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Antwerp
Antwerp
(/ˈæntwɜːrp/ ( listen), Dutch: Antwerpen [ˈɑntʋɛrpə(n)] ( listen), French: Anvers [ɑ̃vɛʁ(s)]) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders. With a population of 520,504,[2] it is the most populous city proper in Belgium. Its metropolitan area houses around 1,200,000 people, coming in second behind Brussels.[3][4] Antwerp
Antwerp
is on the River Scheldt, linked to the North Sea
North Sea
by the Westerschelde estuary. It is about 40 kilometres (25 mi) north of Brussels, and about 15 kilometres (9 mi) from the Dutch border. The Port of Antwerp
Port of Antwerp
is one of the biggest in the world, ranking second in Europe[5][6] and within the top 20 globally.[7] Antwerp
Antwerp
was also the place of the world's oldest stock exchange building, originally built in 1531 and re-built in 1872, it has been derelict since 1997.[8] Antwerp
Antwerp
has long been an important city in the Low Countries, both economically and culturally, especially before the Spanish Fury (1576) in the Dutch Revolt. The inhabitants of Antwerp
Antwerp
are nicknamed Sinjoren, after the Spanish honorific señor or French seigneur, "lord", referring to the Spanish noblemen who ruled the city in the 17th century.[9] Today Antwerp
Antwerp
is a major trade and cultural centre, and is the world's second most multi-cultural city (after Amsterdam) home to 170 nationalities.[10][11] It is also known as "the diamond capital of the world" for its large diamond district.[12] The city hosted the 1920 Summer Olympics.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Origin of the name 1.2 Pre-1500 1.3 16th century 1.4 Reformation era 1.5 Dutch revolt 1.6 17th–19th centuries 1.7 20th century

2 Municipality 3 Buildings and landmarks 4 Fortifications 5 Demographics

5.1 Historical population 5.2 Minorities

5.2.1 Jewish community 5.2.2 Jain community 5.2.3 Armenian community

6 Economy 7 Transportation

7.1 Road 7.2 Rail 7.3 Public transportation 7.4 Air

8 Politics

8.1 City council 8.2 Former mayors

9 Climate 10 Culture

10.1 Fashion 10.2 Local products 10.3 Missions to seafarers 10.4 Music 10.5 Music festivals

11 Sport 12 Higher education 13 International relations

13.1 Twin towns and sister cities 13.2 Partnerships

14 Notable people

14.1 Born in Antwerp 14.2 Lived in Antwerp

15 Select neighbourhoods 16 See also 17 References 18 Further reading 19 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Antwerp Origin of the name[edit] According to folklore, notably celebrated by a statue in front of the town hall, the city got its name from a legend about a giant called Antigoon who lived near the Scheldt
Scheldt
river. He extracted a toll from passing boatmen, and for those who refused, he severed one of their hands and threw it into the river.[13] Eventually the giant was killed by a young hero named Silvius Brabo, who cut off the giant's own hand and flung it into the river. Hence the name Antwerpen, from Dutch hand werpen, akin to Old English hand and wearpan (to throw), which has evolved to today's warp.[14] A longstanding theory is that the name originated in the Gallo-Roman period and comes from the Latin antverpia. Antverpia would come from Ante (before) Verpia (deposition, sedimentation), indicating land that forms by deposition in the inside curve of a river (which is in fact the same origin as Germanic waerpen). Note that the river Scheldt, before a transition period between 600 and 750, followed a different track. This must have coincided roughly with the current ringway south of the city, situating the city within a former curve of the river.[15] However, many historians think it unlikely that there was a large settlement which would be named 'Antverpia', but more something like an outpost with a river crossing. However, John Lothrop Motley
John Lothrop Motley
argues, and so do a lot of Dutch etymologists and historians, that Antwerp's name derives from "anda" (at) and "werpum" (wharf)[16] to give an 't werf (on the wharf, in the same meaning as the current English wharf). Aan 't werp (at the warp) is also possible. This "warp" (thrown ground) is a man-made hill or a river deposit, high enough to remain dry at high tide, whereupon a construction could be built that would remain dry. Another word for werp is pol (dyke) hence polders (the dry land behind a dyke, that was no longer flooded by the tide). Alfred Michiels has suggested that derivations based on hand werpen, Antverpia, "on the wharf", or "at the warp” lack historical backing in the form of recorded past spellings of the placename. He points instead to Dado’s Life of St. Eligius
St. Eligius
(Vita Eligii) from the 7th century, which records the form Andoverpis. He sees in it a Celtic origin indicating “those who live on both banks”.[17] Pre-1500[edit] Historical Antwerp
Antwerp
allegedly had its origins in a Gallo-Roman vicus. Excavations carried out in the oldest section near the Scheldt, 1952–1961 (ref. Princeton), produced pottery shards and fragments of glass from mid-2nd century to the end of the 3rd century. The earliest mention of Antwerp
Antwerp
dates from the 4th century. In the 4th century, Antwerp
Antwerp
was first named, having been settled by the Germanic Franks.[18] The Merovingian Antwerp
Antwerp
was evangelized by Saint Amand
Saint Amand
in the 7th century. At the end of the 10th century, the Scheldt
Scheldt
became the boundary of the Holy Roman Empire. Antwerp
Antwerp
became a margraviate in 980, by the German emperor Otto II, a border province facing the County
County
of Flanders. In the 11th century Godfrey of Bouillon
Godfrey of Bouillon
was for some years known as the marquis of Antwerp. In the 12th century, Norbert of Xanten established a community of his Premonstratensian
Premonstratensian
canons at St. Michael's Abbey at Caloes. Antwerp
Antwerp
was also the headquarters of Edward III during his early negotiations with Jacob van Artevelde, and his son Lionel, the Duke of Clarence, was born there in 1338.[19] 16th century[edit]

Osias Beert
Osias Beert
the Elder, from Antwerp. Dishes with Oysters, Fruit, and Wine, c. 1620/1625

After the silting-up of the Zwin
Zwin
and the consequent decline of Bruges, the city of Antwerp, then part of the Duchy of Brabant, grew in importance. At the end of the 15th century the foreign trading houses were transferred from Bruges
Bruges
to Antwerp, and the building assigned to the English nation is specifically mentioned in 1510.[19] Antwerp became the sugar capital of Europe, importing the raw commodity from Portuguese and Spanish plantations. The city attracted Italian and German sugar refiners by 1550, and shipped their refined product to Germany, especially Cologne.[20] Moneylenders and financiers developed a large business lending money all over Europe including the English government in 1544–1574. London
London
bankers were too small to operate on that scale, and Antwerp
Antwerp
had a highly efficient bourse that itself attracted rich bankers from around Europe. After the 1570s the city's banking business declined: England ended its borrowing in Antwerp
Antwerp
in 1574.[21] Fernand Braudel states that Antwerp
Antwerp
became "the centre of the entire international economy, something Bruges
Bruges
had never been even at its height."[22] Antwerp
Antwerp
was the richest city in Europe at this time.[23] Antwerp's golden age is tightly linked to the "Age of Exploration". During the first half of the 16th century Antwerp
Antwerp
grew to become the second-largest European city north of the Alps. Many foreign merchants were resident in the city. Francesco Guicciardini, the Venetian envoy, stated that hundreds of ships would pass in a day, and 2,000 carts entered the city each week. Portuguese ships laden with pepper and cinnamon would unload their cargo. According to Luc-Normand Tellier "It is estimated that the port of Antwerp
Antwerp
was earning the Spanish crown seven times more revenues than the Americas."[24]

The Sack of Antwerp
Sack of Antwerp
in 1576, in which about 7,000 people died.

