa Haifa ( he, חֵיפָה ' ; ar, حَيْفَا ') is the List of cities in Israel, third-largest city in Israel—after Jerusalem and Tel Aviv—with a population of in . The city of Haifa forms part of the Haifa metropolitan area, the thir ...
, Israel, 1995 *
Cape Town Cape Town ( af, Kaapstad; , xh, iKapa) is one of South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the Southern Africa, southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by of coastline that stretch ...
, South Africa, 1996 *
Ludwigshafen Ludwigshafen, officially Ludwigshafen am Rhein (; meaning "Ludwig I of Bavaria, Ludwig's Port upon Rhine"), is a List of cities and towns in Germany, city in the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate, on the river Rhine, opposite Mannheim. With M ...
, Germany, 1998


Partnerships


Notable people


Born in Antwerp

*
Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence, (; 29 November 133817 October 1368) was the third son, but the second son to survive infancy, of the English king Edward III and Philippa of Hainault. He was named after his birthplace, at Antwerp A ...
, (1338–1368) son of Edward III of England . *
Samuel Blommaert Samuel Blommaert (''Bloemaert'', ''Blommaerts'', ''Blommaart'', ''Blomert'', etc.) (11 or 21 August 1583, in Antwerp – 23 December 1651, in Amsterdam) was a Flemish/Dutch merchant and director of the Dutch West India Company from 1622 to 1629 a ...
, (1583–1654) Director of
Dutch West India Company The Dutch West India Company ( nl, Geoctrooieerde Westindische Compagnie, ''WIC'' or ''GWC''; ; en, Chartered West India Company) was a chartered company of Dutch merchants as well as foreign investors. Among its founders was Willem Usselincx ( ...
* Frans Floris, (1520–1570)
painter Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface (called the "matrix" or "support"). The medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives, sponges, and ai ...
. *
Abraham Ortelius Abraham Ortelius (; also Ortels, Orthellius, Wortels; 4 or 14 April 152728 June 1598) was a Duchy of Brabant, Brabantian cartographer, geographer, and cosmographer, conventionally recognized as the creator of the list of atlases, first modern at ...
, (1527–98) cartographer and geographer. *
Gillis van Coninxloo Gillis van Coninxloo (now also referred to as Gillis van Coninxloo II but previously referred to as Gillis van Coninxloo III) (24 January 1544 – January 1607) was a Southern Netherlands, Flemish painter of landscape art, landscapes who played ...
, (1544–1607) painter of forest landscapes *
Bartholomeus Spranger Bartholomeus Spranger or Bartholomaeus SprangerBartholomeus Spranger
at the Netherlands Institute for Art H ...
, (1546–1611) painter, draughtsman and etcher *
Matthijs Bril Matthijs Bril or Matthijs Bril the Younger (1550 – 8 June 1583) was a Southern Netherlands, Flemish painter and draughtsman of Landscape art, landscapes. He spent most of his active career in Rome where his drawings of ancient Roman sites played ...
, (1550–1583) landscape painter * Martín Antonio del Río, (1551–1608)
Jesuit The Society of Jesus ( la, Societas Iesu; abbreviation: SJ), also known as the Jesuits (; la, Iesuitæ), is a religious order (Catholic), religious order of clerics regular of pontifical right for men in the Catholic Church headquartered in Rom ...
theologian Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the Divinity, divine and, more broadly, of religious belief. It is taught as an Discipline (academia), academic discipline, typically in universities and seminaries. It occupies itself with the ...
* Balthazar de Moucheron, (–) a founder of the
Dutch East India Company The United East India Company ( nl, Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, the VOC) was a chartered company established on the 20th March 1602 by the States General of the Netherlands amalgamating existing companies into the first joint-stock ...
*
Paul Bril Paul Bril (1554 – 7 October 1626) was a Southern Netherlands, Flemish painter and printmaker principally known for his Landscape art, landscapes.Nicola Courtright. "Paul Bril." Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Oxford University Press. Web. ...
, (1554–1626) landscape painter. *
