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Antisemitism
Antisemitism
(also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.[1][2][3] A person who holds such positions is called an antisemite. Antisemitism is generally considered to be a form of racism.[4][5] Antisemitism
Antisemitism
may be manifested in many ways, ranging from expressions of hatred of or discrimination against individual Jews
Jews
to organized pogroms by mobs, state police, or even military attacks on entire Jewish communities. Although the term did not come into common usage until the 19th century, it is now also applied to historic anti-Jewish incidents. Notable instances of persecution include the Rhineland massacres preceding the First Crusade
First Crusade
in 1096, the Edict of Expulsion from England in 1290, the massacres of Spanish Jews
Jews
in 1391, the persecutions of the Spanish Inquisition, the expulsion from Spain in 1492, the Cossack massacres in Ukraine
Ukraine
from 1648 to 1657, various anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire between 1821 and 1906, the 1894–1906 Dreyfus affair
Dreyfus affair
in France, the Holocaust
Holocaust
in German-occupied Europe, official Soviet anti-Jewish policies, and Arab
Arab
and Muslim involvement in the Jewish exodus from Arab
Arab
and Muslim
Muslim
countries. The root word Semite gives the false impression that antisemitism is directed against all Semitic people, e.g., including Arabs
Arabs
and Assyrians. The compound word antisemite was popularized in Germany
Germany
in 1879[6] as a scientific-sounding term for Judenhass ("Jew-hatred"),[7][8][9][10][11] and that has been its common use since then.[12][13]

Contents

1 Origin and usage in the context of xenophobia

1.1 Etymology 1.2 Usage 1.3 Definition 1.4 Evolution of usage

2 Manifestations

2.1 Cultural antisemitism 2.2 Religious antisemitism 2.3 Economic antisemitism 2.4 Racial antisemitism 2.5 Political antisemitism 2.6 Conspiracy theories 2.7 New antisemitism 2.8 Indology

3 History

3.1 Ancient world 3.2 Persecutions during the Middle Ages 3.3 17th century 3.4 Enlightenment 3.5 Imperial Russia 3.6 Voltaire 3.7 Islamic antisemitism in the 19th century 3.8 Secular or racial antisemitism 3.9 20th century 3.10 21st-century European antisemitism 3.11 21st-century Arab
Arab
antisemitism

4 Causes 5 Current situation

5.1 Africa

5.1.1 Algeria 5.1.2 Egypt 5.1.3 Libya 5.1.4 Morocco 5.1.5 South Africa 5.1.6 Tunisia

5.2 Asia

5.2.1 Iran 5.2.2 Japan 5.2.3 Lebanon 5.2.4 Malaysia 5.2.5 Palestinian territories 5.2.6 Pakistan 5.2.7 Saudi Arabia 5.2.8 Turkey

5.3 Europe

5.3.1 Austria 5.3.2 France 5.3.3 Germany 5.3.4 Greece 5.3.5 Hungary 5.3.6 Italy 5.3.7 Netherlands 5.3.8 Norway 5.3.9 Poland 5.3.10 Russia 5.3.11 Spain 5.3.12 Sweden 5.3.13 Ukraine 5.3.14 United Kingdom

5.4 North America

5.4.1 Canada 5.4.2 United States

5.5 South America

5.5.1 Venezuela

6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Origin and usage in the context of xenophobia Etymology

1879 statute of the Antisemitic
Antisemitic
League

The origin of "antisemitic" terminologies is found in the responses of Moritz Steinschneider
Moritz Steinschneider
to the views of Ernest Renan. As Alex Bein writes: "The compound anti-Semitism appears to have been used first by Steinschneider, who challenged Renan on account of his 'anti-Semitic prejudices' [i.e., his derogation of the "Semites" as a race]."[14] Avner Falk similarly writes: 'The German word antisemitisch was first used in 1860 by the Austrian Jewish scholar Moritz Steinschneider (1816–1907) in the phrase antisemitische Vorurteile (antisemitic prejudices). Steinschneider used this phrase to characterise the French philosopher Ernest Renan's false ideas about how "Semitic races" were inferior to " Aryan
Aryan
races"'.[15] Pseudoscientific theories concerning race, civilization, and "progress" had become quite widespread in Europe
Europe
in the second half of the 19th century, especially as Prussian nationalistic historian Heinrich von Treitschke
Heinrich von Treitschke
did much to promote this form of racism. He coined the phrase "the Jews
Jews
are our misfortune" which would later be widely used by Nazis.[16] According to Avner Falk, Treitschke uses the term "Semitic" almost synonymously with "Jewish", in contrast to Renan's use of it to refer to a whole range of peoples,[17] based generally on linguistic criteria.[18] According to Jonathan M. Hess, the term was originally used by its authors to "stress the radical difference between their own 'antisemitism' and earlier forms of antagonism toward Jews
Jews
and Judaism."[19]

Cover page of Marr's The Way to Victory of Germanicism over Judaism, 1880 edition

In 1879 German journalist Wilhelm Marr
Wilhelm Marr
published a pamphlet, Der Sieg des Judenthums über das Germanenthum. Vom nicht confessionellen Standpunkt aus betrachtet (The Victory of the Jewish Spirit over the Germanic Spirit. Observed from a non-religious perspective) in which he used the word Semitismus interchangeably with the word Judentum to denote both "Jewry" (the Jews
Jews
as a collective) and "jewishness" (the quality of being Jewish, or the Jewish spirit).[20][21][22] This use of Semitismus was followed by a coining of "Antisemitismus" which was used to indicate opposition to the Jews
Jews
as a people[citation needed] and opposition to the Jewish spirit, which Marr interpreted as infiltrating German culture. His next pamphlet, Der Weg zum Siege des Germanenthums über das Judenthum (The Way to Victory of the Germanic Spirit over the Jewish Spirit, 1880), presents a development of Marr's ideas further and may present the first published use of the German word Antisemitismus, "antisemitism". The pamphlet became very popular, and in the same year he founded the Antisemiten-Liga (League of Antisemites),[23] apparently named to follow the "Anti-Kanzler-Liga" (Anti-Chancellor League).[24] The league was the first German organization committed specifically to combating the alleged threat to Germany
Germany
and German culture posed by the Jews
Jews
and their influence, and advocating their forced removal from the country. So far as can be ascertained, the word was first widely printed in 1881, when Marr published Zwanglose Antisemitische Hefte, and Wilhelm Scherer used the term Antisemiten in the January issue of Neue Freie Presse. The Jewish Encyclopedia
Jewish Encyclopedia
reports, "In February 1881, a correspondent of the Allgemeine Zeitung des Judentums
Allgemeine Zeitung des Judentums
speaks of 'Anti-Semitism' as a designation which recently came into use ("Allg. Zeit. d. Jud." 1881, p. 138). On 19 July 1882, the editor says, 'This quite recent Anti-Semitism is hardly three years old.'"[25] The related term "philosemitism" was coined around 1885.[citation needed] Usage From the outset the term anti-Semitism bore special racial connotations and meant specifically prejudice against Jews.[2][13] The term is confusing, for in modern usage 'Semitic' designates a language group, not a race. In this sense, the term is a misnomer, since there are many speakers of Semitic languages
Semitic languages
(e.g. Arabs, Ethiopians, and Assyrians) who are not the objects of anti-Semitic prejudices, while there are many Jews
Jews
who do not speak Hebrew, a Semitic language. Though 'antisemitism' has been used to describe prejudice against people who speak other Semitic languages, the validity of such usage has been questioned.[26][27][28] The term may be spelled with or without a hyphen (antisemitism or anti-Semitism). Some scholars favor the unhyphenated form because, "If you use the hyphenated form, you consider the words 'Semitism', 'Semite', 'Semitic' as meaningful" whereas "in antisemitic parlance, 'Semites' really stands for Jews, just that."[29][30][31][32] For example, Emil Fackenheim supported the unhyphenated spelling, in order to "[dispel] the notion that there is an entity 'Semitism' which 'anti-Semitism' opposes."[33] Others endorsing an unhyphenated term for the same reason include Padraic O'Hare, professor of Religious and Theological Studies and Director of the Center for the Study of Jewish-Christian- Muslim
Muslim
Relations at Merrimack College; Yehuda Bauer, professor of Holocaust studies
Holocaust studies
at the Avraham Harman Institute of Contemporary Jewry at Hebrew University of Jerusalem; and James Carroll, historian and novelist. According to Carroll, who first cites O'Hare and Bauer on "the existence of something called 'Semitism'", "the hyphenated word thus reflects the bipolarity that is at the heart of the problem of antisemitism".[34] Objections to the usage of the term, such as the obsolete nature of the term Semitic as a racial term, have been raised since at least the 1930s.[24][35] Definition Though the general definition of antisemitism is hostility or prejudice against Jews, and, according to Olaf Blaschke, has become an "umbrella term for negative stereotypes about Jews",[36] a number of authorities have developed more formal definitions. Holocaust
Holocaust
scholar and City University of New York
City University of New York
professor Helen Fein defines it as "a persisting latent structure of hostile beliefs towards Jews
Jews
as a collective manifested in individuals as attitudes, and in culture as myth, ideology, folklore and imagery, and in actions—social or legal discrimination, political mobilization against the Jews, and collective or state violence—which results in and/or is designed to distance, displace, or destroy Jews
Jews
as Jews." Elaborating on Fein's definition, Dietz Bering of the University of Cologne writes that, to antisemites, " Jews
Jews
are not only partially but totally bad by nature, that is, their bad traits are incorrigible. Because of this bad nature: (1) Jews
Jews
have to be seen not as individuals but as a collective. (2) Jews
Jews
remain essentially alien in the surrounding societies. (3) Jews
Jews
bring disaster on their 'host societies' or on the whole world, they are doing it secretly, therefore the anti-Semites feel obliged to unmask the conspiratorial, bad Jewish character."[37] For Sonja Weinberg, as distinct from economic and religious anti-Judaism, antisemitism in its modern form shows conceptual innovation, a resort to 'science' to defend itself, new functional forms and organisational differences. It was anti-liberal, racialist and nationalist. It promoted the myth that Jews
Jews
conspired to 'judaise' the world; it served to consolidate social identity; it channeled dissatisfactions among victims of the capitalist system; and it was used as a conservative cultural code to fight emancipation and liberalism.[38]

Caricature by C.Léandre (France, 1898) showing Rothschild with the world in his hands

Bernard Lewis
Bernard Lewis
defines antisemitism as a special case of prejudice, hatred, or persecution directed against people who are in some way different from the rest. According to Lewis, antisemitism is marked by two distinct features: Jews
Jews
are judged according to a standard different from that applied to others, and they are accused of "cosmic evil." Thus, "it is perfectly possible to hate and even to persecute Jews
Jews
without necessarily being anti-Semitic" unless this hatred or persecution displays one of the two features specific to antisemitism.[39] There have been a number of efforts by international and governmental bodies to define antisemitism formally. The United States Department of State states that "while there is no universally accepted definition, there is a generally clear understanding of what the term encompasses." For the purposes of its 2005 Report on Global Anti-Semitism, the term was considered to mean "hatred toward Jews—individually and as a group—that can be attributed to the Jewish religion and/or ethnicity."[40] In 2005, the European Monitoring Centre on Racism
Racism
and Xenophobia
Xenophobia
(now Fundamental Rights Agency), then an agency of the European Union, developed a more detailed working definition, which states: " Antisemitism
Antisemitism
is a certain perception of Jews, which may be expressed as hatred toward Jews. Rhetorical and physical manifestations of antisemitism are directed toward Jewish or non-Jewish individuals and/or their property, toward Jewish community institutions and religious facilities." It also adds that "such manifestations could also target the state of Israel, conceived as a Jewish collectivity," but that "criticism of Israel
Israel
similar to that leveled against any other country cannot be regarded as antisemitic." It provides contemporary examples of ways in which antisemitism may manifest itself, including: promoting the harming of Jews
Jews
in the name of an ideology or religion; promoting negative stereotypes of Jews; holding Jews
Jews
collectively responsible for the actions of an individual Jewish person or group; denying the Holocaust
Holocaust
or accusing Jews
Jews
or Israel
Israel
of exaggerating it; and accusing Jews
Jews
of dual loyalty or a greater allegiance to Israel
Israel
than their own country. It also lists ways in which attacking Israel
Israel
could be antisemitic, and states that denying the Jewish people their right to self-determination, e.g. by claiming that the existence of a state of Israel
Israel
is a racist endeavor, can be a manifestation of antisemitism—as can applying double standards by requiring of Israel
Israel
a behavior not expected or demanded of any other democratic nation, or holding Jews
Jews
collectively responsible for the actions of the State of Israel.[41] Late in 2013, the definition was removed from the website of the Fundamental Rights Agency. A spokesperson said that it had never been regarded as official and that the agency did not intend to develop its own definition.[42] However, despite its disappearance from the website of the Fundamental Rights Agency, the definition has gained widespread international use. The definition has been adopted by the European Parliament
European Parliament
Working Group on Antisemitism,[43] in 2010 it was adopted by the United States Department of State,[44] in 2014 it was adopted in the Operational Hate Crime Guidance of the UK College of Policing[45] and was also adopted by the Campaign Against Antisemitism,[46] and in 2016 it was adopted by the International Holocaust
Holocaust
Remembrance Alliance,[47] making it the most widely adopted definition of antisemitism around the world.

1889 Paris, France
France
elections poster for self-described "candidat antisémite" Adolphe Willette: "The Jews
Jews
are a different race, hostile to our own... Judaism, there is the enemy!" (see file for complete translation)

Evolution of usage In 1879, Wilhelm Marr
Wilhelm Marr
founded the Antisemiten-Liga (Anti-Semitic League).[48] Identification with antisemitism and as an antisemite was politically advantageous in Europe
Europe
during the late 19th century. For example, Karl Lueger, the popular mayor of fin de siècle Vienna, skillfully exploited antisemitism as a way of channeling public discontent to his political advantage.[49] In its 1910 obituary of Lueger, The New York Times
The New York Times
notes that Lueger was "Chairman of the Christian Social Union of the Parliament and of the Anti-Semitic Union of the Diet of Lower Austria.[50] In 1895 A. C. Cuza
A. C. Cuza
organized the Alliance Anti-semitique Universelle in Bucharest. In the period before World War II, when animosity towards Jews
Jews
was far more commonplace, it was not uncommon for a person, an organization, or a political party to self-identify as an antisemite or antisemitic. The early Zionist pioneer Leon Pinsker, a professional physician, preferred the clinical-sounding term Judeophobia to antisemitism, which he regarded as a misnomer. The word Judeophobia first appeared in his pamphlet "Auto-Emancipation", published anonymously in German in September 1882, where it was described as an irrational fear or hatred of Jews. According to Pinsker, this irrational fear was an inherited predisposition.[51]

Judeophobia is a form of demonopathy, with the distinction that the Jewish ghost has become known to the whole race of mankind, not merely to certain races.... Judeophobia is a psychic disorder. As a psychic disorder it is hereditary, and as a disease transmitted for two thousand years it is incurable.... Thus have Judaism
Judaism
and Jew-hatred passed through history for centuries as inseparable companions.... Having analyzed Judeophobia as an hereditary form of demonopathy, peculiar to the human race, and represented Jew-hatred as based upon an inherited aberration of the human mind, we must draw the important conclusion, that we must give up contending against these hostile impulses, just as we give up contending against every other inherited predisposition.[52]

In the aftermath of the Kristallnacht
Kristallnacht
pogrom in 1938, German propaganda minister Goebbels announced: "The German people is anti-Semitic. It has no desire to have its rights restricted or to be provoked in the future by parasites of the Jewish race."[53] After the 1945 victory of the Allies over Nazi
Nazi
Germany, and particularly after the full extent of the Nazi
Nazi
genocide against the Jews
Jews
became known, the term "anti-Semitism" acquired pejorative connotations. This marked a full circle shift in usage, from an era just decades earlier when "Jew" was used as a pejorative term.[54][55] Yehuda Bauer
Yehuda Bauer
wrote in 1984: "There are no anti-Semites in the world ... Nobody says, 'I am anti-Semitic.' You cannot, after Hitler. The word has gone out of fashion."[56] Manifestations

Jews
Jews
(identified by the mandatory Jewish badge
Jewish badge
and Jewish hat) being burned during the Black Death
Black Death
in 1348.

