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Antigua
Antigua
(/ænˈtiːɡ(w)ə/ ann-TEE-g(w)a),[1] also known as Waladli or Wadadli by the native population, is an island in the West Indies. It is one of the Leeward Islands
Leeward Islands
in the Caribbean
Caribbean
region and the main island of the country of Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda. Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda became an independent state within the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
on 1 November 1981.[2] Antigua
Antigua
means "ancient" in Spanish after an icon in Seville Cathedral, "Santa Maria de la Antigua" — St. Mary
St. Mary
of the Old Cathedral.[3] The name Waladli[4] comes from the indigenous inhabitants and means approximately "our own".[citation needed] The island's circumference is roughly 87 km (54 mi) and its area 281 km2 (108 sq mi). Its population was 80,161 (at the 2011 Census).[5] The economy is mainly reliant on tourism, with the agricultural sector serving the domestic market. Over 32,000 people live in the capital city, St. John's. The capital is situated in the north-west and has a deep harbour which is able to accommodate large cruise ships. Other leading population settlements are All Saints (3,412) and Liberta (2,239), according to the 2001 census. English Harbour
English Harbour
on the south-eastern coast is famed for its protected shelter during violent storms. It is the site of a restored British colonial naval station called "Nelson's Dockyard" after Captain Horatio Nelson. Today English Harbour
English Harbour
and the neighbouring village of Falmouth are known as a yachting and sailing destination and provisioning centre. During Antigua
Antigua
Sailing Week, at the end of April and beginning of May, an annual regatta brings a number of sailing vessels and sailors to the island to play sports. On 6 September 2017, the Category 5 Hurricane Irma
Hurricane Irma
destroyed 90 percent of the buildings on the island of Barbuda. Residents were evacuated to Antigua.[6][7]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early Antiguans 1.2 Europeans 1.3 Slavery 1.4 Horatio, Lord Nelson 1.5 1918 labour unrest 1.6 Political status 1.7 Banking 1.8 Online gambling 1.9 Space Tracking

2 Demographics 3 Geography

3.1 Fauna

4 Economy

4.1 Tourism 4.2 Education 4.3 Internet hosting and gambling 4.4 Banking

5 Sport 6 Notable residents 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

History[edit]

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Rocky shoreline near St. John's.

Dickenson Bay beach, Antigua

Early Antiguans[edit] The first residents were the Guanahatabey people. Eventually, the Arawak migrated from the mainland, followed by the Carib. Prior to European colonialism, Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
was the first European to visit Antigua, in 1493.[8] The Arawak were the first well-documented group of indigenous people to settle Antigua. They paddled to the island by canoe (piragua) from present-day Venezuela, pushed out by the Carib, another indigenous people. The Arawak introduced agriculture to Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda. Among other crops, they cultivated the now noted Antiguan "Black" pineapple. They also cultivated:

Corn Sweet potatoes (white with firmer flesh than the bright orange "sweet potato" used in the United States.) Chili peppers Guava Tobacco Cotton

Some of the vegetables listed, such as corn and sweet potatoes, still are staples of Antiguan cuisine. Colonists took them to Europe, and from there, they spread around the world. For example, a popular Antiguan dish, dukuna (/ˈduːkuːnɑː/), is a sweet, steamed dumpling made from grated sweet potatoes, flour and spices. Another staple, fungi (/ˈfuːndʒi/), is a cooked paste made of cornmeal and water. Most of the Arawak left Antigua
Antigua
about A.D. 1100. Those who remained were raided by the Carib coming from Venezuela. According to The Catholic Encyclopedia, the Caribs' superior weapons and seafaring prowess allowed them to defeat most Arawak nations in the West Indies. They enslaved some and cannibalised others.[9] The Catholic Encyclopedia[full citation needed] notes that the European invaders had difficulty identifying and differentiating between the various native peoples they encountered. As a result, the number and types of ethnic/tribal/national groups at the time were likely more varied and numerous than the two mentioned in this article. The indigenous people of the West Indies
West Indies
made excellent sea vessels, which they used to sail the Atlantic and Caribbean. As a result, the Arawak and Carib populated much of the South American and the Caribbean
Caribbean
islands. Their descendants live throughout South America, particularly Brazil, Venezuela
Venezuela
and Colombia. Europeans[edit]

Aerial view of Jolly Harbour
Jolly Harbour
on the western coast of Antigua.

Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
named the island "Antigua" in 1493 in honour of the "Virgin of the Old Cathedral"[3] (Spanish: La Virgen de la Antigua) found in Seville Cathedral
Seville Cathedral
in southern Spain. On his 1493 voyage, honouring a vow, he named many islands after different aspects of St. Mary, including Montserrat
Montserrat
and Guadaloupe. In 1632,[8] a group of English colonists left St. Kitts to settle on Antigua. Sir Christopher Codrington, an Englishman, established the first permanent European settlement. From that point on, Antigua history took a dramatic turn. Codrington guided development on the island as a profitable sugar colony. For a large portion of Antigua history, the island was considered Britain's "Gateway to the Caribbean". It was located on the major sailing routes among the region's resource-rich colonies. Lord Horatio Nelson, a major figure in Antigua
Antigua
history, arrived in the late 18th century to preserve the island's commercial shipping prowess.[clarification needed] According to A Brief History of the Caribbean,[full citation needed] European diseases, malnutrition and slavery eventually destroyed the vast majority of the Caribbean's native population. There are some differences of opinions as to the relative importance of these causes. In fact, some historians[who?] believe that the reportedly abundant, but starchy, low-protein diet may have contributed to severe malnutrition of the "Indians" who were used to a diet fortified with protein from sealife. Others[who?] believe that the psychological stress of slavery may also have played a part in the massive number of native deaths while in servitude. Slavery[edit]

Slaves
Slaves
planting and tilling, 1823

Slaves
Slaves
working in the boiling house, 1823

Slaves
Slaves
loading barrels into a boat, 1823

Sugar became Antigua's main crop in about 1674, when Christopher Codrington (c 1640-1698) settled at Betty's Hope
Betty's Hope
plantation. He came from Barbados, bringing the latest sugar technology with him. Betty's Hope, Antigua's first full-scale sugar plantation, was so successful that other planters turned from tobacco to sugar.[citation needed] This resulted in their importing slaves to work the sugar cane crops.[8] According to A Brief History of the Caribbean, many West Indian colonists initially tried to use locals as slaves. These groups succumbed easily to disease and/or malnutrition, and died by the thousands. The enslaved African adapted better to the new environment and thus became the number one choice of unpaid labour. In fact, the enslaved African thrived[citation needed] physically and also provided medical services and skilled labour, including carpentry, for their masters. However, according to a Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
article, the West African slave population in the Caribbean
Caribbean
also had a high mortality, which was compensated by regular imports of very high numbers of new slaves from West and Central Africa.[10] Today, collectors prize the uniquely designed "colonial" furniture built by West Indian slaves. Many of these works feature what are now considered "traditional" motifs, such as pineapples, fish and stylized serpents. By the mid-1770s, the number of slaves had increased to 37,500, up from 12,500 in 1713. The white population had fallen from 5,000 to below 3,000.[11] The slaves lived in wretched and overcrowded conditions and could be mistreated or even killed by their owners with impunity. The Slave Act of 1723 made arbitrary murder of slaves a crime, but did not do much to ease their lives.[12] Unrest against enslavement among the Black Antiguans became increasingly common. In 1729, a man named Hercules was hanged, drawn, and quartered and three others were burnt alive, for conspiring to kill the slave owner Crump and his family. In 1736, an enslaved man called "Prince Klaas" (whose real name was Court) allegedly planned an uprising in which white slavers would be massacred. Court was crowned "King of the Coromantees" in a pasture outside the capital of St. John's. The coronation appeared to be just a colourful spectacle but was, for the enslaved people, a ritual declaration of war on the whites slavers. Due to information obtained from other slaves, colonists discovered the plot and suppressed it. Prince Klaas and four accomplices were caught and executed by the breaking wheel. (However, some doubts exist about Court's guilt.)[13][10] Six of the rebels were hanged in chains and starved to death, and another 58 were burned at the stake. The site of these executions is now the Antiguan Recreation Ground.[14][10] The American War of Independence
American War of Independence
in the late 18th century disrupted the Caribbean
Caribbean
sugar trade. At the same time, public opinion in Great Britain gradually turned against slavery.[15] "Traveling ... at slavery's end, [Joseph] Sturge and [Thomas] Harvey (1838 ...) found few married slaves residing together or even on the same estate. Slaveholders often counted as 'married' only those slaves with mates on the estate."[16][a][b][c] Great Britain abolished the slave trade in 1807, and all existing slaves were emancipated in 1834.[8] Horatio, Lord Nelson[edit]

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Horatio Nelson
Horatio Nelson
(who was created 1st Viscount Nelson 1801) was Senior Naval Officer of the Leeward Islands
Leeward Islands
from 1784 to 1787 on the HMS Boreas. During his tenure, he tried to enforce the Navigation Acts. These acts prohibited trade with the newly formed United States of America. Most of the merchants in Antigua
Antigua
depended upon American trade, so many of them despised Captain Nelson. As a result, he was unable to get a promotion for some time after his stint on the island. Unlike the Antiguan merchants, Nelson had a positive view of the Navigation Acts. The following quote sums up his views about the controversial Navigation Acts:[17]

The Americans were at this time trading with our islands, taking advantage of the register of their ships, which had been issued while they were British subjects. Nelson knew that, by the Navigation Act, no foreigners, directly or indirectly, are permitted to carry on any trade with these possessions. He knew, also, that the Americans had made themselves foreigners with regard to England; they had disregarded the ties of blood and language when they acquired the independence which they had been led on to claim, unhappily for themselves, before they were fit for it; and he was resolved that they should derive no profit from those ties now. Foreigners they had made themselves, and as foreigners they were to be treated.