Willem Usselincx Willem Usselincx (1567 – c. 1647) was a Flemish Dutch merchant, investor and diplomat who was instrumental in drawing both Dutch and Swedish attention to the importance of the New World The term ''New World'' is often used to mean the ma ...
, (1567–1647) Flemish merchant and investor, one of the founders of the
Dutch West India Company The Dutch West India Company ( nl, Geoctrooieerde Westindische Compagnie, ''WIC'' or ''GWC''; ; en, Chartered West India Company) was a chartered company of Dutch merchants as well as foreign investors. Among its founders was Willem Usselincx ( ...
* Abraham Janssens, (–1632) painter. * Rodrigo Calderón, Count of Oliva, (–1621) Spanish favourite and adventurer. *
Frans Snyders Frans Snyders or Frans Snijders (11 November 1579, Antwerp – 19 August 1657, Antwerp) was a Flemish people, Flemish Painting, painter of animals, hunting scenes, market scenes and still lifes. He was one of the earliest specialist animalie ...
, (1579–1657)
still life A still life (plural: still lifes) is a work of art depicting mostly wikt:inanimate, inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects which are either natural (food, flowers, dead animals, plants, rocks, shells, etc.) or artificiality, m ...
and animal painter * Osias Beert the Elder, (1580–1623) painter *
Frans Hals Frans Hals the Elder (, , ; – 26 August 1666) was a Dutch Golden Age painter, chiefly of individual and group portraits and of Genre painting, genre works, who lived and worked in Haarlem. Hals played an important role in the evolution of 17t ...
, (1580–1666) painter. *
Caspar de Crayer Gaspar de Crayer or Jasper de CrayerName variations: Caspar de Crayer and Gaspard de Crayer (18 November 1584 – 27 January 1669) was a Flemish painter known for his many Counter-Reformation The Counter-Reformation (), also called the ...
, (1582–1669) painter. *
David Teniers the Elder David Teniers the Elder (158229 July 1649), Flemings, Flemish Painting, painter, was born at Antwerp. Biography Having received his first training in the painter's art from his brother Juliaan Teniers, Juliaen, he studied under Peter Paul Rube ...
, (1582–1649) painter. * Jacob Jordaens, (1593–1678) painter *
Anthony van Dyck Sir Anthony van Dyck (, many variant spellings; 22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Duchy of Brabant, Brabantian Flemish Baroque painting, Flemish Baroque artist who became the leading court painter in England after success in the Sou ...
, (1599–1641) painter. * Cornelis Melyn, (1600-) early American settler, patron of
Staten Island Staten Island ( ) is a Boroughs of New York City, borough of New York City, coextensive with Richmond County, in the U.S. state of New York (state), New York. Located in the city's southwest portion, the borough is separated from New Jersey b ...
* Pieter van Schaeyenborgh, (1600–1657) painter of fish
still life A still life (plural: still lifes) is a work of art depicting mostly wikt:inanimate, inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects which are either natural (food, flowers, dead animals, plants, rocks, shells, etc.) or artificiality, m ...
s *
David Teniers the Younger David Teniers the Younger or David Teniers II (bapt. 15 December 1610 – 25 April 1690) was a Flemish Baroque painter, printmaker, draughtsman, miniaturist painter, staffage painter, copyist and art curator. He was an extremely versatile artis ...
, (1610–1690) painter. *
Jan Fyt Jan Fijt or Johannes Fijt (or Fyt) (19 August 1609 – 11 September 1661) was a Flemish Flemish (''Vlaams'') is a Low Franconian dialect cluster of the Dutch language. It is sometimes referred to as Flemish Dutch (), Belgian Dutch ( ), or S ...
, (–1661) animal painter. *
Nicolaes Maes Nicolaes Maes (January 1634December 1693 (buried 24 December 1693)) was a Dutch painter known for his genre scenes, portraits A portrait is a painting Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a s ...
, (1634–1693) Baroque painter. * Hendrik Abbé, (1639–?) engraver, painter and architect * Gerard Edelinck, (1649–1707) copperplate engraver. * Jacob Leyssens, (1661–1710)
Baroque The Baroque (, ; ) is a Style (visual arts), style of Baroque architecture, architecture, Baroque music, music, Baroque dance, dance, Baroque painting, painting, Baroque sculpture, sculpture, poetry, and other arts that flourished in Europe from ...
