Antonio de Mendoza y Pacheco
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Antonio de Mendoza y Pacheco (, ; 1495 – July 21, 1552) was the first
Viceroy of New Spain The following is a list of Viceroys of New Spain. In addition to viceroys, the following lists the highest Spanish governors of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, before the appointment of the first viceroy or when the office of viceroy was vacant. Mos ...
, serving from November 14, 1535 to November 25, 1550, and the third
Viceroy of Peru The following is a list of Viceroys of Peru. The viceroys of Peru ruled the Viceroyalty of Peru The Viceroyalty of Peru ( es, Virreinato del Perú, links=no) was a Spanish imperial provincial administrative district, created in 1542, that or ...
, from September 23, 1551, until his death on July 21, 1552. Mendoza was born at
Alcalá la Real
Alcalá la Real
( Jaén,
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
), the son of the 2nd Count of Tendilla, Íñigo López de Mendoza y Quiñones, and Francisca Pacheco. He was married to María Ana de Trujillo de Mendoza.


Viceroy of New Spain

Mendoza became
Viceroy of New Spain The following is a list of Viceroys of New Spain. In addition to viceroys, the following lists the highest Spanish governors of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, before the appointment of the first viceroy or when the office of viceroy was vacant. Mos ...
in 1535 and governed for 15 years, longer than any subsequent viceroy. On his arrival in New Spain, he found a recently conquered territory beset with Indian unrest and rivalry among the Spanish conquerors and Spanish settlers. His difficult assignment was to govern in the king's name without making an enemy of
Hernán Cortés Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro Altamirano, 1st Marquess of the Valley of Oaxaca (; ; 1485 – December 2, 1547) was a Spanish ''Conquistador'' who led an expedition that caused the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, fall of the Aztec ...

Hernán Cortés
. Cortés himself had expected to be made the permanent ruling crown official of New Spain, since he had led the
Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, also known as the Conquest of Mexico or the Spanish-Aztec War (1519–21), was one of the primary events in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. There are multiple 16th-century narratives of the even ...
. The Emperor
Charles VCharles V may refer to: * Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, german: Karl V, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and offici ...

Charles V
(King Charles I of Spain) and the
Council of the Indies The Council of the Indies; officially, the Royal and Supreme Council of the Indies ( es, Real y Supremo Consejo de las Indias, ), was the most important administrative organ of the Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, Imperio Español; la, I ...
judged Cortés too independent of crown authority to be made viceroy and had created a high court (''audiencia'') in New Spain in 1528, appointing
Nuño de Guzmán Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán (c. 14901558) was a Spanish conquistador and colonial administrator in New Spain. He was the governor of the province of Pánuco (province), Pánuco from 1525 to 1533 and of Nueva Galicia from 1529 to 1534, President of t ...
, a rival of Cortés as its president to counter Cortés's power. In 1530 the crown granted Cortés the title of the Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca with multiple
encomienda The ''encomienda'' () was a Spanish labor system that rewarded conquerors with the labor of particular groups of conquered non-Christian people. The laborers, in theory, were provided with benefits by the conquerors for whom they labored, the C ...
s. With the arrival of Viceroy Mendoza in 1535, Cortés pursued his own economic interests from his palace in Cuernavaca. Although the Spanish had occupied and expanded explorations, conquest, and settlement in the Caribbean, it was not until the conquest of central Mexico that the crown appointed a viceroy (vice king), who would be the king's living image in Mexico and envisioned to effectively assert royal authority in the Kingdom of New Spain. To further cement his authority and establish a solid society he established marital alliances with powerful settlers committed to the development of New Spain, such as Marina de la Caballería. Mendoza's status as a noble and his family's loyalty to the Spanish crown made him a suitable candidate for appointment. Don Antonio and Bishop
Juan de Zumárraga ''Juan'' is a given name, the Spanish language, Spanish and Manx language, Manx versions of ''John (given name), John''. It is very common in Spain and in other Spanish-speaking communities around the world and in the Philippines, and also (pronounc ...
were key in the formation of two institutions of
Mexico Mexico ( es, México ; Nahuan languages: ), officially the United Mexican States (; EUM ), is a List of sovereign states, country in the southern portion of North America. It is borders of Mexico, bordered to the north by the United States; ...

Mexico
: the Colegio de Santa Cruz at Tlatelolco (1536), where the sons of
Aztec The Aztecs () were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521. The Aztec peoples included different Indigenous peoples of Mexico, ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those g ...

Aztec
nobles studied
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant la ...

Latin
,
rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of persuasion, which along with grammar and logic (or dialectic – see Martianus Capella), is one of the Trivium, three ancient arts of discourse. Rhetoric aims to study the techniques writers or sp ...
,
philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physical reality Reality is the sum or aggregate of all that is real or existen ...

philosophy
and
music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societies. General include common elements such as (which governs and ), (and its associated concepts , , and ...

music
, and the
Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico The Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico (in es, Real y Pontificia Universidad de México) was founded on 21 September 1551 by Royal Decree signed by Charles I of Spain, in Valladolid Valladolid (, ) is a city in Spain and the primary sea ...
(1552), modeled on the
University of Salamanca The University of Salamanca ( es, Universidad de Salamanca) is a Spanish higher education Higher education is tertiary education leading to award of an academic degree. Higher education, also called post-secondary education, third-level ...