Without a long-distance merchant fleet, and governed by an oligarchy of banker-aristocrats forbidden to engage in trade, the economy of Antwerp
Antwerp
was foreigner-controlled, which made the city very cosmopolitan, with merchants and traders from Venice, Ragusa, Spain and Portugal. Antwerp
Antwerp
had a policy of toleration, which attracted a large crypto-Jewish community composed of migrants from Spain
Spain
and Portugal.[25] By 1504, the Portuguese had established Antwerp
Antwerp
as one of their main shipping bases, bringing in spices from Asia and trading them for textiles and metal goods. The cities trade expanded to include cloth from England, Italy
Italy
and Germany, wines from Germany, France
France
and Spain, salt from France, and wheat from the Baltic. The cities skilled workers processed soap, fish, sugar, and especially cloth. Banks helped finance the trade, the merchants, and the manufacturers. The city was a cosmopolitan center; its bourse opened in 1531, "To the merchants of all nations." [26] Antwerp
Antwerp
experienced three booms during its golden age: the first based on the pepper market, a second launched by American silver coming from Seville
Seville
(ending with the bankruptcy of Spain
Spain
in 1557), and a third boom, after the stabilising Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559, based on the textiles industry. At the beginning of the 16th century Antwerp accounted for 40% of world trade.[24] The boom-and-bust cycles and inflationary cost-of-living squeezed less-skilled workers. In the century after 1541, the city's economy and population declined dramatically The Portuguese merchants left in 1549, and there was much less trade in English cloth. Numerous financial bankruptcies began around 1557. Amsterdam
Amsterdam
replaced Antwerp
Antwerp
as the major trading center for the region.[27] Reformation era[edit]

View of the Pier of Antwerp
Antwerp
from the Vlaams Hoofd

The religious revolution of the Reformation erupted in violent riots in August 1566, as in other parts of the Low Countries. The regent Margaret, Duchess of Parma, was swept aside when Philip II sent the Duke of Alba at the head of an army the following summer. When the Eighty Years' War
Eighty Years' War
broke out in 1568, commercial trading between Antwerp
Antwerp
and the Spanish port of Bilbao
Bilbao
collapsed and became impossible. On 4 November 1576, Spanish soldiers sacked the city during the so-called Spanish Fury: 7,000 citizens were massacred, 800 houses were burnt down, and over £2 million sterling of damage was done. Dutch revolt[edit] Subsequently, the city joined the Union of Utrecht
Union of Utrecht
in 1579 and became the capital of the Dutch revolt. In 1585, Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma and Piacenza, captured it after a long siege and as part of the terms of surrender its Protestant citizens were given two years to settle their affairs before quitting the city.[28] Most went to the United Provinces in the north, starting the Dutch Golden Age. Antwerp's banking was controlled for a generation by Genoa, and Amsterdam
Amsterdam
became the new trading centre. 17th–19th centuries[edit]

Map of Antwerp
Antwerp
(1624)

Antwerp
Antwerp
and the river Scheldt, photochrom ca. 1890–1900

"View of Antwerp
Antwerp
with the frozen Scheldt" (1590) by Lucas van Valckenborch.

The recognition of the independence of the United Provinces by the Treaty of Münster
Münster
in 1648 stipulated that the Scheldt
Scheldt
should be closed to navigation, which destroyed Antwerp's trading activities. This impediment remained in force until 1863, although the provisions were relaxed during French rule from 1795 to 1814, and also during the time Belgium
Belgium
formed part of the Kingdom of the United Netherlands (1815 to 1830).[19] Antwerp
Antwerp
had reached the lowest point in its fortunes in 1800, and its population had sunk to under 40,000, when Napoleon, realizing its strategic importance, assigned funds to enlarge the harbour by constructing a new dock (still named the Bonaparte Dock) and an access- lock and mole and deepening the Scheldt to allow for larger ships to approach Antwerp.[23] Napoleon hoped that by making Antwerp's harbour the finest in Europe he would be able to counter the Port of London
London
and hamper British growth. However, he was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo
Battle of Waterloo
before he could see the plan through.[29]

Antwerp, Belgium, from the left bank of the Scheldt
Scheldt
(c. 1890 – 1900)

In 1830, the city was captured by the Belgian insurgents, but the citadel continued to be held by a Dutch garrison under General David Hendrik Chassé. For a time Chassé subjected the town to periodic bombardment which inflicted much damage, and at the end of 1832 the citadel itself was besieged by the French Northern Army commanded by Marechal Gerard. During this attack the town was further damaged. In December 1832, after a gallant defence, Chassé made an honourable surrender, ending the Siege of Antwerp
Antwerp
(1832).[19] Later that century, a double ring of Brialmont
Brialmont
Fortresses was constructed some 10 km (6 mi) from the city centre, as Antwerp
Antwerp
was considered vital for the survival of the young Belgian state. And in the last decade Antwerp
Antwerp
presented itself to the world via a World's Fair attended by 3 million.[30] 20th century[edit]

Results of German bombardment of Antwerp, October 1914

Antwerp
Antwerp
was the first city to host the World Gymnastics Championships, in 1903. During World War I, the city became the fallback point of the Belgian Army
Belgian Army
after the defeat at Liège. The Siege of Antwerp
Antwerp
lasted for 11 days, but the city was taken after heavy fighting by the German Army, and the Belgians were forced to retreat westwards. Antwerp remained under German occupation until the Armistice. Antwerp
Antwerp
hosted the 1920 Summer Olympics. During World War II, the city was an important strategic target because of its port. It was occupied by Germany
Germany
in May 1940 and liberated by the British 11th Armoured Division on 4 September 1944. After this, the Germans attempted to destroy the Port of Antwerp, which was used by the Allies to bring new material ashore. Thousands of Rheinbote, V-1 and V-2
V-2
missiles were fired (more V-2s than used on all other targets during the entire war combined), causing severe damage to the city but failed to destroy the port due to poor accuracy. After the war, Antwerp, which had already had a sizeable Jewish population before the war, once again became a major European centre of Haredi (and particularly Hasidic) Orthodox Judaism. A Ten-Year Plan for the port of Antwerp
Antwerp
(1956–1965) expanded and modernized the port's infrastructure with national funding to build a set of canal docks. The broader aim was to facilitate the growth of the north-eastern Antwerp
Antwerp
metropolitan region, which attracted new industry based on a flexible and strategic implementation of the project as a co-production between various authorities and private parties. The plan succeeded in extending the linear layout along the Scheldt
Scheldt
river by connecting new satellite communities to the main strip.[31] Starting in the 1990s, Antwerp
Antwerp
rebranded itself as a world-class fashion centre. Emphasizing the avant-garde, it tried to compete with London, Milan, New York
York
and Paris. It emerged from organized tourism and mega-cultural events.[32] Municipality[edit]

Districts of Antwerp.

Main article: Districts of Antwerp The municipality comprises the city of Antwerp
Antwerp
proper and several towns. It is divided into nine entities (districts):

Antwerp Berchem Berendrecht-Zandvliet-Lillo Borgerhout Deurne Ekeren Hoboken Merksem Wilrijk

In 1958 in preparation of the 10-year development plan for the Port of Antwerp, the municipalities of Berendrecht-Zandvliet-Lillo
Berendrecht-Zandvliet-Lillo
were integrated into the city territory and lost their administrative independence. During the 1983 merger of municipalities, conducted by the Belgian government as an administrative simplification, the municipalities of Berchem, Borgerhout, Deurne, Ekeren, Hoboken, Merksem
Merksem
and Wilrijk
Wilrijk
were merged into the city. At that time the city was also divided into the districts mentioned above. Simultaneously, districts received an appointed district council; later district councils became elected bodies.[33] Buildings and landmarks[edit]

Antwerp City Hall
Antwerp City Hall
at the Grote Markt (Main Square).

16th-century Guildhouses at the Grote Markt.

The Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekathedraal ( Cathedral
Cathedral
of our Lady), here seen from the Groenplaats, is the tallest cathedral in the Low Countries and home to several triptychs by Baroque
Baroque
painter Rubens. It remains the tallest building in the city.

Statue of Brabo and the giant's hand

Antwerp
Antwerp
lawcourts

In the 16th century, Antwerp
Antwerp
was noted for the wealth of its citizens ("Antwerpia nummis")[citation needed]. The houses of these wealthy merchants and manufacturers have been preserved throughout the city. However, fire has destroyed several old buildings, such as the house of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
on the northern quays, in 1891.[citation needed] During World War II, the city also suffered considerable damage by V-bombs, and in recent years, other noteworthy buildings were demolished for new developments.

