Capitalism and Schizophrenia (French: Capitalisme et
schizophrénie. L'anti-Œdipe) is a 1972 book by French authors Gilles
Deleuze and Félix Guattari, respectively a philosopher and a
psychoanalyst. It is the first volume of
Capitalism and Schizophrenia,
the second being
A Thousand Plateaus (1980).
Deleuze and Guattari analyse the relationship of desire to reality and
to capitalist society in particular; they address human psychology,
economics, society, and history. They outline a "materialist
psychiatry" modeled on the unconscious in its relationship with
society and its productive processes, introduce the concept of
"desiring-production" (which inter-relates "desiring machines" and a
"body without organs"), offer a critique of Sigmund Freud's
psychoanalysis that focuses on its theory of the Oedipus complex, and
re-write Karl Marx's materialist account of the history of society's
modes of production as a development through "primitive," "despotic,"
and "capitalist" societies, and detail their different organisations
of production, "inscription" (which corresponds to Marx's
"distribution" and "exchange"), and consumption. Additionally, they
develop a critical practice that they call "schizoanalysis."
Other thinkers the authors draw on and criticize include Baruch
Spinoza, Immanuel Kant, Charles Fourier, Charles Sanders Peirce, Carl
Jung, Melanie Klein, Karl Jaspers, Lewis Mumford, Karl August
Wittfogel, Wilhelm Reich, Georges Bataille, Louis Hjelmslev, Jacques
Lacan, Gregory Bateson, Pierre Klossowski, Claude Lévi-Strauss,
Jacques Monod, Louis Althusser, Victor Turner, Jean Oury,
Jean-François Lyotard, Michel Foucault, R. D. Laing, David Cooper,
and Pierre Clastres. They also draw on creative writers and artists
such as Antonin Artaud, Samuel Beckett, Georg Büchner, Samuel Butler,
Franz Kafka, Jack Kerouac, Heinrich von Kleist, D. H. Lawrence, Henry
Miller, Marcel Proust, Daniel Paul Schreber, and J. M. W. Turner.
Friedrich Nietzsche is also an influence;
Anti-Oedipus has been seen
as a sequel to his The Antichrist.
Anti-Oedipus became a publishing sensation and a celebrated work. Like
Libidinal Economy (1974), it is seen as a key text in the
micropolitics of desire. It has been credited with having devastated
the French Lacanian movement, although "schizoanalysis" has been
regarded as flawed for multiple reasons, including the emancipatory
Deleuze and Guattari make for schizophrenia.
1.1.1 Desiring machines and social production
1.1.2 Reframing the Oedipal complex
1.1.3 Body without organs
1.1.4 Criticism of psychoanalysts
1.2 Fascism, the family, and the desire for oppression
1.2.1 Desiring self-repression
1.2.2 The family under capitalism as an agent of repression
Capitalism and the political economy of desire
1.3.1 Territorialisation, deterritorialisation, and
1.4 Terminology borrowed from science
2 Reception and influence
3 See also
6 Further reading
7 External links
Deleuze and Guattari argue that Richard Lindner's painting "Boy with
Machine" (1954) demonstrates the schizoanalytic thesis of the primacy
of desire's social investments over its familial ones: "the turgid
little boy has already plugged a desiring-machine into a social
machine, short-circuiting the parents."
Main article: Schizoanalysis
Deleuze and Guattari's "schizoanalysis" is a militant social and
political analysis that responds to what they see as the reactionary
tendencies of psychoanalysis. It proposes a functional evaluation
of the direct investments of desire—whether revolutionary or
reactionary—in a field that is social, biological, historical, and
Deleuze and Guattari develop four theses of schizoanalysis:
Every unconscious libidinal investment is social and bears upon a
Unconscious libidinal investments of group or desire are distinct from
preconscious investments of class or interest.
Non-familial libidinal investments of the social field are primary in
relation to familial investments.
Social libidinal investments are distinguished according to two poles:
a paranoiac, reactionary, fascisizing pole and a schizoid
In contrast to the psychoanalytic conception, schizoanalysis assumes
that the libido does not need to be de-sexualised, sublimated, or to
go by way of metamorphoses in order to invest economic or political
factors. "The truth is,"
Deleuze and Guattari explain, "sexuality is
everywhere: the way a bureaucrat fondles his records, a judge
administers justice, a businessman causes money to circulate; the way
the bourgeoisie fucks the proletariat; and so on. [...] Flags,
nations, armies, banks get a lot of people aroused." In the terms
of classical Marxism, desire is part of the economic, infrastructural
"base" of society, they argue, not an ideological, subjective
Unconscious libidinal investments of desire coexist without
necessarily coinciding with preconscious investments made according to
the needs or ideological interests of the subject (individual or
collective) who desires.
