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Antimilitarism
Antimilitarism
(also spelt anti-militarism) is a doctrine that opposes war, relying heavily on a critical theory of imperialism and was an explicit goal of the First and Second International. Whereas pacifism is the doctrine that disputes (especially between countries) should be settled without recourse to violence, Paul B. Miller defines anti-militarism as "ideology and activities...aimed at reducing the civil power of the military and ultimately, preventing international war".[1] Cynthia Cockburn
Cynthia Cockburn
defines an anti-militarist movement as one opposed to "military rule, high military expenditure or the imposition of foreign bases in their country".[2] Martin Ceadel points out that anti-militarism is sometimes equated with pacificism—general opposition to war or violence, except in cases where force is deemed absolutely necessary to advance the cause of peace.[3]

Contents

1 Distinction between antimilitarism and pacifism 2 Criticisms on violence 3 Henry David Thoreau's anti-military views 4 Capitalism
Capitalism
and the military-industrial complex 5 Right-wing antimilitarism in the United States 6 Antimilitarism
Antimilitarism
in Japan 7 Antimilitarist groups 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References

Distinction between antimilitarism and pacifism[edit] Pacifism
Pacifism
is the belief that disputes between nations can and should be settled peacefully. It is the opposition to war and the use of violence as a means of settling disputes. It can include the refusal to participate in military action.[4] Antimilitarism
Antimilitarism
does not reject war in all circumstances, but rejects the belief or desire to maintain a large and strong military organization in aggressive preparedness for war.[5][6] Criticisms on violence[edit]

Cover of the Piano Score for the light opera The Chocolate Soldier, based on George Bernard Shaw's Arms and the Man
Arms and the Man
– both of which make fun of armies and militarist virtues and present positively a deserter who runs away from the battlefield and who carries chocolate instead of ammunition.