Antwerp Zoo
Antwerp Zoo
opened in 1843 and is one of the oldest in the world. Antwerp City Hall
Antwerp City Hall
dates from 1565, and is built primarily in Renaissance
Renaissance
style. Antwerp
Antwerp
Central Station is a railway station designed by Louis Delacenserie which was completed in 1905. Cathedral
Cathedral
of Our Lady. This church was begun in the 14th century and finished in 1518. The church has four works by Rubens, viz. "The Descent from the Cross", "The Elevation of the Cross", "The Resurrection of Christ" and "The Assumption"[19] St. James' Church, is more ornate than the cathedral. It contains lots of famous noble burials, amongst them a major part of the family of Rubens. The Church of St. Paul has a beautiful baroque interior. It is a few hundred yards north of the Grote Markt St. Andrew's Church St. Charles Borromeo Church Museum Vleeshuis
Vleeshuis
(Butchers' Hall) is a fine Gothic brick-built building, situated a short distance to the North-West of the Grote Markt. Plantin-Moretus Museum
Plantin-Moretus Museum
preserves the house of the printer Christoffel Plantijn and his successor Jan Moretus The Saint-Boniface Church
Saint-Boniface Church
is an Anglican church
Anglican church
and headseat of the archdeanery North-West Europe. Boerentoren
Boerentoren
(Farmers' Tower) or KBC Tower, a 26-storey building built in 1932, is the oldest skyscraper in Europe.[34] It is the tallest building in Antwerp
Antwerp
and the second tallest structure after the Cathedral
Cathedral
of our Lady. The building was designed by Emiel van Averbeke, R. Van Hoenacker and Jos Smolderen.[35] Royal Museum of Fine Arts Rubenshuis
Rubenshuis
is the former home and studio of Peter Paul Rubens (1577–1640) in Antwerp. It is now a museum. Rockox House
Rockox House
is the former 17th century Residence of Nicolaas II Rockox, lord Mayor of Antwerp. Exchange or Bourse. The current building was built in 1872. Law Courts, designed by the Richard Rogers
Richard Rogers
Partnership, Arup and VK Studio, and opened by King Albert II, in April 2006.[citation needed] This building is the antithesis of the heavy, dark court building, designed by Joseph Poelaert, which dominates the skyline of Brussels. The courtrooms sit on top of six fingers that radiate from an airy central hall, and are surmounted by spires, which provide north light and resemble oast houses or the sails of barges on the nearby River Scheldt. It is built on the site of the old Zuid ("South") station, at the end of a magnificent 1.5 kilometres (1 mile) perspective at the southern end of Amerikalei. The road neatly disappears into an underpass under oval Bolivarplaats to join the motorway ring. This leaves peaceful surface access by foot, bicycle or tram (route 12). The building's highest 'sail' is 51 m (167 ft) high, has a floor area of 77,000 m2 (830,000 sq ft), and cost €130 million. Zurenborg, a late 19th century Belle Époque
Belle Époque
neighbourhood, on the border of Antwerp
Antwerp
and Berchem, with many Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
architectural elements. The area counts as one of the most original Belle Époque urban expansion areas in Europe. Museum aan de Stroom Den Botaniek or Antwerp's Botanical Garden, created in 1825. Located in the city centre, at the Leopoldstraat, it covers an area of almost 1 hectare.

Fortifications[edit] Main article: Fortifications of Antwerp

Het Steen
Het Steen
(literally: 'The Stone').

Although Antwerp
Antwerp
was formerly a fortified city, hardly anything remains of the former enceinte, only some remains of the city wall can be seen near the Vleeshuis
Vleeshuis
museum at the corner of Bloedberg and Burchtgracht. A replica of a castle named Steen has been partly rebuilt near the Scheldt-quais in the 19th century. Antwerp's development as a fortified city is documented between the 10th and the 20th century. The fortifications were developed in different phases:

10th century : fortification of the wharf with a wall and a ditch 12th and 13th century : canals (so called "vlieten" and "ruien") were made 16th century : Spanish fortifications 19th century : double ring of Brialmont
Brialmont
forts around the city, dismantling of the Spanish fortifications 20th century : 1960 dismantling of the inner ring of forts, decommissioning of the outer ring of forts

Demographics[edit] Historical population[edit]

Population time-line of Antwerp.

This is the population of the city of Antwerp
Antwerp
only, not of the larger current municipality of the same name.

1374: 18,000[36] 1486: 40,000[37] 1500: around 44/49,000 inhabitants[38] 1526: 50,000[39] 1567: 105,000 (90,000 permanent residents and 15,000 "floating population", including foreign merchants and soldiers. At the time only 10 cities in Europe reached this size.)[39][40][41][42] 1584: 84,000 (after the Spanish Fury, the French Fury[43] and the Calvinist republic) 1586 (May): 60,000 (after siege) 1586 (October): 50,000 1591: 46,000 1612: 54,000[44] 1620: 66,000 (Twelve Years' Truce)

1640: 54,000 (after the Black Death
Black Death
epidemics) 1700: 66,000[45] 1765: 40,000 1784: 51,000 1800: 45,500 1815: 54,000[46] 1830: 73,500 1856: 111,700 1880: 179,000 1900: 275,100 1925: 308,000 1959: 260,000[47]

Minorities[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2017)

Largest groups of foreign residents

Nationality Population (2011)

 Morocco 38,884

 Turkey 12,805

 Bulgaria 1,938

 Romania 1,574

In 2010, 36 to 39% of the inhabitants of Antwerp
Antwerp
had a migrant background. A study projects that in 2020, 55% of the population will be of migrant background.[48][49]

Jewish community[edit] Main article: Jewish Community of Antwerp

Hollandse Synagogue

After the Holocaust and the destruction of its many semi-assimilated Jews, Antwerp
Antwerp
became a major centre for Orthodox Jews. At present, about 15,000 Haredi Jews, many of them Hasidic, live in Antwerp. The city has three official Jewish Congregations: Shomrei Hadass, headed by Rabbi Dovid Moishe Lieberman, Machsike Hadass, headed by Rabbi Sekkel Pollack of Brussels
Brussels
(formerly by Chief Rabbi Chaim Kreiswirth) and the Portuguese Community Ben Moshe. Antwerp
Antwerp
has an extensive network of synagogues, shops, schools and organizations. Significant Hasidic movements in Antwerp
Antwerp
include Pshevorsk, based in Antwerp, as well as branches of Satmar, Belz, Bobov, Ger, Skver, Klausenburg and several others. Rabbi Chaim Kreiswirth, chief rabbi of the Machsike Hadas community, who died in 2003, was arguably one of the better known personalities to have been based in Antwerp. An attempt to have a street named after him has received the support of the Town Hall and is in the process of being implemented.[citation needed] Jain community[edit] Main article: Jainism in Belgium

Jain temple
Jain temple
in Antwerp

The Jains in Belgium
Belgium
are estimated to be around about 1,500 people. The majority live in Antwerp, mostly involved in the very lucrative diamond business.[50] Belgian Indian Jains control two-thirds of the rough diamonds trade and supplied India
India
with roughly 36% of their rough diamonds.[citation needed] A major temple, with a cultural centre, has been built in Antwerp
Antwerp
(Wilrijk). Their spiritual leader, Ramesh Mehta, is a full-fledged member of the Belgian Council of Religious Leaders, put up on 17 December 2009. Armenian community[edit] Main article: Armenians
Armenians
in Belgium There are significant Armenian communities that reside in Antwerp, many of them are descendants of traders who settled during the 19th century. Most Armenian Belgians are adherents of the Armenian Apostolic Church, with a smaller numbers are adherents of the Armenian Catholic Church and Armenian Evangelical Church. One of the important sectors that Armenian communities in Antwerp excel and involved in is the diamonds trade business,[51][52][53][54] that based primarily in the diamond district.[55][56][57] Some of the famous Armenian families involved in the diamond business in the city are the Artinians, Arslanians, Aslanians, Barsamians and the Osganians.[58][59] Economy[edit]

Delwaidedok (nl) terminal at the Port of Antwerp.