A form of social production and reproduction, along with its economic
and financial mechanisms, its political formations, and so on, can be
desired as such, in whole or in part, independently of the interests
of the desiring-subject. It was not by means of a metaphor, even a
paternal metaphor, that Hitler was able to sexually arouse the
fascists. It is not by means of a metaphor that a banking or
stock-market transaction, a claim, a coupon, a credit, is able to
arouse people who are not necessarily bankers. And what about the
effects of money that grows, money that produces more money? There are
socioeconomic "complexes" that are also veritable complexes of the
unconscious, and that communicate a voluptuous wave from the top to
the bottom of their hierarchy (the military–industrial complex). And
ideology, Oedipus, and the phallus have nothing to do with this,
because they depend on it rather than being its impetus.
Schizoanalysis seeks to show how "in the subject who desires, desire
can be made to desire its own repression—whence the role of the
death instinct in the circuit connecting desire to the social
sphere." Desire produces "even the most repressive and the most
deadly forms of social reproduction."
Desiring machines and social production
Main article: Desiring-production
The traditional understanding of desire assumes an exclusive
distinction between "production" and "acquisition." This line of
thought—which has dominated Western philosophy throughout its
history and stretches from
Plato to Freud and Lacan—understands
desire through the concept of acquisition, insofar as desire seeks to
acquire something that it lacks. This dominant conception, Deleuze and
Guattari argue, is a form of philosophical idealism. Alternative
conceptions, which treat desire as a positive, productive force, have
received far less attention; the ideas of the small number of
philosophers who have developed them, however, are of crucial
importance to Deleuze and Guattari's project: principally Nietzsche's
will to power and Spinoza's conatus.
Deleuze and Guattari argue that desire is a positive process of
production that produces reality. On the basis of three "passive
syntheses" (partly modelled on Kant's syntheses of apperception from
his Critique of Pure Reason), desire engineers "partial objects,
flows, and bodies" in the service of the autopoiesis of the
unconscious. In this model, desire does not "lack" its object;
instead, desire "is a machine, and the object of desire is another
machine connected to it." On this basis, Deleuze and Guattari
develop their notion of desiring-production. Since desire produces
reality, social production, with its forces and relations, is "purely
and simply desiring-production itself under determinate
Like their contemporary, R. D. Laing, and like Reich before them,
Deleuze and Guattari make a connection between psychological
repression and social oppression. By means of their concept of
desiring-production, however, their manner of doing so is radically
different. They describe a universe composed of desiring-machines, all
of which are connected to one another: "There are no desiring-machines
that exist outside the social machines that they form on a large
scale; and no social machines without the desiring machines that
inhabit them on a small scale." When they insist that a social
field may be invested by desire directly, they oppose Freud's concept
of sublimation, which posits an inherent dualism between
desiring-machines and social production. This dualism, they argue,
limited and trapped the revolutionary potential of the theories of
Laing and Reich.
Deleuze and Guattari develop a critique of Freud and
Lacan's psychoanalysis, anti-psychiatry, and
Freudo-Marxism (with its
insistence on a necessary mediation between the two realms of desire
and the social).
Deleuze and Guattari's concept of sexuality is not limited to the
interaction of male and female gender roles, but instead posits a
multiplicity of flows that a "hundred thousand" desiring-machines
create within their connected universe;
Deleuze and Guattari contrast
this "non-human, molecular sexuality" to "molar" binary sexuality:
"making love is not just becoming as one, or even two, but becoming as
a hundred thousand," they write, adding that "we always make love with
Reframing the Oedipal complex
The "anti-" part of their critique of the Freudian Oedipal complex
begins with that original model's articulation of
society[clarification needed] based on the family triangle of father,
mother and child.[page needed] Criticizing psychoanalysis
"familialism", they want to show that the oedipal model of the family
is a kind of organization that must colonize its members, repress
their desires, and give them complexes if it is to function as an
organizing principle of society.[page needed] Instead of
conceiving the "family" as a sphere contained by a larger "social"
sphere, and giving a logical preeminence to the family triangle,
Deleuze and Guattari argue that the family should be opened onto the
social, as in Bergson's conception of the Open, and that underneath
the pseudo-opposition between family (composed of personal subjects)
and social, lies the relationship between pre-individual desire and
Furthermore, they argue that schizophrenia is an extreme mental state
co-existent with the capitalist system itself and capitalism keeps
enforcing neurosis as a way of maintaining normality. However, they
oppose a non-clinical concept of "schizophrenia" as
deterritorialization to the clinical end-result "schizophrenic" (i.e.