Anarcho-syndicalist
Anarcho-syndicalist
Georges Sorel
Georges Sorel
advocated the use of violence as a form of direct action, calling it "revolutionary violence", which he opposed in Reflections on Violence (1908) to the violence inherent in class struggle.[7] Similarities are seen between Sorel and the International Workingmens' Association (IWA) theorization of propaganda of the deed. Walter Benjamin, in his Critique of Violence (1920) demarcates a difference between "violence that founds the law", and "violence that conserves the law", on one hand, and on the other hand, a "divine violence" that breaks the "magic circle" between both types of "state violence". What distinguishes these two kinds of violence fundamentally is their mode of operation; whereas law-establishing and law-preserving violence operate instrumentally on a continuum of means and ends, wherein the means of physical violence justify the political-juridical ends of the law, the Benjaminian concept of 'divine violence' is unique insofar as it is a bloodless violence 'of pure means' through which the law itself is destroyed. The example Benjamin provides in his essay is that of a the General Strike, the latter of which is a key element of Sorel's Reflections on Violence (cited in this essay by Benjamin). The "violence that conserves the law" is roughly equivalent to the state's monopoly of legitimate violence. The "violence that founds the law" is the original violence necessary to the creation of a state. "Revolutionary violence" removes itself from the sphere of the law by shattering its instrumental logic of violence (i.e. its deployment of violence as a means of instituting, preserving and enforcing its own authority). [8] Giorgio Agamben
Giorgio Agamben
showed the theoretical link between the law and violence permitted Nazi-thinker Carl Schmitt
Carl Schmitt
to justify the "state of exception" as the characteristic of sovereignty. Thus indefinite suspension of the law may only be blocked by breaking this link between violence and right. Henry David Thoreau's anti-military views[edit] Henry David Thoreau's 1849 essay "Civil Disobedience" (see text), originally titled "Resistance to Civil Government", can be considered an antimilitarist point of view. His refusal to pay taxes is justified as an act of protest against slavery and against the Mexican–American War, in accordance to the practice of civil disobedience. (1846–48).[9] He writes in his essay that the individual is not with obligations to the majority of the State. Instead the individual should "break the law" if the law is "of such a nature that it requires you to be the agent of injustice to another."[10] Capitalism
Capitalism
and the military-industrial complex[edit] Capitalism
Capitalism
has often been thought by antimilitarist literature to be a major cause of wars, an influence which has been theorized by Vladimir Lenin and Rosa Luxemburg
Rosa Luxemburg
under the name of "imperialism". The military-industrial complex has been accused of "pushing for war" in pursuit of private economic or financial interests.[11] The Second International
Second International
was opposed to the participation of the working classes in war, which was analyzed as a competition between different national bourgeois classes and different state imperialisms. The assassination of French socialist leader Jean Jaurès
Jean Jaurès
days before the proclamation of World War
War
I resulted in massive participation in the coming war.[12][13] In Mars; or,The Truth About War
War
(1921), Alain criticizes the destruction brought about by militarism, and demonstrated that it wasn't patriotism that forced the soldiers to fight, but the bayonets behind them.[14] After World War
War
II, US President Eisenhower's 1961 issued a warning on the influence of the "military-industrial complex".[15] Right-wing antimilitarism in the United States[edit] American right-wing antimilitarists draw heavily upon the statements of Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
and other Founding Fathers condemning standing armies and foreign entanglements.[16] Jefferson's beliefs on maintaining a standing army are as follows: "There are instruments so dangerous to the rights of the nation and which place them so totally at the mercy of their governors that those governors, whether legislative or executive, should be restrained from keeping such instruments on foot but in well-defined cases. Such an instrument is a standing army."[17] Right-wing antimilitarists in the United States generally believe that "A well regulated militia, composed of the body of the people, trained to arms, is the best and most natural defense of a free country", as stated by James Madison.[18] To this end, there is much overlap between the Militia
Militia
movement and right-wing antimilitarists, although the two groups are not mutually inclusive. The term "well regulated" in the above quote (and in the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution) is taken by such antimilitarists not to mean "regulated by the state" but rather "well equipped" and "in good working order", as was a common usage of the word "regulated" in the late 18th century. Antimilitarism
Antimilitarism
in Japan[edit] After World War
War
II Japan enacted its postwar constitution which, in article 9, stated that "The Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force as means of settling international disputes." Such antimilitarist constitution was based on the belief that Japan's military organizations were to blame for thrusting the country into World War
War
II. In Yasuhiro Izumikawa's article "Explaining Japanese Antimilitarism: Normative and Realist Constraints on Japan's Security Policy", the evidences for the constructivist's belief in the existence of the single norm of antimilitarism in Post war Japan are introduced.[19] These evidences include the Yoshida Doctrine, adopted after the World War
War
II, which emphasized the importance of Japan’s economic development and acceptance of the U.S. security umbrella. Also the institutional constraints imposed on Japan’s security policy after World War
War
II and Japan’s Three Non-Nuclear Principles which is about not possessing, producing, or permitting the introduction of nuclear weapons into Japan are mentioned as the evidences for antimilitarism. In contrast to the constructivist's view, in Izumikawa's article, the realists are said to believe that the postwar security policy in Japan is a combination of pacifism, antitraditionalism, and the fear of entrapment rather than just being based on the single norm of antimilitarism. However, the postwar constitution on which Japan’s antimilitarism is based has seen some proposed amendments, and article 9 has been renounced by the Liberal Democratic Party. Some new legislation allows Japan’s Self Defense Forces to act more like a conventional army, reinterpreting the constitutional restrictions. This legislation has been strongly opposed by Japanese opposition parties, especially the Japanese Communist Party, which is strongly opposed to militarism. Antimilitarist groups[edit] See also: List of anti-war organizations
List of anti-war organizations
and Peace
Peace
movement Until its dissolution, the Second International
Second International
was antimilitarist. Jaurès' assassination on July 31, 1914, marks antimilitarism's failure in the socialist movement. The American Union Against Militarism
Militarism
is an example of a US antimilitarist movement born in the midst of the First World War, from which the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) formed from after the war. Some Refuseniks in Israel, who refuse the draft, and draft resisters in the USA can be considered by some to be antimilitarist or pacifist. War
War
Resisters' International, formed in 1921, is an international network of pacifist and animilitarist groups around the world, currently with 90 affiliated groups in over 40 countries. See also[edit]