According to the American Association of Port Authorities, the port of Antwerp
Antwerp
was the seventeenth largest (by tonnage) port in the world in 2005 and second only to Rotterdam
Rotterdam
in Europe. Importantly it handles high volumes of economically attractive general and project cargo, as well as bulk cargo. Antwerp's docklands, with five oil refineries, are home to a massive concentration of petrochemical industries, second only to the petrochemical cluster in Houston, Texas.[citation needed] Electricity generation
Electricity generation
is also an important activity, with four nuclear power plants at Doel, a conventional power station in Kallo, as well as several smaller combined cycle plants. There is a wind farm in the northern part of the port area. There are plans to extend this in the period 2014–2020.[60] The old Belgian bluestone quays bordering the Scheldt
Scheldt
for a distance of 5.6 km (3.5 mi) to the north and south of the city centre have been retained for their sentimental value and are used mainly by cruise ships and short sea shipping.[citation needed] Antwerp's other great mainstay is the diamond trade that takes place largely within the diamond district.[61] The city has four diamond bourses: the Diamond
Diamond
Club of Antwerp, the Beurs voor Diamanthandel, the Antwerpsche Diamantkring and the Vrije Diamanthandel.[62] Since World War II
World War II
families of the large Hasidic Jewish community have dominated Antwerp's diamond trading industry, although the last two decades have seen Indian[63] and Maronite
Maronite
Christian
Christian
from Lebanon
Lebanon
and Armenian,[55] traders become increasingly important.[63] Antwerp
Antwerp
World Diamond
Diamond
Centre, the successor to the Hoge Raad voor Diamant, plays an important role in setting standards, regulating professional ethics, training and promoting the interests of Antwerp
Antwerp
as the capital of the diamond industry.[citation needed]

Transportation[edit] Road[edit] A six-lane motorway bypass encircles much of the city centre and runs through the urban residential area of Antwerp. Known locally as the "Ring" it offers motorway connections to Brussels, Hasselt
Hasselt
and Liège, Ghent, Lille
Lille
and Bruges
Bruges
and Breda
Breda
and Bergen op Zoom
Bergen op Zoom
(Netherlands). The banks of the Scheldt
Scheldt
are linked by three road tunnels (in order of construction): the Waasland Tunnel
Tunnel
(1934), the Kennedy Tunnel
Tunnel
(1967) and the Liefkenshoek Tunnel
Tunnel
(1991). Daily congestion on the Ring led to a fourth high-volume highway link called the "Oosterweelconnection" being proposed. It would have entailed the construction of a long viaduct and bridge (the Lange Wapper) over the docks on the north side of the city in combination with the widening of the existing motorway into a 14-lane motorway; these plans were eventually rejected in a 2009 public referendum.[citation needed] In September 2010 the Flemish Government
Flemish Government
decided to replace the bridge by a series of tunnels. There are ideas to cover the Ring in a similar way as happened around Paris, Hamburg, Madrid
Madrid
and other cities. This would reconnect the city with its suburbs and would provide development opportunities to accommodate part of the foreseen population growth in Antwerp
Antwerp
which currently are not possible because of the pollution and noise generated by the traffic on the Ring. An old plan to build an R2 outer ring road outside the built up urban area around the Antwerp
Antwerp
agglomeration for port related traffic and transit traffic never materialized.[citation needed] Rail[edit]

Antwerp
Antwerp
Central Station

Antwerp
Antwerp
is the focus of lines to the north to Essen and the Netherlands, east to Turnhout, south to Mechelen, Brussels
Brussels
and Charleroi, and southwest to Ghent
Ghent
and Ostend. It is served by international trains to Amsterdam
Amsterdam
and Paris, and national trains to Ghent, Bruges, Ostend, Brussels, Charleroi, Hasselt, Liège, Leuven and Turnhout. Antwerp
Antwerp
Central station is an architectural monument in itself, and is mentioned in W G Sebald's haunting novel Austerlitz. Prior to the completion in 2007 of a tunnel that runs northwards under the city centre to emerge at the old Antwerp
Antwerp
Dam station, Central was a terminus. Trains from Brussels
Brussels
to the Netherlands
Netherlands
had to either reverse at Central or call only at Berchem
Berchem
station, 2 kilometres (1 mile) to the south, and then describe a semicircle to the east, round the Singel. Now, they call at the new lower level of the station before continuing in the same direction. Antwerp
Antwerp
is also home to Antwerpen-Noord, the largest classification yard for freight in Belgium
Belgium
and second largest in Europe. The majority of freight trains in Belgium
Belgium
depart from or arrive here. It has two classification humps and over a hundred tracks. Public transportation[edit] The city has a web of tram and bus lines operated by De Lijn
De Lijn
and providing access to the city centre, suburbs and the Left Bank. The tram network has 12 lines, of which the underground section is called the "premetro" and includes a tunnel under the river. The Franklin Rooseveltplaats functions as the city's main hub for local and regional bus lines. Air[edit]

Antwerp
Antwerp
International Airport

A small airport, Antwerp
Antwerp
International Airport, is located in the district of Deurne, with passenger service to various European destinations. A bus service connects the airport to the city centre. The now defunct VLM Airlines
VLM Airlines
had its head office on the grounds of Antwerp
Antwerp
International Airport. This office is also CityJet's Antwerp office.[64][65] When VG Airlines (Delsey Airlines) existed, its head office was located in the district of Merksem.[66] Belgium's major international airport, Brussels
Brussels
Airport, is about 45 kilometres (28 miles) from the city of Antwerp, and connects the city worldwide. It is connected to the city centre by bus, and also by train. The new Diabolo rail connection provides a direct fast train connection between Antwerp
Antwerp
and Brussels
Brussels
Airport as of the summer of 2012. There is also a direct rail service between Antwerp
Antwerp
(calling at Central and Berchem
Berchem
stations) and Charleroi
Charleroi
South station, with a connecting buslink to Brussels
Brussels
South Charleroi
Charleroi
Airport, which runs twice every hour on working days. Politics[edit] City council[edit] The current city council was elected in the October 2012 elections. The next elections are scheduled for October 2018. The current majority consists of N-VA, CD&V and Open Vld, led by mayor Bart De Wever
Bart De Wever
(N-VA).

Party Seats

New Flemish Alliance
New Flemish Alliance
(N-VA) 23

Socialist Party Differently (sp.a) 12

Christian
Christian
Democratic and Flemish (CD&V) 5

Flemish Interest 5

Workers' Party of Belgium
Belgium
(PVDA) 4

Green 4

Open Flemish Liberals and Democrats (Open Vld) 2

Total 55

Former mayors[edit] Main article: List of mayors of Antwerp In the 16th and 17th century important mayors include Philips of Marnix, Lord of Saint-Aldegonde, Anthony van Stralen, Lord of Merksem and Nicolaas II Rockox. In the early years after Belgian independence, Antwerp
Antwerp
was governed by Catholic-Unionist mayors. Between 1848 and 1921, all mayors were from the Liberal Party (except for the so-called Meeting-intermezzo between 1863 and 1872). Between 1921 and 1932, the city had a Catholic mayor again: Frans Van Cauwelaert. From 1932 onwards (and up till 2013) all mayors belonged to the Social Democrat party: Camille Huysmans, Lode Craeybeckx, Frans Detiège and Mathilde Schroyens, and after the municipality fusion: Bob Cools, Leona Detiège en Patrick Janssens. Since 2013 the mayor is the Flemish nationalist Bart De Wever, belonging to the Flemish separatist party N-VA
N-VA
(New Flemish Alliance). Climate[edit]

Climate data for Antwerp
Antwerp
(1981–2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 6.2 (43.2) 7.0 (44.6) 10.8 (51.4) 14.4 (57.9) 18.4 (65.1) 20.9 (69.6) 23.2 (73.8) 23.1 (73.6) 19.7 (67.5) 15.3 (59.5) 10.1 (50.2) 6.6 (43.9) 14.7 (58.5)