they do not intend to romanticize "mental disorders"; instead, they
show, like Foucault, that "psychiatric disorders" are always second to
Body without organs
Deleuze and Guattari describe the BwO as an egg: "it is crisscrossed
with axes and thresholds, with latitudes and longitudes and geodesic
lines, traversed by gradients marking the transitions and the
becomings, the destinations of the subject developing along these
Main article: Body without organs
Deleuze and Guattari develop their concept of the "body without
organs" (often rendered as BwO). Since desire can take on as many
forms as there are persons to implement it, it must seek new channels
and different combinations to realize itself, forming a BwO for every
instance. Desire is not limited to the affections of a subject.
Criticism of psychoanalysts
Deleuze and Guattari address the case of Gérard Mendel, Bela
Grunberger and Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel, who were prominent members
of the most respected psychoanalytic association (the International
Psychoanalytical Association). They argue that this case demonstrates
that psychoanalysis enthusiastically embraces a police state:
As to those who refuse to be oedipalized in one form or another, at
one end or the other in the treatment, the psychoanalyst is there to
call the asylum or the police for help. The police on our
side!—never did psychoanalysis better display its taste for
supporting the movement of social repression, and for participating in
it with enthusiasm. [...] notice of the dominant tone in the most
respected associations: consider Dr. Mendel and the Drs Stéphane, the
state of fury that is theirs, and their literally police-like appeal
at the thought that someone might try to escape the Oedipal dragnet.
Oedipus is one of those things that becomes all the more dangerous the
less people believe in it; then the cops are there to replace the high
Bela Grunberger and
Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel were two psychoanalysts
from the Paris section of the International Psychoanalytical
Association. In November 1968 they disguised themselves under the
pseudonym André Stéphane and published L’univers
Contestationnaire, in which they argued that the left-wing rioters of
May 68 were totalitarian stalinists, and proceeded to psychoanalyze
them as suffering from a sordid infantilism caught up in an Oedipal
revolt against the Father.
Jacques Lacan regarded Grunberger
and Chasseguet-Smirgel's book with great disdain; while they were
still disguised under the pseudonym, Lacan remarked that he was
certain that neither author belonged to his school, as none would
abase themselves to such low drivel. The IPa analysts responded
with an accusation against the Lacan school of "intellectual
Gérard Mendel published La révolte contre le père
(1968) and Pour décoloniser l’enfant (1971).
Fascism, the family, and the desire for oppression
Deleuze and Guattari address a fundamental problem of political
philosophy: the contradictory phenomenon whereby an individual or a
group comes to desire their own oppression. This contradiction had
been mentioned briefly by the 17th-century philosopher Spinoza: "Why
do men fight for their servitude as stubbornly as though it were their
salvation?" That is, how is it possible that people cry for "More
taxes! Less bread!"?
Wilhelm Reich discussed the phenomenon in his
1933 book The Mass Psychology of Fascism:
the astonishing thing is not that some people steal or that others
occasionally go out on strike, but rather that all those who are
starving do not steal as a regular practice, and all those who are
exploited are not continually out on strike: after centuries of
exploitation, why do people still tolerate being humiliated and
enslaved, to such a point, indeed, that they actually want humiliation
and slavery not only for others but for themselves?"
To address this question,
Deleuze and Guattari examine the
relationships between social organisation, power, and desire,
particularly in relation to the Freudian "Oedipus complex" and its
familial mechanisms of subjectivation ("daddy-mommy-me"). They argue
that the nuclear family is the most powerful agent of psychological
repression, under which the desires of the child and the adolescent
are repressed and perverted. Such psychological repression
forms docile individuals that are easy targets for social
repression. By using this powerful mechanism, the dominant class,
"making cuts (coupures) and segregations pass over into a social
field", can ultimately control individuals or groups, ensuring general
submission. This explains the contradictory phenomenon in which people
"act manifestly counter to their class interests—when they rally to
the interests and ideals of a class that their own objective situation
should lead them to combat". Deleuze and Guattari's critique of
these mechanisms seeks to promote a revolutionary liberation of
If desire is repressed, it is because every position of desire, no
matter how small, is capable of calling into question the established
order of a society: not that desire is asocial, on the contrary. But
it is explosive; there is no desiring-machine capable of being
assembled without demolishing entire social sectors. Despite what some
revolutionaries think about this, desire is revolutionary in its
essence — desire, not left-wing holidays! — and no society can
tolerate a position of real desire without its structures of
exploitation, servitude, and hierarchy being compromised.
