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Bar (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Бар, pronounced [bâr]; Albanian: Tivar or Tivari; Italian: Antivari, or Antibari) is a coastal town and seaport in southern Montenegro. It is the capital of the Bar Municipality and a center for tourism. According to the 2011 census, the city proper had 17,649 inhabitants, while the total population of Bar Municipality was 42,068.

Etymology

Bar is a shortened form of Antivari, which is derived from the town's location across the Adriatic Sea from Bari, Italy.[1] Variations are in Italian, Antivari / Antibari; in Turkish, Bar; in Albanian, Tivari or Tivar; in Greek, Θηβάριον, Thivárion, Αντιβάριον, Antivárion; in Latin, Antibarium.

History

Ancient times

Local archaeological findings date to the Neolithic era. It is assumed that Bar was mentioned as the reconstructed Roman castle, Antipargal, in the 6th century. The name Antibarium was quoted for the first time in the 10th century.[citation needed]

Middle Ages

In the 6th and 7th centuries, Slavs occupied the Balkans. Duklja, a Slavic, or Serbian state, was mentioned in the 10th century. Jovan Vladimir (ruler 1000–1016), of Skadarska Krajina is the first ruler of Duklja whose history is known. Stefan Vojislav (ruler 1018–1043), the eponymous founder of the Vojislavljević dynasty, defeated the Byzantines in a battle on a hill near Bar. He made Bar his seat of power. Vojislav then expanded the area under his rule. Mihailo I of Duklja (ruler 1050–1081), Vojislav's son, established the Archdiocese of Antivari. He continued to fight the Byzantines in order to secure the town's independence. This led to a union of states known as the Serbian Grand Principality. From 1101 to 1166, the principality was ruled by the Vukanović dynasty. However, for much of this time, Bar was under Byzantine rule. In 1183, Stefan Nemanja conquered and destroyed Bar which remained under Serbian control until the death of Dušan (1355).[2]

Venetian and Ottoman period

Bar in 1863

From 1443 to 1571, the region was ruled by the Venice who called it Antivari, and it was part of the Albania Veneta. It was a town with its own coat of arms, flag, statute and mint. In 1571, the Ottomans captured Antivari and held the town until 1878. The archdiocese was preserved. With Ottoman conquest Catholic Church in border area and Archdiocese of Bar began to collapse because indigenous peoples begin migrate and Ottomans to that area brought new ethnic and religious element. Because of a lack of Catholic priests, entire parishes were converted to Orthodoxy. [3] One of the archbishops during this period was Andrija Zmajević. The Ottomans ceded Antivari to Montenegro at the Treaty of Berlin. Montenegro renamed the town Bar, although virtually everyone else, including their powerful neighbours, Italy and Austria-Hungary, continued to name it Antivari.

Developments

Guglielmo Marconi, the Italian scientist and pioneer in wireless telegraphy, using Nikola Tesla's patented technology, made a radio connection between Antivari and Bari on 30 August 1904. In 1908, the first railroad in this part of the Balkans was put into operation there.

Wars

On 8 August 1914 Austria-Hungary responded to Montenegro's declaration of war by sending their protected cruisers SMS Zenta and SMS Szigetvár accompanied by the destroyer SMS Uskoke and torpedo boat 72F to conduct an unopposed bombardment of the port of Antivari, targeting its wireless station and harbour facilities. They were driven away by coastal batteries and destroyed only a wireless station. The Austrians declared a formal bockade of the Montenegrin coastline on August 10. On August 16, SMS Zenta and an accompanying destroyer were ambushed and trapped off Antivari by a very large French fleet (over twelve battleships), and in the subsequent battle of Antivari the Zenta was sunk with considerable loss of life. The destroyer escaped. On the 18 September following, the Austro-Hungarian coastal battleship SMS Budapest with supporting warships bombarded Antivari, the port and facilities, causing major damage, and on October 17–18 the destroyers SMS Scharfschutze, SMS Streiter and SMS Ulan bombarded Antivari's harbour. On November 18 the destroyer SMS Uskoke also conducted a brief bombardment. The Austrians made their largest raid to date on the evening and night of 1–2 March 1915 when their destroyers SMS Csikós, SMS Streiter, and SMS Ulan covered a raid by three torpedo-boats into Antivari harbour. The latter destroyed the main wharf and stocks of food and ammunitions along the waterfront, and captured the Montenegrin royal yacht Rumija, which was later torpedoed. The destruction of the wharves prevented larger ships from unloading supplies at the port restricting Allied shipments of food and munitions to the Montenegrin army. The Allies realised that with the Austro-Hungarian naval base of Cattaro close by there was little they could do.[4]