Daily mean °C (°F) 3.4 (38.1) 3.7 (38.7) 6.8 (44.2) 9.6 (49.3) 13.6 (56.5) 16.2 (61.2) 18.5 (65.3) 18.2 (64.8) 15.1 (59.2) 11.3 (52.3) 7.0 (44.6) 4.0 (39.2) 10.6 (51.1)

Average low °C (°F) 0.7 (33.3) 0.5 (32.9) 2.8 (37) 4.8 (40.6) 8.8 (47.8) 11.7 (53.1) 13.8 (56.8) 13.2 (55.8) 10.6 (51.1) 7.4 (45.3) 4.1 (39.4) 1.5 (34.7) 6.7 (44.1)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 69.3 (2.728) 57.4 (2.26) 63.8 (2.512) 47.1 (1.854) 61.5 (2.421) 77.0 (3.031) 80.6 (3.173) 77.3 (3.043) 77.2 (3.039) 78.7 (3.098) 79.0 (3.11) 79.5 (3.13) 848.4 (33.402)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 12.3 10.6 12.0 9.2 10.6 10.4 10.2 9.9 10.3 11.4 12.9 12.8 132.7

Mean monthly sunshine hours 57 77 122 177 208 202 214 202 144 116 62 47 1,625

Source: Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium[67]

Culture[edit] Antwerp
Antwerp
had an artistic reputation in the 17th century, based on its school of painting, which included Rubens, Van Dyck, Jordaens, the two Teniers and many others.[19]

One of the many Marian statues which feature on Antwerp
Antwerp
street corners

Informally, most Antverpians (in Dutch Antwerpenaren, people from Antwerp) daily speak Antverpian (in Dutch Antwerps), a dialect that Dutch-speakers know as distinctive from other Brabantic dialects through its typical vowel pronunciations: approximating the vowel sound in 'bore' – for one of its long 'a'-sounds while other short 'a's are very sharp like the vowel sound in 'hat'. The Echt Antwaarps Teater ("Authentic Antverpian Theatre") brings the dialect on stage. Fashion[edit] Antwerp
Antwerp
is a rising fashion city, and has produced designers such as the Antwerp
Antwerp
Six. The city has a cult status in the fashion world, due to the Royal Academy of Fine Arts, one of the most important fashion academies in the world. It has served as the learning centre for many Belgian fashion designers. Since the 1980s, several graduates of the Belgian Royal Academy of Fine Arts have become internationally successful fashion designers in Antwerp. The city has had a huge influence on other Belgian fashion designers such as Raf Simons, Veronique Branquinho, Olivier Theyskens and Kris Van Assche.[68] Local products[edit] Antwerp
Antwerp
is famous for its local products. In August every year the Bollekesfeest takes place. The Bollekesfeest is a showcase for such local products as Bolleke, an amber beer from the De Koninck Brewery. The Mokatine sweets made by Confiserie Roodthooft, Elixir D'Anvers, a locally made liquor, locally roasted coffee from Koffie Verheyen, sugar from Candico, Poolster pickled herring and Equinox horse meat, are other examples of local specialities. One of the most known products of the city are its biscuits, the Antwerpse Handjes, literally " Antwerp
Antwerp
Hands". Usually made from a short pastry with almonds or milk chocolate, they symbolize the Antwerp
Antwerp
trademark and folklore. The local products are represented by a non-profit organization, Streekproducten Provincie Antwerpen vzw.[citation needed] Missions to seafarers[edit] A number of Christian
Christian
missions to seafarers are based in Antwerp, notably on the Italiëlei. These include the Mission to Seafarers, British & International Sailors' Society, the Finnish Seamen's Mission, the Norwegian Sjømannskirken and the Apostleship of the Sea. They provide cafeterias, cultural and social activities as well as religious services. Music[edit] Antwerp
Antwerp
is the home of the Antwerp
Antwerp
Jazz Club (AJC), founded in 1938 and located on the square Grote Markt since 1994.[69] Music festivals[edit] Cultuurmarkt van Vlaanderenis is a musical festival and a touristic attraction that takes place annually on the final Sunday of August in the city center of Antwerp. Where international and local musicians and actors, present their stage and street performances.[70][71][72] Linkerwoofer is a pop-rock music festival located at the left bank of the Scheldt. This music festival starts in August and mostly local Belgian musicians play and perform in this event.[73][74][75] Sport[edit]

Official poster of the 1920 Summer Olympics
1920 Summer Olympics
in Antwerp.

Antwerp
Antwerp
held the 1920 Summer Olympics, which were the first games after the First World War
First World War
and also the only ones to be held in Belgium. The road cycling events took place in the streets of the city.[76][77] Royal Antwerp
Antwerp
F.C., currently playing in the Belgian First Division, were founded in 1880 and is known as 'The Great Old' for being the first club registered to the Royal Belgian Football Association
Royal Belgian Football Association
in 1895.[78] Since 1998, the club has taken Manchester United
Manchester United
players on loan in an official partnership.[79] Another club in the city was Beerschot VAC, founded in 1899 by former Royal Antwerp
Antwerp
players. They played at the Olympisch Stadion, the main venue of the 1920 Olympics. Nowadays KFCO Beerschot Wilrijk
Wilrijk
plays at the Olympisch Stadion in the Belgian Second Division. The Antwerp Giants
Antwerp Giants
play in Basketball League Belgium
Belgium
and Topvolley Antwerpen play in the Belgium
Belgium
men's volleyball League. For the year 2013, Antwerp
Antwerp
was awarded the title of European Capital of Sport. Antwerp
Antwerp
hosted the 2013 World Artistic Gymnastics Championships. Antwerp
Antwerp
hosted the start of stage 3 of the 2015 Tour de France
2015 Tour de France
on 6 July 2015.[80] Higher education[edit]

Main building of the Middelheim campus at the University of Antwerp.

Antwerp
Antwerp
has a university and several colleges. The University of Antwerp
Antwerp
(Universiteit Antwerpen) was established in 2003, following the merger of the RUCA, UFSIA and UIA institutes. Their roots go back to 1852. The University has approximately 13,000 registered students, making it the third-largest university in Flanders, as well as 1,800 foreign students. It has 7 faculties, spread over four campus locations in the city centre and in the south of the city. The city has several colleges, including Charlemagne University College (Karel de Grote Hogeschool), Plantin University College (Plantijn Hogeschool), and Artesis University College (Artesis Hogeschool). Artesis University College has about 8,600 students and 1,600 staff, and Charlemagne University College has about 10,000 students and 1,300 staff. Plantin University College has approximately 3,700 students.

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Belgium Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

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The following places are twinned with or sister cities to Antwerp:

Fes, Morocco, 2000 Rotterdam, the Netherlands, 1940 Mulhouse, France, 1954 Saint Petersburg, Russia, 1958 Rostock, Germany,1963 Shanghai, China, 1984 Akhisar, Turkey, 1988[81] Haifa, Israel, 1995 Cape Town, South Africa, 1996 Ludwigshafen, Germany, 1998

Partnerships[edit]

Within the context of development cooperation, Antwerp
Antwerp
is also linked to

Paramaribo, Suriname Durban, South Africa

Notable people[edit] Main article: Notable people from Antwerp Born in Antwerp[edit]