The family under capitalism as an agent of repression
The family is the agent to which capitalist production delegates the
psychological repression of the desires of the child.
Psychological repression is distinguished from social oppression
insofar as it works unconsciously. Through it, Deleuze and
Guattari argue, parents transmit their angst and irrational fears to
their child and bind the child's sexual desires to feelings of shame
and guilt.[page needed]
Psychological repression is strongly linked with social oppression,
which levers on it. It is thanks to psychological repression that
individuals are transformed into docile servants of social repression
who come to desire self-repression and who accept a miserable life as
employees for capitalism. A capitalist society needs a powerful
tool to counteract the explosive force of desire, which has the
potential to threaten its structures of exploitation, servitude, and
hierarchy; the nuclear family is precisely the powerful tool able to
counteract those forces.
The action of the family not only performs a psychological repression
of desire, but it disfigures it, giving rise to a consequent neurotic
desire, the perversion of incestuous drives and desiring
Oedipus complex arises from this double
operation: "It is in one and the same movement that the repressive
social production is replaced by the repressing family, and that the
latter offers a displaced image of desiring-production that represents
the repressed as incestuous familial drives."
Capitalism and the political economy of desire
Territorialisation, deterritorialisation, and
Although (like most Deleuzo-Guattarian terms) deterritorialization has
a purposeful variance in meaning throughout their oeuvre, it can be
roughly described as a move away from a rigidly imposed hierarchical,
arborescent context, which seeks to package things (concepts, objects,
etc.) into discrete categorised units with singular coded meanings or
identities, towards a rhizomatic zone of multiplicity and fluctuant
identity, where meanings and operations flow freely between said
things, resulting in a dynamic, constantly changing set of
interconnected entities with fuzzy individual boundaries.
Importantly, the concept implies a continuum, not a simple binary -
every actual assemblage (a flexible term alluding to the heterogeneous
composition of any complex system, individual, social, geological) is
marked by simultaneous movements of territorialization (maintenance)
and of deterritorialization (dissipation).
Various means of deterritorializing are alluded to by the authors in
their chapter "How to Make Yourself A Body Without Organs" in A
Thousand Plateaus, including psychoactives such as peyote.
Experientially, the effects of such substances can include a loosening
(relative deterritorialization) of the worldview of the user (i.e.
his/her beliefs, models, etc.), subsequently leading to an
antiredeterritorialization (remapping of beliefs, models, etc.) that
is not necessarily identical to the prior territory.
Deterritorialization is closely related to Deleuzo-Guattarian concepts
such as line of flight, destratification and the body without
organs/BwO (a term borrowed from Artaud), and is sometimes defined in
such a way as to be partly interchangeable with these terms (most
specifically in the second part of
Capitalism and Schizophrenia, A
The authors posit that dramatic reterritorialization often follows
relative deterritorialization, while absolute deterritorialization is
just that... absolute deterritorialization without any
Terminology borrowed from science
A vector field on a sphere.
During the course of their argument,
Deleuze and Guattari borrow a
number of concepts from different scientific fields. To describe the
process of desire, they draw on fluid dynamics, the branch of physics
that studies how a fluid flows through space. They describe society in
terms of forces acting in a vector field. They also relate processes
of their "body without organs" to the embryology of an egg, from which
they borrow the concept of an inductor.