[17] Nelson said "The Antiguan Colonists are as great rebels as ever were in America, had they the power to show it."[17] A dockyard started in 1725, to provide a base for a squadron of British ships whose main function was to patrol the West Indies
West Indies
and thus maintain Britain's sea power, was later named "Nelson's Dockyard" in his honour. While Nelson was stationed on Antigua, he frequently visited the nearby island of Nevis, where he met and married a young widow, Fanny Nisbet, who had previously married the son of a plantation family on Nevis. 1918 labour unrest[edit] Following the foundation of the Ulotrichian Universal Union, a friendly society which acted as a trade union (which were banned), the sugar cane workers were ready to confront the plantation owners when they slashed their wages. The cane workers went on strike and rioted when their leaders were arrested.[18] Political status[edit] In 1968, with Barbuda
Barbuda
and the tiny island of Redonda
Redonda
as dependencies, Antigua
Antigua
became an associated state of the Commonwealth, and in 1981 it was disassociated from Britain.[8] Banking[edit] Stanford International Bank was formed by Allen Stanford
Allen Stanford
in 1986 in Montserrat
Montserrat
where it was called Guardian International Bank. On 17 February 2009, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
charged Allen Stanford, Pendergest-Holt and Davis with fraud[19][20][21] in connection with the bank's US$8 billion certificate of deposit (CD) investment scheme that offered "improbable and unsubstantiated high interest rates".[22] This led the federal government to freeze the assets of the bank and other Stanford entities.[19][23] On 27 February 2009, Pendergest-Holt was arrested by federal agents in connection with the alleged fraud.[24] On that day, the SEC said that Stanford and his accomplices operated a "massive Ponzi scheme", misappropriated billions of investors' money and falsified the Stanford International Bank's records to hide their fraud. "Stanford International Bank's financial statements, including its investment income, are fictional," the SEC said.[20][25] Antigua
Antigua
Overseas Bank (AOB) was part of the ABI Financial Group and was a licensed bank in Antigua. On 13 April 2012, AOB was placed into receivership by the government of Antigua.[26] Online gambling[edit] Antigua
Antigua
was one of the very first nations to legalize, license, and regulate online gambling and is a primary location for incorporation of online gambling companies. Some countries, most notably the United States, argue that if a particular gambling transaction is initiated outside the country of Antigua
Antigua
then that transaction is governed by the laws of the country where the transaction was initiated. This argument was brought before World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization
and was deemed incorrect.[27] In 2006, the United States Congress voted to approve the Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act which criminalized the operations of offshore gambling operators which take wagers from American-based gamblers. This was a prima facie violation of the GATS treaty obligations enforced by the WTO, resulting in a series of rulings unfavorable to the US. On 21 December 2007, an Article 22 arbitration panel ruled that the United States' failure to comply with WTO rules would attract a US$21 million sanction.[28] The WTO ruling was notable in two respects: First, although technically a victory for Antigua, the $21 million was far less than the US$3.5 billion which had been sought; one of the three arbitrators was sufficiently bothered by the propriety of this that he issued a dissenting opinion. Second, a rider to the arbitration ruling affirmed the right of Antigua
Antigua
to take retaliatory steps in view of the prior failure of the US to comply with GATS. These included the rare, but not unprecedented, right to disregard intellectual property obligations to the US.[29] Antigua's obligations to the US in respect of patents, copyright, and trademarks are affected. In particular, Berne Convention copyright is in question, and also material NOT covered by the Berne convention, including TRIPS accord obligations to the US. Antigua
Antigua
may thus disregard the WIPO treaty on intellectual property rights, and therefore the US implementation of that treaty (the Digital Millennium Copyright
Copyright
Act, or DMCA)—at least up to the limit of compensation.[30] Since there is no appeal to the WTO from an Arbitration panel of this kind, it represents the last legal word from the WTO on the matter. Antigua
Antigua
is therefore able to recoup some of the claimed loss of trade by hosting (and taxing) companies whose business model depends on immunity from TRIPS provisions.[31] Software company SlySoft was based in Antigua, allowing it to avoid nations with laws that are tough on anti-circumvention of technological copyright measures, in particular the DMCA in the United States.[32] Space Tracking[edit] Until July 7, 2015, the United States Air Force
United States Air Force
maintained a small base near the airport, designated Detachment 1, 45th Operations Group, 45th Space Wing
45th Space Wing
(known as Antigua
Antigua
Air Station). The mission provided high rate telemetry data for the Eastern Range
Eastern Range
and its space launches. The unit was inactivated due to US government budget cuts.[33] Demographics[edit]

