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Antigonus III Doson
Antigonus III Doson
(Greek: Ἀντίγονος Γ΄ Δώσων, 263–221 BC) was king of Macedon
Macedon
from 229 BC to 221 BC. He was a member of the Antigonid dynasty.

Contents

1 Family background 2 Regent
Regent
of Macedonia 3 King of Macedonia 4 Ancestry 5 References 6 External links

Family background[edit] Antigonus III Doson
Antigonus III Doson
was a half-cousin of his predecessor, Demetrius II Aetolicus. Doson's father was Demetrius the Fair
Demetrius the Fair
(briefly king of Cyrene), the son of Demetrius Poliorcetes and his third wife, Ptolemaïs, daughter of Ptolemy I Soter and Eurydice, daughter of Antipater.[1] As such, Demetrius the Fair
Demetrius the Fair
was, on his father's side, a younger half-brother of Demetrius II's father, Antigonus II Gonatas, the son of Poliorcetes by his first wife, Phila, another of Antipater's daughters; as well as a nephew of both Ptolemy Keraunos and Meleager on his mother's side. According to Eusebius, Doson's own mother was a Thessalian noblewoman, Olympias, daughter of Pauliclitus of Larissa.[2] Antigonus also had a brother named Echecrates,[3] whose son, named Antigonus after Doson himself, was put to death by Perseus on the latter's accession to the throne of Macedon.[4] Doson's father, Demetrius the Fair, died sometime around 250 BC, as a result of events that occurred after being summoned from Macedonia to Cyrene to marry Berenice II, the daughter and heir of Magas of Cyrene. Rather than contenting himself with his young bride, Demetrius openly became the lover of her powerful mother, Apama II. So the jealous bride took her revenge by having him assassinated.[5] It is unclear whether Doson's mother had died before this time. Antigonus' by-name, Doson, is Greek for "going to give." The meaning of this is uncertain. According to Plutarch
Plutarch
it "implied that he was given to promising but did not perform his engagements",[6] though even the exact meaning of this is unclear. Regent
Regent
of Macedonia[edit] When Demetrius II died in battle in 229 BC, his son and would-be successor, the later Philip V, was only nine years old. According to Plutarch, both the Macedonian army and nobility thought the political situation too volatile to wait for Philip V to mature enough to assume command.[7] As a consequence, the Macedonian nobility turned to Doson, who was subsequently made regent of the kingdom and married to his predecessor's widow and the mother of Philip,[8] Chryseis.[9] However, it was only after Doson demonstrated his leadership abilities by succeeding (where his cousin Demetrius had failed) in defeating the Dardanii
Dardanii
invaders and also in putting down a rebellion by the Thessalians,[10] and showing his rule to be generally moderate and good, that he was given the title of king.[11] Unlike his Antigonid ancestors, he had no viable rivals to challenge his right to rule. Yet, even as king he apparently envisioned himself as caretaker for his cousin's son, Philip V. King of Macedonia[edit] As king, Antigonus III proved to be as much a master of tactical diplomacy as of military strategy. In less than a decade of rule he not only secured the borders of his nation, he also reestablished Macedon
Macedon
as the dominant power in the region. Unlike previous Macedonian rulers who attempted direct dominion over their fiercely independent neighbors to the West and South, he formed alliances with Epirus and the Achaean League. When Sparta, under Cleomenes III, attempted to establish hegemony over the whole Peloponnese, Aratus of Sicyon - long the leader of Greek opposition to Macedonian domination - invited Antigonus to intervene (226 BC). Establishing his base on the heights above Corinth, Antigonus reconstituted a broad-based Hellenic league (224 BC) under his leadership before launching his attack on Sparta. The Spartan forces, outmatched by the larger, better equipped Macedonian army, were so overwhelmed in the battle of Sellasia (222 BC) that Cleomenes only managed to escape with a few horsemen, and ultimately had to seek refuge in Egypt.[12] However, in a magnanimous gesture, Antigonus restrained his soldiers from plundering Sparta, saying it was Cleomenes, not Sparta, that was his enemy.[13] Antigonus did not long survive this victory. For, while his forces were campaigning in the southern Peloponnese, Illyrians
Illyrians
invaded Macedonia from the north. Antigonus had to rush north to repel this new threat. On his way, Antigonus passed through Tegea and Argos, his arrival at the latter coinciding with the beginning of the Nemean Games, where he was honoured by the Achaean League
Achaean League
and various other cities.[14] His death occurred soon after, when he returned to Macedon and engaged the Illyian army; for though Macedonian forces were once again victorious, the commander became sick during the battle (possibly though not necessarily as a result of a ruptured blood vessel) and died.[15] Ancestry[edit]

Ancestors of Antigonus III Doson

16. Philip of Elimeia

8. Antigonus I Monophthalmus, Basileus
Basileus
of Macedon

4. Demetrius I of Macedon

18. Corrhaeus

9. Stratonice

2. Demetrius the Fair, King of Cyrene

20. Lagus of Eordaea

10. Ptolemy I Soter, Pharaoh of Egypt

21. Arsinoe of Macedon

5. Ptolemais of Egypt

22. Antipater

11. Eurydice of Egypt

1. Antigonus III Doson, King of Macedon

6. Polyclitus of Larissa

3. Olympias of Larissa

References[edit]