painter * Peter Tillemans, (–1734) painter * John Michael Rysbrack, (1694–1770) sculptor * Joseph-Jean Le Grelle, (1764-1822) founder of the Joseph J. Le Grelle Bank in 1792 * Gérard Comte Le Grelle, (1793-1871) Mayor of Antwerp (1831-1848), and member of the National Congress * Francis Palms, (1809–1886) Belgian-American landholder and businessman *
Hendrik Conscience Henri (Hendrik) Conscience (3 December 1812 – 10 September 1883) was a Belgians, Belgian author. He is considered the pioneer of Dutch language, Dutch-language literature in Flanders, writing at a time when Belgium was dominated by the French l ...
, (1812–1883) writer and author of ''De Leeuw van Vlaanderen'' ("The Lion of Flanders"). * Johann Coaz, (1822–1918) Swiss forester, topographer and mountaineer * Jef Lambeaux, (1852–1908) sculptor of the Brabo fountain on the Grote Markt. *
Georges Eekhoud Georges Eekhoud (27 May 1854 – 29 May 1927) was a Belgian novelist of Flemish people, Flemish descent, but writing in French. Eekhoud was a regionalist best known for his ability to represent scenes from rural and urban daily life. He tende ...
, (1854–1927) novelist *
Hippolyte Delehaye Hippolyte Delehaye, Society of Jesus, S.J., (19 August 1859 – 1 April 1941) was a Belgian Jesuit who was a hagiography, hagiographical scholar and an outstanding member of the Society of Bollandists. Biography Born in 1859 in Antwerp, Delehay ...
, (1859–1941) Jesuit priest and hagiographic scholar. * Ferdinand Perier, (1875–1968) Jesuit priest and 3rd archbishop of Calcutta * Willem Elsschot, (1882–1960) writer and poet * Maria Baers, (1883–1959) senator, feminist, and trade unionist. * Jef van Hoof, (1886–1959) conductor and composer *
Constant Permeke Constant Permeke (; 31 July 1886 – 4 January 1952) was a Belgian painter and sculptor who is considered the leading figure of Flemish Flemish (''Vlaams'') is a Low Franconian dialect cluster of the Dutch language. It is sometimes referre ...
, (1886–1952) expressionist painter * Jacoba Hol (1886–1964), physical geographer * Paul van Ostaijen, (1896–1928) poet and writer * Alice Nahon, (1896–1933) poet * Albert Lilar, (1900–1976) Minister of Justice * Maurice Gilliams, (1900–1982) writer * Michel Seuphor, (1901–1999) painter, designer * André Cluytens, (1905–1967) conductor * Daniel Sternefeld, (1905–1986) composer and conductor * Maurice van Essche, (1906–1977) Belgian-born South African painter * Antoinette Feuerwerker, (1912–2003) French jurist and member of the Resistance * Jean Bingen, (1920–2012) Belgian papyrologist and
epigrapher Epigraphy () is the study of inscriptions, or epigraphs, as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the wr ...
* Karl Gotch, (1924–2007) professional wrestler * Chris Mary-Francine Whittle, (born 1927), composer * Simon Kornblit, (1933–2010) American advertising and film studio executive. * Bernard de Walque, (born 1938) architect * Ferre Grignard, (1939–1982) rock singer/songwriter, known for '' Ring Ring, I've Got to Sing'' * Anthony Ruys, (born 1947) business executive * Carl Verbraeken, (born 1950) composer * Serge Strosberg, (born 1966) Belgian painter *
Tom Barman Thomas Andrew Barman (born 1 January 1972), is a Belgian musician and film director. Barman studied at the film school of St.-Lucas in Brussels, but did not finish his studies because he wished to pursue a career in music. In 1989, he began by ...
, (born 1972) Belgian musician and film director * Matthias Schoenaerts, (born 1977) actor * Tia Hellebaut, (born 1978) Olympic
high jump The high jump is a track and field event in which competitors must jump unaided over a horizontal bar placed at measured heights without dislodging it. In its modern, most-practiced format, a bar is placed between two standards with a crash mat f ...
champion * Evi Goffin, (born 1981) vocalist * Jessica Van Der Steen, (born 1984) model * Toby Alderweireld, (born 1989) professional Belgian footballer *
Laetitia Beck Laetitia Beck ( he, לטיסיה בק; born February 5, 1992) is an Israeli professional golfer A professional golfer is somebody who receives payments or financial rewards in the sport of golf that are directly related to their skill or repu ...
, (born 1992) Israeli golfer * Romelu Lukaku, (born 1993) professional Belgian footballer * Retin Obasohan, (born 1993) basketball player for Hapoel Jerusalem * Naomi Schiff, (born 1994) racing driver who competed in the W Series under a German licence