St. John's Cathedral

Main article: Demographics of Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda Geography[edit] Antigua
Antigua
is located in the Leeward Islands. It has an area of 281 square kilometres (108 sq mi). Its coastline is 87 kilometres (54 mi). The highest place on the island is 402 metres (1,319 ft). There are various natural points, capes, and beaches around the island including: Boon Point, Beggars Point, Parham, Willikies, Hudson Point, English Harbour
English Harbour
Town, Old Road Cape, Johnson's Point, Ffryes Point, Jennings, Five Islands, and Yepton Beach, and Runaway Beach. There are several natural harbours formed by these points and capes, including: Fitches Creek Bay, between Beggars Point and Parham; Nonsuch Bay between Hudson Point and Willikies; Willoughby Bay, between Hudson Point and English Harbour
English Harbour
Town; English Harbour
English Harbour
leading into English Harbour
English Harbour
Town; Falmouth Harbour recessing into Falmouth; Rendezvous Bay between Falmouth and Old Road Cape; Five Islands Harbour, between Jennings and Five Islands; and Green Bay, the main harbour at St. John's, between Yepton Beach and Runaway Beach. There are six civil parishes: St. George, Saint Peter, Saint Philip, Saint Paul, Saint Mary, and Saint John. Fauna[edit] The Antiguan racer
Antiguan racer
is among the rarest snakes in the world. The Lesser Antilles are home to four species of racers. All four have undergone severe range reductions; at least two subspecies are extinct and another, A. antiguae, now occupies only 0.1 per cent of its historical range.[34] Griswold's ameiva
Griswold's ameiva
( Ameiva
Ameiva
griswoldi) is a species of lizard in the genus Ameiva. It is endemic to Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda. It is found on both islands. Economy[edit] The country's official currency is the East Caribbean
Caribbean
dollar. Given the dominance of tourism, many prices in tourist-oriented businesses are shown in US dollars. The EC dollar is pegged to the US dollar at a varied rate and averages about $1 US = $2.7169 EC. Tourism[edit] Antigua's economy is reliant upon tourism, and it promotes the island as a luxury Caribbean
Caribbean
escape. Many hotels and resorts are located around the coastline. The island's single airport, VC Bird Airport, is served by several major airlines, including Virgin Atlantic, British Airways, American Airlines, United Airlines, Delta Air Lines, Caribbean
Caribbean
Airlines, Air Canada, WestJet, LIAT,and JetBlue. There is regular air service to Barbuda. Education[edit] The growing medical school and its students also add much to the economy. The University of Health Sciences Antigua
University of Health Sciences Antigua
and the American University of Antigua
Antigua
College of Medicine teach aspiring doctors. Internet hosting and gambling[edit] Antigua
Antigua
was one of the very first nations to legalize, license, and regulate online gambling and is a primary location for incorporation of online gambling companies. Software company SlySoft was based in Antigua, allowing it to avoid prosecution for infringement of technological copyright laws, in particular the Digital Millennium Copyright Act
Digital Millennium Copyright Act
in the United States.[32] Banking[edit] Swiss American Bank Ltd., later renamed Global Bank of Commerce, Ltd, was formed in April 1983 and became the first International Financial institution governed by the International Business Corporations, Act of 1982 licensed bank in Antigua.[35] The bank was later sued by the United States for failure to release forfeited funds from one of its account holders.[36] Swiss American Bank was founded by Bruce Rappaport.[37] Sport[edit] The major Antiguan sport is cricket. Sir Vivian ("Viv") Richards is one of the most famous Antiguans, who played for, and captained, the West Indies
West Indies
team. Richards scored the fastest Test century at the Antigua
Antigua
Recreation Ground, it was also the venue at which Brian Lara twice broke the world record for an individual Test innings (375 in 1993/94, 400 not out in 2003/04). Antigua
Antigua
was the location of a 2007 Cricket
Cricket
World Cup site, on a new Recreation Ground constructed on an old cane field in the north of the island. Both football (soccer) and basketball are becoming popular among the island youth. There are several golf courses in Antigua. Being surrounded by water, sailing has been one of the most popular sports for years with Antigua Sailing Week and Antigua
Antigua
Classic Yacht Regatta being two of the regions most reputable sailing competitions. Hundreds of yachts from around the world compete around Antigua
Antigua
each year. Sport Fishing is also a very popular sport with several big competitions held yearly. Windsurfing was very popular until kite-surfing came to the island with a big splash. Kitesurfing or kite-boarding is very popular at Jabbawock Beach. Local Antiguan Andre Phillip is one of the most famous kite-surfers in the world and spends much of his time training in Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda. Notable residents[edit]