Antisemitism
Antisemitism
manifests itself in a variety of ways. René König mentions social antisemitism, economic antisemitism, religious antisemitism, and political antisemitism as examples. König points out that these different forms demonstrate that the "origins of anti-Semitic prejudices are rooted in different historical periods." König asserts that differences in the chronology of different antisemitic prejudices and the irregular distribution of such prejudices over different segments of the population create "serious difficulties in the definition of the different kinds of anti-Semitism."[57] These difficulties may contribute to the existence of different taxonomies that have been developed to categorize the forms of antisemitism. The forms identified are substantially the same; it is primarily the number of forms and their definitions that differ. Bernard Lazare
Bernard Lazare
identifies three forms of antisemitism: Christian antisemitism, economic antisemitism, and ethnologic antisemitism.[58] William Brustein names four categories: religious, racial, economic and political.[59] The Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
historian Edward Flannery
Edward Flannery
distinguished four varieties of antisemitism:[60]

political and economic antisemitism, giving as examples Cicero[61] and Charles Lindbergh;[62] theological or religious antisemitism, sometimes known as anti-Judaism;[63] nationalistic antisemitism, citing Voltaire
Voltaire
and other Enlightenment thinkers, who attacked Jews
Jews
for supposedly having certain characteristics, such as greed and arrogance, and for observing customs such as kashrut and Shabbat;[64] and racial antisemitism, with its extreme form resulting in the Holocaust
Holocaust
by the Nazis.[65]

Louis Harap separates "economic antisemitism" and merges "political" and "nationalistic" antisemitism into "ideological antisemitism". Harap also adds a category of "social antisemitism".[66]

religious ( Jew
Jew
as Christ-killer), economic ( Jew
Jew
as banker, usurer, money-obsessed), social ( Jew
Jew
as social inferior, "pushy," vulgar, therefore excluded from personal contact), racist ( Jews
Jews
as an inferior "race"), ideological ( Jews
Jews
regarded as subversive or revolutionary), cultural ( Jews
Jews
regarded as undermining the moral and structural fiber of civilization).

Gustavo Perednik has argued that what he terms "Judeophobia" has a number of unique traits which set it apart from other forms of racism, including permanence, depth, obsessiveness, irrationality, endurance, ubiquity, and danger.[67] He also wrote in his book The Judeophobia that "The Jews
Jews
were accused by the nationalists of being the creators of Communism; by the Communists of ruling Capitalism. If they live in non-Jewish countries, they are accused of double-loyalties; if they live in the Jewish country, of being racists. When they spend their money, they are reproached for being ostentatious; when they don't spend their money, of being avaricious. They are called rootless cosmopolitans or hardened chauvinists. If they assimilate, they are accused of being fifth-columnists, if they don't, of shutting themselves away."[68][69] Cultural antisemitism Louis Harap defines cultural antisemitism as "that species of anti-Semitism that charges the Jews
Jews
with corrupting a given culture and attempting to supplant or succeeding in supplanting the preferred culture with a uniform, crude, "Jewish" culture.[70] Similarly, Eric Kandel characterizes cultural antisemitism as being based on the idea of "Jewishness" as a "religious or cultural tradition that is acquired through learning, through distinctive traditions and education." According to Kandel, this form of antisemitism views Jews
Jews
as possessing "unattractive psychological and social characteristics that are acquired through acculturation."[71] Niewyk and Nicosia characterize cultural antisemitism as focusing on and condemning "the Jews' aloofness from the societies in which they live."[72] An important feature of cultural antisemitism is that it considers the negative attributes of Judaism
Judaism
to be redeemable by education or by religious conversion.[73] Religious antisemitism See also: Anti-Judaism, Christianity and antisemitism, and Islam
Islam
and antisemitism

Execution of Mariana de Carabajal (converted Jew), accused of a relapse into Judaism, Mexico City, 1601

Religious antisemitism, also known as anti-Judaism, is antipathy towards Jews
Jews
because of their perceived religious beliefs. In theory, antisemitism and attacks against individual Jews
Jews
would stop if Jews stopped practicing Judaism
Judaism
or changed their public faith, especially by conversion to the official or right religion. However, in some cases discrimination continues after conversion, as in the case of Christianized Marranos
Marranos
or Iberian Jews
Jews
in the late 15th century and 16th century who were suspected of secretly practising Judaism
Judaism
or Jewish customs.[60] Although the origins of antisemitism are rooted in the Judeo-Christian conflict, other forms of antisemitism have developed in modern times. Frederick Schweitzer asserts that, "most scholars ignore the Christian foundation on which the modern antisemitic edifice rests and invoke political antisemitism, cultural antisemitism, racism or racial antisemitism, economic antisemitism and the like."[74] William Nichols draws a distinction between religious antisemitism and modern antisemitism based on racial or ethnic grounds: "The dividing line was the possibility of effective conversion... a Jew
Jew
ceased to be a Jew upon baptism." From the perspective of racial antisemitism, however, "... the assimilated Jew
Jew
was still a Jew, even after baptism.... From the Enlightenment onward, it is no longer possible to draw clear lines of distinction between religious and racial forms of hostility towards Jews... Once Jews
Jews
have been emancipated and secular thinking makes its appearance, without leaving behind the old Christian hostility towards Jews, the new term antisemitism becomes almost unavoidable, even before explicitly racist doctrines appear." Economic antisemitism The underlying premise of economic antisemitism is that Jews
Jews
perform harmful economic activities or that economic activities become harmful when they are performed by Jews.[75] Linking Jews
Jews
and money underpins the most damaging and lasting Antisemitic
Antisemitic
canards.[76] Antisemites claim that Jews
Jews
control the world finances, a theory promoted in the fraudulent Protocols of the Elders of Zion, and later repeated by Henry Ford
Henry Ford
and his Dearborn Independent. In the modern era, such myths continue to be spread in books such as The Secret Relationship Between Blacks and Jews published by the Nation of Islam, and on the internet. Derek Penslar writes that there are two components to the financial canards:[77]

a) Jews
Jews
are savages that "are temperamentally incapable of performing honest labor" b) Jews
Jews
are "leaders of a financial cabal seeking world domination"

Abraham Foxman
Abraham Foxman
describes six facets of the financial canards:

All Jews
Jews
are wealthy[78] Jews
Jews
are stingy and greedy[79] Powerful Jews
Jews
control the business world[80] Jewish religion emphasizes profit and materialism[81] It is okay for Jews
Jews
to cheat non-Jews[82] Jews
Jews
use their power to benefit "their own kind"[83]

Gerald Krefetz summarizes the myth as "[Jews] control the banks, the money supply, the economy, and businesses—of the community, of the country, of the world".[84] Krefetz gives, as illustrations, many slurs and proverbs (in several different languages) which suggest that Jews
Jews
are stingy, or greedy, or miserly, or aggressive bargainers.[85] During the nineteenth century, Jews
Jews
were described as "scurrilous, stupid, and tight-fisted", but after the Jewish Emancipation
Jewish Emancipation
and the rise of Jews
Jews
to the middle- or upper-class in Europe
Europe
were portrayed as "clever, devious, and manipulative financiers out to dominate [world finances]".[86] Léon Poliakov
Léon Poliakov
asserts that economic antisemitism is not a distinct form of antisemitism, but merely a manifestation of theologic antisemitism (because, without the theological causes of the economic antisemitism, there would be no economic antisemitism). In opposition to this view, Derek Penslar contends that in the modern era, the economic antisemitism is "distinct and nearly constant" but theological antisemitism is "often subdued".[87] An academic study by Francesco D’Acunto, Marcel Prokopczuk, and Michael Weber showed that people who live in areas of Germany
Germany
that contain the most brutal history of anti-Semitic persecution are more likely to be distrustful of finance in general. Therefore, they tended to invest less money in the stock market and make poor financial decisions. The study concluded "that the persecution of minorities reduces not only the long-term wealth of the persecuted, but of the persecutors as well."[88] Racial antisemitism Main article: Racial antisemitism

Jewish Soviet soldier taken prisoner by the German Army, August 1941. At least 50,000 Jewish soldiers were shot after selection.[clarification needed]

Racial antisemitism
Racial antisemitism
is prejudice against Jews
Jews
as a racial/ethnic group, rather than Judaism
Judaism
as a religion.[89] Racial antisemitism
Racial antisemitism
is the idea that the Jews
Jews
are a distinct and inferior race compared to their host nations. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, it gained mainstream acceptance as part of the eugenics movement, which categorized non-Europeans as inferior. It more specifically claimed that Northern Europeans, or "Aryans", were superior. Racial antisemites saw the Jews
Jews
as part of a Semitic race and emphasized their non-European origins and culture. They saw Jews as beyond redemption even if they converted to the majority religion.[citation needed] Racial antisemitism
Racial antisemitism
replaced the hatred of Judaism
Judaism
with the hatred of Jews
Jews
as a group. In the context of the Industrial Revolution, following the Jewish Emancipation, Jews
Jews
rapidly urbanized and experienced a period of greater social mobility. With the decreasing role of religion in public life tempering religious antisemitism, a combination of growing nationalism, the rise of eugenics, and resentment at the socio-economic success of the Jews
Jews
led to the newer, and more virulent, racist antisemitism.[citation needed] According to William Nichols, religious antisemitism may be distinguished from modern antisemitism based on racial or ethnic grounds. "The dividing line was the possibility of effective conversion... a Jew
Jew
ceased to be a Jew
Jew
upon baptism." However, with racial antisemitism, "Now the assimilated Jew
Jew
was still a Jew, even after baptism.... From the Enlightenment onward, it is no longer possible to draw clear lines of distinction between religious and racial forms of hostility towards Jews... Once Jews
Jews
have been emancipated and secular thinking makes its appearance, without leaving behind the old Christian hostility towards Jews, the new term antisemitism becomes almost unavoidable, even before explicitly racist doctrines appear."[90] In the early 19th century, a number of laws enabling emancipation of the Jews
Jews
were enacted in Western European countries.[91][92] The old laws restricting them to ghettos, as well as the many laws that limited their property rights, rights of worship and occupation, were rescinded. Despite this, traditional discrimination and hostility to Jews
Jews
on religious grounds persisted and was supplemented by racial antisemitism, encouraged by the work of racial theorists such as Joseph Arthur de Gobineau
Joseph Arthur de Gobineau
and particularly his Essay on the Inequality of the Human Race of 1853–5. Nationalist
Nationalist
agendas based on ethnicity, known as ethnonationalism, usually excluded the Jews
Jews
from the national community as an alien race.[93] Allied to this were theories of Social Darwinism, which stressed a putative conflict between higher and lower races of human beings. Such theories, usually posited by northern Europeans, advocated the superiority of white Aryans to Semitic Jews.[94] Political antisemitism

"The whole problem of the Jews
Jews
exists only in nation states, for here their energy and higher intelligence, their accumulated capital of spirit and will, gathered from generation to generation through a long schooling in suffering, must become so preponderant as to arouse mass envy and hatred. In almost all contemporary nations, therefore – in direct proportion to the degree to which they act up nationalistially – the literary obscenity of leading the Jews
Jews
to slaughter as scapegoats of every conceivable public and internal misfortune is spreading."

— Friedrich Nietzsche, 1886, [MA 1 475][95]

William Brustein defines political antisemitism as hostility toward Jews
Jews
based on the belief that Jews
Jews
seek national and/or world power." Yisrael Gutman characterizes political antisemitism as tending to "lay responsibility on the Jews
Jews
for defeats and political economic crises" while seeking to "exploit opposition and resistance to Jewish influence as elements in political party platforms."[96] According to Viktor Karády, political antisemitism became widespread after the legal emancipation of the Jews
Jews
and sought to reverse some of the consequences of that emancipation. [97] Conspiracy theories See also: List of conspiracy theories §  Antisemitic
Antisemitic
conspiracy theories Holocaust denial
Holocaust denial
and Jewish conspiracy
Jewish conspiracy
theories are also considered forms of antisemitism.[98][99][100][101][102][102][103][104] Zoological conspiracy theories
Zoological conspiracy theories
have been propagated by Arab
Arab
media and Arabic language websites, alleging a "Zionist plot" behind the use of animals to attack civilians or to conduct espionage.[105] New antisemitism Main article: New antisemitism Starting in the 1990s, some scholars have advanced the concept of new antisemitism, coming simultaneously from the left, the right, and radical Islam, which tends to focus on opposition to the creation of a Jewish homeland in the State of Israel,[106] and they argue that the language of anti- Zionism
Zionism
and criticism of Israel
Israel
are used to attack Jews
Jews
more broadly. In this view, the proponents of the new concept believe that criticisms of Israel
Israel
and Zionism
Zionism
are often disproportionate in degree and unique in kind, and they attribute this to antisemitism. Jewish scholar Gustavo Perednik posited in 2004 that anti- Zionism
Zionism
in itself represents a form of discrimination against Jews, in that it singles out Jewish national aspirations as an illegitimate and racist endeavor, and "proposes actions that would result in the death of millions of Jews".[107] It is asserted that the new antisemitism deploys traditional antisemitic motifs, including older motifs such as the blood libel.[106] Critics of the concept view it as trivializing the meaning of antisemitism, and as exploiting antisemitism in order to silence debate and to deflect attention from legitimate criticism of the State of Israel, and, by associating anti- Zionism
Zionism
with antisemitism, misused to taint anyone opposed to Israeli actions and policies.[108] Indology Main article: Indology German indologists arbitrarily identified "layers" in the Mahabharata and Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
with the objective of fueling European anti-Semitism via the Indo- Aryan
Aryan
migration theory.[109] This identification required equating Brahmins
Brahmins
with Jews, resulting in anti-Brahmanism.[109] History Main article: History of antisemitism

The massacre of the Banu Qurayza, a Jewish tribe in Medina, 627

Many authors see the roots of modern antisemitism in both pagan antiquity and early Christianity. Jerome Chanes identifies six stages in the historical development of antisemitism:[110]

Pre-Christian anti- Judaism
Judaism
in ancient Greece and Rome which was primarily ethnic in nature Christian antisemitism
Christian antisemitism
in antiquity and the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
which was religious in nature and has extended into modern times Traditional Muslim
Muslim
antisemitism which was—at least, in its classical form—nuanced in that Jews
Jews
were a protected class Political, social and economic antisemitism of Enlightenment and post-Enlightenment Europe
Europe
which laid the groundwork for racial antisemitism Racial antisemitism
Racial antisemitism
that arose in the 19th century and culminated in Nazism
Nazism
in the 20th century Contemporary antisemitism which has been labeled by some as the New Antisemitism

Chanes suggests that these six stages could be merged into three categories: "ancient antisemitism, which was primarily ethnic in nature; Christian antisemitism, which was religious; and the racial antisemitism of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries."[111] Ancient world The first clear examples of anti-Jewish sentiment can be traced to the 3rd century BCE to Alexandria,[60] the home to the largest Jewish diaspora community in the world at the time and where the Septuagint, a Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, was produced. Manetho, an Egyptian priest and historian of that era, wrote scathingly of the Jews. His themes are repeated in the works of Chaeremon, Lysimachus, Poseidonius, Apollonius Molon, and in Apion and Tacitus.[112] Agatharchides of Cnidus ridiculed the practices of the Jews
Jews
and the "absurdity of their Law", making a mocking reference to how Ptolemy Lagus was able to invade Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in 320 BCE because its inhabitants were observing the Shabbat.[112] One of the earliest anti-Jewish edicts, promulgated by Antiochus IV Epiphanes
Antiochus IV Epiphanes
in about 170–167 BCE, sparked a revolt of the Maccabees
Maccabees
in Judea.[113]:238 In view of Manetho's anti-Jewish writings, antisemitism may have originated in Egypt
Egypt
and been spread by "the Greek retelling of Ancient Egyptian prejudices".[114] The ancient Jewish philosopher Philo of Alexandria
Alexandria
describes an attack on Jews
Jews
in Alexandria
Alexandria
in 38 CE in which thousands of Jews
Jews
died.[115][116] The violence in Alexandria
Alexandria
may have been caused by the Jews
Jews
being portrayed as misanthropes.[117] Tcherikover argues that the reason for hatred of Jews
Jews
in the Hellenistic
Hellenistic
period was their separateness in the Greek cities, the poleis.[118] Bohak has argued, however, that early animosity against the Jews
Jews
cannot be regarded as being anti-Judaic or antisemitic unless it arose from attitudes that were held against the Jews
Jews
alone, and that many Greeks
Greeks
showed animosity toward any group they regarded as barbarians.[119] Statements exhibiting prejudice against Jews
Jews
and their religion can be found in the works of many pagan Greek and Roman writers.[120] Edward Flannery
Edward Flannery
writes that it was the Jews' refusal to accept Greek religious and social standards that marked them out. Hecataetus of Abdera, a Greek historian of the early third century BCE, wrote that Moses
Moses
"in remembrance of the exile of his people, instituted for them a misanthropic and inhospitable way of life." Manetho, an Egyptian historian, wrote that the Jews
Jews
were expelled Egyptian lepers who had been taught by Moses
Moses
"not to adore the gods." Edward Flannery
Edward Flannery
describes antisemitism in ancient times as essentially "cultural, taking the shape of a national xenophobia played out in political settings."[60] There are examples of Hellenistic
Hellenistic
rulers desecrating the Temple and banning Jewish religious practices, such as circumcision, Shabbat observance, study of Jewish religious books, etc. Examples may also be found in anti-Jewish riots in Alexandria
Alexandria
in the 3rd century BCE. The Jewish diaspora
Jewish diaspora
on the Nile island Elephantine, which was founded by mercenaries, experienced the destruction of its temple in 410 BCE.[121] Relationships between the Jewish people and the occupying Roman Empire were at times antagonistic and resulted in several rebellions. According to Suetonius, the emperor Tiberius
Tiberius
expelled from Rome Jews who had gone to live there. The 18th-century English historian Edward Gibbon identified a more tolerant period in Roman-Jewish relations beginning in about 160 CE.[60] However, when Christianity became the state religion of the Roman Empire, the state's attitude towards the Jews
Jews
gradually worsened. James Carroll asserted: " Jews
Jews
accounted for 10% of the total population of the Roman Empire. By that ratio, if other factors such as pogroms and conversions had not intervened, there would be 200 million Jews
Jews
in the world today, instead of something like 13 million."[122][123] Persecutions during the Middle Ages Main article: Jews
Jews
in the Middle Ages