In World War II, on 13 July 1941, an uprising against the Italian occupying forces in Bar took place. In 1945, about 2,000 Albanians were killed in Bar by Yugoslav Communist Partisans; all of these Albanians were men, causing their families to flee to Albania, causing the large Albanian community of Bar to disappear. Bar was largely destroyed in World War II and rebuilt into a modern city.

Earthquake

In 1979, there was an earthquake that devastated Bar. It has since been rebuilt.[5]

Geography

View of Bar from Vrsuta mountain

Location

Bar is located on the coastal western border of Montenegro on the shore of the Adriatic Sea. It is approximately 53 kilometres (33 mi) from Podgorica, the capital of Montenegro.To the east is the largest lake in the Balkans, Lake Skadar. To the west, across the sea, is Italy.[6]

ClimateBar is a shortened form of Antivari, which is derived from the town's location across the Adriatic Sea from Bari, Italy.[1] Variations are in Italian, Antivari / Antibari; in Turkish, Bar; in Albanian, Tivari or Tivar; in Greek, Θηβάριον, Thivárion, Αντιβάριον, Antivárion; in Latin, Antibarium.

History

Ancient times

Local archaeological findings date to the Neolithic era. It is assumed that Bar was mentioned as the reconstructed Roman castle, Antipargal, in the 6th century. The name Antibarium was quoted for the first time in the 10th century.[citation needed]

Middle Ages

In the 6th and 7th centuries, Slavs occupied the Balkans. Duklja, a Slavic, or Serbian state, was mentioned in the 10th century. Jovan Vladimir (ruler 1000–1016), of Skadarska Krajina is the first ruler of Duklja whose history is known. Stefan Vojislav (ruler 1018–1043), the eponymous founder of the Vojislavljević dynasty, defeated the Byzantines in a battle on a hill near Bar. He made Bar his seat of power. Vojislav then expanded the area under his rule. Mihailo I of Duklja (ruler 1050–1081), Vojislav's son, established the Archdiocese of Antivari. He continued to fight the Byzantines in order to secure the town's independence. This led to a union of states known as the Serbian Grand Principality. From 1101 to 1166, the principality was ruled by the Vukanović dynasty. However, for much of this time, Bar was under Byzantine rule. In 1183, Stefan Nemanja conquered and destroyed Bar which remained under Serbian control until the death of Dušan (1355).[2]

Venetian and Ottoman period

Bar in 1863

From 1443 to 1571, the region was ruled by the Venice who called it Antivari, and it was part of the Albania Veneta. It was a town with its own coat of arms, flag, statute and mint. In 1571, the Ottomans captured Antivari and held the town until 1878. The archdiocese was preserved. With Ottoman conquest Catholic Church in border area and Archdiocese of Bar began to collapse because indigenous peoples begin migrate and Ottomans to that area brought new ethnic and religious eleme

Local archaeological findings date to the Neolithic era. It is assumed that Bar was mentioned as the reconstructed Roman castle, Antipargal, in the 6th century. The name Antibarium was quoted for the first time in the 10th century.[citation needed]

Middle Ages

In the 6th and 7th centuries, Slavs occupied the Balkans. Duklja, a Slavic, or Serbian state, was mentioned in the 10th century. Slavs occupied the Balkans. Duklja, a Slavic, or Serbian state, was mentioned in the 10th century. Jovan Vladimir (ruler 1000–1016), of Skadarska Krajina is the first ruler of Duklja whose history is known. Stefan Vojislav (ruler 1018–1043), the eponymous founder of the Vojislavljević dynasty, defeated the Byzantines in a battle on a hill near Bar. He made Bar his seat of power. Vojislav then expanded the area under his rule. Mihailo I of Duklja (ruler 1050–1081), Vojislav's son, established the Archdiocese of Antivari. He continued to fight the Byzantines in order to secure the town's independence. This led to a union of states known as the Serbian Grand Principality. From 1101 to 1166, the principality was ruled by the Vukanović dynasty. However, for much of this time, Bar was under Byzantine rule. In 1183, Stefan Nemanja conquered and destroyed Bar which remained under Serbian control until the death of Dušan (1355).[2]