Reception and influence
The philosopher Michel Foucault, in his preface to Anti-Oedipus, wrote
that the book can best be read as an "art", in the sense that is
conveyed by the term "erotic art." Foucault considered the book's
three "adversaries" as the "bureaucrats of the revolution", the "poor
technicians of desire" (psychoanalysts and semiologists), and "the
major enemy", fascism. Foucault used the term "fascism" to refer "not
only historical fascism, the fascism of Hitler and Mussolini...but
also the fascism in us all, in our heads and in our everyday behavior,
the fascism that causes us to love power, to desire the very thing
that dominates and exploits us." Foucault added that
"a book of ethics, the first book of ethics to be written in France in
quite a long time", and suggested that this explains its popular
success. Foucault proposed that the book could be called Introduction
to the Non-Fascist Life. Foucault argued that putting the principles
Anti-Oedipus into practice involves freeing political
action from "unitary and totalizing paranoia" and withdrawing
allegiance "from the old categories of the Negative (law, limit,
castration, lack, lacuna), which western thought has so long held
sacred as a form of power and an access to reality." The
psychiatrist David Cooper described
Anti-Oedipus as "a magnificent
vision of madness as a revolutionary force", crediting its authors
with using "the psychoanalytic language and the discourse of Saussure
(and his successors)" to pit "linguistics against itself in what is
already proving to be an historic act of depassment." The critic
Frederick Crews wrote that when
Deleuze and Guattari "indicted
Lacanian psychoanalysis as a capitalist disorder" and "pilloried
analysts as the most sinister priest-manipulators of a psychotic
society" in Anti-Oedipus, their "demonstration was widely regarded as
unanswerable" and "devastated the already shrinking Lacanian camp in
Douglas Kellner described
Anti-Oedipus as its era's
publishing sensation, and, along with Jean-François Lyotard's
Libidinal Economy (1974), a key text in "the micropolitics of
desire." The psychoanalyst
Joel Kovel credited Deleuze and
Guattari with providing a definitive challenge to the mystique of the
family, but objects that they did so in the spirit of nihilism,
commenting, "Immersion in their world of 'schizoculture' and desiring
machines is enough to make a person yearn for the secure madness of
the nuclear family." Anthony Elliott wrote that
Anti-Oedipus is a
"celebrated" work that "scandalized French psychoanalysis and
generated heated dispute among intellectuals" and "offered a timely
critique of psychoanalysis and Lacanianism at the time of its
publication in France." However, Elliott added that most commentators
would now agree that "schizoanalysis" is fatally flawed, and that
there are several major objections that can be made against
Anti-Oedipus. In his view, even if "subjectivity may be usefully
decentred and deconstructed", it is wrong to assume that "desire is
naturally rebellious and subversive." He believed that Deleuze and
Guattari see the individual as "no more than various organs,
intensities and flows, rather than a complex, contradictory identity"
and make false emancipatory claims for schizophrenia. Elliott also
argued that Deleuze and Guattari's work produces difficulties for the
interpretation of contemporary culture, because of their "rejection of
institutionality as such", which obscures the difference between
liberal democracy and fascism and leaves
Deleuze and Guattari with
"little more than a romantic, idealized fantasy of the 'schizoid
hero'". Elliott wrote that
Anti-Oedipus follows a similar theoretical
direction to Lyotard's Libidinal Economy, though he sees several
significant differences between
Deleuze and Guattari on the one hand
and Lyotard on the other.
Some of Guattari's diary entries, correspondence with Deleuze, and
notes on the development of the book were published posthumously as
The Anti-Oedipus Papers
The Anti-Oedipus Papers (2004). The philosopher Mikkel
Borch-Jacobsen and the psychologist
Sonu Shamdasani wrote that rather
than having their confidence shaken by the "provocations and
magnificent rhetorical violence" of Anti-Oedipus, the psychoanalytic
profession felt that the debates raised by the book legitimated their
discipline. Joshua Ramey wrote that while the passage into Deleuze
and Guattari's "body without organs" is "fraught with danger and even
pain ... the point of
Anti-Oedipus is not to make glamorous that
violence or that suffering. Rather, the point is to show that there is
a viable level of Dinoysian experience."
Feminism and the Oedipus complex
Id, ego, and super-ego
La Borde clinic
Nietzsche and Philosophy
Objet petit a
Plane of immanence
Psychoanalytic conceptions of language
^ Foucault (1977, 14).
^ a b
Deleuze and Guattari (1980, 423-427).
^ Seem (1977, xviii, xx).
Deleuze and Guattari (1972, 8, 51, 392). The painting forms the
frontispiece of Anti-Oedipus.
Deleuze and Guattari (1972, 54, 108, 127-128, 325-xx). Deleuze and
Guattari argue that there was no specific "turning point" in the
theoretical development of Freudianism at which it became reactionary;
instead, it contained "revolutionary, reformist, and reactionary
elements" from the start. "We refuse to play 'take it or leave it',"
they write. This politically ambiguous mixture of tendencies in
psychoanalysis arises, they argue, from its ambiguous relationship
with its discoveries: "As if every great doctrine were not a combined
formation, constructed from bits and pieces, various intermingled
codes and flux, partial elements and derivatives, that constitute its
very life or becoming. As if we could reproach someone for having an
ambiguous relationship with psychoanalysis, without first mentioning
that psychoanalysis owes its existence to a relationship,
theoretically and practically ambiguous, with what it discovers and
the forces that it wields" (1972, 128). Despite the militancy of the
analyses proposed within Deleuze and Guattari's project, they insist
that "no political program will be elaborated within the framework of
schizoanalysis" (1972, 415). Guattari developed the implications of
their theory for a concrete political project in his book with the
Italian autonomist marxist philosopher Antonio Negri, Communists Like
Us (1985). For the variable relations between the socius of capital
and revolutionary autonomous territorialities, see Deleuze and
Guattari (1972, 410).