Lived in Antwerp

* Erasmus II Schetz, (died 1550) Lord of Grobbendonk *
Quentin Matsys Quentin Matsys ( nl, Quinten Matsijs) (1466–1530) was a Flemish painter in the Early Netherlandish Early Netherlandish painting, traditionally known as the Flemish Primitives, refers to the work of artists active in the Burgundian Netherl ...
, (1466–1530) Renaissance painter, founder of the Antwerp school. *
Jan Mabuse Jan Gossaert (c. 1478 – 1 October 1532) was a French-speaking painter from the Low Countries also known as Jan Mabuse (the name he adopted from his birthplace, Maubeuge) or Jennyn van Hennegouwe (County of Hainaut, Hainaut), as he called him ...
, (–1532) painter *
Joachim Patinir Joachim Patinir, also called Patenier (c. 1480 – 5 October 1524), was a Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting, Flemish Renaissance painter of History painting, history and Landscape painting, landscape subjects. He was Flanders, Flemish, fro ...
, (–1524) landscape and religious painter *
William Tyndale William Tyndale (; sometimes spelled ''Tynsdale'', ''Tindall'', ''Tindill'', ''Tyndall''; – ) was an English biblical scholar and linguist who became a leading figure in the Protestantism, Protestant Reformation in the years leading up ...
, (–1536) Bible translator, arrested in Antwerp and burnt at the stake. * John Rogers, (–1555) Christian minister, Bible translator, commentator and
martyr A martyr (, ''mártys'', "witness", or , ''marturia'', Word stem, stem , ''martyr-'') is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, or refusing to renounce or advocate, a religious belief or other cause as demanded by a ...
. *
Joos van Cleve Joos van Cleve (; also Joos van der Beke; c. 1485–1490 – 1540/1541) was a leading painter active in Antwerp from his arrival there around 1511 until his death in 1540 or 1541. Within Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting, he combines the tra ...
, (–) painter * Damião de Góis, (1502–1574) Portuguese humanist philosopher. * Sir
Thomas Gresham Sir Thomas Gresham the Elder (; c. 151921 November 1579), was an English people, English merchant and financier who acted on behalf of Edward VI of England, King Edward VI (1547–1553) and Edward's half-sisters, queen regnant, queens Mary I o ...
, (–1579) English merchant and
financier An investor is a person who allocates financial capital with the expectation of a future return (profit) or to gain an advantage (interest). Through this allocated capital most of the time the investor purchases some species of property. Ty ...
. *
Antonis Mor Anthonis Mor, also known as Anthonis Mor van Dashorst and Antonio Moro (c. 1517 – 1577), was a Netherlandish Portrait painting, portrait painter, much in demand by the courts of Europe. He has also been referred to as Antoon, Anthonius, Anthoni ...
, (1520–)
portrait A portrait is a painting Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface (called the "matrix" or "support"). The medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, suc ...
painter. *
Christophe Plantin Christophe Plantin ( nl, Christoffel Plantijn; – 1 July 1589) was a French Renaissance humanist and book Printer (publisher), printer and publisher who resided and worked in Antwerp. Life Plantin was born in France, probably in Saint-Averti ...
, (–1589) humanist, book printer and publisher. *
Pieter Bruegel the Elder Pieter Bruegel (also Brueghel or Breughel) the Elder (, ; ; – 9 September 1569) was the most significant artist of Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting, a painter and printmaking, printmaker, known for his landscape art, landscapes and peas ...
, (–) painter and
printmaker Printmaking is the process of creating work of art, artworks by printing, normally on paper, but also on fabric, wood, metal, and other surfaces. "Traditional printmaking" normally covers only the process of creating prints using a hand proce ...
. *
Philips of Marnix, Lord of Saint-Aldegonde Philips of Marnix, Lord of Saint-Aldegonde, Lord of West-Souburg (Dutch: Filips van Marnix, heer van Sint-Aldegonde, heer van West-Souburg, French: Philippe de Marnix, seigneur de Sainte-Aldegonde; 7 March/20 July 1540 – 15 December 1598) was a ...
, (1538–1598) writer and statesman. *
Simon Stevin Simon Stevin (; 1548–1620), sometimes called Stevinus, was a Flemish mathematician, scientist and music theorist. He made various contributions in many areas of science and engineering, both theoretical and practical. He also translated vario ...
, (–1620)
mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in their work, typically to solve mathematical problems. Mathematicians are concerned with numbers, data, quantity, mathematical structure, structure, space, Mathematica ...
and
engineer Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are professionals who Invention, invent, design, analyze, build and test machines, complex systems, structures, gadgets and materials to fulfill functional objectives and requirements while considerin ...
. * Federigo Giambelli, (–) Italian
military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically authorized and maintained by a sovereign state, with its members identifiable by their distinct ...
and
civil engineer A civil engineer is a person who practices civil engineering – the application of planning, designing, constructing, maintaining, and operating infrastructure while protecting the public and environmental health, as well as improving existing i ...
. * Nicolaas Rockox (1560–1640), mayor of Antwerp. *