Abraham Ortelius

Hendrik Conscience

Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, son of Edward III of England (1338–1368) Samuel Blommaert, Director of the Dutch West India
India
Company (1583–1654) Frans Floris, painter (1520–1570) Abraham Ortelius, cartographer and geographer (1527–98) Gillis van Coninxloo, painter of forest landscapes (1544–1607) Bartholomeus Spranger, painter, draughtsman, and etcher (1546–1611) Martín Antonio del Río, Jesuit
Jesuit
theologian (1551–1608) Matthijs Bril, landscape painter (1550–1583) Paul Bril, landscape painter (1554–1626) Willem Usselincx, Flemish merchant and investor, one of the founders of the Dutch West India Company
Dutch West India Company
(1567–1647) Abraham Janssens, painter (c. 1570 – 1632) Rodrigo Calderón, Count of Oliva, Spanish favourite and adventurer (died 1621) Frans Snyders, still life and animal painter (1579–1657) Osias Beert
Osias Beert
the Elder (1580–1623) Frans Hals, painter (1580–1666) Caspar de Crayer, painter (1582–1669) David Teniers the Elder, painter (1582–1649) Jacob Jordaens, painter (1593–1678) Anthony van Dyck, painter (1599–1641) Cornelis Melyn, Early American Settler, Patroon of Staten Island (1600-c. 1662) David Teniers the Younger, painter (1610–1690) Jan Fyt, animal painter (1611–1661) Jacob Leyssens, Baroque
Baroque
painter (1661–1710) Nicolaes Maes, Baroque
Baroque
painter (1634–1693) Hendrik Abbé, engraver, painter and architect (1639-?) Gerard
Gerard
Edelinck, copperplate engraver (1649–1707) Peter Tillemans, painter (c. 1684 – 1734) John Michael Rysbrack, sculptor (1694–1770) Francis Palms, Belgian-American landholder and businessman (1809-1886) Hendrik Conscience, writer and author of De Leeuw van Vlaanderen ("The Lion of Flanders") (1812–1883) Johann Coaz, Swiss forester, topographer and mountaineer (1822–1918) Jef Lambeaux, sculptor of the Brabo fountain in the Grote Markt (1852-1908) Georges Eekhoud, novelist (1854–1927) Hippolyte Delehaye, Jesuit
Jesuit
Priest and hagiographic scholar (1859–1941) Ferdinand Perier, Jesuit
Jesuit
Priest and 3rd Archbishop of Calcutta (1875–1968) Willem Elsschot, writer and poet (1882–1960) Constant Permeke, expressionist painter (1886–1952) Paul van Ostaijen, poet and writer (1896–1928) Alice Nahon, poet (1896–1933) Albert Lilar, Minister of Justice (1900–1976) Maurice Gilliams, writer (1900–1982) Michel Seuphor, painter, designer (1901–1999) André Cluytens, conductor (1905–1967) Daniel Sternefeld, composer and conductor (1905–1986) Maurice van Essche, Belgian-born South African painter (1906–1977) Antoinette Feuerwerker, French jurist and member of the Resistance (1912–2003) Jean Bingen, Belgian papyrologist and epigrapher (1920–2012) Karl Gotch, professional wrestler (1924–2007) Simon Kornblit, American advertising and film studio executive (1933–2010)[82] Bernard de Walque, architect (born 1938) Ferre Grignard, rock singer/songwriter, known for "Ring Ring, I've Got To Sing" (1939–1982) Paul Buysse, businessman (born 1945) Carl Verbraeken, composer (born 1950) Tom Barman, Belgian musician and film director (born 1972) Matthias Schoenaerts, actor (born 1977) Tia Hellebaut, Olympic high jump champion (born 1978) Evi Goffin, vocalist (born 1981) Jessica Van Der Steen, model (born 1984) Laetitia Beck, Israeli golfer (born 1992) Romelu Lukaku, professional footballer (born 1993)

Lived in Antwerp[edit]

Wenceslas Hollar.

Erasmus II Schetz, Lord of Grobbendonk Abraham Mayer, German-born physician (1848) Quentin Matsys, Renaissance
Renaissance
painter, founder of the Antwerp
Antwerp
school (1466–1530) Jan Mabuse, painter (c. 1478–1532) Joachim Patinir, landscape and religious painter (c. 1480–1524) John Rogers, Christian
Christian
minister, Bible translator and commentator, and martyr (c. 1500–1555) Joos van Cleve, painter (c. 1500–1540/41) Damião de Góis, Portuguese humanist philosopher (1502–1574) Sir Thomas Gresham, English merchant and financier (c. 1519–1579) Sir Anthony More, portrait painter (1520–c. 1577) Christoffel Plantijn, humanist, book printer and publisher (c. 1520–1589) Pieter Brueghel the Elder, painter and printmaker (1525–1569) Philip van Marnix, writer and statesman (1538–1598) Simon Stevin, mathematician and engineer (c. 1548/49–1620) Federigo Giambelli, Italian military and civil engineer (c. 1550–c. 1610) John Bull, English/Welsh composer, musician, and organ builder (c. 1562–1628) Jan Brueghel the Elder, also known as "Velvet" Brueghel, painter (1568–1625) Pieter Paul Rubens, painter (1577–1640) William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Newcastle, English soldier, politician, and writer (c. 1592 – 1676) Adriaen Brouwer, painter (1605–1638) Jan Davidszoon de Heem, painter (1606–1684) Wenceslas Hollar, Bohemian
Bohemian
etcher (1607–1677) Jan Lievens, painter (1607–1674) Ferdinand van Apshoven the Younger, painter (c. 1630–1694) Frédéric Théodore Faber, painter (1782–1799) Jan Frans Willems, writer (1793–1846) Henri Alexis Brialmont, military engineer (1821–1903) Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, painter (1836–1912) Vincent van Gogh, impressionist Dutch painter who lived in Antwerp
Antwerp
for about four months (1853–1890) Camille Huysmans, Socialist politician, former mayor of Antwerp
Antwerp
and former Prime Minister of Belgium
Belgium
(1871–1968) Moshe Yitzchok Gewirtzman, leader of the Hasidic Pshevorsk movement based in Antwerp
Antwerp
(1881–1976) Romi Goldmuntz, businessman (1882–1960) Gerard
Gerard
Walschap, writer (1898–1989) Albert Lilar, Minister of Justice (1900–1976) Suzanne Lilar, essayist, novelist, and playwright (1901–1992) Heaven Tanudiredja, designer, artist Eric de Kuyper, award-winning novelist, filmmaker, semiotician Philip Sessarego, former British Army soldier, conman, hoaxer, mercenary lived in Antwerp
Antwerp
and found dead in a garage (1952–2008) Jean Genet, French writer and political activist (1909–1986), lived in Antwerp
Antwerp
for short period in the 1930s George du Maurier, came to Antwerp
Antwerp
to study art and lost the sight in one eye; cartoonist, author and grandfather of Daphne du Maurier (1834–1896) Chaim Kreiswirth, Talmudist and Rabbi of the Machsike Hadas Community, Antwerp
Antwerp
(1918–2001) William Tyndale, Bible translator, arrested in Antwerp
Antwerp
1535 and burnt at Vilvoorde in 1536 (c. 1494–1536) Akiba Rubinstein, Polish grandmaster of chess (1882–1961). Veerle Casteleyn, performer Ray Cokes, English TV host Robert Barrett Browning, or "Pen", only child of Robert and Elizabeth Barrett Browning, studied painting in Antwerp Ford Madox Brown, leading Preraphaelite
Preraphaelite
painter. Studied art at Antwerp. August De Boodt, politician (1895–1986) Rockox family Bernoulli family, renowned family of mathematicians and physicists

Select neighbourhoods[edit]

Den Dam
Den Dam
– an area in northern Antwerp The diamond district – an area consisting of several square blocks, it is Antwerp's centre for the cutting, polishing, and trading of diamonds Linkeroever
Linkeroever
Antwerp
Antwerp
on the left bank of the Scheldt
Scheldt
with a lot of apartment buildings Meir – Antwerp's largest shopping street Van Wesenbekestraat
Van Wesenbekestraat
– the city's Chinatown Het Zuid – the south of Antwerp, notable for its museums and Expo grounds Zurenborg
Zurenborg
– an area between Central and Berchem
Berchem
station with a concentration of Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
townhouses

See also[edit]

Belgium
Belgium
portal

Antwerp
Antwerp
Book Fair Antwerp
Antwerp
lace Antwerp Water Works
Antwerp Water Works
(AWW) AMVC
AMVC
Archief en Museum voor het Vlaams Cultuurleven Jewish Community of Antwerp List of mayors of Antwerp Pshevorsk – Hassidic Jewish movement based in Antwerp Royal Antwerp
Antwerp
F.C., local football club