^ Plutarch, Life of Demetrius, 46.3, 53.4 ^ Eusebius, Chronicle, 243 ^ Livy xl. 54 ^ Livy xl. 58 ^ Dodson, Aidan & Hilton, Dyan, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
(2010), p. 279 ^ Plutarch, Life of Aemilius Paullus 8.3 ^ Plutarch, Life of Aemilius Paullus 8.3 ^ Plutarch, Life of Aemilius Paullus 8.3 ^ Eusebius, Chronicle 1.237-8; also Syncellus Chronicle 535.19 ^ Justin, Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus 28.3 ^ Plutarch, Life of Aemilius Paullus 8.3 ^ Polybius, Histories 2.69.10 ^ Justin, Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus 28.4 ^ Polybius, Histories 2.70.4 ^ Polybius, Histories 2.70.6

External links[edit]

Antigonus III Doson
Antigonus III Doson
entry in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith

Preceded by: Demetrius II Kings of Macedon 229–221 BC Succeeded by: Philip V

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Kings of Macedon

Argead

Caranus Coenus Tyrimmas Perdiccas
Perdiccas
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Perdiccas
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Perdiccas
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Regents

Ptolemy of Aloros Perdiccas Peithon and Arrhidaeus Antipater Polyperchon Cassander

Antipatrid

Cassander Philip IV Alexander V Antipater II Antipater Etesias Sosthenes

Antigonid

Demetrius I Antigonus II Demetrius II Antigonus III Philip V Perseus Andriscus
Andriscus
(Philip VI)

Non-dynastic

Lysimachus Pyrrhus Ptolemy Keraunos Meleager

v t e

Hellenistic rulers

Argeads

Philip II Alexander III the Great Philip III Arrhidaeus Alexander IV

Antigonids

Antigonus I Monophthalmus Demetrius I Poliorcetes Antigonus II Gonatas Demetrius II Aetolicus Antigonus III Doson Philip V Perseus Philip VI (pretender)

Ptolemies

Ptolemy I Soter Ptolemy Keraunos Ptolemy II Philadelphus Ptolemy III Euergetes Ptolemy IV Philopator Ptolemy V Epiphanes Cleopatra I Syra
Cleopatra I Syra
(regent) Ptolemy VI Philometor Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Cleopatra
Cleopatra
II Philometor Soter Ptolemy VIII Physcon Cleopatra
Cleopatra
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Cleopatra
VI Tryphaena Berenice IV Epiphanea Ptolemy XIII Ptolemy XIV Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII Philopator Ptolemy XV Caesarion

Kings of Cyrene

Magas Demetrius the Fair Ptolemy VIII Physcon Ptolemy Apion

Seleucids

Seleucus I Nicator Antiochus I Soter Antiochus II Theos Seleucus II Callinicus Seleucus III Ceraunus Antiochus III the Great Seleucus IV Philopator Antiochus IV Epiphanes Antiochus V Eupator Demetrius I Soter Alexander I Balas Demetrius II Nicator Antiochus VI Dionysus Diodotus Tryphon Antiochus VII Sidetes Alexander II Zabinas Seleucus V Philometor Antiochus VIII Grypus Antiochus IX Cyzicenus Seleucus VI Epiphanes Antiochus X Eusebes Antiochus XI Epiphanes Demetrius III Eucaerus Philip I Philadelphus Antiochus XII Dionysus Antiochus XIII Asiaticus Philip II Philoromaeus

Lysimachids

Lysimachus Ptolemy Epigonos

Antipatrids

Cassander Philip IV Alexander V Antipater II Antipater Etesias Sosthenes

Attalids

Philetaerus Eumenes I Attalus I Eumenes II Attalus II Attalus III Eumenes III

Greco-Bactrians

Diodotus I Diodotus II Euthydemus I Demetrius I Euthydemus II Antimachus I Pantaleon Agathocles Demetrius II Eucratides I Plato Eucratides II Heliocles I

Indo-Greeks

Demetrius I Antimachus I Pantaleon Agathocles Apollodotus I Demetrius II Antimachus II Menander I Zoilos I Agathokleia Lysias Strato I Antialcidas Heliokles II Polyxenos Demetrius III Philoxenus Diomedes Amyntas Epander Theophilos Peukolaos Thraso Nicias Menander II Artemidoros Hermaeus Archebius Telephos Apollodotus II Hippostratos Dionysios Zoilos II Apollophanes Strato II Strato III

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Kings of Pontus

Mithridates I Ctistes Ariobarzanes Mithridates II Mithridates III Pharnaces I Mithridates IV Philopator Philadephos Mithridates V Euergetes Mithridates VI Eupator Pharnaces II Darius Arsaces Polemon I Pythodorida Polemon II

Kings of Commagene

Ptolemaeus Sames II Mithridates I Antiochus I Mithridates II Antiochus II Mithridates III Antiochus III Antiochus IV

Kings of Cappadocia

Ariarathes I Ariarathes II Ariamnes II Ariarathes III Ariarathes IV Ariarathes V Orophernes Ariarathes VI Ariarathes VII Ariarathes VIII Ariarathes IX Ariobarzanes I Ariobarzanes II Ariobarzanes III Ariarathes X Archelaus

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 19565865 LCCN: nr95002091 ISNI: 0000 0003 9910 7942 GND: 118503375 SELIBR: 331207 SUDOC: 032559003 BNF:

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