Curtly Ambrose, legendary West-Indian cricketer[38] Giorgio Armani, Italian fashion designer; owns a home near Galley Bay[39] Calvin Ayre, billionaire founder of internet gambling company Bodog Entertainment Group[40] Silvio Berlusconi, former Italian Prime Minister[41] Richard Branson, Virgin Atlantic
Virgin Atlantic
mogul[42] Eric Clapton, established an Antiguan drug treatment centre; has a home on the south of the island[43] Timothy Dalton, actor of James Bond fame[44] Ken Follett, the author of Eye of the Needle owns a house on Jumby Bay[44] Marie-Elena John, Antiguan writer and former African Development Foundation specialist. Her debut novel, Unburnable was selected Best Debut of 2006 by Black Issues Book
Book
Review[45] SD Jones, professional wrestler known as " Special
Special
Delivery Jones" in the WWE in the 1970s and 1980s[citation needed] Phil Keoghan, host of The Amazing Race, lived here during part of his childhood[citation needed] Jamaica Kincaid, novelist famous for her writings about life on Antigua. Her book A Small Place was banned under the Vere Bird administration[citation needed] Robin Leach
Robin Leach
of Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous
Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous
fame.[46] Archibald MacLeish, poet and (U.S.) Librarian of Congress.[citation needed] Rachel Lambert Mellon, horticulturist and philanthropist, has owned a compound in Antigua's Half Moon Bay since the 1950s.[citation needed] Fred Olsen (1891–1986), inventor of the ball propellant manufacturing process[47] Mary Prince, abolitionist and autobiographer, who wrote The History of Mary Prince
Mary Prince
(1831), the first account of the life of a Black woman to be published in the United Kingdom. Viv Richards, West Indian cricket legend; the Sir Vivian Richards Stadium in Antigua
Antigua
was named in his honour[48] Richie Richardson, former West-Indies cricket team captain[49] Andy Roberts, the first Antiguan to play Test cricket for the West Indies. He was a member of the West Indies
West Indies
teams that won the 1975 and 1979 World Cups.[50] Andriy Mykolayovych Shevchenko, Former Ukrainian footballer and politician.[citation needed] Allen Stanford, Texan billionaire and fraudster[51][52] Peter Stringfellow, British nightclub owner[citation needed] Thomas J. Watson Jr., CEO of IBM[citation needed] Oprah Winfrey, talk-show host[53]

See also[edit]

Geography portal Caribbean
Caribbean
portal Commonwealth realms portal

Book: Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda

Barbuda
Barbuda
Land Acts Bibliography of Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda Chief Justices Commonwealth of Nations Guns for Antigua Index of Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda-related articles Leeward Islands List of Antiguans and Barbudans Outline of Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda

References[edit] Explanatory notes

^ Joseph Sturge, English abolitionist ^ Thomas Harvey ^ Estate, real estate and houses on it