References[edit]

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World Diamond
Diamond
Centre". awdc.be. Archived from the original on 26 June 2015. Retrieved 2 August 2015.  ^ a b "WSJ: Indians Unseat Antwerp's Jews As the Biggest Diamond Traders". Stefangeens.com. 27 May 2003. Retrieved 15 September 2011.  ^ ""Your VLM contacts."". Archived from the original on 1 August 2003. Retrieved 2017-03-29. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) VLM Airlines. 1 August 2003. Retrieved on 6 July 2010. "Headquarters VLM Airlines
VLM Airlines
Belgium
Belgium
NV Luchthavengebouw B50 B 2100 Deurne Antwerpen." ^ "Our Offices Archived 14 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine.." CityJet. Retrieved on 6 July 2010. " Antwerp
Antwerp
office VLM Airlines Belgium
Belgium
NV Luchthavengebouw B50 B 2100 Antwerp
Antwerp
Belgium
Belgium
Company registration number 0446.670.251." ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 December 2002. Retrieved 2002-12-03. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) Delsey Airlines. 3 December 2002. Retrieved on 8 September 2010. ^ "Statistiques climatiques des communes belges: Antwerpen (ins 11002)" (PDF) (in French). Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 January 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2017.  ^ Martínez, "Selling Avant-garde: How Antwerp
Antwerp
Became a Fashion Capital (1990–2002)" (2007) ^ "Verenigingen gevestigd in "Den Bengel". ANTWERPSE JAZZCLUB". Cafe Den Bengel. 27 February 2016. Retrieved 12 September 2016.  ^ "Gratis klassiek festival in Antwerpen". De Morgen (in Dutch). Retrieved 2018-01-24.  ^ http://www.103.be, Firma 103 -. "cultuurmarkt van vlaanderen - nieuws". www.cultuurmarkt.be. Retrieved 2018-01-24.  ^ Geert Geerits (2017-12-11), Cultuurmarkt, Antwerpen 27 augustus 2017 (SDR), retrieved 2018-01-24  ^ "Linkerwoofer 2018". www.linkerwoofer.be. Retrieved 2018-01-25.  ^ "Linkerwoofer". www.visitantwerpen.be. Retrieved 2018-01-25.  ^ "stubru.be/agenda/linkerwoofer0". stubru.be (in Dutch). Retrieved 2018-01-25.  ^ "Cycling at the 1920 Antwerpen Summer Games: Men's Road Race, Individual Olympics at Sports-Reference.com". sports-reference.com. Retrieved 2 August 2015.  ^ Sports-reference.com 1920 Summer Olympics
1920 Summer Olympics
cycling team road race, team Olympics at Sports-Reference.com ^ "ROYAL ANTWERP FOOTBALL CLUB". Archived from the original on 3 July 2013. Retrieved 3 June 2017.  ^ Manchester United's Royal Antwerp
Antwerp
Loanees – Five Cantonas ^ "Tour de France
France
2015 : de l'eau, et du diamant" (in French). letour.fr. 24 May 2014. Retrieved 24 May 2014.  ^ " Akhisar
Akhisar
Belediyesi - ATİK - UEMP". www.uemp.eu.  ^ Grossblat, R.M. (15 July 2010). "Simon Korblit, a Profile Tribute". Atlanta
Atlanta
Jewish News. Retrieved 23 July 2010. 

Further reading[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Antwerp

Blanchard, Ian. The International Economy in the "Age of the Discoveries," 1470-1570: Antwerp
Antwerp
and the English Merchants' World (Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2009). 288 pp. in English Harreld, Donald J. "Trading Places," Journal of Urban History (2003) 29#6 pp 657-669 Limberger, Michael. Sixteenth-Century Antwerp
Antwerp
and its Rural Surroundings: Social and Economic Changes in the Hinterland of a Commercial Metropolis (ca. 1450-1570) (Turnhout: Brepols Publishers, 2008). 284 pp. ISBN 978-2-503-52725-3. Lindemann, Mary. The Merchant
Merchant
Republics: Amsterdam, Antwerp, and Hamburg, 1648-1790 (Cambridge University Press, 2014) 356 pp. Van der Wee, Herman. The Growth of the Antwerp
Antwerp
Market and the European Economy (14th–16th Centuries) (The Hague, 1963) Richard Stillwell, ed. Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites, 1976: " Antwerp
Antwerp
Belgium"

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Antwerp.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Antwerp.

Official website Tourism Antwerp

Places adjacent to Antwerp

Reimerswaal (NL-ZE) Woensdrecht
Woensdrecht
(NL-NB), Stabroek Kapellen

Beveren
Beveren
(VOV) Zwijndrecht

Antwerp

Brasschaat Schoten Wijnegem Wommelgem Borsbeek

Kruibeke
Kruibeke
(VOV) Hemiksem, Aartselaar, Edegem Mortsel

v t e

City of Antwerp

Buildings Culture Demographics Economy People Politics Sport

Education

University of Antwerp Lycée Français International d'Anvers Antwerp
Antwerp
International School

Geography

Districts

Antwerp Berchem Berendrecht-Zandvliet-Lillo Borgerhout Deurne Ekeren Hoboken Merksem Wilrijk

History

Jews Timeline

Transport

Antwerp
Antwerp
International Airport Antwerpen- Berchem
Berchem
railway station Antwerpen-Centraal railway station Antwerpen-Zuid railway station Port Trams

Category Commons Belgium
Belgium
Portal

v t e

Members of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
by Quarter

Chief cities shown in smallcaps. Free Imperial Cities of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
shown in italics.

Wendish

Lübeck

Anklam Demmin Greifswald Hamburg Kolberg (Kołobrzeg) Lüneburg Rostock Rügenwalde (Darłowo) Stettin (Szczecin) Stolp (Słupsk) Stockholm Stralsund Visby Wismar

Saxon

Brunswick Magdeburg

Berlin Bremen Erfurt Frankfurt an der Oder Goslar Mühlhausen Nordhausen

Baltic

Danzig (Gdańsk)

Breslau (Wrocław) Dorpat (Tartu) Elbing (Elbląg) Königsberg
Königsberg
(Kaliningrad) Cracow (Kraków) Reval (Tallinn) Riga
Riga
(Rīga) Thorn (Toruń)

Westphalian

Cologne
Cologne
1 Dortmund
Dortmund
1

Deventer Groningen Kampen Münster Osnabrück Soest

Kontore

Principal

Bryggen
Bryggen
(Bergen) Hanzekantoor

Bruges Antwerp2 

Steelyard
Steelyard
(London) Peterhof (Novgorod)

Subsidiary

Bishop's Lynn Falsterbo Ipswich Kaunas Malmö Polotsk Pskov

Other cities

Bristol Boston Damme Leith Herford Hull Newcastle Stargard Yarmouth York Zutphen Zwolle

1 Cologne
Cologne
and Dortmund
Dortmund
were both capital of the Westphalian Quarter at different times. 2 Antwerp
Antwerp
gained importance once Bruges
Bruges
became inaccessible due to the silting of the Zwin
Zwin
channel.

v t e

Burgundian Circle
Burgundian Circle
(1512–1797) of the Holy Roman Empire

Seventeen Provinces
Seventeen Provinces
of Habsburg Netherlands

Seceded 1581

Guelders
Guelders
(Veluwe Quarter, Nijmegen Quarter
Nijmegen Quarter
and Zutphen) Drenthe Friesland Groningen Holland Overijssel Utrecht Zeeland

Remained

Artois2 Brabant Flanders Guelders
Guelders
(Upper Quarter) Hainaut Limburg Luxemburg Mechelen Namur