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v t e

In the late 6th century CE, the newly Catholicised Visigothic kingdom in Hispania issued a series of anti-Jewish edicts which forbad Jews from marrying Christians, practicing circumcision, and observing Jewish holy days.[124] Continuing throughout the 7th century, both Visigothic kings and the Church were active in creating social aggression and towards Jews
Jews
with "civic and ecclesiastic punishments",[125] ranging between forced conversion, slavery, exile and death.[126] From the 9th century, the medieval Islamic world classified Jews
Jews
and Christians as dhimmis, and allowed Jews
Jews
to practice their religion more freely than they could do in medieval Christian Europe. Under Islamic rule, there was a Golden age of Jewish culture
Jewish culture
in Spain that lasted until at least the 11th century.[127] It ended when several Muslim
Muslim
pogroms against Jews
Jews
took place on the Iberian Peninsula, including those that occurred in Córdoba in 1011 and in Granada in 1066.[128][129][130] Several decrees ordering the destruction of synagogues were also enacted in Egypt, Syria, Iraq
Iraq
and Yemen
Yemen
from the 11th century. In addition, Jews
Jews
were forced to convert to Islam
Islam
or face death in some parts of Yemen, Morocco
Morocco
and Baghdad
Baghdad
several times between the 12th and 18th centuries.[131] The Almohads, who had taken control of the Almoravids' Maghribi and Andalusian territories by 1147,[132] were far more fundamentalist in outlook compared to their predecessors, and they treated the dhimmis harshly. Faced with the choice of either death or conversion, many Jews
Jews
and Christians emigrated.[133][134][135] Some, such as the family of Maimonides, fled east to more tolerant Muslim
Muslim
lands,[133] while some others went northward to settle in the growing Christian kingdoms.[136] During the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
in Europe
Europe
there was persecution against Jews
Jews
in many places, with blood libels, expulsions, forced conversions and massacres. A main justification of prejudice against Jews
Jews
in Europe was religious. The persecution hit its first peak during the Crusades. In the First Crusade (1096) hundreds or even thousands of Jews
Jews
were killed as the crusaders arrived.[137] This was the first major outbreak of anti-Jewish violence in Christian Europe
Europe
outside Spain and was cited by Zionists in the 19th century as indicating the need for a state of Israel.[138] In the Second Crusade
Second Crusade
(1147) the Jews
Jews
in Germany
Germany
were subject to several massacres. The Jews
Jews
were also subjected to attacks by the Shepherds' Crusades
Crusades
of 1251 and 1320, as well as Rintfleisch knights in 1298. The Crusades
Crusades
were followed by expulsions, including, in 1290, the banishing of all English Jews; in 1394, the expulsion of 100,000 Jews
Jews
in France;[139] and in 1421, the expulsion of thousands from Austria. Many of the expelled Jews
Jews
fled to Poland.[140] In medieval and Renaissance Europe, a major contributor to the deepening of antisemitic sentiment and legal action among the Christian populations was the popular preaching of the zealous reform religious orders, the Franciscans (especially Bernardino of Feltre) and Dominicans (especially Vincent Ferrer), who combed Europe
Europe
and promoted antisemitism through their often fiery, emotional appeals.[141] As the Black Death
Black Death
epidemics devastated Europe
Europe
in the mid-14th century, causing the death of a large part of the population, Jews were used as scapegoats. Rumors spread that they caused the disease by deliberately poisoning wells. Hundreds of Jewish communities were destroyed in numerous persecutions. Although Pope Clement VI
Pope Clement VI
tried to protect them by issuing two papal bulls in 1348, the first on 6 July and an additional one several months later, 900 Jews
Jews
were burned alive in Strasbourg, where the plague had not yet affected the city.[142] 17th century During the mid-to-late 17th century the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was devastated by several conflicts, in which the Commonwealth lost over a third of its population (over 3 million people), and Jewish losses were counted in the hundreds of thousands. The first of these conflicts was the Khmelnytsky Uprising, when Bohdan Khmelnytsky's supporters massacred tens of thousands of Jews
Jews
in the eastern and southern areas he controlled (today's Ukraine). The precise number of dead may never be known, but the decrease of the Jewish population during that period is estimated at 100,000 to 200,000, which also includes emigration, deaths from diseases and captivity in the Ottoman Empire, called jasyr.[143][144] European immigrants to the United States brought antisemitism to the country as early as the 17th century. Peter Stuyvesant, the Dutch governor of New Amsterdam, implemented plans to prevent Jews
Jews
from settling in the city. During the Colonial Era, the American government limited the political and economic rights of Jews. It was not until the American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
that Jews
Jews
gained legal rights, including the right to vote. However, even at their peak, the restrictions on Jews
Jews
in the United States were never as stringent as they had been in Europe.[145] In the Zaydi
Zaydi
imamate of Yemen, Jews
Jews
were also singled out for discrimination in the 17th century, which culminated in the general expulsion of all Jews
Jews
from places in Yemen
Yemen
to the arid coastal plain of Tihamah
Tihamah
and which became known as the Mawza Exile.[146] Enlightenment In 1744, Frederick II of Prussia
Prussia
limited the number of Jews
Jews
allowed to live in Breslau
Breslau
to only ten so-called "protected" Jewish families and encouraged a similar practice in other Prussian cities. In 1750 he issued the Revidiertes General Privilegium und Reglement vor die Judenschaft: the "protected" Jews
Jews
had an alternative to "either abstain from marriage or leave Berlin" (quoting Simon Dubnow). In the same year, Archduchess of Austria Maria Theresa ordered Jews
Jews
out of Bohemia
Bohemia
but soon reversed her position, on the condition that Jews
Jews
pay for their readmission every ten years. This extortion was known as malke-geld (queen's money). In 1752 she introduced the law limiting each Jewish family to one son. In 1782, Joseph II abolished most of these persecution practices in his Toleranzpatent, on the condition that Yiddish
Yiddish
and Hebrew were eliminated from public records and that judicial autonomy was annulled. Moses
Moses
Mendelssohn wrote that "Such a tolerance... is even more dangerous play in tolerance than open persecution." Imperial Russia Thousands of Jews
Jews
were slaughtered by Cossack Haidamaks in the 1768 massacre of Uman. In 1772, the empress of Russia
Russia
Catherine II forced the Jews
Jews
into the Pale of Settlement
Pale of Settlement
and to stay in their shtetls and forbade them from returning to the towns that they occupied before the partition of Poland.[147] From 1804, Jews
Jews
were banned from their villages, and began to stream into the towns.[148] A decree by emperor Nicholas I of Russia
Nicholas I of Russia
in 1827 conscripted Jews
Jews
under 18 years of age into the cantonist schools for a 25-year military service in order to promote baptism.[149] Policy towards Jews
Jews
was liberalised somewhat under Czar Alexander II
Czar Alexander II
(r. 1855–1881).[150] However, his assassination in 1881 served as a pretext for further repression such as the May Laws of 1882. Konstantin Pobedonostsev, nicknamed the "black czar" and tutor to the czarevitch, later crowned Czar Nicholas II, declared that "One third of the Jews
Jews
must die, one third must emigrate, and one third be converted to Christianity".[151] Voltaire According to Arnold Ages, Voltaire's "Lettres philosophiques, Dictionnaire philosophique, and Candide, to name but a few of his better known works, are saturated with comments on Jews
Jews
and Judaism and the vast majority are negative".[152] Paul H. Meyer adds: "There is no question but that Voltaire, particularly in his latter years, nursed a violent hatred of the Jews
Jews
and it is equally certain that his animosity...did have a considerable impact on public opinion in France."[153] Thirty of the 118 articles in Voltaire's Dictionnaire Philosophique concerned Jews
Jews
and described them in consistently negative ways.[154] Islamic antisemitism in the 19th century Historian Martin Gilbert
Martin Gilbert
writes that it was in the 19th century that the position of Jews
Jews
worsened in Muslim
Muslim
countries. Benny Morris
Benny Morris
writes that one symbol of Jewish degradation was the phenomenon of stone-throwing at Jews
Jews
by Muslim
Muslim
children. Morris quotes a 19th-century traveler: "I have seen a little fellow of six years old, with a troop of fat toddlers of only three and four, teaching [them] to throw stones at a Jew, and one little urchin would, with the greatest coolness, waddle up to the man and literally spit upon his Jewish gaberdine. To all this the Jew
Jew
is obliged to submit; it would be more than his life was worth to offer to strike a Mahommedan."[155] In the middle of the 19th century, J. J. Benjamin wrote about the life of Persian Jews, describing conditions and beliefs that went back to the 16th century: "…they are obliged to live in a separate part of town… Under the pretext of their being unclean, they are treated with the greatest severity and should they enter a street, inhabited by Mussulmans, they are pelted by the boys and mobs with stones and dirt…."[156] In Jerusalem
Jerusalem
at least, conditions for some Jews
Jews
improved. Moses Montefiore, on his seventh visit in 1875, noted that fine new buildings had sprung up and; 'surely we're approaching the time to witness God's hallowed promise unto Zion.' Muslim
Muslim
and Christian Arabs participated in Purim
Purim
and Passover; Arabs
Arabs
called the Sephardis 'Jews, sons of Arabs'; the Ulema
Ulema
and the Rabbis offered joint prayers for rain in time of drought.[157] At the time of the Dreyfus trial in France, ' Muslim
Muslim
comments usually favoured the persecuted Jew
Jew
against his Christian persecutors'.[158] Secular or racial antisemitism In 1850 the German composer Richard Wagner
Richard Wagner
– who has been called "the inventor of modern antisemitism"[159] – published Das Judenthum in der Musik (roughly "Jewishness in Music"[159]) under a pseudonym in the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik. The essay began as an attack on Jewish composers, particularly Wagner's contemporaries, and rivals, Felix Mendelssohn
Felix Mendelssohn
and Giacomo Meyerbeer, but expanded to accuse Jews of being a harmful and alien element in German culture, who corrupted morals and were, in fact, parasites incapable of creating truly "German" art. The crux was the manipulation and control by the Jews
Jews
of the money economy:[159]

According to the present constitution of this world, the Jew
Jew
in truth is already more than emancipated: he rules, and will rule, so long as Money remains the power before which all our doings and our dealings lose their force.[159]

Although originally published anonymously, when the essay was republished 19 years later, in 1869, the concept of the corrupting Jew had become so widely held that Wagner's name was affixed to it.[159] Antisemitism
Antisemitism
can also be found in many of the Grimms' Fairy Tales
Grimms' Fairy Tales
by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, published from 1812 to 1857. It is mainly characterized by Jews
Jews
being the villain of a story, such as in "The Good Bargain" ("Der gute Handel") and "The Jew
Jew
Among Thorns" ("Der Jude im Dorn"). The middle 19th century saw continued official harassment of the Jews, especially in Eastern Europe
Europe
under Czarist influence. For example, in 1846, 80 Jews
Jews
approached the governor in Warsaw to retain the right to wear their traditional dress, but were immediately rebuffed by having their hair and beards forcefully cut, at their own expense.[160] In America, even such influential figures as Walt Whitman tolerated bigotry toward the Jews. During his time as editor of the Brooklyn Eagle (1846–1848), the newspaper published historical sketches casting Jews
Jews
in a bad light.[161] The Dreyfus Affair
Dreyfus Affair
was an infamous antisemitic event of the late 19th century and early 20th century. Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish artillery captain in the French Army, was accused in 1894 of passing secrets to the Germans. As a result of these charges, Dreyfus was convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment on Devil's Island. The actual spy, Marie Charles Esterhazy, was acquitted. The event caused great uproar among the French, with the public choosing sides on the issue of whether Dreyfus was actually guilty or not. Émile Zola
Émile Zola
accused the army of corrupting the French justice system. However, general consensus held that Dreyfus was guilty: 80% of the press in France condemned him. This attitude among the majority of the French population reveals the underlying antisemitism of the time period.[162] Adolf Stoecker (1835–1909), the Lutheran
Lutheran
court chaplain to Kaiser Wilhelm I, founded in 1878 an antisemitic, anti-liberal political party called the Christian Social Party.[163][164] This party always remained small, and its support dwindled after Stoecker's death, with most of its members eventually joining larger conservative groups such as the German National People's Party. Some scholars view Karl Marx's essay On The Jewish Question
On The Jewish Question
as antisemitic, and argue that he often used antisemitic epithets in his published and private writings.[165][166][167] These scholars argue that Marx equated Judaism
Judaism
with capitalism in his essay, helping to spread that idea. Some further argue that the essay influenced National Socialist, as well as Soviet and Arab antisemites.[168][169][170] Marx himself had Jewish ancestry, and Albert Lindemann and Hyam Maccoby have suggested that he was embarrassed by it.[171][172] Others argue that Marx consistently supported Prussian Jewish communities' struggles to achieve equal political rights. These scholars argue that "On the Jewish Question" is a critique of Bruno Bauer's arguments that Jews
Jews
must convert to Christianity before being emancipated, and is more generally a critique of liberal rights discourses and capitalism.[173][174][175][176] Iain Hamphsher-Monk wrote that "This work [On The Jewish Question] has been cited as evidence for Marx's supposed anti-semitism, but only the most superficial reading of it could sustain such an interpretation."[177] David McLellan and Francis Wheen argue that readers should interpret On the Jewish Question in the deeper context of Marx's debates with Bruno Bauer, author of The Jewish Question, about Jewish emancipation
Jewish emancipation
in Germany. Wheen says that "Those critics, who see this as a foretaste of 'Mein Kampf', overlook one, essential point: in spite of the clumsy phraseology and crude stereotyping, the essay was actually written as a defense of the Jews. It was a retort to Bruno Bauer, who had argued that Jews
Jews
should not be granted full civic rights and freedoms unless they were baptised as Christians".[178] According to McLellan, Marx used the word Judentum colloquially, as meaning commerce, arguing that Germans must be emancipated from the capitalist mode of production not Judaism
Judaism
or Jews in particular. McLellan concludes that readers should interpret the essay's second half as "an extended pun at Bauer's expense".[179] 20th century See also: Jewish Bolshevism
Jewish Bolshevism
and Racial policy of Nazi
Nazi
Germany

The victims of a 1905 pogrom in Yekaterinoslav

Between 1900 and 1924, approximately 1.75 million Jews
Jews
migrated to America, the bulk from Eastern Europe. Before 1900 American Jews
Jews
had always amounted to less than 1% of America's total population, but by 1930 Jews
Jews
formed about 3.5%. This increase, combined with the upward social mobility of some Jews, contributed to a resurgence of antisemitism. In the first half of the 20th century, in the USA, Jews were discriminated against in employment, access to residential and resort areas, membership in clubs and organizations, and in tightened quotas on Jewish enrolment and teaching positions in colleges and universities. The lynching of Leo Frank
Leo Frank
by a mob of prominent citizens in Marietta, Georgia
Marietta, Georgia
in 1915 turned the spotlight on antisemitism in the United States.[180] The case was also used to build support for the renewal of the Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
which had been inactive since 1870.[181] At the beginning of the 20th century, the Beilis Trial in Russia represented incidents of blood-libel in Europe. Christians used allegations of Jews
Jews
killing Christians as a justification for the killing of Jews.[citation needed] Antisemitism
Antisemitism
in America reached its peak during the interwar period. The pioneer automobile manufacturer Henry Ford
Henry Ford
propagated antisemitic ideas in his newspaper The Dearborn Independent
The Dearborn Independent
(published by Ford from 1919 to 1927). The radio speeches of Father Coughlin
Father Coughlin
in the late 1930s attacked Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal
New Deal
and promoted the notion of a Jewish financial conspiracy. Some prominent politicians shared such views: Louis T. McFadden, Chairman of the United States House Committee on Banking and Currency, blamed Jews
Jews
for Roosevelt's decision to abandon the gold standard, and claimed that "in the United States today, the Gentiles have the slips of paper while the Jews
Jews
have the lawful money".[182] In the early 1940s the aviator Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
and many prominent Americans led The America First Committee
America First Committee
in opposing any involvement in the war against Fascism. During his July 1936 visit to Nazi Germany, a few weeks before the 1936 Summer Olympics, Lindbergh wrote letters saying that there was "more intelligent leadership in Germany than is generally recognized". The German American Bund
German American Bund
held parades in New York City during the late 1930s, where members wore Nazi uniforms and raised flags featuring swastikas alongside American flags. Sometimes race riots, as in Detroit in 1943, targeted Jewish businesses for looting and burning.[183]

A wagon piled high with corpses outside the crematorium at the recently liberated Buchenwald concentration camp

1941 decree of Boris III of Bulgaria
Boris III of Bulgaria
for approval of the antisemitic Law for protection of the nation

In Germany, Nazism
Nazism
led Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
and the Nazi
Nazi
Party, who came to power on 30 January 1933 shortly afterwards instituted repressive legislation which denied the Jews
Jews
basic civil rights.[184][185] In September 1935, the Nuremberg Laws
Nuremberg Laws
prohibited sexual relations and marriages between "Aryans" and Jews
Jews
as Rassenschande
Rassenschande
("race disgrace") and stripped all German Jews, even quarter- and half-Jews, of their citizenship, (their official title became "subjects of the state").[186] It instituted a pogrom on the night of 9–10 November 1938, dubbed Kristallnacht, in which Jews
Jews
were killed, their property destroyed and their synagogues torched.[187] Antisemitic
Antisemitic
laws, agitation and propaganda were extended to German-occupied Europe
German-occupied Europe
in the wake of conquest, often building on local antisemitic traditions. In the east the Third Reich forced Jews
Jews
into ghettos in Warsaw, in Kraków, in Lvov, in Lublin and in Radom.[188] After the beginning of the war between Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1941 a campaign of mass murder, conducted by the Einsatzgruppen, culminated from 1942 to 1945 in systematic genocide: the Holocaust.[189] Eleven million Jews
Jews
were targeted for extermination by the Nazis, and some six million were eventually killed.[189][190][191] Antisemitism
Antisemitism
was commonly used as an instrument for settling personal conflicts in the Soviet Union, starting with the conflict between Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
and Leon Trotsky
Leon Trotsky
and continuing through numerous conspiracy-theories spread by official propaganda. Antisemitism
Antisemitism
in the USSR reached new heights after 1948 during the campaign against the "rootless cosmopolitan" (euphemism for "Jew") in which numerous Yiddish-language poets, writers, painters and sculptors were killed or arrested.[192][193] This culminated in the so-called Doctors' Plot (1952–1953). Similar antisemitic propaganda in Poland resulted in the flight of Polish Jewish survivors from the country.[193] After the war, the Kielce pogrom
Kielce pogrom
and the "March 1968 events" in communist Poland represented further incidents of antisemitism in Europe. The anti-Jewish violence in postwar Poland has a common theme of blood libel rumours.[194][195] 21st-century European antisemitism Further information: Antisemitism in Europe
Antisemitism in Europe
§ In the 21st century Physical assaults against Jews
Jews
in those countries included beatings, stabbings and other violence, which increased markedly, sometimes resulting in serious injury and death.[196][197] A 2015 report by the US State Department on religious freedom declared that "European anti- Israel
Israel
sentiment crossed the line into anti-Semitism."[198] This rise in antisemitic attacks is associated with both the Muslim anti-Semitism and the rise of far-right political parties as a result of the economic crisis of 2008.[199] This rise in the support for far right ideas in western and eastern Europe
Europe
has resulted in the increase of antisemitic acts, mostly attacks on Jewish memorials, synagogues and cemeteries but also a number of physical attacks against Jews.[200] In Eastern Europe
Europe
the dissolution of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the instability of the new states has brought the rise of nationalist movements and the accusation against Jews
Jews
for the economic crisis, taking over the local economy and bribing the government alongside with traditional and religious motives for antisemitism such as blood libels. Most of the antisemitic incidents are against Jewish cemeteries and building (community centers and synagogues). Nevertheless, there were several violent attacks against Jews
Jews
in Moscow in 2006 when a neo- Nazi
Nazi
stabbed 9 people at the Bolshaya Bronnaya Synagogue,[201] the failed bomb attack on the same synagogue in 1999,[202] the threats against Jewish pilgrims in Uman, Ukraine[203] and the attack against a menorah by extremist Christian organization in Moldova in 2009.[204] Europeans are concerned about antisemitism because, historically, societies with a large degree of anti-Semitism are self-destructive.[205] Furthermore, the Jews
Jews
of Europe
Europe
have generally aligned themselves with Europe's democratic elite, a class whose future is uncertain according to the Economist Intelligence Unit.[206] 21st-century Arab
Arab
antisemitism Main article: Antisemitism
Antisemitism
in the Arab
Arab
world

Displaced Iraqi Jews
Jews
arrive in Israel
Israel
in 1951 during the Jewish exodus from Arab
Arab
and Muslim
Muslim
countries

Robert Bernstein, founder of Human Rights Watch, says that antisemitism is "deeply ingrained and institutionalized" in "Arab nations in modern times."[207] In a 2011 survey by the Pew Research Center, all of the Muslim-majority Middle Eastern countries polled held few positive opinions of Jews. In the questionnaire, only 2% of Egyptians, 3% of Lebanese Muslims, and 2% of Jordanians reported having a positive view of Jews. Muslim-majority countries outside the Middle East similarly had few who held positive views of Jews, with 4% of Turks and 9% of Indonesians viewing Jews
Jews
favorably.[208] According to a 2011 exhibition at the United States Holocaust
Holocaust
Memorial Museum in Washington, United States, some of the dialogue from Middle East media and commentators about Jews
Jews
bear a striking resemblance to Nazi
Nazi
propaganda.[209] According to Josef Joffe of Newsweek, "anti-Semitism—the real stuff, not just bad-mouthing particular Israeli policies—is as much part of Arab
Arab
life today as the hijab or the hookah. Whereas this darkest of creeds is no longer tolerated in polite society in the West, in the Arab
Arab
world, Jew
Jew
hatred remains culturally endemic."[210] Muslim
Muslim
clerics in the Middle East have frequently referred to Jews
Jews
as descendants of apes and pigs, which are conventional epithets for Jews and Christians.[211][212][213] According to professor Robert Wistrich, director of the Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism
Antisemitism
(SICSA), the calls for the destruction of Israel
Israel
by Iran
Iran
or by Hamas, Hezbollah, Islamic Jihad, or the Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood, represent a contemporary mode of genocidal antisemitism.[214] Causes

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (July 2011)

Antisemitism
Antisemitism
has been explained in terms of racism, xenophobia, projected guilt, displaced aggression, and the search for a scapegoat.[215] Some explanations assign partial blame to the perception of Jewish people as unsociable. Such a perception may have arisen by many Jews
Jews
having strictly kept to their own communities, with their own practices and laws.[216] It has also been suggested that parts of antisemitism arose from a perception of Jewish people as greedy (as often used in stereotypes of Jews), and this perception has probably evolved in Europe
Europe
during Medieval times where a large portion of money lending was operated by Jews.[217] Factors contributing to this situation included that Jews were restricted from other professions,[217] while the Christian Church declared for their followers that money lending constituted immoral "usury".[218] Current situation Main article: Geography of antisemitism A March 2008 report by the U.S. State Department found that there was an increase in antisemitism across the world, and that both old and new expressions of antisemitism persist.[219] A 2012 report by the U.S. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor
Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor
also noted a continued global increase in antisemitism, and found that Holocaust denial and opposition to Israeli policy at times was used to promote or justify blatant antisemitism.[220] Africa See also: Antisemitism
Antisemitism
in Africa Algeria Further information: History of the Jews
Jews
in Algeria Almost all Jews
Jews
in Algeria
Algeria
left upon independence in 1962. Algeria's 140,000 Jews
Jews
had French citizenship since 1870 (briefly revoked by Vichy France
France
in 1940), and they mainly went to France, with some going to Israel. Egypt In Egypt, Dar al-Fadhilah published a translation of Henry Ford's antisemitic treatise, The International Jew, complete with distinctly antisemitic imagery on the cover.[221] On 5 May 2001, after Shimon Peres
Shimon Peres
visited Egypt, the Egyptian al-Akhbar internet paper said that "lies and deceit are not foreign to Jews[...]. For this reason, Allah changed their shape and made them into monkeys and pigs."[222] In July 2012, Egypt's Al Nahar channel fooled actors into thinking they were on an Israeli television show and filmed their reactions to being told it was an Israeli television show. In response, some of the actors launched into antisemitic rants or dialogue, and many became violent. Actress Mayer El Beblawi said that "Allah did not curse the worm and moth as much as he cursed the Jews" while actor Mahmoud Abdel Ghaffar launched into a violent rage and said, "You brought me someone who looks like a Jew... I hate the Jews
Jews
to death" after finding out it was a prank.[223][224] Libya Further information: History of the Jews
Jews
in Libya Libya
Libya
had once one of the oldest Jewish communities in the world, dating back to 300 BCE. Despite the repression of Jews
Jews
in the late 1930, as a result of the pro- Nazi
Nazi
Fascist Italian regime, Jews
Jews
were third of the population of Libya
Libya
till 1941. In 1942 the Nazi
Nazi
German troops occupied the Jewish quarter of Benghazi, plundering shops and deporting more than 2,000 Jews
Jews
across the desert. Sent to work in labor camps, more than one-fifth of this group of Jews
Jews
perished. A series of pogroms started in November 1945, while more than 140 Jews were killed in Tripoli
Tripoli
and most synagogues in the city looted.[225] Upon Libya's independence in 1951, most of the Jewish community emigrated from Libya. After the Suez Crisis
Suez Crisis
in 1956, another series of pogroms forced all but about 100 Jews
Jews
to flee. When Muammar al-Gaddafi came to power in 1969, all remaining Jewish property was confiscated and all debts to Jews
Jews
cancelled. Morocco Further information: History of the Jews
Jews
in Morocco Jewish communities, in Islamic times often living in ghettos known as mellah, have existed in Morocco
Morocco
for at least 2,000 years. Intermittent large scale massacres (such as that of 6,000 Jews
Jews
in Fez in 1033, over 100,000 Jews
Jews
in Fez and Marrakesh
Marrakesh
in 1146 and again in Marrakesh
Marrakesh
in 1232)[155][226] were accompanied by systematic discrimination through the years. In 1875, 20 Jews
Jews
were killed by a mob in Demnat, Morocco; elsewhere in Morocco, Jews
Jews
were attacked and killed in the streets in broad daylight.[227] While the pro- Nazi
Nazi
Vichy regime during World War II passed discriminatory laws against Jews, King Muhammad prevented deportation of Jews
Jews
to death camps (although Jews
Jews
with French, as opposed to Moroccan, citizenship, being directly subject to Vichy law, were still deported.) In 1948, approximately 265,000 Jews
Jews
lived in Morocco. Between 5,000 and 8,000 live there now. In June 1948, soon after Israel
Israel
was established and in the midst of the first Arab-Israeli war, riots against Jews
Jews
broke out in Oujda
Oujda
and Djerada, killing 44 Jews. In 1948-9, 18,000 Jews
Jews
left the country for Israel. After this, Jewish emigration continued (to Israel
Israel
and elsewhere), but slowed to a few thousand a year. Through the early fifties, Zionist organizations encouraged emigration, particularly in the poorer south of the country, seeing Moroccan Jews
Jews
as valuable contributors to the Jewish State: In 1955, Morocco
Morocco
attained independence and emigration to Israel
Israel
has increased further until 1956 then it was prohibited until 1963, then resumed.[1] By 1967, only 60,000 Jews
Jews
remained in Morocco. The Six-Day War
Six-Day War
in 1967 led to increased Arab-Jewish tensions worldwide, including Morocco. By 1971, the Jewish population was down to 35,000; however, most of this wave of emigration went to Europe
Europe
and North America
North America
rather than Israel. South Africa Further information: History of the Jews
Jews
in South Africa Antisemitism
Antisemitism
has been present in history of South Africa
South Africa
since Europeans first set foot ashore on the Cape Peninsula. In the years 1652–1795 Jews
Jews
were not allowed to settle at the Cape. An 1868 Act would sanction religious discrimination.[228] Antisemitism
Antisemitism
reached its apotheosis in the years leading up to World War II. Inspired by the rise of national socialism in Germany
Germany
the Ossewabrandwag
Ossewabrandwag
(OB) – whose membership accounted for almost 25% of the 1940 Afrikaner population – and the National Party faction New Order would champion a more programmatic solution to the 'Jewish problem'.[229] Tunisia Further information: History of the Jews
Jews
in Tunisia Jews
Jews
have lived in Tunisia
Tunisia
for at least 2300 years. In the 13th century, Jews
Jews
were expelled from their homes in Kairouan
Kairouan
and were ultimately restricted to ghettos, known as hara. Forced to wear distinctive clothing, several Jews
Jews
earned high positions in the Tunisian government. Several prominent international traders were Tunisian Jews. From 1855 to 1864, Muhammad Bey relaxed dhimmi laws, but reinstated them in the face of anti-Jewish riots that continued at least until 1869. Tunisia, as the only Middle Eastern country under direct Nazi
Nazi
control during World War II, was also the site of racist antisemitic measures activities such as the yellow star, prison camps, deportations, and other persecution. In 1948, approximately 105,000 Jews
Jews
lived in Tunisia. Only about 1,500 remain there today. Following Tunisia's independence from France
France
in 1956, a number of anti-Jewish policies led to emigration, of which half went to Israel
Israel
and the other half to France. After attacks in 1967, Jewish emigration both to Israel
Israel
and France
France
accelerated. There were also attacks in 1982, 1985, and most recently in 2002 when a bomb in Djerba
Djerba
took 21 lives (most of them German tourists) near the local synagogue, in a terrorist attack claimed by Al-Qaeda. Asia Iran See also: Holocaust denial
Holocaust denial
in Iran Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, former president of Iran, has frequently been accused of denying the Holocaust. In July, the winner of Iran's first annual International Wall Street Downfall Cartoon Festival, jointly sponsored by the semi-state-run Iranian media outlet Fars News, was an antisemitic cartoon depicting Jews
Jews
praying before the New York Stock Exchange, which is made to look like the Western Wall. Other cartoons in the contest were antisemitic as well. The national director of the Anti- Defamation
Defamation
League, Abraham Foxman, condemned the cartoon, stating that "Here's the anti-Semitic notion of Jews
Jews
and their love for money, the canard that Jews 'control' Wall Street, and a cynical perversion of the Western Wall, the holiest site in Judaism," and "Once again Iran
Iran
takes the prize for promoting antisemitism."[230][231][232] Japan Main article: Antisemitism
Antisemitism
in Japan The Japanese first learned about antisemitism in 1918, during the cooperation of the Imperial Japanese Army
Imperial Japanese Army
with the White movement
White movement
in Siberia. White Army soldiers had been issued copies of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, and "The Protocols continue to be used as evidence of Jewish conspiracies even though they are widely acknowledged to be a forgery.[233] During World War II, Nazi
Nazi
Germany encouraged Japan to adopt antisemitic policies. In the post-war period, extremist groups and ideologues have promoted conspiracy theories. Lebanon In 2004, Al-Manar, a media network affiliated with Hezbollah, aired a drama series, The Diaspora, which observers allege is based on historical antisemitic allegations. BBC
BBC
correspondents who have watched the program says it quotes extensively from the Protocols of the Elders of Zion.[234] Malaysia See also: History of the Jews
Jews
in Malaysia Although Malaysia
Malaysia
presently has no substantial Jewish population, the country has reportedly become an example of a phenomenon called "antisemitism without Jews."[235][236] In his treatise on Malay identity, "The Malay Dilemma," which was published in 1970, former Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad wrote: "The Jews
Jews
are not only hooked-nosed... but understand money instinctively.... Jewish stinginess and financial wizardry gained them the economic control of Europe
Europe
and provoked antisemitism which waxed and waned throughout Europe
Europe
through the ages."[237] The Malay-language Utusan Malaysia
Malaysia
daily stated in an editorial that Malaysians "cannot allow anyone, especially the Jews, to interfere secretly in this country's business... When the drums are pounded hard in the name of human rights, the pro-Jewish people will have their best opportunity to interfere in any Islamic country," the newspaper said. "We might not realize that the enthusiasm to support actions such as demonstrations will cause us to help foreign groups succeed in their mission of controlling this country." Prime Minister Najib Razak's office subsequently issued a statement late Monday saying Utusan's claim did "not reflect the views of the government."[238][239][240] Palestinian territories See also: Tomorrow's Pioneers, Racism
Racism
in the Palestinian territories, and Textbooks in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict

Haj Amin al-Husseini
Haj Amin al-Husseini
is a central figure of Palestinian nationalism
Palestinian nationalism
in Mandatory Palestine. He took refuge and collaborated with Nazi
Nazi
Germany during World War II. He met Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
in December 1941. Scholarly opinion is divided on the Mufti's antisemitsm, with many scholars viewing him as a staunch antisemite[241] while some deny the appropriateness of the term, or argue that he became antisemitic.[242]

In March 2011, the Israeli government issued a paper claiming that "Anti- Israel
Israel
and anti-Semitic messages are heard regularly in the government and private media and in the mosques and are taught in school books," to the extent that they are "an integral part of the fabric of life inside the PA."[243] In August 2012, Israeli Strategic Affairs Ministry director-general Yossi Kuperwasser stated that Palestinian incitement to antisemitism is "going on all the time" and that it is "worrying and disturbing." At an institutional level, he said the PA has been promoting three key messages to the Palestinian people that constitute incitement: "that the Palestinians would eventually be the sole sovereign on all the land from the Jordan
Jordan
River to the Mediterranean Sea; that Jews, especially those who live in Israel, were not really human beings but rather 'the scum of mankind'; and that all tools were legitimate in the struggle against Israel
Israel
and the Jews."[244] In August 2014, the Hamas' spokesman in Doha said on live television that Jews
Jews
use blood to make matzos.[245] Pakistan See also: History of the Jews
Jews
in Pakistan
Pakistan
and Antisemitism
Antisemitism
in Pakistan The U.S. State Department's first Report on Global Anti-Semitism mentioned a strong feeling of antisemitism in Pakistan.[246] In Pakistan, a country without Jewish communities, antisemitic sentiment fanned by antisemitic articles in the press is widespread.[247] In Pakistan, Jews
Jews
are often regarded as miserly.[248] After Israel's independence in 1948, violent incidents occurred against Pakistan's small Jewish community of about 2,000 Bene Israel
Bene Israel
Jews. The Magain Shalome Synagogue
Synagogue
in Karachi
Karachi
was attacked, as were individual Jews. The persecution of Jews
Jews
resulted in their exodus via India
India
to Israel (see Pakistanis in Israel), the UK, Canada and other countries. The Peshawar
Peshawar
Jewish community ceased to exist[249] although a small community reportedly still exists in Karachi. A substantial number of people in Pakistan
Pakistan
believe that the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York were a secret Jewish conspiracy organized by Israel's MOSSAD, as were the 7 July 2005 London bombings, allegedly perpetrated by Jews
Jews
in order to discredit Muslims. Pakistani political commentator Zaid Hamid claimed that Indian Jews
Jews
perpetrated the 2008 Mumbai
Mumbai
attacks.[250][251] Such allegations echo traditional antisemitic theories.[252][253] The Jewish religious movement of Chabad Lubavich
Chabad Lubavich
had a mission house in Mumbai, India
India
that was attacked in the 2008 Mumbai
Mumbai
attacks, perpetrated by militants connected to Pakistan
Pakistan
led by Ajmal Kasab, a Pakistani national.[254][255] Antisemitic
Antisemitic
intents were evident from the testimonies of Kasab following his arrest and trial.[256] Saudi Arabia Main article: History of the Jews
Jews
in Saudi Arabia Saudi textbooks vilify Jews, call Jews
Jews
apes; demand that students avoid and not befriend Jews; claim that Jews
Jews
worship the devil; and encourage Muslims to engage in Jihad
Jihad
to vanquish Jews.[257] Saudi Arabian government officials and state religious leaders often promote the idea that Jews
Jews
are conspiring to take over the entire world; as proof of their claims they publish and frequently cite The Protocols of the Elders of Zion as factual.[258][259] In 2004, the official Saudi Arabia tourism website said that Jews
Jews
and holders of Israeli passports would not be issued visas to enter the country. After an uproar, the restriction against Jews
Jews
was removed from the website although the ban against Israeli passport-holders remained.[260] In late 2014, a Saudi newspaper reported that foreign workers of most religions, including Judaism, were welcome in the kingdom, but Israeli citizens were not.[261] Turkey Main articles: Antisemitism in Turkey
Antisemitism in Turkey
and History of the Jews
Jews
in Turkey In 2003, the Neve Shalom Synagogue
Synagogue
was targeted in a car bombing, killing 21 Turkish Muslims and 6 Jews.[262] In June 2011, the Economist suggested that "The best way for Turks to promote democracy would be to vote against the ruling party". Not long after, the Turkish Prime Minister, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, said that "The International media, as they are supported by Israel, would not be happy with the continuation of the AKP government".[263] The Hurriyet Daily News quoted Erdoğan at the time as claiming "The Economist is part of an Israeli conspiracy that aims to topple the Turkish government".[264] Moreover, during Erdogan's tenure, Hitler's Mein Kampf
Mein Kampf
has once again become a best selling book in Turkey.[263] Prime Minister Erdogan called antisemitism a "crime against humanity." He also said that "as a minority, they're our citizens. Both their security and the right to observe their faith are under our guarantee."[265] Europe Main articles: Antisemitism in Europe
Antisemitism in Europe
and New antisemitism According to a 2004 report from the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Center for Public Affairs, antisemitism had increased significantly in Europe
Europe
since 2000, with significant increases in verbal attacks against Jews
Jews
and vandalism such as graffiti, fire bombings of Jewish schools, desecration of synagogues and cemeteries. Germany, France, Britain, and Russia
Russia
are the countries with the highest rate of antisemitic incidents in Europe.[196] The Netherlands
Netherlands
and Sweden have also consistently had high rates of antisemitic attacks since 2000.[266] Some claim that recent European antisemitic violence can actually be seen as a spillover from the long running Arab-Israeli conflict since the majority of the perpetrators are from the large Muslim
Muslim
immigrant communities in European cities. However, compared to France, the United Kingdom and much of the rest of Europe, in Germany
Germany
Arab
Arab
and pro-Palestinian groups are involved in only a small percentage of antisemitic incidents.[196][267] According to The Stephen Roth Institute for the Study of Contemporary Antisemitism
Antisemitism
and Racism, most of the more extreme attacks on Jewish sites and physical attacks on Jews
Jews
in Europe
Europe
come from militant Islamic and Muslim
Muslim
groups, and most Jews
Jews
tend to be assaulted in countries where groups of young Muslim immigrants reside.[268] On 1 January 2006, Britain's chief rabbi, Lord Jonathan Sacks, warned that what he called a "tsunami of antisemitism" was spreading globally. In an interview with BBC
BBC
Radio 4, Sacks said: "A number of my rabbinical colleagues throughout Europe
Europe
have been assaulted and attacked on the streets. We've had synagogues desecrated. We've had Jewish schools burnt to the ground—not here but in France. People are attempting to silence and even ban Jewish societies on campuses on the grounds that Jews
Jews
must support the state of Israel, therefore they should be banned, which is quite extraordinary because... British Jews see themselves as British citizens. So it's that kind of feeling that you don't know what's going to happen next that's making... some European Jewish communities uncomfortable."[269] Following an escalation in antisemitism in 2012, which included the deadly shooting of three children at a Jewish school in France, the European Jewish Congress demanded in July a more proactive response. EJC President Moshe Kantor explained, "We call on authorities to take a more proactive approach so there would be no reason for statements of regret and denunciation. All these smaller attacks remind me of smaller tremors before a massive earthquake. The Jewish community cannot afford to be subject to an earthquake and the authorities cannot say that the writing was not on the wall." He added that European countries should take legislative efforts to ban any form of incitement, as well as to equip the authorities with the necessary tools to confront any attempt to expand terrorist and violent activities against Jewish communities in Europe.[270] Austria Main article: Antisemitism
Antisemitism
in contemporary Austria France Main articles: Antisemitism
Antisemitism
in 21st-century France
France
and History of the Jews
Jews
in France France
France
is home to the continent's largest Jewish community (about 600,000). Jewish leaders decry an intensifying antisemitism in France,[271] mainly among Muslims of Arab
Arab
or African heritage, but also growing among Caribbean
Caribbean
islanders from former French colonies.[272] Former Interior Minister Nicolas Sarkozy
Nicolas Sarkozy
denounced the killing of Ilan Halimi
Ilan Halimi
on 13 February 2006 as an antisemitic crime. Jewish philanthropist Baron Eric de Rothschild
Eric de Rothschild
suggests that the extent of antisemitism in France
France
has been exaggerated. In an interview with The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Post he says that "the one thing you can't say is that France
France
is an anti-Semitic country."[273] In March 2012, Mohammed Merah opened fire at a Jewish school in Toulouse, killing a teacher and three children. An 8-year-old girl was shot in the head at point blank range. President Nicolas Sarkozy
Nicolas Sarkozy
said that it was "obvious" it was an antisemitic attack[274] and that, "I want to say to all the leaders of the Jewish community, how close we feel to them. All of France
France
is by their side." The Israeli Prime Minister condemned the "despicable anti-Semitic" murders.[275][276] After a 32-hour siege and standoff with the police outside his house, and a French raid, Merah jumped off a balcony and was shot in the head and killed.[277] Merah told police during the standoff that he intended to keep on attacking, and he loved death the way the police loved life. He also claimed connections with al-Qaeda.[278][279][280] 4 months later, in July 2012, a French Jewish teenager wearing a "distinctive religious symbol" was the victim of a violent antisemitic attack on a train travelling between Toulouse
Toulouse
and Lyon. The teen was first verbally harassed and later beaten up by two assailants. Richard Prasquier from the French Jewish umbrella group, CRIF, called the attack "another development in the worrying trend of anti-Semitism in our country."[281] Another incident in July 2012 dealt with the vandalism of the synagogue of Noisy-le-Grand
Noisy-le-Grand
of the Seine-Saint-Denis
Seine-Saint-Denis
district in Paris. The synagogue was vandalized three times in a ten-day period. Prayer books and shawls were thrown on the floor, windows were shattered, drawers were ransacked, and walls, tables, clocks, and floors were vandalized. The authorities were alerted of the incidents by the Bureau National de Vigilance Contre L’Antisémtisme (BNVCA), a French antisemitism watchdog group, which called for more measures to be taken to prevent future hate crimes. BNVCA President Sammy Ghozlan stated that, "Despite the measures taken, things persist, and I think that we need additional legislation, because the Jewish community is annoyed."[282] In August 2012, Abraham Cooper, the dean of the Simon Wiesenthal Center, met French Interior Minister Manuel Valls
Manuel Valls
and reported that antisemitic attacks against French Jews
Jews
increased by 40% since Merah's shooting spree in Toulouse. Cooper pressed Valls to take extra measures to secure the safety of French Jews, as well as to discuss strategies to foil an increasing trend of lone-wolf terrorists on the Internet.[283] Germany Further information: History of the Jews
Jews
in Germany Wolfgang Schäuble, the Interior Minister of Germany
Germany
in 2006, pointed out the official policy of Germany: "We will not tolerate any form of extremism, xenophobia or anti-Semitism."[284] Although the number of extreme right-wing groups and organisations grew from 141 (2001)[285] to 182 (2006),[286] especially in the formerly communist East Germany,[284] Germany's measures against right-wing groups and antisemitism are effective, despite Germany
Germany
having the highest rates of antisemitic acts in Europe. According to the annual reports of the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution the overall number of far-right extremists in Germany
Germany
dropped during the last years from 49,700 (2001),[285] 45,000 (2002),[285] 41,500 (2003),[285] 40,700 (2004),[286] 39,000 (2005),[286] to 38,600 in 2006.[286] Germany
Germany
provided several million euros to fund "nationwide programs aimed at fighting far-right extremism, including teams of traveling consultants, and victims' groups."[287] In July 2012, two women were assaulted in Germany, sprayed with tear gas, and were shown a "Hitler salute," apparently because of a Star of David necklace that they wore.[288] In late August 2012, Berlin
Berlin
police investigated an attack on a 53-year-old rabbi and his 6-year-old daughter, allegedly by four Arab teens, after which the rabbi needed treatment for head wounds at a hospital. The police classified the attack as a hate crime. Jüdische Allgemeine reported that the rabbi was wearing a kippah and was approached by one of the teens, who asked the rabbi if he was Jewish. The teen then attacked the rabbi while yelling antisemitic comments, and threatened to kill the rabbi's daughter. Berlin’s mayor condemned the attack, saying that " Berlin
Berlin
is an international city in which intolerance, xenophobia and anti-Semitism are not being tolerated. Police will undertake all efforts to find and arrest the perpetrators."[289] In October 2012, various historians, including Dr. Julius H. Schoeps, a prominent German-Jewish historian and a member of the German Interior Ministry’s commission to combat antisemitism, charged the majority of Bundestag
Bundestag
deputies with failing to understand antisemitism and the imperativeness of periodic legislative reports on German antisemitism. Schoeps cited various antisemitic statements by German parliament members as well. The report in question determined that 15% of Germans are antisemitic while over 20% espouse "latent anti-Semitism," but the report has been criticized for downplaying the sharpness of antisemitism in Germany, as well as for failing to examine anti- Israel
Israel
media coverage in Germany.[290] Greece Main article: Antisemitism
Antisemitism
in Greece Antisemitism in Greece
Antisemitism in Greece
manifests itself in religious, political and media discourse. The recent Greek government-debt crisis
Greek government-debt crisis
has facilitated the rise of far right groups in Greece, most notably the formerly obscure Golden Dawn. Jews
Jews
have lived in Greece since antiquity, but the largest community of around 20,000 Sephardic Jews settled in Thessalonica
Thessalonica
after an invitation from the Ottoman Sultan
Ottoman Sultan
in the 15th century. After Thessalonica
Thessalonica
was annexed to Greece in 1913, the Greek government recognized Jews
Jews
as Greek citizens with full rights and attributed Judaism
Judaism
the status of a recognized and protected religion. Currently in Greece, Jewish communities representing the 5,000 Greek Jews
Jews
are legal entities under public law. According to the ADL (Anti- Defamation
Defamation
League) report of 2015, the "ADL Global 100", a report of the status of antisemitism in 100 countries around the world, 69% of the adult population in Greece harbor antisemitic attitudes and 85% think that " Jews
Jews
have too much power in the business world".[291] In March 2015, a survey about the Greeks' perceptions of the holocaust was published. Its findings showed that less than 60 percent of the respondents think that holocaust teaching should be included in the curriculum.[292] Hungary Main article: Antisemitism
Antisemitism
in contemporary Hungary In the 21st century, antisemitism in Hungary has evolved and received an institutional framework, while verbal and physical aggression against Jews
Jews
has escalated, creating a great difference between its earlier manifestations in the 1990s and recent developments. One of the major representatives of this institutionalized antisemitic ideology is the popular Hungarian party Jobbik, which received 17 percent of the vote in the April 2010 national election. The far-right subculture, which ranges from nationalist shops to radical-nationalist and neo- Nazi
Nazi
festivals and events, plays a major role in the institutionalization of Hungarian antisemitism in the 21st century. The contemporary antisemitic rhetoric has been updated and expanded, but is still based on the old antisemitic notions. The traditional accusations and motifs include such phrases as Jewish occupation, international Jewish conspiracy, Jewish responsibility for the Treaty of Trianon, Judeo-Bolshevism, as well as blood libels against Jews. Nevertheless, the past few years have seen the reemergence of the blood libel and an increase in Holocaust
Holocaust
relativization and denial, while the monetary crisis has revived references to the "Jewish banker class".[293] Italy Main article: Antisemitism
Antisemitism
in 21st-century Italy The ongoing political conflict between Israel
Israel
and Palestine has played an important role in the development and expression of antisemitism in the 21st century, and in Italy as well. The Second Intifada, which began in late September 2000, has set in motion unexpected mechanisms, whereby traditional anti-Jewish prejudices were mixed with politically based stereotypes.[294] In this belief system, Israeli Jews
Jews
were charged with full responsibility for the fate of the peace process and with the conflict presented as embodying the struggle between good (the Palestinians) and evil (the Israeli Jews).[295] Netherlands Further information: History of the Jews
Jews
in the Netherlands The Netherlands
Netherlands
has the second highest incidence of antisemitic incidents in the European Union. However, it is difficult to obtain exact figures because the specific groups against whom attacks are made are not specifically identified in police reports, and analyses of police data for antisemitism therefore relies on key-word searches, e.g. "Jew" or "Israel". According to Centre for Information and Documentation on Israel
Israel
(CIDI), a pro- Israel
Israel
lobby group in the Netherlands,[296] the number of antisemitic incidents reported in the whole of the Netherlands
Netherlands
was 108 in 2008, 93 in 2009, and 124 in 2010. Some two thirds of this are acts of aggression. There are approximately 52 000 Dutch Jews.[297] According to the NRC Handelsblad newspaper, the number of antisemitic incidents in Amsterdam
Amsterdam
was 14 in 2008 and 30 in 2009.[298] In 2010, Raphaël Evers, an orthodox rabbi in Amsterdam, told the Norwegian newspaper Aftenposten
Aftenposten
that Jews
Jews
can no longer be safe in the city anymore due to the risk of violent assaults. "We Jews
Jews
no longer feel at home here in the Netherlands. Many people talk about moving to Israel," he said.[299] According to the Anne Frank Foundation, antisemitism in the Netherlands
Netherlands
in 2011 was roughly at the same level as in 2010.[300] Actual antisemitic incidents increased from 19 in 2010 to 30 in 2011. Verbal antisemitic incidents dropped slightly from 1173 in 2010 to 1098 in 2011. This accounts for 75%–80% of all verbal racist incidents in the Netherlands. Antisemitism
Antisemitism
is more prevalent in the age group 23–27 years, which is a younger group than that of racist incidents in general. Norway Main article: Antisemitism
Antisemitism
in Norway In 2010, the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation
Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation
after one year of research, revealed that antisemitism was common among some 8th, 9th, and 10th graders in Oslo's schools. Teachers at schools with large numbers of Muslims revealed that Muslim
Muslim
students often "praise or admire Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
for his killing of Jews", that "Jew-hate is legitimate within vast groups of Muslim
Muslim
students" and that "Muslims laugh or command [teachers] to stop when trying to educate about the Holocaust". Additionally, "while some students might protest when some express support for terrorism, none object when students express hate of Jews", saying that it says in "the Quran
Quran
that you shall kill Jews, all true Muslims hate Jews". Most of these students were said to be born and raised in Norway. One Jewish father also stated that his child had been taken by a Muslim
Muslim
mob after school (though the child managed to escape), reportedly "to be taken out to the forest and hung because he was a Jew".[301][302] Norwegian Education Minister Kristin Halvorsen referred to the antisemitism reported in this study as being "completely unacceptable." The head of a local Islamic council joined Jewish leaders and Halvorsen in denouncing such antisemitism.[303] In October 2012, the Organization for Security and Co-Operation in Europe
Europe
issued a report regarding antisemitism in Norway, criticizing Norway
Norway
for an increase in antisemitism in the country and blaming Norwegian officials for failing to address antisemitism."[304] Poland The University of Warsaw’s study in 2016 found that 37% of surveyed Poles expressed negative attitudes towards Jews
Jews
(up from 32% in 2015); 56% said that they wouldn't accept a Jew
Jew
in their family (up from 46%); and 32% wouldn't want Jewish neighbors (up from 27%).[305] In November 2015, following Antoni Macierewicz’s (Law and Justice party) designation as Minister of National Defence, he faced allegations of antisemitism and protests by the Anti Defamation League.[306][307][308] Russia Main article: Antisemitism
Antisemitism
in Russia Antisemitism in Russia
Antisemitism in Russia
refers to acts of hostility against Jews
Jews
in Russia
Russia
and the promotion of antisemitic views in the country since the end of the Soviet Union. Spain Main articles: Antisemitism in Spain
Antisemitism in Spain
and Anti-Semitism in International Brigades Sweden Main article: Antisemitism
Antisemitism
in Sweden After Germany
Germany
and Austria, Sweden has the highest rate of antisemitic incidents in Europe, though the Netherlands
Netherlands
has reported a higher rate of antisemitism in some years.[266] A government study in 2006 estimated that 15% of Swedes agree with the statement: "The Jews
Jews
have too much influence in the world today".[309] 5% of the total adult population and 39% of adult Muslims "harbour systematic antisemitic views".[309] The former prime minister Göran Persson
Göran Persson
described these results as "surprising and terrifying". However, the rabbi of Stockholm's Orthodox Jewish community, Meir Horden, said that "It's not true to say that the Swedes are anti-Semitic. Some of them are hostile to Israel
Israel
because they support the weak side, which they perceive the Palestinians to be."[310] In 2009, a synagogue that served the Jewish community in Malmö
Malmö
was set ablaze. Jewish cemeteries were repeatedly desecrated, worshippers were abused while returning home from prayer, and masked men mockingly chanted "Hitler" in the streets. As a result of security concerns, Malmö's synagogue has guards and rocket-proof glass in the windows, and the Jewish kindergarten can only be reached through thick steel security doors.[311] In early 2010, the Swedish publication The Local published series of articles about the growing antisemitism in Malmö, Sweden.[312] In 2009, the Malmö
Malmö
police received reports of 79 antisemitic incidents, which was twice the number of the previous year (2008).[313] Fredrik Sieradzki, spokesman for the Malmö
Malmö
Jewish community, estimated that the already small Jewish population is shrinking by 5% a year. "Malmö is a place to move away from," he said, citing antisemitism as the primary reason.[314] In March 2010, Fredrik Sieradzk told Die Presse, an Austrian Internet publication, that Jews
Jews
are being "harassed and physically attacked" by "people from the Middle East," although he added that only a small number of Malmö's 40,000 Muslims "exhibit hatred of Jews."[315] In October 2010, The Forward reported on the current state of Jews
Jews
and the level of antisemitism in Sweden. Henrik Bachner, a writer and professor of history at the University of Lund, claimed that members of the Swedish Parliament have attended anti- Israel
Israel
rallies where the Israeli flag was burned while the flags of Hamas
Hamas
and Hezbollah
Hezbollah
were waved, and the rhetoric was often antisemitic—not just anti-Israel.[316] Judith Popinski, an 86-year-old Holocaust
Holocaust
survivor, stated that she is no longer invited to schools that have a large Muslim
Muslim
presence to tell her story of surviving the Holocaust.[314] In December 2010, the Jewish human rights organization Simon Wiesenthal Center
Simon Wiesenthal Center
issued a travel advisory concerning Sweden, advising Jews
Jews
to express "extreme caution" when visiting the southern parts of the country due to an alleged increase in verbal and physical harassment of Jewish citizens in the city of Malmö.[317] Ilmar Reepalu, the mayor of Malmö
Malmö
for over 15 years, has been accused of failing to protect the Jewish community in Malmö, causing 30 Jewish families to leave the city in 2010, and more preparing to leave, which has left the possibility that Malmö's Jewish community will disappear soon. Critics of Reepalu say that his statements, such as antisemitism in Malmö
Malmö
actually being an "understandable" consequence of Israeli policy in the Middle East, have encouraged young Muslims to abuse and harass the Jewish community.[311] In an interview with the Sunday Telegraph in February 2010, Reepalu said, "There haven't been any attacks on Jewish people, and if Jews
Jews
from the city want to move to Israel
Israel
that is not a matter for Malmö," which renewed concerns about Reepalu.[318] Ukraine Main article: Antisemitism
Antisemitism
in Ukraine