Citations

^ Wells, J. C. (2000). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (2nd ed.). Harlow, Essex: Longman. p. 33. ISBN 0-582-36467-1.  ^ " Antigua
Antigua
Culture: Antigua
Antigua
& Barbuda
Barbuda
Independence Festival". www.antiguanice.com.  ^ a b Kessler, Herbert L. & Nirenberg, David. Judaism and Christian Art: Aesthetic Anxieties from the Catacombs to Colonialism. Accessed 23 September 2011. ^ Murphy, Reg. "Common Myths". Archaeology Antigua. Waladli versus Wadadli. Retrieved 4 September 2014.  ^ CIA, The World Factbook. Retrieved 2 February 2012. ^ News, ABC. "ABC News". ABC News.  ^ "For first time in 300 years, there's not a single living person on the island of Barbuda".  ^ a b c d e "A Plan of the Estate Called Jonas's Situated in the Division of North Sound in the Island of Antigua, the Property of Peter Langford Brooke, Esquire". World Digital Library. Retrieved 19 April 2013.  ^ See "Arawaks" and "Caribs". ^ a b c Dash, Mike (2 January 2013). "Antigua's Disputed Slave Conspiracy of 1736". Smithsonian Institution.  ^ Brian Dyde. A History of Antigua.  ^ Dyde, B. (2000). A history of Antigua: The unsuspected isle. Interlink Publishing Group Incorporated. ^ Dash, Mike. "A little bit of background – the crucifixion of Prince Klaas". allkindsofhistory.wordpress.com. Retrieved 12 July 2014.  ^ Brian Dyde, A History of Antigua, London & Oxford: Macmillan Education, 2000. ^ Oldfield, Dr John (17 February 2011). "British Anti-slavery".  ^ Morrissey, Marietta, Slave Women in the New World: Gender Stratification in the Caribbean. Lawrence, Kans.: University Press of Kansas, 1989 (ISBN 0-7006-0394-8), p. 85 and see p. 99 (author assoc. prof. sociology, University of Toledo). ^ a b c Robert Southey. The Life of Horatio Lord Nelson.  ^ Rothermund, Dietmar (2006). The Routledge Companion to Decolonization. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-203-00264-3.  ^ a b "Stanford Financial charged with 'massive' fraud". Stuff.co.nz. New Zealand. Reuters. 23 February 2009. Retrieved 4 September 2014.  ^ a b Anna Driver (17 February 2009). "U.S. agents enter Stanford Financial Houston office". Reuters. Retrieved 24 November 2011.  ^ Greenberg, Duncan (17 February 2009). "Billionaire Stanford Charged With Fraud". forbes.com. Retrieved 17 February 2009.  ^ Goldfarb, Zachary A. (17 February 2009). "SEC Charges Stanford Financial in $8B Fraud". washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 17 February 2009.  ^ Fitzgerald, Alison (17 February 2009). "Stanford International Bank Said to Bar Withdrawals Amid Probe". bloomberg.com. Retrieved 17 February 2009.  ^ Jagger, Suzy (27 February 2009). "Top Stanford official Laura Pendergest-Holt charged with obstruction". The Times. London. Retrieved 24 May 2010.  ^ New SEC Complaint Says Stanford Ran Ponzi Scheme, Wall Street Journal, 27 February 2009.(subscription required) ^ "Offshore bank placed under receivership", Antigua
Antigua
Observer, 13 April 2012. ^ "WTO - dispute settlement - the disputes - DS285". www.wto.org.  ^ "US TKOs Antigua
Antigua
in bizarre WTO arbitration decision".  ^ Kanter, James; Rivlin, Gary (22 December 2007). "In Trade Ruling, Antigua
Antigua
Wins a Right to Piracy" – via NYTimes.com.  ^ "Antigua/ Barbuda
Barbuda
govt. official statement".  ^ " Antigua
Antigua
Government Set to Launch "Pirate" Website To Punish United States - TorrentFreak". 24 January 2013.  ^ a b "slysoft.com". www.slysoft.com.  ^ 1st Lt. Alicia Wallace. "45th SW says Farewell to Antigua
Antigua
Air Station". Patrick.af.mil. Archived from the original on 13 July 2015. Retrieved 2015-12-23.  ^ Sajdaka, Richard A.; Henderson, Robert W. (1991). "Status of West Indian racers in the Lesser Antilles". Oryx. 25 (1): 33–38. Retrieved 12 June 2016.  ^ " Antigua
Antigua
& Barbuda
Barbuda
Archive Newsletter, Issue No. 64, April 2002".  ^ "United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit. UNITED STATES of America, Plaintiff, Appellant, v. SWISS AMERICAN BANK, LTD., et al., Defendants, Appellees". No. 99-1012. 8 September 1999. ^ "Rappaport dies", Antigua
Antigua
Observer, 9 January 2010. ^ " Curtly Ambrose
Curtly Ambrose
official website". Retrieved 17 April 2015.  ^ Tahna Weston (7 January 2006). "SUN Weekend". Archived from the original on 22 August 2008. Retrieved 22 August 2008.  ^ " Calvin Ayre
Calvin Ayre
still living it up in Antigua". TechVibes ^ Alex Rose, "Berlusconi, Antigua, Report, Question Marks", 18 October 2010. ^ " Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda: Murder rate higher than in New York – Scotsman.com News". The Scotsman. Edinburgh. 29 July 2008. Archived from the original on 22 August 2008. Retrieved 22 August 2008.  ^ " Eric Clapton
Eric Clapton
to auction guitars to benefit drug recovery cente – Aggielife". 24 June 2004. Archived from the original on 22 August 2008. Retrieved 22 August 2008.  ^ a b Kevin Brass (12 September 2006). " Antigua
Antigua
recaptures its reputation for chic – International Herald Tribune". Archived from the original on 22 August 2008. Retrieved 22 August 2008.  ^ Akeem Lasisi (18 August 2008). "Chimamanda in town for Fidelity Creative Workshop". Archived from the original on 22 August 2008. Retrieved 22 August 2008.  ^ Charles D. Sherman (19 February 2002). "U.S. probes Cuban dolphin deals / The Miami Herald, Cuba News / Noticias – CubaNet News". Archived from the original on 22 August 2008. Retrieved 22 August 2008.  ^ Saxon, Wolfgang (10 November 1986). "Dr. Fred Olsen, Industrial Chemist, Art Collector and Scholar, is Dead". New York Times. Retrieved 20 February 2015.  ^ "Putting Antigua
Antigua
on the map". BBC News. 7 March 2002. Archived from the original on 22 August 2008. Retrieved 22 August 2008.  ^ " Richie Richardson
Richie Richardson
cricket academy at Antigua". Retrieved 17 April 2015.  ^ "CaribbeanCricket.com – The Independent Voice of West Indies Cricket". 15 February 2004. Archived from the original on 22 August 2008. Retrieved 22 August 2008.  ^ "BIG MONEY! - JAMAICAOBSERVER.COM". 4 October 2005. Archived from the original on 22 August 2008. Retrieved 22 August 2008.  ^ CPGB-ML
CPGB-ML
(1 April 2009). "The Stanford affair and Antigua". A case study in neo-colonialism  ^ "The FABULOUS Homes, Planes, And Other Toys Of Oprah Winfrey". 

