ANTI-CAPITALISM encompasses a wide variety of movements, ideas and attitudes that oppose capitalism . Anti-capitalists, in the strict sense of the word, are those who wish to replace capitalism with a moneyless society or with another type of economic system .
* 1.1 Anarchist and libertarian socialist criticisms
* 2 Barter * 3 Wage slavery * 4 See also
* 5 References
* 5.1 Works cited
* 6 Further reading * 7 External links
* A theory or policy of social organisation which aims at or advocates the ownership and democratic control of the means of production, by workers or the community as a whole, and their administration or distribution in the interests of all. * Socialists argue for a cooperative/community economy, or the commanding heights of the economy , with democratic control by the people over the state, although there have been some undemocratic philosophies. "State" or "worker cooperative" ownership is in fundamental opposition to "private" ownership of means of production , which is a defining feature of capitalism. Most socialists argue that capitalism unfairly concentrates power, wealth and profit, among a small segment of society that controls capital and derives its wealth through exploitation .
Socialists argue that the accumulation of capital generates waste through externalizations that require costly corrective regulatory measures. They also point out that this process generates wasteful industries and practices that exist only to generate sufficient demand for products to be sold at a profit (such as high-pressure advertisement); thereby creating rather than satisfying economic demand.
Socialists argue that capitalism consists of irrational activity, such as the purchasing of commodities only to sell at a later time when their price appreciates, rather than for consumption, even if the commodity cannot be sold at a profit to individuals in need; they argue that making money, or accumulation of capital, does not correspond to the satisfaction of demand.
Private ownership imposes constraints on planning, leading to inaccessible economic decisions that result in immoral production, unemployment and a tremendous waste of material resources during crisis of overproduction . According to socialists, private property in the means of production becomes obsolete when it concentrates into centralized, socialized institutions based on private appropriation of revenue (but based on cooperative work and internal planning in allocation of inputs) until the role of the capitalist becomes redundant. With no need for capital accumulation and a class of owners, private property in the means of production is perceived as being an outdated form of economic organization that should be replaced by a free association of individuals based on public or common ownership of these socialized assets. Socialists view private property relations as limiting the potential of productive forces in the economy.
Early socialists (Utopian socialists and Ricardian socialists ) criticized capitalism for concentrating power and wealth within a small segment of society, and does not utilise available technology and resources to their maximum potential in the interests of the public.
ANARCHIST AND LIBERTARIAN SOCIALIST CRITICISMS
Anarchist economics and
For the influential German individualist anarchist philosopher Max Stirner , "private property is a spook which "lives by the grace of law" and it "becomes 'mine' only by effect of the law". In other words, private property exists purely "through the protection of the State, through the State's grace." Recognising its need for state protection, Stirner argued that "t need not make any difference to the 'good citizens' who protects them and their principles, whether an absolute King or a constitutional one, a republic, if only they are protected. And what is their principle, whose protector they always 'love'? Not that of labour", rather it is "interest-bearing possession ... labouring capital, therefore ... labour certainly, yet little or none at all of one's own, but labour of capital and of the—subject labourers"." French anarchist Pierre Joseph Proudhon opposed government privilege that protects capitalist, banking and land interests, and the accumulation or acquisition of property (and any form of coercion that led to it) which he believed hampers competition and keeps wealth in the hands of the few. The Spanish individualist anarchist Miguel Gimenez Igualada saw "capitalism an effect of government; the disappearance of government means capitalism falls from its pedestal vertiginously...That which we call capitalism is not something else but a product of the State, within which the only thing that is being pushed forward is profit, good or badly acquired. And so to fight against capitalism is a pointless task, since be it State capitalism or Enterprise capitalism, as long as Government exists, exploiting capital will exist. The fight, but of consciousness, is against the State.".
Within anarchism there emerged a critique of wage slavery which
refers to a situation perceived as quasi-voluntary slavery , where a
person's livelihood depends on wages , especially when the dependence
is total and immediate. It is a negatively connoted term used to
draw an analogy between slavery and wage labor by focusing on
similarities between owning and renting a person. The term wage
slavery has been used to criticize economic exploitation and social
stratification , with the former seen primarily as unequal bargaining
power between labor and capital (particularly when workers are paid
comparatively low wages, e.g. in sweatshops ), and the latter as a
lack of workers\' self-management , fulfilling job choices and leisure
in an economy. Libertarian socialists believe if freedom is valued,
then society must work towards a system in which individuals have the
power to decide economic issues along with political issues.
Libertarian socialists seek to replace unjustified authority with
direct democracy , voluntary federation, and popular autonomy in all
aspects of life, including physical communities and economic
enterprises. With the advent of the industrial revolution , thinkers
such as Proudhon and Marx elaborated the comparison between wage labor
and slavery in the context of a critique of societal property not
intended for active personal use, Luddites emphasized the
dehumanization brought about by machines while later Emma Goldman
famously denounced wage slavery by saying: "The only difference is
that you are hired slaves instead of block slaves.". American
In addition to individualist anarchist
Benjamin Tucker 's "big four"
monopolies (land, money, tariffs, and patents),
Kevin Carson argues
that the state has also transferred wealth to the wealthy by
subsidizing organizational centralization, in the form of
transportation and communication subsidies. He believes that Tucker
overlooked this issue due to Tucker's focus on individual market
transactions, whereas Carson also focuses on organizational issues.
Carson holds that “
Capitalism , arising as a new class society
directly from the old class society of the
Capital: Critique of Political Economy , by
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If we have chosen the position in life in which we can most of all work for mankind, no burdens can bow us down, because they are sacrifices for the benefit of all; then we shall experience no petty, limited, selfish joy, but our happiness will belong to millions, our deeds will live on quietly but perpetually at work, and over our ashes will be shed the hot tears of noble people.. — Karl Marx, 1837.
Barter is a system of exchange where goods or services are directly exchanged for other goods or services without using a medium of exchange , such as money . It is distinguishable from gift economies in many ways; one of them is that the reciprocal exchange is immediate and not delayed in time. It is usually bilateral , but may be multilateral (i.e., mediated through barter organizations) and, in most developed countries, usually only exists parallel to monetary systems to a very limited extent. Barter, as a replacement for money as the method of exchange, is used in times of monetary crisis, such as when the currency may be either unstable (e.g., hyperinflation or deflationary spiral ) or simply unavailable for conducting commerce .
Wage slavery refers to a situation where a person's livelihood depends on wages or a salary , especially when the dependence is total and immediate. It is a pejorative term used to draw an analogy between slavery and wage labor by focusing on similarities between owning and renting a person.
The term wage slavery has been used to criticize exploitation of labour and social stratification , with the former seen primarily as unequal bargaining power between labor and capital (particularly when workers are paid comparatively low wages, e.g. in sweatshops ), and the latter as a lack of workers\' self-management , fulfilling job choices, and leisure in an economy. The criticism of social stratification covers a wider range of employment choices bound by the pressures of a hierarchical society to perform otherwise unfulfilling work that deprives humans of their "species character" not only under threat of starvation or poverty , but also of social stigma and status diminution .
* List of communist and anti-capitalist parties with parliamentary
Eye of a needle
* ^ Newman, Michael. (2005) Socialism: A Very Short Introduction,
Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-280431-6
* ^ "Socialism". Oxford English Dictionary.
* ^ "Socialism"
* Hallgrimsdottir, Helga Kristin; Benoit, Cecilia (2007). "From Wage
Alex Callinicos . An Anti-Capitalist Manifesto. Polity. 2003
* David McNally . Another World Is Possible: