HOME
The Info List - Antipater





Antipater (/ænˈtɪpətər/; Greek: Ἀντίπατρος Antipatros; c. 397 BC – 319 BC) was a Macedonian general and statesman under kings Philip II of Macedon
Macedon
and Alexander the Great, and father of King Cassander.[1] In 320 BC, he became regent of all of Alexander the Great's Empire.

Contents

1 Career under Philip and Alexander 2 The fight for succession 3 Regent
Regent
of the Empire 4 Death and struggle for succession 5 Family 6 Literary works 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

Career under Philip and Alexander[edit] Nothing is known of his early career until 342 BC, when he was appointed by Philip to govern Macedon
Macedon
as his regent while the former left for three years of hard and successful campaigning against Thracian and Scythian tribes, which extended Macedonian rule as far as the Hellespont. In 342 BC, when the Athenians tried to assume control of the Euboean towns and expel the pro-Macedonian rulers, he sent Macedonian troops to stop them. In the autumn of the same year, Antipater went to Delphi, as Philip's representative in the Amphictyonic League, a religious organization to which Macedon
Macedon
had been admitted in 346 BC. After the triumphal Macedonian victory at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC, Antipater was sent as ambassador to Athens (337–336 BC) to negotiate a peace treaty[2] and return the bones of the Athenians who had fallen in the battle. He started as a great friend to both the young Alexander and the boy's mother, Olympias, and he aided Alexander in the struggle to secure his succession after Philip's death, in 336 BC. He joined Parmenion in advising Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
not to set out on his Asiatic expedition until he had provided by marriage for the succession to the throne. On the king's departure in 334 BC, he was left regent in Macedonia and made "general (strategos) of Europe", positions he held until 323 BC. The European front was to prove initially quite agitated, and Antipater also had to send reinforcements to the king, as he did while the king was at Gordium
Gordium
in the winter of 334–333 BC. The Persian fleet under Memnon of Rhodes and Pharnabazus was apparently a considerable danger for Antipater, bringing war in the Aegean sea
Aegean sea
and threatening war in Europe. Luckily for the regent, Memnon died during the siege of Mytilene
Mytilene
on the isle of Lesbos and the remaining fleet dispersed in 333 BC, after Alexander's victory at the Battle of Issus. More dangerous enemies were nearer home; tribes in Thrace
Thrace
rebelled in 332 BC, led by Memnon of Thrace, the Macedonian governor of the region, followed shortly by the revolt of Agis III, king of Sparta. The Spartans, who were not members of the League of Corinth
League of Corinth
and had not participated in Alexander's expedition, saw in the Asian campaign the long-awaited chance to take back control over the Peloponnese after the disastrous defeats at the Battle of Leuctra
Battle of Leuctra
and Battle of Mantinea. The Persians generously funded Sparta's ambitions, making possible the formation of an army 20,000 strong. After assuming virtual control of Crete, Agis tried to build an anti-Macedonian front. While Athens
Athens
remained neutral, the Achaeans, Arcadians and Elis became his allies, with the important exception of Megalopolis, the staunchly anti-Spartan capital of Arcadia. Agis started in 331 BC to besiege the city with his entire army, generating great alarm in Macedon. So to not have two enemies simultaneously, Antipater pardoned Memnon and even let him keep his office in Thrace, while great sums of money were sent him by Alexander. This helped to create, with Thessalian help and many mercenaries, a force double that of Agis, which Antipater in person led south in 330 BC to confront the Spartans. In the spring of that year, the two armies clashed near Megalopolis. Agis fell with many of his best soldiers, but not without inflicting heavy losses on the Macedonians. Utterly defeated, the Spartans sued for peace; the latter's answer was to negotiate directly with the League of Corinth, but the Spartan emissaries preferred to treat directly with Alexander, who imposed on Sparta's allies a penalty of 120 talents and the entrance of Sparta
Sparta
in the league. Alexander appears to have been quite jealous of Antipater's victory; according to Plutarch, the king wrote in a letter to his viceroy: "It seems, my friends that while we have been conquering Darius here, there has been a battle of mice in Arcadia". Antipater was disliked for supporting oligarchs and tyrants in Greece, but he also worked with the League of Corinth, built by Philip. In addition, his previously close relationship with the ambitious Olympias
Olympias
greatly deteriorated. Whether from jealousy or from the necessity of guarding against the evil consequences of the dissension between Olympias
Olympias
and Antipater, in 324 BC, Alexander ordered the latter to lead fresh troops into Asia, while Craterus, in charge of discharged veterans returning home, was appointed to take over the regency in Macedon. When Alexander suddenly died in Babylon
Babylon
in 323 BC however, Antipater was able to forestall the transfer of power. The fight for succession[edit] The new regent, Perdiccas, left Antipater in control of Greece. Antipater faced revolts in Athens, Aetolia, and Thessaly
Thessaly
that made up the Lamian War, in which southern Greeks attempted to re-assert their independence. He defeated them at the Battle of Crannon in 322 BC, with Craterus' help, and broke up the rebellion. As part of this he imposed oligarchy upon Athens
Athens
and demanded the surrender of Demosthenes, who committed suicide to escape capture. Later in the same year Antipater and Craterus
Craterus
were engaged in a war against the Aetolians when he received the news from Antigonus in Asia Minor that Perdiccas
Perdiccas
contemplated making himself outright ruler of the empire. Antipater and Craterus
Craterus
accordingly concluded peace with the Aetolians and went to war against Perdiccas, allying themselves with Ptolemy, the satrap of Egypt. Antipater crossed over to Asia in 321 BC. While still in Syria, he received information that Perdiccas
Perdiccas
had been murdered by his own soldiers. Craterus
Craterus
fell in battle against Eumenes (Diodorus xviii. 25-39).[3] Regent
Regent
of the Empire[edit] In the treaty of Triparadisus (321 BC), Antipater participated in a new division of Alexander's great kingdom. He appointed himself supreme regent of all Alexander's empire and was left in control of Greece
Greece
as guardian of Alexander's son Alexander IV and his disabled brother Philip III. Having quelled a mutiny of his troops and commissioned Antigonus to continue the war against Eumenes and the other partisans of Perdiccas, Antipater returned to Macedonia, arriving there in 320 BC (Justin xiii. 6). Soon after, he was seized by an illness which terminated his active career.[3] Death and struggle for succession[edit] Antipater died of old age in 319 BC, at the age of eighty.[4] By his side was his son Cassander.[5] Controversially, Antipater did not appoint Cassander
Cassander
to succeed him as regent, citing as the reason for his decision Cassander's youth (at the time of Antipater's passing, Cassander
Cassander
was in his 30s). Over Cassander, Antipater chose the aged officer Polyperchon as regent.[6] Cassander
Cassander
became indignant at this, believing that he'd earned the right to become regent by virtue of his loyalty and experience. Thus he appealed to general Antigonus to assist him in battling Polyperchon for the position.[7] In 317 BC, after two years of war with Polyperchon, Cassander
Cassander
emerged victorious. Cassander
Cassander
would go on to rule Macedonia for nineteen years, first as regent and later as king, ultimately founding the Antipatrid dynasty.[8] Family[edit] Antipater was one of the sons of a Macedonian nobleman called Iollas or Iolaus[9] and his family were distant collateral relatives to the Argead dynasty.[10] Antipater was originally from the Macedonian city of Paliura;[11] had a brother called Cassander;[12] was the paternal uncle of Cassander’s child Antigone and was the maternal great uncle of Berenice I of Egypt.[13] Antipater had ten children from various unknown wives. His daughters were: Phila, Eurydice of Egypt
Egypt
and Nicaea of Macedon, while his sons were: Iollas, Cassander, Pleistarchus, Phillip, Nicanor, Alexarchus and Triparadeisus.[14] Literary works[edit] Antipater was a student of Aristotle
Aristotle
and Aristotle
Aristotle
named him as executor-in-charge of his will, when he died in 322 BC. According to Suidas, Antipater left a compilation of letters in 2 books and a history, called The Illyrian Deeds of Perdikkas (Περδίκκου πράξεις Ιλλυριακαί).[15][16] References[edit]

^ http://www.ancient.eu/Antipater/ ^ Chisholm 1911. ^ a b  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Antipater". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 133.  ^ http://www.livius.org/articles/person/antipater/ ^ http://www.ancient.eu/Antipater/ ^ http://www.ancient.eu/Antipater/ ^ http://www.livius.org/articles/person/alexander-iv/ ^ http://www.ancient.eu/Cassander/ ^ Livius.org Antipater article at Livius org ^ Ptolemaic Dynasty - Affiliated Lines: The Antipatrids ^ Heckel, Who’s who in the age of Alexander the Great: prosopography of Alexander’s empire, p.35 ^ Theocritus
Theocritus
(17.61) ^ Ptolemaic Genealogy: Berenice I, Footnote 3 ^ Heckel, Who’s who in the age of Alexander the Great: prosopography of Alexander’s empire, p.p.35&79 ^ Walsh, John (2012). " Antipater and Early Hellenistic Literature". Ancient History Bulletin. 26: 149–62.  ^ Natoli, Anthony Francis. Thirty-first Socratic letter attributed to Plato. p. 110 – via Google Books. 

Further reading[edit]

Lane Fox, Robin (2004). Alessandro il Grande. Einaudi. ISBN 88-06-17250-6.  Phillips, Graham (2004). Alexander the Great: Murder in Babylon. Virgin Books. ISBN 1-85227-134-5.  Smith, William (editor); Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, "Antipater", Boston, (1867) Waterfield, Robin (2011). Dividing the Spoils - The War for Alexander the Great’s Empire (hardcover). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 273. ISBN 978-0-19-957392-9. 

External links[edit]

Encyclopædia Britannica 11th Edition (1911) Antipater from Livius.org (Jona Lendering) Wiki Classical Dictionary: Antipater

Preceded by Peithon and Arrhidaeus Regent
Regent
of Macedon 320–319 BC Succeeded by Polyperchon

v t e

Kings of Macedon

Argead

Caranus Coenus Tyrimmas Perdiccas
Perdiccas
I Argaeus I Philip I Aeropus I Alcetas I Amyntas I Alexander I Alcetas II Perdiccas
Perdiccas
II Archelaus I Craterus Orestes / Aeropus II Archelaus II Amyntas II Pausanias Argaeus II Amyntas III Alexander II Perdiccas
Perdiccas
III Amyntas IV Philip II Alexander III (Alexander the Great) Philip III Alexander IV

Regents

Ptolemy of Aloros Perdiccas Peithon and Arrhidaeus Antipater Polyperchon Cassander

Antipatrid

Cassander Philip IV Alexander V Antipater II Antipater Etesias Sosthenes

Antigonid

Demetrius I Antigonus II Demetrius II Antigonus III Philip V Perseus Andriscus
Andriscus
(Philip VI)

Non-dynastic

Lysimachus Pyrrhus Ptolemy Keraunos Meleager

v t e

The division of Alexander's empire

v t e

Alexander the Great's Generals

Philip II's Generals

Attalus Parmenion Antipater Eumenes

The Somatophylakes (Alexander's bodyguards)

Aristonous (to 323 BC) Arybbas (to 332 BC) Balacrus (to 333 BC) Demetrius (to 331 BC) Lysimachus
Lysimachus
(to 323 BC) Ptolemy (son of Seleucus) (to 333 BC) Peithon (to 323 BC) Hephaestion
Hephaestion
(to 324 BC) Menes (to 330 BC) Leonnatus (to 323 BC) Perdiccas
Perdiccas
(to 323 BC) Ptolemy (to 323 BC) Peucestas (to 323 BC)

Satraps
Satraps
at the Partition of Babylon

Antipater ( Macedon
Macedon
and Greece) Philo (Illyria) Lysimachus
Lysimachus
(Thrace) Leonnatus (Hellespontine Phrygia) Antigonus (Phrygia) Asander (Caria) Nearchus
Nearchus
( Lycia
Lycia
and Pamphylia) Menander (Lydia) Philotas(3) (Cilicia) Eumenes ( Cappadocia
Cappadocia
and Paphlagonia) Ptolemy (Egypt) Laomedon of Mytilene
Mytilene
(Syria) Neoptolemus (Armenia) Peucestas (Babylonia) Arcesilas (Mesopotamia) Peithon (Media) Tlepolemus (Persia) Nicanor(2) (Parthia) Antigenes (Susiana) Archon (Pelasgia) Philip (Hyrcania) Stasanor
Stasanor
(Aria and Drangiana) Sibyrtius
Sibyrtius
( Arachosia
Arachosia
and Gedrosia) Amyntas (Bactria) Scythaeus (Sogdiana)

Satraps
Satraps
at the Partition of Triparadisus

Antipater ( Macedon
Macedon
and Greece) Lysimachus
Lysimachus
(Thrace) Arrhidaeus (Hellespontine Phrygia) Antigonus (Phrygia, Lycia
Lycia
and Pamphylia) Cassander
Cassander
(Caria) Cleitus the White (Lydia) Philoxenus (Cilicia) Nicanor(2) ( Cappadocia
Cappadocia
and Paphlagonia) Ptolemy (Egypt) Laomedon of Mytilene
Mytilene
(Syria) Peucestas (Persia) Amphimachus (Mesopotamia) Peithon (Media) Tlepolemus (Carmania) Philip (Parthia) Antigenes (Susiana) Seleucus (Babylonia) Stasanor
Stasanor
( Bactria
Bactria
and Sogdiana) Stasander
Stasander
(Aria and Drangiana) Sibyrtius
Sibyrtius
( Arachosia
Arachosia
and Gedrosia)

Cavalry
Cavalry
Generals

Perdiccas Hephaestion Philotas(4) Ptolemy Cleitus the Black Antigonus Lysimachus Menander Leonnatus Laomedon of Mytilene Neoptolemus Erigyius Aretes Ariston of Paionia

Infantry
Infantry
Generals

Meleager Craterus Seleucus Polyperchon Antigenes Coenus Ptolemy (son of Seleucus)

Other or unknown command

Alcetas Amphimachus Amyntas Arcesilas Archon Asander Cleitus the White Nearchus Nicanor(1) Nicanor(2) Peithon Peucestas Philip Philo Philotas(3) Philoxenus Scythaeus Sibyrtius Stasanor Stasander Tlepolemus

(1) Son of Parmenion, d. 330 BC; to be distinguished from (2) (2) Satrap
Satrap
at Partition of Babylon; possibly Nicanor of Stageira (3) Satrap
Satrap
at Partition of Babylon (4) Son of Parmenion, d. 330 BC; to be distinguished from (3)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 61941134 GN

.