Bibliography

Antigua
Antigua
Nice (The Antigua
Antigua
Nice article was extracted by D.V. Nicholson's writings for the Antigua
Antigua
Historic Sites and Conservation Commission.) The Torture Museum Site The Life of Horatio Lord Nelson by Robert Southey The Catholic Encyclopedia Veranda Magazine, Island Flourish: West Indian Furnishings by Dana Micucci, March – April 2004 A Brief History of the Caribbean
Caribbean
from the Arawak and the Carib to the Present, by Jan Rogozinski, Penguin Putnam, Inc September 2000 Article on Antiguan real estate.

Further reading

Jedidiah Morse (1797), "Antigua", The American Gazetteer, Boston, Massachusetts: At the presses of S. Hall, and Thomas & Andrews 

External links[edit]

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British Empire

Legend Current territory Former territory * Now a Commonwealth realm Now a member of the Commonwealth of Nations Historical flags of the British Empire

Europe

1542–1800 Ireland (integrated into UK) 1708–1757, 1763–1782 and 1798–1802 Minorca Since 1713 Gibraltar 1800–1813 Malta (Protectorate) 1813–1964 Malta (Colony) 1807–1890 Heligoland 1809–1864 Ionian Islands 1878–1960 Cyprus 1921–1937 Irish Free State

North America

17th century and before 18th century 19th and 20th century

1579 New Albion 1583–1907 Newfoundland 1605–1979 *Saint Lucia 1607–1776 Virginia Since 1619 Bermuda 1620–1691 Plymouth 1623–1883 Saint Kitts 1624–1966 *Barbados 1625–1650 Saint Croix 1627–1979 *Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1628–1883 Nevis 1629–1691 Massachusetts Bay 1632–1776 Maryland since 1632 Montserrat 1632–1860 Antigua 1635–1644 Saybrook 1636–1776 Connecticut 1636–1776 Rhode Island 1637–1662 New Haven

1643–1860 Bay Islands Since 1650 Anguilla 1655–1850 Mosquito Coast 1655–1962 *Jamaica 1663–1712 Carolina 1664–1776 New York 1665–1674 and 1702–1776 New Jersey Since 1666 Virgin Islands Since 1670 Cayman Islands 1670–1973 *Bahamas 1670–1870 Rupert's Land 1671–1816 Leeward Islands 1674–1702 East Jersey 1674–1702 West Jersey 1680–1776 New Hampshire 1681–1776 Pennsylvania 1686–1689 New England 1691–1776 Massachusetts Bay

1701–1776 Delaware 1712–1776 North Carolina 1712–1776 South Carolina 1713–1867 Nova Scotia 1733–1776 Georgia 1754–1820 Cape Breton Island 1762–1974 *Grenada 1763–1978 Dominica 1763–1873 Prince Edward Island 1763–1791 Quebec 1763–1783 East Florida 1763–1783 West Florida 1784–1867 New Brunswick 1791–1841 Lower Canada 1791–1841 Upper Canada Since 1799 Turks and Caicos Islands

1818–1846 Columbia District/Oregon Country1 1833–1960 Windward Islands 1833–1960 Leeward Islands 1841–1867 Canada 1849–1866 Vancouver Island 1853–1863 Queen Charlotte Islands 1858–1866 British Columbia 1859–1870 North-Western Territory 1860–1981 *British Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda 1862–1863 Stickeen 1866–1871 British Columbia 1867–1931 * Dominion
Dominion
of Canada2 1871–1964 Honduras 1882–1983 * Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis 1889–1962 Trinidad and Tobago 1907–1949 Newfoundland3 1958–1962 West Indies
West Indies
Federation

1. Occupied jointly with the United States. 2. In 1931, Canada and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster. See Name of Canada. 3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada in 1949.