Venetian and Ottoman period

Guglielmo Marconi, the Italian scientist and pioneer in wireless telegraphy, using Nikola Tesla's patented technology, made a radio connection between Antivari and Bari on 30 August 1904. In 1908, the first railroad in this part of the Balkans was put into operation there.

Wars

On 8 August 1914 Aust

On 8 August 1914 Austria-Hungary responded to Montenegro's declaration of war by sending their protected cruisers SMS Zenta and SMS Szigetvár accompanied by the destroyer SMS Uskoke and torpedo boat 72F to conduct an unopposed bombardment of the port of Antivari, targeting its wireless station and harbour facilities. They were driven away by coastal batteries and destroyed only a wireless station. The Austrians declared a formal bockade of the Montenegrin coastline on August 10. On August 16, SMS Zenta and an accompanying destroyer were ambushed and trapped off Antivari by a very large French fleet (over twelve battleships), and in the subsequent battle of Antivari the Zenta was sunk with considerable loss of life. The destroyer escaped. On the 18 September following, the Austro-Hungarian coastal battleship SMS Budapest with supporting warships bombarded Antivari, the port and facilities, causing major damage, and on October 17–18 the destroyers SMS Scharfschutze, SMS Streiter and SMS Ulan bombarded Antivari's harbour. On November 18 the destroyer SMS Uskoke also conducted a brief bombardment. The Austrians made their largest raid to date on the evening and night of 1–2 March 1915 when their destroyers SMS Csikós, SMS Streiter, and SMS Ulan covered a raid by three torpedo-boats into Antivari harbour. The latter destroyed the main wharf and stocks of food and ammunitions along the waterfront, and captured the Montenegrin royal yacht Rumija, which was later torpedoed. The destruction of the wharves prevented larger ships from unloading supplies at the port restricting Allied shipments of food and munitions to the Montenegrin army. The Allies realised that with the Austro-Hungarian naval base of Cattaro close by there was little they could do.[4]

In World War II, on 13 July 1941, an uprising against the Italian occupying forces in Bar took place. In 1945, about 2,000 Albanians were killed in Bar by Yugoslav In World War II, on 13 July 1941, an uprising against the Italian occupying forces in Bar took place. In 1945, about 2,000 Albanians were killed in Bar by Yugoslav Communist Partisans; all of these Albanians were men, causing their families to flee to Albania, causing the large Albanian community of Bar to disappear. Bar was largely destroyed in World War II and rebuilt into a modern city.

In 1979, there was an earthquake that devastated Bar. It has since been rebuilt.[5]

Geography

Bar is located on the coastal western border of Montenegro on the shore of the Adriatic Sea. It is approximately 53 kilometres (33 mi) from Podgorica, the capital of Montenegro.To the east is the largest lake in the Balkans, Lake Skadar. To the west, across the sea, is Italy.[6]

Climate

Bar has a wind blowing from the south about 88 days a year, mostly during the winter. The southern wind is very soft and warm but raises the waves in the sea. The temperature is as in July – about 28 °C (82 °F). There are approximately 2160 sunny hours a year. In winter the temperature drops down to 10 °C (50 °F). In the Köppen climate classification, Bar has a mediterranean climate (Csa) close to a humid subtropical climate (Cfa). There is only one summer month with less than 40 millimetres (1.6 in) precipitation.[7] Winters are cool and rainy, with an average high of 12.3 °C (54.1 °F) in January and a low of 4.3 °C (39.7 °F). Snow is very rare occurrence in Bar, it usually snows once in a few years. The highest recorded snowfall occurred during January 2000, when 9 centimetres (3.5 in) was measured. Summers are generally warmer, drier and