2015 Japanese military legislation Arms and the Man/ The Chocolate Soldier
The Chocolate Soldier
a comedy by George Bernard Shaw Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament Civilian control of the military Conscientious objector Criticism of capitalism Insubordinate movement in Spain Just War
Just War
theory Just War Militarism Non-violence Peace
Peace
Pledge Union Peace
Peace
treaty Peace Peace
Peace
process Refusal to serve in the Israeli military Socialism Stop the War
War
Coalition Three Non-Nuclear Principles War
War
resister War
War
Resisters' International War Yoshida Doctrine Zimmerwald Conference

Notes[edit]

^ From Revolutionaries to Citizens : Antimilitarism
Antimilitarism
in France, 1870-1914 by Paul B. Miller. Duke University Press, 2002, ISBN 0-8223-2757-0, p. 8. ^ Cynthia Cockburn, Antimilitarism: Political and Gender Dynamics of Peace
Peace
Movements. London, Palgrave Macmillan. 2012. ISBN 0230359752, p. 2. ^ Martin Ceadel, 'Thinking about peace and war. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1987. ISBN 0192192000, p. 101. ^ "pacifism". The Free Dictionary.  ^ " Antimilitarism
Antimilitarism
is not pacifism or the total rejection of war". Lisa M. Mundy, American militarism and anti-militarism in popular media, 1945–1970. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2012. ISBN 9780786466504, p. 7. ^ "militarism". The Free Dictionary.  ^ Caviness, Rochelle. "Reflections of Violence, by Georges Sorel
Georges Sorel
- History in Review". www.historyinreview.org. Retrieved 2016-02-16.  ^ Walter Benjamin, Zür Kritik der Gewalt (1920) in Gesammelte Schriften, vol. II, 1 (1977) ("Criticisms on Violence") ^ "Anti-militarism in the 19th Century". Retrieved 2016-02-16.  ^ "About Thoreau: Civil Disobedience Walden Woods". www.walden.org. Retrieved 2016-02-16.  ^ " War
War
and Economic History". www.joshuagoldstein.com. Retrieved 2016-02-16.  ^ "First World War.com - Who's Who - Jean Jaures". www.firstworldwar.com. Retrieved 2016-02-16.  ^ Tharoor, Ishaan (2014-07-31). "The other assassination that led up to World War
War
I". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2016-02-16.  ^ "Alain French philosopher". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2016-02-16.  ^ "Military-Industrial Complex Speech, Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1961". coursesa.matrix.msu.edu. Retrieved 2016-02-16.  ^ "The Civilian and the Military: A History of the American Antimilitarist Tradition". The Independent Institute. Retrieved 2016-02-16.  ^ "Jefferson on Politics & Government: The Military". famguardian.org. Retrieved 2016-02-16.  ^ "The James Madison
James Madison
Research Library and Information Center". madisonbrigade.com. Retrieved 2016-02-16.  ^ Izumikawa, Yasuhiro (October 2010). "Explaining Japanese Antimilitarism: Normative and Realist Constraints on Japan's Security Policy". International Security. 35 (2): 123–160. doi:10.1162/ISEC_a_00020. Retrieved 18 September 2016. 

References[edit]

Karl Liebknecht book " Militarism
Militarism
and Anti-Militarism" John Palatella, "The War
War
of Words" Dan Jakopovich, In the Belly of the Beast: Challenging US Imperialism and the Politics of the Offensive'

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