University of Salamanca
, which trained young men for the Catholic Church. These institutions were the first and second universities respectively to be established in the mainland of the
Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North North is one of the four compass points or cardinal directions. It is the opposite of south and is perpendicular to East and West. ''North'' ...

Americas
. In 1536 he began the minting of silver and copper coins, known as ''macuquinas''. Also under his instructions, the first
printing press A printing press is a mechanical device for applying pressure to an ink Ink is a gel, sol, or solution Image:SaltInWaterSolutionLiquid.jpg, Making a saline water solution by dissolving Salt, table salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) in water ...
in the New World was brought to Mexico in 1539, by printer Juan Pablos (Giovanni Paoli). The first book printed in Mexico: ''
La Escala Espiritual de San Juan Clímaco
La Escala Espiritual de San Juan Clímaco
''. On May 18, 1541 don Antonio founded the city of Valladolid (now
Morelia Morelia (; from 1545 to 1828 known as Valladolid) is a city and Municipal seat, municipal seat of the municipalities of Mexico, municipality of Morelia in the north-central part of the state of Michoacán in central Mexico. The city is in the Guaya ...

Morelia
,
Michoacán Michoacán, formally Michoacán de Ocampo (; Purépecha The Purepecha or Tarascans (endonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name'; also known as autonym) is a common, internal name A name is a term used for identification by an exte ...
). When the Spanish crown issued the
New Laws The New Laws ( Spanish: ''Leyes Nuevas''), also known as the New Laws of the Indies for the Good Treatment and Preservation of the Indians ( Spanish: ''Leyes y ordenanzas nuevamente hechas por su Majestad para la gobernación de las Indias y buen ...
that put restrictions on the grants of elite conquerors awarded grants of labor ''
encomenderos The ''encomienda'' () was a Spanish labor system that rewarded conquerors with the labor of particular groups of conquered non-Christian people. The laborers, in theory, were provided with benefits by the conquerors for whom they labored, the C ...
'', the viceroy prudently refrained from implementing the most draconian aspects of the edicts, which no longer permitted an ''encomendero'' family holding the grant in perpetuity. In Peru, the implementation of the New Laws resulted in outright rebellion and the assassination of the viceroy. In reaction to the crisis caused by the New Laws, Mendoza introduced the policy of '' obedezco pero no cumplo'' ("I obey but do not comply"), which means "I respect the authority of the crown, but in my judgment I do not implement particular legislation." He tried to not implement the New Laws, and therefore stabilized the region. In 1542 an Insurgency, insurrection of the Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indians, called the Mixtón Rebellion threatened to push the Spaniards out of northwestern Mexico, bringing the area under indigenous control. The Viceroy himself had to take the field and bring all disposable manpower. The rebellion was quashed and the surviving Indians were harshly punished. By the viceroy's order men, women and children were seized and executed, some by cannon fire, some torn apart by dogs, and others stabbed. In 1548 he suppressed an uprising of the Zapotec peoples, Zapotecs. As viceroy, Mendoza commissioned the expedition of Francisco Vásquez de Coronado to explore and establish settlements in the northern lands of New Spain in 1540-42, the expedition of Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo to explore the western coastline of Alta California in 1542-43, and the expedition of Ruy López de Villalobos to the Philippines in 1542-43. The Codex Mendoza created by the order of Mendoza, and subsequently named for him. During his term of office, Mendoza is credited with consolidating the sovereignty of the Crown throughout the Spanish conquests in New Spain and limiting the power and ambition of the first conquistadors. Many of the political and economic policies he established endured throughout the entire colonial period. He promoted the construction of hospitals and schools and encouraged improvements in agriculture, ranching and mining. His administration did much to bring stability and peace to New Spain. He died in Lima. He was succeeded as viceroy of New Spain by Don Luís de Velasco. It is reported that his advice to his successor was: "Do little and do that slowly."


Viceroy of Peru

On July 4, 1549 in Brussels, Emperor Charles V named Mendoza viceroy of Peru. He traveled overland from Mexico to Panama, and then by boat to Peru. He arrived and took up his new office on November 25, 1550. However, he soon became ill, and died in 1552. His tomb is in the Cathedral of Lima, along with that of the Spanish conqueror of Peru, Francisco Pizarro. Cape Mendocino in Humboldt County, California was named in his honor in 1565. From the cape, Mendocino County, California, Mendocino County, the town of Mendocino, California, Mendocino, and Mendocino National Forest were named in the 19th and 20th centuries.


Notes


References

* "Mendoza, Antonio de," ''Enciclopedia de México'', v. 9. Mexico City, 1988. * "Mendoza, Antonio de," ''Encyclopædia Britannica'', v. 6. Chicago, 1983. * García Puron, Manuel, ''México y sus gobernantes'', v. 1. Mexico City: Joaquín Porrua, 1984. * Orozco Linares, Fernando, ''Gobernantes de México''. Mexico City: Panorama Editorial, 1985, .


External links

*
"The First and the best: Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza"
{{DEFAULTSORT:Mendoza, Antonio De Viceroys of New Spain Viceroys of Peru 1495 births 1552 deaths Ambassadors of Spain Colonial Mexico Colonial Peru Encomenderos People from Alcalá la Real 1530s in New Spain 1540s in New Spain 1550s in New Spain 1550s in the Viceroyalty of Peru 16th-century Mexican people 16th-century Peruvian people 16th-century Spanish people