Bar has a wind blowing from the south about 88 days a year, mostly during the winter. The southern wind is very soft and warm but raises the waves in the sea. The temperature is as in July – about 28 °C (82 °F). There are approximately 2160 sunny hours a year. In winter the temperature drops down to 10 °C (50 °F). In the Köppen climate classification, Bar has a mediterranean climate (Csa) close to a humid subtropical climate (Cfa). There is only one summer month with less than 40 millimetres (1.6 in) precipitation.[7] Winters are cool and rainy, with an average high of 12.3 °C (54.1 °F) in January and a low of 4.3 °C (39.7 °F). Snow is very rare occurrence in Bar, it usually snows once in a few years. The highest recorded snowfall occurred during January 2000, when 9 centimetres (3.5 in) was measured. Summers are generally warmer, drier and sunnier than the winter months. During summer, the highest temperatures are around 27 to 28 °C (81 to 82 °F) and the lowest 18 °C (64 °F). Precipitation is low during the summer months, although rainfall can still occur, with July averaging 4.5 days with measurable precipitation. Spring and fall are transitional seasons that feature mild weather that can often be wet and unpredictable. There are, on average, 2523 hours of sunshine per year, ranging from a low of 111.6 hours in December to a high of 350.3 hours in July.[8]

Places of worship

  • St. George cathedral was built in the 12th century. Saint George was the medieval patron saint of Bar.
  • The remains of the Bar Triconch' church lie in the center of Bar. It is the oldest Christian religious building in Montenegro, dating to the 6th century AD. It was built during Justinian's reign. The height of the preserved church walls is one metre. While carrying out research on the church, fragments of decorative stone moulds and a necropolis were found. It is where the Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja (Ljetopis popa Dukljanina) was written in the second half of the 12th century. It is the region's most important medieval work of literature.
  • Our Lady of Ratac (Bogorodica Ratačka) Benedictine monastery is located on the Churches and monasteries dating to the era of the Balšić family (14th and 15th centuries) are located on the islands of Lake Skadar including Beška, Moračnik and Starčevo. This area is called the Holy Land of Montenegro.

    • Starčevo Monastery is located on the island of Starčevo on Skadar Lake. It dates from the period of Đurđe Balšić. It was founded in 1377 by Father Makarije, who lived as an ascetic on the island. (Starčev means old man.) The monastery complex consists of the Church of the Assumption of the Mother of God, an accommodation building, supporting structures and a surrounding wall with a gate and several underpinned terraces. The monastery was a centre of literacy, where many manuscripts were rewritten and many books were bound and decorated. The crypt of Božidar Vuković of Podgorica, a printer, is located in this monastery. After the reconstruction of a part of the accommodation building, Starčevo became once again an inhabited and active monastery.
    • Moračnik Monastery: It is located on the island of Moračnik on Skadar Lake. It was first mentioned in 1417, in the Charter of Balša III. The monastery complex consists of a church dedicated to the Holy Mother of God, an accommodation building, dining room and high tower with four floors, surrounded by a stone wall with a monumental gate.
    • Beška Monastery: It is located in the middle of the island of Beška on Skadar Lake. The monastery consists of two churches: a larger one, dedicated to St. Đorđe (14th century), the endowment of Đurđe II Stracimirović-Balšić and a smaller one dedicated to the Holy Mother of God (1440), the endowment of Jelena Balšić. Beška Monastery, as well as Starčevo Monastery, was famous for its intensive transcription activities. The Gorička Anthology was written in this monastery. It is a religious, edifying transcript composed by Nikon Jerusalimac.
    • Monastery of The Virgin of Krajina is a significant monument in Montenegro. Ruins of the monastery and church are dedicated to the Assumption of the Mother of God. The monument is located near Ostros, on the shores Lake Skadar. The church was first mentioned at the end of the 10th century in The Chronicle of Priest Dukljan. The monastery was founded by Duke Vladimir, well known from a legend involving his tragic love for Kosara, daughter of the Macedonian Tsar Samuilo.[citation needed] At one time, the monastery was the residence of the archbishop of Zeta. At the end of the 16th century, the monastery was completely destroyed. In its vicinity, in Ostros, there is a well from the year 1001, which is still used for supplying water to the inhabitants of local villages.
    • St. Archangel church at Donja Seoca on the shore of Lake Skadar.