John Bull John Bull is a national personification of the United Kingdom in general and England in particular, especially in political cartoons and similar graphic works. He is usually depicted as a stout, middle-aged, country-dwelling, jolly and matter- ...
, (–1628) English/Welsh
composer A composer is a person who writes music. The term is especially used to indicate composers of Classical music, Western classical music, or those who are composers by occupation. Many composers are, or were, also skilled performers of music. E ...
, musician and organ builder. *
Jan Brueghel the Elder Jan Brueghel (also Bruegel or Breughel) the Elder (, ; ; 1568 – 13 January 1625) was a Flemish Painting, painter and Draughtsmanship, draughtsman. He was the son of the eminent Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting, Flemish Renaissance painte ...
, (1568–1625) also known as "Velvet" Brueghel, painter. *
Peter Paul Rubens Sir Peter Paul Rubens (; ; 28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish people, Flemish artist and diplomat from the Duchy of Brabant in the Southern Netherlands (modern-day Kingdom of Belgium, Belgium). He is considered the most influential art ...
, (1577–1640) painter. * William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Newcastle, (–1676) soldier, courtier and writer. * Adriaen Brouwer, (1605–1638) painter * Jan Davidsz. de Heem, (1606–1684) painter. *
Wenceslas Hollar Wenceslaus Hollar (23 July 1607 – 25 March 1677) was a prolific and accomplished Bohemian graphic artist of the 17th century, who spent much of his life in England. He is known to German speakers as ; and to Czech speakers as . He is particu ...
, (1607–1677)
Bohemia Bohemia ( ; cs, Čechy ; ; hsb, Čěska; szl, Czechy) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech Republic. Bohemia can also refer to a wider area consisting of the historical Lands of the Bohemian Crown ruled by the List o ...
n etcher. *
Jan Lievens Jan Lievens (24 October 1607 – 4 June 1674) was a Dutch Golden Age painter who was associated with his close contemporary Rembrandt, a year older, in the early parts of their careers. They shared a birthplace in Leiden, training with Pieter La ...
, (1607–1674) painter * Ferdinand van Apshoven the Younger, (–1694) painter * Frédéric Théodore Faber, painter (1782–1799) * Jan Frans Willems, (1793–1846) writer. * Abraham Mayer, (1816–1899) German-born physician *
Ford Madox Brown Ford Madox Brown (16 April 1821 – 6 October 1893) was a British painter of moral and historical subjects, notable for his distinctively graphic and often Hogarthian version of the Pre-Raphaelite style. Arguably, his most notable painti ...
, (1821–1893) a British painter, studied art at Antwerp. * Henri Alexis Brialmont, (1821–1903) military engineer. * George du Maurier, (1834–1896) cartoonist, author and grandfather of
Daphne du Maurier Dame Daphne du Maurier, Lady Browning, (; 13 May 1907 – 19 April 1989) was an English novelist, biographer and playwright. Her parents were actor-manager Gerald du Maurier, Sir Gerald du Maurier and his wife, actress Muriel Beaumont. Her gra ...
* Sir
Lawrence Alma-Tadema Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, (; born Lourens Alma Tadema ; 8 January 1836 – 25 June 1912) was a Dutch people, Dutch painter who later settled in the United Kingdom becoming the last officially recognised Denization, denizen in 1873. Born in D ...
, (1836–1912) painter. * Robert Barrett Browning, (1849–1912) English painter, studied painting in Antwerp *
Vincent van Gogh Vincent Willem van Gogh (; 30 March 185329 July 1890) was a Dutch Post-Impressionism, Post-Impressionist painter who posthumously became one of the most famous and influential figures in Western art history. In a decade, he created about 2 ...
, (1853–1890)
impressionist Impressionism was a 19th-century art movement characterized by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open Composition (visual arts), composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating ...
Dutch painter, lived in Antwerp for four months. * Camille Huysmans, (1871–1968)
Socialist Socialism is a left-wing Economic ideology, economic philosophy and Political movement, movement encompassing a range of economic systems characterized by the dominance of social ownership of the means of production as opposed to Private prop ...
politician, former mayor of Antwerp and former Prime Minister of Belgium * Moshe Yitzchok Gewirtzman, (1881–1976) Hasidic Pshevorsk movement leader in Antwerp * Romi Goldmuntz, (1882–1960) diamond businessman * August De Boodt, (1895–1986) politician * Gerard Walschap, (1898–1989) writer * Albert Lilar, (1900–1976) Minister of Justice * Suzanne Lilar, (1901–1992) essayist, novelist, and playwright * Chaim Kreiswirth, (1918–2001) Rabbi of the Machzikei Hadass Community, Antwerp * Eric de Kuyper, (born 1942) award-winning novelist, filmmaker,
semiotician Semiotics (also called semiotic studies) is the systematic study of sign processes (semiosis Semiosis (, ), or sign process, is any form of Action (philosophy), activity, conduct, or process that involves sign (semiotics), signs, including th ...
* Philip Sessarego, (1952–2008) former British Army soldier, conman, hoaxer, mercenary lived in Antwerp and found dead in a garage * Veerle Casteleyn, (born 1978) musical theatre performer and ballerina, trained in Antwerp. * Andy Van Vliet (born 1995), Belgian basketball player for Bnei Herzliya Basket in the
Israeli Basketball Premier League Ligat HaAl ( he, ליגת העל, lit., ''Supreme League or Premier League''), or the Israeli Basketball Premier League, is the top-tier level league of professional sports, professional competition in Israeli sports club, club basketball, making ...