Antisemithic graffiti in Lviv; Yids
Yids
will not reside in Lviv, 2007

Oleh Tyahnybok, the leader of the far-right Svoboda party, whose members hold senior positions in Ukraine's government, urged his party to fight "the Moscow-Jewish mafia ruling Ukraine."[319] The Algemeiner Journal reported: "Svoboda supporters include among their heroes leaders of pro- Nazi
Nazi
World War II
World War II
organizations known for their atrocities against Jews
Jews
and Poles, such as the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN), the Ukrainian Insurgent Army
Ukrainian Insurgent Army
(UPA), and the 14th Waffen-SS Galicia Division."[320] According to The Simon Wiesenthal Center
Simon Wiesenthal Center
(in January 2011) "Ukraine has, to the best of our knowledge, never conducted a single investigation of a local Nazi
Nazi
war criminal, let alone prosecuted a Holocaust
Holocaust
perpetrator."[321] According to Der Spiegel, Dmytro Yarosh, leader of the far-right Right Sector, wrote: "I wonder how it came to pass that most of the billionaires in Ukraine
Ukraine
are Jews?"[322] Late February 2014 Yarosh pledged during a meeting with Israel’s ambassador in Kiev
Kiev
to fight all forms of racism.[323] Right Sector's leader for West Ukraine, Oleksandr Muzychko, has talked about fighting "communists, Jews
Jews
and Russians for as long as blood flows in my veins."[324] Muzychko was shot dead on 24 March 2014.[325] An official inquiry concluded he had shot himself in the heart at the end of a chase with the Ukrainian police.[325] In April 2014, Donetsk
Donetsk
Chief Rabbi
Rabbi
Pinchas Vishedski said that "Anti-Semitic incidents in the Russian-speaking east were rare, unlike in Kiev
Kiev
and western Ukraine."[326] In an April 2014 article about anti-Jewish violence in Ukraine
Ukraine
in Haaretz
Haaretz
no incidents outside this "Russian-speaking east" were mentioned.[327] According to the Israel's Ambassador to Ukraine, the antisemitism occurs here much less frequently than in other European countries, and has more a hooligan's nature rather than a system.[328] United Kingdom Main articles: Antisemitism in the United Kingdom
Antisemitism in the United Kingdom
and British Jews In 2017 an Institute for Jewish Policy Research
Institute for Jewish Policy Research
survey found that the levels of anti-Semitism in Great Britain were among the lowest in the world, with 2.4% expressing multiple anti-Semitic attitudes, and about 70% having a favourable opinion of Jews. However, only 17% had a favourable opinion of Israel, with 33% holding an unfavourable view.[329][330] In 2017, a report by the Campaign Against Antisemitism
Antisemitism
(CAA) found that the previous year, 2016, had been the worst on record for antisemitic hate crime in the UK.[331] Prior to that, 2015 had been the worst year on record, and 2014 was the worst year on record before that. The report found that in 2016, antisemitic crime rose by 15% compared to 2015, or 45% compared to 2014. It also found that 1 in 10 antisemitic crimes was violent. Despite rising levels of antisemitic crime, the report said there had been a decrease in the charging of antisemitic crime. In the report's foreword, the CAA's Chairman wrote: "Britain has the political will to fight antisemitism and strong laws with which to do it, but those responsible for tackling the rapidly growing racist targeting of British Jews
Jews
are failing to enforce the law. There is a very real danger of Jewish citizens emigrating, as has happened elsewhere in Europe
Europe
unless there is radical change."[331] Every year since 2015, the CAA has commissioned polling by YouGov concerning the attitude of the British public toward British Jews. In 2017, their polling found that 36% of British adults believed at least one of the antisemitic statements pollsters had shown them to be true, a reduction from 39% in 2016 and 45% in 2015. Additionally, the polling revealed widespread fear amongst British Jews, with almost 1 in 3 saying that they had considered emigrating in the last two years due to antisemitism, and 37% saying that they concealed their Judaism in public. The report gave various indications as to the cause of the fears, with British Jews
Jews
identifying Islamist antisemitism, far-left antisemitism and far-right antisemitism as their main concerns, in that order. 78% of British Jews
Jews
saying that they had witnessed antisemitism disguised as a political comment about Israel, 76% thoughts that political developments were contributing antisemitism, and 52% felt that the Crown Prosecution Service
Crown Prosecution Service
was not doing enough.[332][333] In 2016, the Home Affairs Select Committee held an inquiry into the rise of antisemitism in the UK.[334] The inquiry called David Cameron, Tim Farron, Angus Robertson,[335] Jeremy Corbyn,[336] Ken Livingstone[337] and others to give evidence. In 2005, a group of British Members of Parliament set up an inquiry into antisemitism, which published its findings in 2006. Its report stated that "until recently, the prevailing opinion both within the Jewish community and beyond [had been] that antisemitism had receded to the point that it existed only on the margins of society." It found a reversal of this progress since 2000. The inquiry was reconstituted following a surge in antisemitic incidents in Britain during the summer of 2014, and the new inquiry published its report in 2015, making recommendations for reducing antisemitism.[338] North America Canada Main article: Antisemitism
Antisemitism
in Canada Although antisemitism in Canada is less prevalent than in many other countries, there have been recent incidents. For example, a 2004 study identified 24 incidents of antisemitism between 14 March and 14 July 2004 in Newfoundland, Montreal, Quebec City, Ottawa, the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), and some smaller Ontario communities. The incidents included vandalism and other attacks on four synagogues, six cemeteries, four schools, and a number of businesses and private residences.[339] United States Main article: Antisemitism
Antisemitism
in the United States See also: History of antisemitism
History of antisemitism
in the United States In November 2005, the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights examined antisemitism on college campuses. It reported that "incidents of threatened bodily injury, physical intimidation or property damage are now rare", but antisemitism still occurs on many campuses and is a "serious problem." The Commission recommended that the U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights
Office for Civil Rights
protect college students from antisemitism through vigorous enforcement of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and further recommended that Congress clarify that Title VI applies to discrimination against Jewish students.[340] On 19 September 2006, Yale University
Yale University
founded the Yale Initiative for the Interdisciplinary Study of Anti-Semitism (YIISA), the first North American university-based center for study of the subject, as part of its Institution for Social and Policy Studies. Director Charles Small of the Center cited the increase in antisemitism worldwide in recent years as generating a "need to understand the current manifestation of this disease".[341] In June 2011, Yale voted to close this initiative. After carrying out a routine review, the faculty review committee said that the initiative had not met its research and teaching standards. Donald Green, then head of Yale’s Institution for Social and Policy Studies, the body under whose aegis the antisemitism initiative was run, said that it had not had many papers published in the relevant leading journals or attracted many students. As with other programs that had been in a similar situation, the initiative had therefore been cancelled.[342][343] This decision has been criticized by figures such as former U.S. Commission on Civil Rights Staff Director Kenneth L. Marcus, who is now the director of the Initiative to Combat Anti-Semitism and Anti-Israelism in America’s Educational Systems at the Institute for Jewish and Community Research, and Deborah Lipstadt, who described the decision as "weird" and "strange."[344] Antony Lerman has supported Yale's decision, describing the YIISA as a politicized initiative that was devoted to the promotion of Israel rather than to serious research on antisemitism.[345] A 2007 survey by the Anti-Defamation League
Anti-Defamation League
(ADL) concluded that 15% of Americans hold antisemitic views, which was in-line with the average of the previous ten years, but a decline from the 29% of the early sixties. The survey concluded that education was a strong predictor, "with most educated Americans being remarkably free of prejudicial views." The belief that Jews
Jews
have too much power was considered a common antisemitic view by the ADL. Other views indicating antisemitism, according to the survey, include the view that Jews
Jews
are more loyal to Israel
Israel
than America, and that they are responsible for the death of Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth. The survey found that antisemitic Americans are likely to be intolerant generally, e.g. regarding immigration and free-speech. The 2007 survey also found that 29% of foreign-born Hispanics and 32% of African-Americans hold strong antisemitic beliefs, three times more than the 10% for whites.[346] A 2009 study published in Boston Review
Boston Review
found that nearly 25% of non-Jewish Americans blamed Jews
Jews
for the financial crisis of 2008–2009, with a higher percentage among Democrats than Republicans. 32% of Democrats blamed Jews
Jews
for the financial crisis, versus 18% for Republicans.[347][348] In August 2012, the California state assembly
California state assembly
approved a non-binding resolution that "encourages university leaders to combat a wide array of anti-Jewish and anti- Israel
Israel
actions," although the resolution "is purely symbolic and does not carry policy implications."[349] In April 2017, Politico
Politico
Magazine published an article purporting to show links between U.S. President Donald Trump, Russian President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
and the Jewish outreach organization Chabad-Lubavitch. The article was widely condemned, with the head of the Anti-Defamation League Jonathan Greenblatt
Jonathan Greenblatt
saying that it "evokes age-old myths about Jews".[350][351] In November 2017, Jonathan Greenblatt, national director and CEO of the Anti- Defamation
Defamation
League, stated in an interview, “While anti-Semitic attitudes have remained consistent at 14%... anti-Semitic incidents have been on the rise. In 2016 we saw a 34% increase over the prior year in acts of harassment, vandalism, or violence directed at Jewish individuals and institutions. During the first three quarters of 2017, there was a 67% increase over the same period in 2016. We’ve seen double the number of incidents in K-12 schools, and almost a 60% increase on college campuses." [352] South America Venezuela