    Economy

    The economy of Bar relies upon the Port of Bar, the Belgrade–Bar railway and the Sozina tunnel. The Port of Bar is the most recognizable feature of the city. It occupies 3,100 m (10,170.60 ft) of seacoast, land area of 800 ha and aquatorium of 200ha. It is capable of reloading 5 million tons of goods annually. In 1976, the Belgrade – Bar railway was opened. It made the Adriatic coast accessible to tourists, and transport to the Port of Bar. The food company, Primorka has been operating in Bar for more than 50 years. It produces olive oil and pomegranate juice. There are 95,000 olive trees, about 80,000 citrus trees (lemon, orange, tangerine and grapefruit) in the municipal area. The centre for subtropical cultures, founded in 1937, is the oldest scientific institution in Montenegro. Tourism is also a major part of Bar's economy.

    Transport

    Bar has a ferry line to Bari, Italy which is operated by Montenegro Lines.[10] In season, ferries also go to Ancona, Italy. Bar is well connected with inland Montenegro, as well as with the rest of the Montenegrin coast. The Sozina tunnel, completed in 2006, shortened the road connection with Podgorica to around 50 km (31 mi). Bar is connected to other coastal towns by the Adriatic motorway, which extends from Ulcinj to Herceg Novi, and on to Croatia. Bar is also the final station of the Belgrade–Bar railway, which connects Bar with Podgorica, northern Montenegro and Serbia. Podgorica Airport is about 40 km (25 mi) from Bar. There are regular flights to Belgrade, Budapest, Zürich, Frankfurt, Ljubljana, London, Paris, Rome and Vienna.

    Tourism

    Although there are some stony beaches in Bar itself, many tourists choose destinations in other small towns in the Bar municipality, including Sutomore, with its long sandy beach. The natural area around Bar is mostly untouched and is rich in vegetation. The Bar municipality stretches to the southern shore of Skadar lake and encompasses Krajina region. This area is visited for its leisure activities and hiking.[citation needed] Smaller settlements near Bar, such as Dobra Voda, Sutomore and Čanj, are a destination for sunbathing, as they incorporate long sandy beaches.[citation needed]

    Places of interest

    Bar has a ferry line to Bari, Italy which is operated by Montenegro Lines.[10] In season, ferries also go to Ancona, Italy. Bar is well connected with inland Montenegro, as well as with the rest of the Montenegrin coast. The Sozina tunnel, completed in 2006, shortened the road connection with Podgorica to around 50 km (31 mi). Bar is connected to other coastal towns by the Adriatic motorway, which extends from Ulcinj to Herceg Novi, and on to Croatia. Bar is also the final station of the Belgrade–Bar railway, which connects Bar with Podgorica, northern Montenegro and Serbia. Podgorica Airport is about 40 km (25 mi) from Bar. There are regular flights to Belgrade, Budapest, Zürich, Frankfurt, Ljubljana, London, Paris, Rome and Vienna.

    Tourism

    Although there are some stony beaches in Bar itself, many tourists choose destinations in other small towns in the Bar municipality, including Sutomore, with its long sandy beach. The natural area around Bar is mostly untouched and is rich in vegetation. The Bar municipality stretches to the southern shore of Skadar lake and encompasses Krajina region. This area is visited for its leisure activities and hiking.[citation needed] Smaller settlements near Bar, such as Dobra Voda, Sutomore and Čanj, are a destination for sunbathing, as they incorporate long sandy beaches.Bar has a ferry line to Bari, Italy which is operated by Montenegro Lines.[10] In season, ferries also go to Ancona, Italy. Bar is well connected with inland Montenegro, as well as with the rest of the Montenegrin coast. The Sozina tunnel, completed in 2006, shortened the road connection with Podgorica to around 50 km (31 mi). Bar is connected to other coastal towns by the Adriatic motorway, which extends from Ulcinj to Herceg Novi, and on to Croatia. Bar is also the final station of the Belgrade–Bar railway, which connects Bar with Podgorica, northern Montenegro and Serbia. Podgorica Airport is about 40 km (25 mi) from Bar. There are regular flights to Belgrade, Budapest, Zürich, Frankfurt, Ljubljana, London, Paris, Rome and Vienna.