Select neighbourhoods

* Den Dam – an area in northern Antwerp * The diamond district – an area consisting of several square blocks, it is Antwerp's centre for the cutting, polishing, and trading of diamonds * Linkeroever – Antwerp on the left bank of the Scheldt with a lot of apartment buildings * Meir – Antwerp's largest shopping street * Van Wesenbekestraat – the city's Chinatown * Het Zuid – the south of Antwerp, notable for its museums and Expo grounds * Zurenborg – an area between Central and Berchem station with a concentration of Art Nouveau townhouses


See also

* Antwerp Book Fair * Antwerp lace * Antwerp Water Works (AWW) * K Beerschot VA, local football club * Letterenhuis * List of mayors of Antwerp


Notes


References


Further reading

* Blanchard, Ian. '' The International Economy in the "Age of the Discoveries," 1470–1570: Antwerp and the English Merchants' World'' (Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2009). 288 pp. in English * Harreld, Donald J. "Trading Places," ''Journal of Urban History'' (2003) 29#6 pp 657–669 * Lindemann, Mary. ''The Merchant Republics: Amsterdam, Antwerp, and Hamburg, 1648–1790'' (Cambridge University Press, 2014) 356 pp. * Limberger, Michael. ''Sixteenth-Century Antwerp and its Rural Surroundings: Social and Economic Changes in the Hinterland of a Commercial Metropolis (ca. 1450–1570)'' (Turnhout: Brepols Publishers, 2008). 284 pp. . *
Stillwell, Richard, ed. ''Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites'', 1976:
"Antwerp Belgium" * Van der Wee, Herman. ''The Growth of the Antwerp Market and the European Economy (14th–16th Centuries)'' (The Hague, 1963)


External links


Official website

Tourism Antwerp

Visit Antwerp
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