County

Burgundy3

Imperial City

Besançon3

Dependent territories

Antwerp Breda1

1 until 1648;    2 until 1659;   3 until 1678. Circles est. 1500: Bavarian, Swabian, Upper Rhenish, Lower Rhenish–Westphalian, Franconian, (Lower) Saxon Circles est. 1512: Austrian, Burgundian, Upper Saxon, Electoral Rhenish     ·     Unencircled territories

v t e

Municipalities in the province of Antwerp, Flanders, Belgium

Antwerp

Aartselaar Antwerp Boechout Boom Borsbeek Brasschaat Brecht Edegem Essen Hemiksem Hove Kalmthout Kapellen Kontich Lint Malle Mortsel Niel Ranst Rumst Schelle Schilde Schoten Stabroek Wijnegem Wommelgem Wuustwezel Zandhoven Zoersel Zwijndrecht

Mechelen

Berlaar Bonheiden Bornem Duffel Heist-op-den-Berg Lier Mechelen Nijlen Putte Puurs Sint-Amands Sint-Katelijne-Waver Willebroek

Turnhout

Arendonk Baarle-Hertog Balen Beerse Dessel Geel Grobbendonk Herentals Herenthout Herselt Hoogstraten Hulshout Kasterlee Laakdal Lille Meerhout Merksplas Mol Olen Oud-Turnhout Ravels Retie Rijkevorsel Turnhout Vorselaar Vosselaar Westerlo

v t e

World Book Capitals

2001: Madrid 2002: Alexandria 2003: New Delhi 2004: Antwerp 2005: Montreal 2006: Turin 2007: Bogotá 2008: Amsterdam 2009: Beirut 2010: Ljubljana 2011: Buenos Aires 2012: Yerevan 2013: Bangkok 2014: Port Harcourt 2015: Incheon 2016: Wrocław 2017: Conakry 2018: Athens 2019: Sharjah

v t e

European Capitals of Culture

1985 Athens 1986 Florence 1987 Amsterdam 1988 West Berlin 1989 Paris 1990 Glasgow 1991 Dublin 1992 Madrid 1993 Antwerp 1994 Lisbon 1995 Luxembourg City 1996 Copenhagen 1997 Thessaloniki 1998 Stockholm 1999 Weimar 2000 Reykjavík Bergen Helsinki Brussels Prague Kraków Santiago de Compostela Avignon Bologna 2001 Rotterdam Porto 2002 Bruges Salamanca 2003 Graz Plovdiv 2004 Genoa Lille 2005 Cork 2006 Patras 2007 Luxembourg City
Luxembourg City
and Greater Region Sibiu 2008 Liverpool Stavanger 2009 Linz Vilnius 2010 Ruhr Istanbul Pécs 2011 Turku Tallinn 2012 Maribor Guimarães 2013 Košice Marseille 2014 Umeå Riga 2015 Mons Plzeň 2016 San Sebastián Wrocław 2017 Aarhus Paphos 2018 Valletta Leeuwarden 2019 Plovdiv Matera 2020 Rijeka Galway 2021 Timișoara Elefsina Novi Sad 2022 Kaunas Esch-sur-Alzette

v t e

European Capitals of Sport

2001 Madrid 2002 Stockholm 2003 Glasgow 2004 Alicante 2005 Rotterdam 2006 Copenhagen 2007 Stuttgart 2008 Warsaw 2009 Milan 2010 Dublin 2011 Valencia 2012 Istanbul 2013 Antwerp 2014 Cardiff 2015 Turin 2016 Prague 2017 Marseille 2018 Sofia 2019 Budapest 2020 Málaga 2021 Lisboa 2022 The Hague

v t e

European Youth Capitals

2009 Rotterdam 2010 Turin 2011 Antwerp 2012 Braga 2013 Maribor 2014 Thessaloniki 2015 Cluj-Napoca 2016 Ganja 2017 Varna 2018 Cascais 2019 Novi Sad 2020 Amiens

v t e

Summer Olympic Games
Summer Olympic Games
host cities

1896: Athens 1900: Paris 1904: St. Louis 1908: London 1912: Stockholm 1916: None[c1] 1920: Antwerp 1924: Paris 1928: Amsterdam 1932: Los Angeles 1936: Berlin 1940: None[c2] 1944: None[c2] 1948: London 1952: Helsinki 1956: Melbourne 1960: Rome 1964: Tokyo 1968: Mexico
Mexico
City 1972: Munich 1976: Montreal 1980: Moscow 1984: Los Angeles 1988: Seoul 1992: Barcelona 1996: Atlanta 2000: Sydney 2004: Athens 2008: Beijing 2012: London 2016: Rio de Janeiro 2020: Tokyo 2024: Paris 2028: Los Angeles

[c1] Cancelled due to World War I; [c2] Cancelled due to World War II

v t e

Venues of the 1920 Summer Olympics

Antwerp Antwerp
Antwerp
Zoo Beerschot Tennis Club Beverloo Camp Brussels– Scheldt
Scheldt
Maritime Canal Buiten Y (Amsterdam) Gardens of the Egmont Palace
Egmont Palace
(Brussels) Hoogboom Military Camp Jules Ottenstadion
Jules Ottenstadion
(Ghent) Nachtegalen Park Olympisch Stadion Ostend Palais de Glace d'Anvers Stade Joseph Marien
Stade Joseph Marien
(Brussels) Stade Nautique d'Antwerp Stadion Broodstraat Vélodrome d'Anvers Zuremborg

v t e

Olympic venues in cycling

1896 Marathon (city), Neo Phaliron Velodrome 1900 Vélodrome de Vincennes 1904 Francis Field 1908 White City Stadium 1912 Liljeholmen, Mälaren 1920 Antwerp, Vélodrome d'Anvers Zuremborg 1924 Stade de Colombes, Vélodrome de Vincennes 1928 Amsterdam, Olympic Stadium 1932 Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Avenue, Pacific Coast Highway, Rose Bowl in Pasadena, Vineyard Avenue 1936 Avus Motor Road, BSV 92 Field & Stadium 1948 Herne Hill Velodrome, Windsor Great Park 1952 Käpylä, Maunula, Pakila, Velodrome 1956 Broadmeadows, Velodrome 1960 Olympic Velodrome, Via Cassia, Via Flaminia, Via Cristoforo Colombo, Via di Grottarossa 1964 Hachioji City, Hachioji Velodrome 1968 Agustín Melgar Olympic Velodrome, Satellite Circuit 1972 Bundesautobahn 96, Grünwald, Radstadion 1976 Mount Royal
Mount Royal
Park, Olympic Velodrome, Quebec Autoroute 40 1980 Krylatskoye Sports Complex Cycling Circuit, Krylatskoye Sports Complex Velodrome, Moscow-Minsk Highway 1984 Artesia Freeway, Olympic Velodrome, Streets of Mission Viejo 1988 Olympic Velodrome, Tongillo Road Course 1992 A-17 highway, Circuit de Barcelona-Catalunya, Sant Sadurní Cycling Circuit, Velòdrom d'Horta 1996 Cycling road course, Georgia International Horse Park, Stone Mountain Park Archery Center and Velodrome 2000 Centennial Parklands, Dunc Gray Velodrome, Western Sydney
Sydney
Parklands 2004 Athens
Athens
Olympic Velodrome, Kotzia Square, Parnitha Olympic Mountain Bike Venue, Vouliagmeni Olympic Centre 2008 Laoshan Bicycle Moto Cross (BMX) Venue, Laoshan Mountain Bike Course, Laoshan Velodrome, Urban Road Cycling Course 2012 BMX Circuit, Hadleigh Farm, London
London
Velodrome, Hampton Court
Court
Palace 2016 Fort Copacabana, Mountain Bike Centre, Olympic BMX Centre, Pontal, Rio Olympic Velodrome 2020 Izu Velodrome, Fuji Speedway, Olympic BMX Course 2024 Vélodrome de Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Champs-Élysées, Élancourt Hill 2028 VELO Sports Center, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Convention Center, Grand Park, Downtown Long Beach, Frank G. Bonelli Regional Park

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 154177642 LCCN: n79018141 ISNI: 0000 0004 0608 4399 GND: 4002364-3 SELIBR: 139595 SUDOC: 026359251 BNF:

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