South America

1631–1641 Providence Island 1651–1667 Willoughbyland 1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands4 1831–1966 Guiana Since 1833 Falkland Islands5 Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands5

4. Now a department of Colombia. 5. Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War
Falklands War
of April–June 1982.

Africa

17th and 18th centuries 19th century 20th century

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 1792–1961 Sierra Leone 1795–1803 Cape Colony

Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 1806–1910 Cape of Good Hope 1807–1808 Madeira 1810–1968 Mauritius 1816–1965 The Gambia 1856–1910 Natal 1862–1906 Lagos 1868–1966 Basutoland 1874–1957 Gold Coast 1882–1922 Egypt

1884–1900 Niger Coast 1884–1966 Bechuanaland 1884–1960 Somaliland 1887–1897 Zululand 1890–1962 Uganda 1890–1963 Zanzibar 1891–1964 Nyasaland 1891–1907 Central Africa 1893–1968 Swaziland 1895–1920 East Africa 1899–1956 Sudan

1900–1914 Northern Nigeria 1900–1914 Southern Nigeria 1900–1910 Orange River 1900–1910 Transvaal 1903–1976 Seychelles 1910–1931 South Africa 1914–1960 Nigeria 1915–1931 South-West Africa 1919–1961 Cameroons6 1920–1963 Kenya 1922–1961 Tanganyika6 1923–1965 and 1979–1980 Southern Rhodesia7 1924–1964 Northern Rhodesia

6. League of Nations mandate. 7. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
unilaterally declared independence in 1965 (as Rhodesia) and continued as an unrecognised state until the 1979 Lancaster House Agreement. After recognised independence in 1980, Zimbabwe was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in 2003.

Asia

17th and 18th century 19th century 20th century

1685–1824 Bencoolen 1702–1705 Pulo Condore 1757–1947 Bengal 1762–1764 Manila and Cavite 1781–1784 and 1795–1819 Padang 1786–1946 Penang 1795–1948 Ceylon 1796–1965 Maldives

1811–1816 Java 1812–1824 Banka and Billiton 1819–1826 Malaya 1824–1948 Burma 1826–1946 Straits Settlements 1839–1967 Aden 1839–1842 Afghanistan 1841–1997 Hong Kong 1841–1946 Sarawak 1848–1946 Labuan 1858–1947 India 1874–1963 Borneo

1879–1919 Afghanistan (protectorate) 1882–1963 North Borneo 1885–1946 Unfederated Malay States 1888–1984 Brunei 1891–1971 Muscat and Oman 1892–1971 Trucial States 1895–1946 Federated Malay States 1898–1930 Weihai 1878–1960 Cyprus

1907–1949 Bhutan (protectorate) 1918–1961 Kuwait 1920–1932 Mesopotamia8 1921–1946 Transjordan8 1923–1948 Palestine8 1945–1946 South Vietnam 1946–1963 North Borneo 1946–1963 Sarawak 1946–1963 Singapore 1946–1948 Malayan Union 1948–1957 Federation of Malaya Since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(before as part of Cyprus) Since 1965 British Indian Ocean Territory
British Indian Ocean Territory
(before as part of Mauritius and the Seychelles)

8 League of Nations mandate. Iraq's mandate was not enacted and replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty

Oceania

18th and 19th centuries 20th century

1788–1901 New South Wales 1803–1901 Van Diemen's Land/Tasmania 1807–1863 Auckland Islands9 1824–1980 New Hebrides 1824–1901 Queensland 1829–1901 Swan River/Western Australia 1836–1901 South Australia since 1838 Pitcairn Islands

1841–1907 New Zealand 1851–1901 Victoria 1874–1970 Fiji10 1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories 1884–1949 Papua 1888–1901 Rarotonga/Cook Islands9 1889–1948 Union Islands9 1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands11 1893–1978 Solomon Islands12

1900–1970 Tonga 1900–1974 Niue9 1901–1942 *Australia 1907–1947 *New Zealand 1919–1942 and 1945–1968 Nauru 1919–1949 New Guinea 1949–1975 Papua and New Guinea13

9. Now part of the *Realm of New Zealand. 10. Suspended member. 11. Now Kiribati
Kiribati
and *Tuvalu. 12. Now the *Solomon Islands. 13. Now *Papua New Guinea.

Antarctica and South Atlantic

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 Since 1908 British Antarctic Territory15 1841–1933 Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
(transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia) 1841–1947 Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
(transferred to the Realm of New Zealand)

14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Ascension Island
Ascension Island
(1922–) and Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
(1938–) were previously dependencies of Saint Helena. 15. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands).

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 124921812 LCCN: n5007

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