Antisemitic
Antisemitic
graffiti in Venezuela, alongside a hammer and sickle

Further information: Antisemitism in Venezuela
Antisemitism in Venezuela
and History of the Jews in Venezuela In a 2009 news story, Michael Rowan and Douglas E. Schoen wrote, "In an infamous Christmas Eve speech several years ago, Chávez said the Jews
Jews
killed Christ and have been gobbling up wealth and causing poverty and injustice worldwide ever since."[353] Hugo Chávez
Hugo Chávez
stated that "[t]he world is for all of us, then, but it so happens that a minority, the descendants of the same ones that crucified Christ, the descendants of the same ones that kicked Bolívar out of here and also crucified him in their own way over there in Santa Marta, in Colombia. A minority has taken possession of all of the wealth of the world."[354] In February 2012, opposition candidate for the 2012 Venezuelan presidential election Henrique Capriles
Henrique Capriles
was subject to what foreign journalists characterized as vicious[355] attacks by state-run media sources.[356][357] The Wall Street
Wall Street
Journal said that Capriles "was vilified in a campaign in Venezuela's state-run media, which insinuated he was, among other things, a homosexual and a Zionist agent".[355] A 13 February 2012 opinion article in the state-owned Radio Nacional de Venezuela, titled "The Enemy is Zionism"[358] attacked Capriles' Jewish ancestry and linked him with Jewish national groups because of a meeting he had held with local Jewish leaders,[355][356][359] saying, "This is our enemy, the Zionism
Zionism
that Capriles today represents... Zionism, along with capitalism, are responsible for 90% of world poverty and imperialist wars."[355] See also

Judaism
Judaism
portal

1968 Polish political crisis Antisemitism
Antisemitism
around the world Antisemitism
Antisemitism
in the anti-globalization movement Antisemitism
Antisemitism
in the Arab
Arab
world Anti-Jewish violence in Eastern Europe, 1944–1946 Anti-Jewish violence in Poland, 1944–1946 Anti-Arabism Criticism of Judaism Farhud Host desecration Jacob Barnet affair Anti-Semite and Jew Judeo-Masonic conspiracy theory May Laws Orientalism Persecution
Persecution
of Jews Secondary antisemitism Stab-in-the-back legend Timeline of antisemitism

References Notes

^ Definition from the Oxford dictionary ^ a b anti-Semitism – Definition and More from the Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 2 June 2012. ^ See, for example:

"Anti-Semitism", Encyclopædia Britannica, 2006. Johnson, Paul. A History of the Jews, HarperPerennial 1988, p 133 ff. Lewis, Bernard. "The New Anti-Semitism", The American Scholar, Volume 75 No. 1, Winter 2006, pp. 25–36. The paper is based on a lecture delivered at Brandeis University
Brandeis University
on March 24, 2004.

^ United Nations General Assembly
United Nations General Assembly
Session 53 Resolution 133. Measures to combat contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance A/RES/53/133 page 4. 1 March 1999. ^ Nathan, Julie (9 November 2014). "2014 Report on Antisemitism
Antisemitism
in Australia" (PDF). Executive Council of Australian Jewry. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 April 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015.  ^ Bein 1990, p. 595. ^ Chanes 2004, p. 150. ^ Rattansi 2007, p. 4–5. ^ Roth 2003, p. 30. ^ Johnston 1983, p. 27. ^ Laqueur (2006). p. 21. ^ Johnson 1987, p. 133. ^ a b Lewis, Bernard. "Semites and Antisemites" Archived 14 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. Extract from Islam
Islam
in History: Ideas, Men and Events in the Middle East, The Library Press, 1973.

Lewis, Bernard. "The New Anti-Semitism", The American Scholar, Volume 75 No. 1, Winter 2006, pp. 25–36. The paper is based on a lecture delivered at Brandeis University
Brandeis University
on 24 March 2004. broken link

^ Bein, Alex. The Jewish Question: Biography of a World Problem. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1990, p. 594. ISBN 0-8386-3252-1. ^ Falk (2008), p. 21 ^ Poliakov, Léon The History of Anti-Semitism, Vol. 3: From Voltaire to Wagner, University of Pennsylvania Press: 2003, p. 404 ISBN 978-0-8122-1865-7 ^ Falk, Avner (2008). Anti-Semitism: A History and Psychoanalysis of Contemporary Hatred. Westport, Conn.: Praeger. p. 21. ^ Brustein, William I. (2003). Roots of Hate: Anti-Semitism in Europe before the Holocaust. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 118. ^ Jonathan M. Hess, Johann David Michaelis and the Colonial Imaginary: Orientalism
Orientalism
and the Emergence of Racial Antisemitism
Antisemitism
in Eighteenth-Century Germany, Jewish Social Studies, Volume 6, Number 2, Winter 2000 (New Series), pp. 56–101 10.1353/jss.2000.0003; quote: "When the term "antisemitism" was first introduced in Germany
Germany
in the late 1870s, those who used it did so in order to stress the radical difference between their own "antisemitism" and earlier forms of antagonism toward Jews
Jews
and Judaism." ^ Jaspal, Rusi (2014). Antisemitism
Antisemitism
and Anti-Zionism: Representation, Cognition and Everyday Talk. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate Publishing. Chapter 2, section "Antisemitism: Conceptual Issues." Jaspal erroneously gives the date of publication as 1873. ^ Marr, Wilhelm. Der Sieg des Judenthums über das Germanenthum. Vom nicht confessionellen Standpunkt aus betrachtet. Rudolph Costenoble. 1879, 8th edition/printing. Archive.org. Marr uses the word "Semitismus" (Semitism) on pages 7, 11, 14, 30, 32, and 46; for example, one finds in the conclusion the following passage: "Ja, ich bin überzeutgt, ich habe ausgesprochen, was Millionen Juden im Stillen denken: Dem Semitismus gehört die Weltherrschaft!" (Yes, I am convinced that I have articulated what millions of Jews
Jews
are quietly thinking: World domination belongs to Semitism!) (p. 46). ^ Marr, Wilhelm. The Victory of the Jewish Spirit over the Germanic Spirit. Observed from a non-religious perspective. Translation by Gerhard Rohringer, 2009. ^ "Wilhelm Marr". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 13 September 2014.  ^ a b Zimmermann, Moshe (5 March 1987). Wilhelm Marr : The Patriarch of Anti-Semitism: The Patriarch of Anti-Semitism. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-19-536495-8. The term “anti-Semitism” was unsuitable from the beginning for the real essence of Jew-hatred, which remained anchored, more or less, in the Christian tradition even when it moved via the natural sciences, into racism. It is doubtful whether the term which was first publicizes in an institutional context (the Anti-Semitic League) would have appeared at all if the “Anti-Chancellor League," which fought Bismarck’s policy, had not been in existence since 1875. The founders of the new Organization adopted the elements of “anti” and “league," and searched for the proper term: Marr exchanged the term “Jew” for “Semite” which he already favored. It is possible that the shortened form “Sem” is used with such frequency and ease by Marr (and in his writings) due to its literary advantage and because it reminded Marr of Sem Biedermann, his Jewish employer from the Vienna
Vienna
period.  ^ The Jewish Encyclopedia. Funk & Wagnalls. p. 641 (A).  ^ Benjamin Isaac,The Invention of Racism
Racism
in Classical Antiquity, Princeton University Press 2004 p.442. ^ Matas, David. Aftershock: Anti- Zionism
Zionism
and Antisemitism, Dundurn Press, 2005, p. 34. ^ Lewis (1999), p. 117 ^ Almog, Shmuel. "What's in a Hyphen?", SICSA Report: Newsletter of the Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism (Summer 1989). ^ "The Power of Myth" (PDF). Facing History. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2009. Retrieved 21 August 2006.  ^ Bauer, Yehuda. "Problems of Contemporary Antisemitism" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 March 2008. Retrieved 12 March 2006.  ^ Bauer, Yehuda. A History of the Holocaust, Franklin Watts, 1982, p. 52. ISBN 0-531-05641-4. ^ Prager & Telushkin (2003), p. 199 ^ Carroll, James (2002). Constantine's Sword: The Church and the Jews. New York: Mariner. pp. 628–29. ISBN 0618219080. Retrieved 19 September 2013.  ^ Sevenster, Jan Nicolaas (1975). The Roots of Pagan
Pagan
Anti-Semitism in the Ancient World. Brill Archive. pp. 1–2. ISBN 90-04-04193-1. It has long been realised that there are objections to the term anti-Semitism and therefore an endeavour has been made to find a word which better interprets the meaning intended. Already in 1936 Bolkestein, for example, wrote an article on Het “antisemietisme” in de oudheid (Anti-Semitism in the ancient world) in which the word was placed between quotation marks and a preference was expressed for the term hatred of the Jews… Nowadays the term anti- Judaism
Judaism
is often preferred. It certainly expresses better than anti-Semitism the fact that it concerns the attitude to the Jews
Jews
and avoids any suggestion of racial distinction, which was not or hardly, a factor of any significance in ancient times. For this reason Leipoldt preferred to speak of anti- Judaism
Judaism
when writing his Antisemitsmus in der alien Welt (l933). Bonsirven also preferred this word to Anti-Semitism, “mot moderne qui implique une théorie des races”.  ^ cited in Sonja Weinberg, Pogroms and Riots: German Press Responses to Anti-Jewish Violence in Germany
Germany
and Russia, (1881–1882), Peter Lang, 2010 p. 18. ^ Falk (2008), p. 5 ^ Sonja Weinberg, Pogroms and Riots: German Press Responses to Anti-Jewish Violence in Germany
Germany
and Russia, (1881–1882), pp. 18–19. ^ Lewis, Bernard. "The New Anti-Semitism", The American Scholar, Volume 75 No. 1, Winter 2006, pp. 25–36. The paper is based on a lecture delivered at Brandeis University
Brandeis University
on 24 March 2004. ^ "Report on Global Anti-Semitism", U.S. State Department, 5 January 2005. ^ "Working Definition of Antisemitism" (PDF). European Union
European Union
Agency for Fundamental Rights. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 January 2010. Retrieved 24 July 2010.  ^ Jewish Telegraphic Agency
Jewish Telegraphic Agency
(5 December 2013). "What is anti-Semitism? EU racism agency unable to define term". Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Post.  ^ " EUMC Working Definition of Antisemitism
EUMC Working Definition of Antisemitism
«  EPWG". www.antisem.eu. Retrieved 2016-08-23.  ^ "Defining Anti-Semitism". Retrieved 2016-08-23.  ^ "Hate crime". www.app.college.police.uk. Retrieved 2016-08-23.  ^ "Definition of antisemitism". 2015-07-13. Retrieved 2016-08-23.  ^ "Working Definition of Antisemitism
Antisemitism
IHRA". www.holocaustremembrance.com. Retrieved 2016-08-23.  ^ Richard S. Levy, "Marr, Wilhelm (1819–1904)" in Levy (2005), vol. 2, pp. 445–446 ^ Richard S. Geehr. Karl Lueger, Mayor of Fin-de-Siècle Vienna, Wayne State University Press, Detroit, 1989. ISBN 0-8143-2055-4 ^ Dr. Karl Lueger
Karl Lueger
Dead; Anti-Semitic Leader and Mayor of Vienna
Vienna
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trying to interfere, Malaysian newspaper warns, Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 18 July 2011. ^ Sachar 1961, p. 231, ^ Laurens 2002, pp. 467,469–470;'In terms of his initial formation, Haj Amin was far from being an antisemite. He had learnt French at the Alliance Israélite Universelle
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Haram al-Sharif
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Germany
against world Judaism. The reading of all those passages in his memoirs devoted to his European sojourn reveal an assimilation of the content of european antisemitism, with their two great themes of the identification of Judaism
Judaism
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News, February 27, 2004. ^ Ariel Ben Solomon, "Saudi Arabia says open to Jewish Workers", Jerusalem
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Post, December 31, 2014. ^ "Film clue to Turkey
Turkey
Jewish attack". BBC
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News. 17 November 2003.  ^ a b Turkey's Prime Minister: The Jews
Jews
Are Out to Get Me!, Commentary Magazine, 6 June 2011. ^ The Economist faces barrage of accusations from the Turkish gov't, The Hurriyet Daily News (English language edition), 12 June 2011. ^ "Erdogan vows to fight anti-Semitism in Turkey". The Jerusalem
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Stephen Roth Institute
for the Study of Contemporary Antisemitism
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and Racism, Tel Aviv University. Retrieved 29 March 2011. ^ Gillan, Audrey. "Chief rabbi fears 'tsunami' of hatred", The Guardian, 2 January 2006. ^ Shamee, Maureen (6 July 2012). "'Proactive' response needed to escalation of anti-Semitic attacks across Europe, says European Jewish Congress". European Jewish Press. Retrieved 13 July 2012.  ^ The Jews
Jews
of France
France
Tormented by the “Intifada of the Suburbs” by Paul Giniewski, NATIV Online August 2004 ^ Jews
Jews
for Le Pen by Daniel Ben-Simon. Haaretz. 25 March 2007 ^ Krieger, Leila Hilary. "Rothschild: France
France
not anti-Semitic". The Jerusalem
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Post, 15 June 2006[dead link] ^ "School Shooting Gun Same As Other Attacks". Sky News. 19 March 2012.  ^ "Netanyahu: Murder in French Jewish school a 'despicable anti-Semitic' attack". Haaretz. Retrieved 19 March 2012.  ^ " Toulouse
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shooting: Same gun and motorbike used in Jewish and soldier attacks". The Telegraph. 19 March 2012.  ^ McNicoll, Tracy (22 March 2012). "Mohamed Merah Dies in French Standoff's Gory End". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 15 February 2014.  ^ " Toulouse
Toulouse
terrorist was going to keep killing". Jpost. Retrieved 15 February 2014.  ^ " Toulouse
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killer: I'm not afraid of death". Ynet News. Retrieved 15 February 2014.  ^ " France
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probes gunman siege tapes". The Australian. 9 July 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2014.  ^ " Toulouse
Toulouse
yeshiva student beaten up in anti-Semitic attack Read more: Toulouse
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yeshiva student beaten up in anti-Semitic attack". Times of Israel. 5 July 2012.  ^ "French Synagogue
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Vandalized For Third Time in Ten Days". Algemeiner. 12 July 2012. Retrieved 13 July 2012.  ^ "Anti-Semitic attacks in France
France
surge by 40% since March". Reuters; Israel
Israel
Hayom. Israel
Israel
Hayom. 29 August 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2012.  ^ a b "Germans warned of neo- Nazi
Nazi
surge". BBC
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News. 22 May 2006. Retrieved 6 June 2007.  ^ a b c d Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz. Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution. "Verfassungsschutzbericht 2003" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 September 2007. . Annual Report. 2003, p. 29 ^ a b c d Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz. Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution. "Verfassungsschutzbericht 2006. Annual Report" (PDF). . 2006, p. 51 ^ The Associated Press. " Berlin
Berlin
police say 16 arrested during neo-Nazi demonstration". International Herald Tribune. 22 October 2006 ^ "Frauen im Freizeitbad beleidigt und mit Reizgas besprüht". Nordbayern. 3 August 2012. Retrieved 3 August 2012.  ^ " Germany
Germany
Berlin
Berlin
Rabbi
Rabbi
And His Six-Year-Old Daughter Become Victims Of A Hate Crime". Vos Iz Neias. 29 August 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2012.  ^ Weinthal, Benjamin (28 October 2012). "Historian slams Germany
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for ignoring anti-semitism". The Jerusalem
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Post. Retrieved 29 October 2012.  ^ "ADL Global 100: Greece". ADL Global 100. Retrieved 30 March 2016.  ^ van Versendaal, Harry (19 March 2015). "Victimhood culture spawns Greek anti-Semitism, study finds". ekathimerini. Retrieved 31 August 2015.  ^ http://jcpa.org/article/anti-semitism-in-hungary/ ^ "Manifestations of anti-Semitism in the European Union" (PDF). EUMC. Retrieved 22 February 2013.  ^ " Antisemitism
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Archived 11 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. Aftenposten.no. Retrieved 2 June 2012. ^ "Nieuwe rapportage – anne frank". Retrieved 15 February 2014.  ^ "Jødiske blir hetset". NRK Lørdagsrevyen. 13 March 2010.  ^ "What about Norwegian anti-Semitism?". The Foreigner. Retrieved 15 February 2014.  ^ "Anti-semitism report shocks officials". News in English – News and Views from Norway. 16 March 2010. Retrieved 15 February 2014.  ^ Pontz, Zach (26 October 2012). "Report Criticizes Norway
Norway
for Rise in Anti-Semitism". The Algemeiner. Retrieved 28 October 2012.  ^ "Anti-Semitism seen on the rise in Poland". The Times of Israel. January 25, 2017. ^ Gera, Vanessa, "Jewish group protests appointment of Polish defense minister", AP via huffingtonpost.com, November 13, 2015. ^ "Polish officials rapped for perceived revisionism of Holocaust history". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 21 July 2016. ^ Sokol, Sam (2015-11-12). "Polish ministerial nominee said there's some truth in Protocols of Elders of Zion". The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Post.  ^ a b Henrik Bachner and Jonas Ring." Antisemitic
Antisemitic
images and attitudes in Sweden" (PDF). Archived from the original on 21 February 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-21. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) . levandehistoria.se ^ Anti-Semitism, in Sweden? Depends who you're asking, Haaretz, 9 November 2007. ^ a b Meo, Nick (21 February 2012). " Jews
Jews
leave Swedish city after sharp rise in anti-Semitic hate crimes". The Telegraph. Malmo, Sweden. Retrieved 24 July 2012.  ^ Jews
Jews
flee Malmö
Malmö
as anti-Semitism grows Archived 6 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine. by David Landes, The Local, 27 January 2010. ^ Jews
Jews
leave Swedish city after sharp rise in anti-Semitic hate crimes Sunday Telegraph. 21 February 2010. ^ a b Donald Snyder. For Jews, Swedish City Is a ‘Place To Move Away From’. Forward.com (7 July 2010). Retrieved 2 June 2012. ^ Report: Anti-Semitic attacks rising in Scandinavia Archived 25 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine., Jewish Telegraphic Agency
Jewish Telegraphic Agency
(JTA), 22 March 2010. ^ For Jews, Swedish City Is a ‘Place To Move Away From’ by Donald Snyder, The Forward, Published 7 July 2010, issue of 16 July 2010.). ^ Simon Wiesenthal Center
Simon Wiesenthal Center
to Issue Travel Advisory for Sweden – Officials Confer With Swedish Justice Minister Beatrice Ask Simon Wiesenthal Center. Wiesenthal.com (14 December 2010). Retrieved 2 June 2012. ^ Sahlin raps Malmö
Malmö
mayor over Jew
Jew
comments Archived 1 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine., The Local, 25 February 2010 ^ Yushchenko Finally Gets Tough On Nationalists, The Jamestown Foundation (3 August 2004) ^ "Svoboda Fuels Ukraine’s Growing Anti-Semitism". Algemeiner Journal. 24 May 2013. ^ Nazi-hunters give low grades to 13 countries, including Ukraine, Kyiv Post (12 January 2011) ^ "Practice for a Russian Invasion: Ukrainian Civilians Take Up Arms". Spiegel Online. 16 April 2014.  ^ Among Ukraine’s Jews, the Bigger Worry Is Putin, Not Pogroms, Washington Post
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(18 April 2014) ^ "Blind eye turned to influence of far-right in Ukrainian crisis: critics". Global News. 7 March 2014.  ^ a b " Ukraine
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far-right leader Sashko Bily 'shot himself'". BBC. 2 April 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2014.  " Ukraine
Ukraine
far-right leader Muzychko dies 'in police raid'". Ukraine far-right leader Muzychko dies 'in police raid'. 25 March 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2014.  Ukraine
Ukraine
nationalist Oleksandr Muzychko
Oleksandr Muzychko
killed in police operation, Associated Press, 2014-03-25, The Interior Ministry said Tuesday that Muzychko was shot dead after opening fire on police.  ^ Ukraine
Ukraine
rabbi calls anti-Semitic leaflet a political hoax". The Jerusalem
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Post. 20 April 2014. ^ Ukrainian Jews
Jews
look to Israel
Israel
as anti-Semitism escalates ^ "Посол Ізраїлю заперечив, що в Україні є "системний антисемітизм"". Ukrayinska Pravda. Retrieved 19 January 2016.  ^ May, Callum (13 September 2017). "Over a quarter of British people 'hold anti-Semitic attitudes', study finds". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 16 September 2017.  ^ L. Daniel Staetsky (September 2017). Antisemitism
Antisemitism
in contemporary Great Britain (PDF) (Report). Institute for Jewish Policy Research. Retrieved 16 September 2017.  ^ a b "National Antisemitic
Antisemitic
Crime Audit". Campaign Against Antisemitism. 2016-05-01. Retrieved 2016-08-23.  ^ " Antisemitism
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Antisemitic
Barometer 2015 Full Report" (PDF). Campaign Against Antisemitism. Retrieved 2017-05-17.  ^ "Inquiry on anti-Semitism launched – News from Parliament". UK Parliament. Retrieved 2016-10-17.  ^ https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201617/cmselect/cmhaff/136/136.pdf ^ " Jeremy Corbyn
Jeremy Corbyn
questioned for anti-Semitism inquiry – News from Parliament". UK Parliament. Retrieved 2016-10-17.  ^ " Ken Livingstone
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questioned for anti-Semitism inquiry – News from Parliament". UK Parliament. Retrieved 2016-10-17.  ^ "Key recommendations include call for police and council involvement". www.thejc.com. Retrieved 2016-08-23.  ^ http://www.jcpa.org/phas/phas-prutschi-f04.htm ^ Ending Campus Anti-Semitism. Eusccr.com. Retrieved 2 June 2012. ^ Yale creates center to study antisemitism Associated Press, 19 September 2006 ^ Mary E. O'Leary (7 June 2011). "Yale cancels interdisciplinary course on anti-Semitism". New Haven Register.  ^ Kampeas, Ron. (10 June 2011) Shuttering of Yale program on anti-Semitism raises hackles. Jewishjournal.com. Retrieved 2 June 2012. ^ Yale Pulls the Plug on Anti-Semitism Institute. nbcconnecticut.com (9 June 2011) ^ Antony Lerman, " Antisemitism
Antisemitism
Research Just Improved: Yale’s ‘Initiative’ for Studying Antisemitism
Antisemitism
is Axed", Antony Lerman: Context Is Everything, 10 June 2011. Retrieved 13 June 2011. ^ ADL Survey: American Attitudes Towards Jews
Jews
in America. Adl.org. Retrieved 2 June 2012. ^ Neil Malhotra and Yotam Margalit. State of the Nation: Anti-Semitism and the economic crisis Archived 30 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine.. Boston Review. Retrieved 2 June 2012. ^ https://newrepublic.com/blog/the-stash/blaming-jews-the-financial-crisis ^ Calif. resolution denouncing anti-Semitism on college campuses targets anti- Israel
Israel
protests ^ Zalman, Jonathan. "Politico's Dubious Chabad Story Receives Widespread Criticism". Tablet Magazine. Retrieved 10 April 2017.  ^ " Politico
Politico
goes full 'Elders of Zion,' silenced by the college mob & other comments". New York Post. Retrieved 10 April 2017.  ^ https://reformjudaism.org/blog/2017/11/27/we-cant-just-rely-old-tactics ^ " Hugo Chávez
Hugo Chávez
And Anti-Semitism". Forbes.com. 15 February 2009. ^ "Blast From the Past". The Weekly Standard. 11 January 2006. ^ a b c d " Henrique Capriles
Henrique Capriles
Radonski: Hugo Chávez
Hugo Chávez
Foe A Target Of Anti-Semitism". The Huffington Post. 17 February 2012. Retrieved 22 May 2012.  ^ a b Devereux, Charlie (20 February 2012). "Chavez media say rival Capriles backs plots ranging from Nazis to Zionists". Bloomberg. Retrieved 21 February 2012.  Also available from sfgate.com ^ Cawthorne, Andrew (1 April 2012). "Insight: The man who would beat Hugo Chávez". Reuters. Retrieved 10 May 2012.  ^ "Anti-Semitic article appears in Venezuela". Anti- Defamation
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Bibliography

