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Antoine César Becquerel
Antoine César Becquerel
(7 March 1788 – 18 January 1878) was a French scientist and a pioneer in the study of electric and luminescent phenomena.

Contents

1 Life 2 See also 3 Notes 4 References

Life[edit] He was born at Châtillon-sur-Loing (today Châtillon-Coligny). After passing through the École polytechnique
École polytechnique
he became engineer-officer in 1808, and saw active service with the imperial troops in Spain from 1810 to 1812, and again in France in 1814. He then resigned from the army and devoted the rest of his life to scientific investigation.[1] In 1820, following the work of René Just Haüy, he found that pressure can induce electricity in every material, attributing the effect to surface interactions (this is not piezoelectricity). In 1825 he invented a differential galvanometer for the accurate measurement of electrical resistance. In 1829 he invented a constant-current electrochemical cell, the forerunner of the Daniell cell. In 1839, working with his son A. E. Becquerel, he discovered the photovoltaic effect on an electrode immersed in a conductive liquid.[citation needed] His earliest work was mineralogical in character, but he soon turned his attention to the study of electricity and especially of electrochemistry. In 1837 he became a Fellow of the Royal Society, and received its Copley Medal for his various memoirs on electricity, and particularly for those on the production of metallic sulphurets and sulphur by electrolysis. He was the first to prepare metallic elements from their ores by this method. It was hoped that this would lead to increased knowledge of the recomposition of crystallized bodies, and the processes which may have been employed by nature in the production of such bodies in the mineral kingdom.[1] In biochemistry he worked at the problems of animal heat and at the phenomena accompanying the growth of plants, and he also devoted much time to meteorological questions and observations. He was a prolific writer, his books including Traité de l'électricité et du magnétisme (1834–1840), Traité de physique dans ses rapports avec la chimie (1842), Elements de électro-chimie (1843), Traité complet du magnétisme (1845), Elements de physique terrestre et de meteorologié (1847), and Des climats et de l'influence qu'exercent les sols boisés et non boisés (1853). He died in Paris, where from 1837 he had been professor of physics at the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle.[1] He became a correspondent of the Royal Institute in 1836, when that became the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences
Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences
in 1851, he became a foreign member.[2] He was the father of the physicist A. E. Becquerel
A. E. Becquerel
and grandfather of the physicist Henri Becquerel. His name is one of the 72 names inscribed on the Eiffel Tower. See also[edit]

List of works by Eugène Guillaume A. E. Becquerel
A. E. Becquerel
(his son) Henri Becquerel, (his grandson) Jean Becquerel (his great-grandson)

Notes[edit]

^ a b c Chisholm 1911. ^ " Antoine César Becquerel
Antoine César Becquerel
(1788 - 1878)". Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 29 January 2016. 

References[edit]

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Becquerel". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 611.  Royal Society
Royal Society
(brief biographical details) Catholic Encyclopedia article

v t e

Copley Medallists (1801–1850)

Astley Cooper
Astley Cooper
(1801) William Hyde Wollaston
William Hyde Wollaston
(1802) Richard Chenevix (1803) Smithson Tennant
Smithson Tennant
(1804) Humphry Davy
Humphry Davy
(1805) Thomas Andrew Knight
Thomas Andrew Knight
(1806) Everard Home
Everard Home
(1807) William Henry (1808) Edward Troughton
Edward Troughton
(1809) Benjamin Collins Brodie (1811) William Thomas Brande
William Thomas Brande
(1813) James Ivory (1814) David Brewster
David Brewster
(1815) Henry Kater
Henry Kater
(1817) Robert Seppings
Robert Seppings
(1818) Hans Christian Ørsted
Hans Christian Ørsted
(1820) Edward Sabine
Edward Sabine
/ John Herschel
John Herschel
(1821) William Buckland
William Buckland
(1822) John Pond (1823) John Brinkley (1824) François Arago
François Arago
/ Peter Barlow (1825) James South (1826) William Prout
William Prout
/ Henry Foster (1827) George Biddell Airy
George Biddell Airy
(1831) Michael Faraday
Michael Faraday
/ Siméon Denis Poisson
Siméon Denis Poisson
(1832) Giovanni Antonio Amedeo Plana
Giovanni Antonio Amedeo Plana
(1834) William Snow Harris
William Snow Harris
(1835) Jöns Jacob Berzelius
Jöns Jacob Berzelius
/ Francis Kiernan (1836) Antoine César Becquerel
Antoine César Becquerel
/ John Frederic Daniell
John Frederic Daniell
(1837) Carl Friedrich Gauss
Carl Friedrich Gauss
/ Michael Faraday
Michael Faraday
(1838) Robert Brown (1839) Justus von Liebig
Justus von Liebig
/ Jacques Charles François Sturm
Jacques Charles François Sturm
(1840) Georg Ohm
Georg Ohm
(1841) James MacCullagh
James MacCullagh
(1842) Jean-Baptiste Dumas
Jean-Baptiste Dumas
(1843) Carlo Matteucci (1844) Theodor Schwann
Theodor Schwann
(1845) Urbain Le Verrier
Urbain Le Verrier
(1846) John Herschel
John Herschel
(1847) John Couch Adams
John Couch Adams
(1848) Roderick Murchison
Roderick Murchison
(1849) Peter Andreas Hansen
Peter Andreas Hansen
(1850)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 37003689 LCCN: n86803032 ISNI: 0000 0001 1055 1031 GND: 116106875 SUDOC: 033136653 BNF: cb15289783g (data) NLA: 35859098 Léonore: LH/161/76 BNE: XX1511

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