    Tourism

    Alt

    Although there are some stony beaches in Bar itself, many tourists choose destinations in other small towns in the Bar municipality, including Sutomore, with its long sandy beach. The natural area around Bar is mostly untouched and is rich in vegetation. The Bar municipality stretches to the southern shore of Skadar lake and encompasses Krajina region. This area is visited for its leisure activities and hiking.[citation needed] Smaller settlements near Bar, such as Dobra Voda, Sutomore and Čanj, are a destination for sunbathing, as they incorporate long sandy beaches.[citation needed]

    Places of interest

    Sport

    Bar has over fifty sports clubs, and associations including a chess club. The town's major football club is FK Mornar who share the Stadion Topolica with lower league sides FK Hajduk Bar and Stari Bar team FK Sloga Bar. Bar once had two teams in the top tier, with OFK Bar featuring in the 2010–11 season alongside FK Mornar. KK Mornar Bar is the local basketball club.

    There are numerous sports facilities in the Bar hotels and schools. In the centre of town, most of the facilities are in the Sports and Recreation Centre. Water sports such as diving are common.[citation needed] Sports tourism is promoted because of the proximity to the sea and lake. Bar hosted the 2010 FIBA Europe Under-16 Championship and the 2010 Men's u18 European Handball Championship.

    Festivals and events

    • Summer with the stars is an annual musical festival held in July and August at King Nikola's Walk. The tourist organisation of Bar sponsors music concerts with singers from Montenegro and former Yugoslav republics.
    • The Мotorcycle race of Sutomore is an annual race in early May and September.
    • The International athletic meeting is held each May Day on Madžarica stadium beside seashore.
    • The Crmnica Games are held on weekends from mid-July to mid-August in Virpazar.
    • An Agricultural show is held each year in early September in Virpazar to promote local produce.
    • The Zagrađe tourism show is held annually in July and August in Zagrade.
    • The Lake Skadar Ecology, Tourism and Culture Day is held annually in July, in Murići.
    • The Mrkojevići family day is held in the last week of July, in Pečurice as a celebration of culture and traditions of the area.
    • The Bar Guitar Fest is an annual gathering of guitar teachers and musicians held in January.
    • The Olive Festival is held in Bar old town.
    • The Wine and Bleak festival is held in December, in Virpazar.
    • The Old Olive Tree Gathering has been held every November since 1987. It celebrates children's works and works for children. Children are represented in literary and art works with the theme Olives, Peace and Friendship.
    • The Port Cup is an international annual volleyball tournament for women which commenced in 1992.
    • The Bar Marathon is a swimming race held in Bar in August. Contestants swim 5 kilometres (3 miles 188 yards) between the Hotel Sozina, Sutomore and the Hotel Topolica, in Bar. The event commenced in 1988.
    • The Chronicle of Bar is an annual summer multimedia festival with theatre plays, art exhibitions, literary events, and concerts and the Mediterranean Book Fair. It commenced in 1988.
    • The International Televisio

      Bar has over fifty sports clubs, and associations including a chess club. The town's major football club is FK Mornar who share the Stadion Topolica with lower league sides FK Hajduk Bar and Stari Bar team FK Sloga Bar. Bar once had two teams in the top tier, with OFK Bar featuring in the 2010–11 season alongside FK Mornar. KK Mornar Bar is the local basketball club.

      There are numerous sports facilities in the Bar hotels and schools. In the centre of town, most of the facilities are in the Sports and Recreation Centre. Water sports such as diving are common.[citation needed] Sports tourism is promoted because of the proximity to the sea and lake. Bar hosted the 2010 FIBA Europe Under-16 Championship and the 2010 Men's u18 European Handball Championship.

      Festivals and events

      • Summer with the stars is an annual musical festival held in July and August at King Nikola's Walk. The tourist organisation of Bar sponsors music concerts with singers from Montenegro and former Yugoslav republics.
      • The Мotorcycle race of Sutomore is an annual race in early May and Septembe

        There are numerous sports facilities in the Bar hotels and schools. In the centre of town, most of the facilities are in the Sports and Recreation Centre. Water sports such as diving are common.[citation needed] Sports tourism is promoted because of the proximity to the sea and lake. Bar hosted the 2010 FIBA Europe Under-16 Championship and the 2010 Men's u18 European Handball Championship.

        Bar is twinned with:[11]