Bein, Alex (1990). The Jewish Question: Biography of a World Problem. Translated by Harry Zohn. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. ISBN 978-0-8386-3252-9.  Chanes, Jerome A. (2004). Antisemitism: a Reference Handbook. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-209-7.  Flannery, Edward H. (1985). The Anguish of the Jews: Twenty-three Centuries of Antisemitism. Paulist Press. ISBN 978-0-8091-4324-5.  Flannery, Edward H. (2004). The Anguish of the Jews: Twenty-Three Centuries of Antisemitism. Mahwah, NY: Paulist Press. ISBN 0-8091-4324-0.  Falk, Avner (2008). Anti-Semitism: a History and Psychoanalysis of Contemporary Hatred. Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN 978-0-313-35384-0.  Johnson, Paul (1987). A History of the Jews. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 0-06-091533-1.  Johnston, William (1983). The Austrian Mind: An Intellectual and Social History, 1848–1938. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-04955-0.  Laqueur, Walter (2006). The Changing Face of Antisemitism: From Ancient Times to the Present Day (1st ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-530429-2.  Levy, Richard S., ed. (2005). Antisemitism: a Historical Encyclopedia of Prejudice and Persecution. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-85109-439-3.  Lewis, Bernard (1999). Semites and Anti-Semites: an Inquiry into Conflict and Prejudice. W. W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-31839-7.  Lipstadt, Deborah (1994). Denying the Holocaust: the Growing Assault on Truth and Memory. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-452-27274-2.  Majer, Diemut (2014). “Non-Germans” Under The Third Reich: The Nazi
Nazi
Judicial and Administrative System in Germany
Germany
and Occupied Eastern Europe, with Special
Special
Regard to Occupied Poland, 1939–1945. Texas Tech University Press. ISBN 0896728374.  Perry, Marvin; Schweitzer, Frederick M. (2002). Antisemitism: Myth and Hate from Antiquity to the Present. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-16561-1.  Perry, Marvin; Schweitzer, Frederick M. (2005). Antisemitism: Myth and Hate from Antiquity to the Present. New York: Palgrave. ISBN 0-312-16561-7.  Poliakov, Léon. The History of Anti-Semitism, Volume 1: From the Time of Christ to the Court Jews, University of Pennsylvania Press: 2003 Poliakov, Léon. The History of Anti-Semitism, Volume 2: From Mohammad to the Marranos, University of Pennsylvania Press: 2003 Poliakov, Léon. The History of Anti-Semitism, Volume 3: From Voltaire to Wagner, University of Pennsylvania Press: 2003 Poliakov, Léon. The History of Anti-Semitism, Volume 4: Suicidal Europe
Europe
1870–1933, University of Pennsylvania Press: 2003 Poliakov, Léon (1997). "Anti-Semitism". Encyclopaedia Judaica (CD-ROM Edition Version 1.0). Ed. Cecil Roth. Keter Publishing House. ISBN 965-07-0665-8 Prager, Dennis; Telushkin, Joseph (2003) [1985]. Why the Jews? The Reason for Antisemitism
Antisemitism
(reprint ed.). Touchstone. ISBN 0-7432-4620-9.  Rattansi, Ali (2007). Racism: A Very Short Introduction. OUP Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-280590-4.  Rubenstein, Richard L.; Roth, John K. (2003). Approaches to Auschwitz: The Holocaust
The Holocaust
and Its Legacy. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-22353-3.  Anti-semitism entry by Gotthard Deutsch in the Jewish Encyclopedia, 1901–1906 ed.

Further reading

Books and reports

Bodansky, Yossef. Islamic Anti-Semitism as a Political Instrument, Freeman Center For Strategic Studies, 1999. Carr, Steven Alan. Hollywood and anti-Semitism: A cultural history up to World War II, Cambridge University Press 2001. Cohn, Norman. Warrant for Genocide, Eyre & Spottiswoode 1967; Serif, 1996. Freudmann, Lillian C. Antisemitism
Antisemitism
in the New Testament, University Press of America, 1994. Gerber, Jane S. (1986). "Anti-Semitism and the Muslim
Muslim
World". In History and Hate: The Dimensions of Anti-Semitism, ed. David Berger. Jewish Publications Society. ISBN 0-8276-0267-7 Hilberg, Raul. The Destruction of the European Jews. Holmes & Meier, 1985. 3 volumes. Isser, Natalie. Antisemitism
Antisemitism
during the French Second Empire (1991) Kertzer, David I. (2014). The Pope and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism
Fascism
in Europe. Oxford University Press.  McKain, Mark. Anti-Semitism: At Issue, Greenhaven Press, 2005. Marcus, Kenneth L. The Definition of Anti-Semitism, 2015, Oxford University Press Michael, Robert and Philip Rosen. Dictionary of Antisemitism, The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 2007 Michael, Robert. Holy Hatred: Christianity, Antisemitism, and the Holocaust Nirenberg, David. Anti-Judaism: The Western Tradition (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2013) 610 pp. Richardson, Peter (1986). Anti- Judaism
Judaism
in Early Christianity. Wilfrid Laurier University Press. ISBN 0-88920-167-6.  Roth, Philip. The Plot Against America, 2004 Selzer, Michael (ed). "Kike!" : A Documentary History of Anti-Semitism in America, New York 1972. Steinweis, Alan E. Studying the Jew: Scholarly Antisemitism
Antisemitism
in Nazi Germany. Harvard University Press, 2006. ISBN 0-674-02205-X. Stillman, Norman (1979). The Jews
Jews
of Arab
Arab
Lands: A History and Source Book. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America. ISBN 0-8276-0198-0 Stillman, N.A. (2006). "Yahud". Encyclopaedia of Islam. Eds.: P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill. Brill Online ""Contemporary Global Anti-Semitism: A Report Provided to the United States Congress"" (PDF).  (7.4 MB), United States Department of State, 2008. Retrieved 25 November 2010. See html version. Stav, Arieh (1999). Peace: The Arabian Caricature – A Study of Anti-semitic Imagery. Gefen Publishing House. ISBN 965-229-215-X Tausch, Arno, The New Global Antisemitism: Implications from the Recent ADL-100 Data (January 14, 2015). Middle East Review of International Affairs, Vol. 18, No. 3 (Fall 2014). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2549654 or https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2549654

Bibliographies, calendars, etc.

Jewish Journal of Greater Los Angeles, "Experts explore effects of Ahmadinejad anti-Semitism", 9 March 2007 Lazare, Bernard, Antisemitism: Its History and Causes Anti-Defamation League
Anti-Defamation League
Arab
Arab
Antisemitism Why the Jews? A perspective on causes of anti-Semitism Coordination Forum for Countering Antisemitism
Antisemitism
(with up to date calendar of antisemitism today) Annotated bibliography of anti-Semitism hosted by the Hebrew University of Jerusalem's Center for the Study of Antisemitism
Antisemitism
(SICSA) Council of Europe, ECRI Country-by-Country Reports Porat, Dina. "What makes an anti-Semite?", Haaretz, 27 January 2007. Retrieved 24 November 2010. Yehoshua, A.B., An Attempt to Identify the Root Cause of Antisemitism, Azure, Spring 2008. Antisemitism
Antisemitism
in modern Ukraine Antisemitism
Antisemitism
and Special
Special
Relativity

External links

Look up anti-, Semite, -ism, anti-Semitism, or antisemitism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

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