Deleuze and Guattari (1972, 93, 115, 322-333, 354, 400).
^ First thesis (1972, 375); second thesis (1972, 377); third thesis
(1972, 390); fourth thesis (1972, 401).
Deleuze and Guattari (1972, 322-333).
Deleuze and Guattari (1972, 114, 378). In failing to recognise this,
Deleuze and Guattari argue,
Wilhelm Reich fell short of the
materialist psychiatry towards which he aimed and was unable to
provide an adequate answer to his question "Why did the masses desire
Deleuze and Guattari (1972, 114, 322).
Deleuze and Guattari qualify
this distinction between unconscious desire and preconscious need or
interest when they write: "It is doubtless true that interests
predispose us to a given libidinal investment"; however, they go on to
insist once again that the interests "are not identical with this
investment" (1972, 379).
Deleuze and Guattari (1972, 114-115).
^ Section 2.5 The Conjunctive Synthesis of Consumption-Consummation,
pp. 98, 105
^ a b
Deleuze and Guattari (1972, 31).
Deleuze and Guattari (1972, 26).
Deleuze and Guattari (1972, 26).
^ Kant's analysis of superstitious beliefs, hallucinations, and
fantasies in his
Critique of Judgment
Critique of Judgment treats desire as a creative,
Deleuze and Guattari explain, although his analysis
limits its effects to the production of a psychic reality and thereby
retains the validity of desire-as-lack; (1972, 26-27).
^ a b
Deleuze and Guattari (1972, 28).
Deleuze and Guattari (1972, 28), Guattari (1992, 15), and Holland
Deleuze and Guattari (1972, 1-9).
Deleuze and Guattari (1972, 373).
Deleuze and Guattari (1972, 323, 325).
Deleuze and Guattari (1972, 34-35)
Deleuze and Guattari (1972, 21).
^ section 2.4 The disjunctive synthesis of recording p. 89
^ a b Jean-Michel Rabaté (2009) 68 + 1: Lacan's année
érotique[permanent dead link] published in Parrhesia, Number 6 •
2009 pp. 28–45
^ André Stéphane [
Bela Grunberger and Janine Chasselet-Smirguel],
L’Univers Contestationnaire (Paris: Payot, 1969).
^ Jacques Lacan, The Seminars of Jacques Lacan, Seminar XVI D'un Autre
à l'autre, 1968–9, p. 266
Deleuze and Guattari (1972, 31); see also Deleuze and Foucault
^ In Theologico-Political Treatise, Preface. The original Latin text
reads: "ut pro servido, tanquam pro salute pugnent".
^ Anti-Oedipus, section I.4 A Materialist Psychiatry
Wilhelm Reich (1946) The Mass Psychology of Fascism, section I.3 The
problem of mass psychology, originally published in 1933
^ Section II.7 Social Repression and Psychic repression, pp. 123–32
^ Holland (1999) p. 57
Deleuze and Guattari (1972, 396).
^ Anti-Oedipus, section 2.5 The Conjunctive Synthesis of
Consumption-Consummation, Desire and the infrastructure, p.104
Deleuze and Guattari (1972, 126-127).
Deleuze and Guattari (1972, 130-131).
^ a b
Deleuze and Guattari (1972, 130).
Deleuze and Guattari (1972, 396).
^ a b pp.115, 119-20
Deleuze and Guattari (1972, 92-93, 100-101). Deleuze and Guattari
develop this relation further in the chapter "November 28, 1947: How
Do You Make Yourself a Boydy Without Organs?" in their sequel to
A Thousand Plateaus (1980, 165-184).
^ Foucault, Michel; Deleuze, Gilles; Guattari, Félix (1992).
Anti-Oedipus. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
pp. xii–xiii. ISBN 0-8166-1225-0.
^ Cooper, David (1978). The Language of Madness. London: Allen Lane.
p. 138. ISBN 0-7139-1118-2.
^ Crews, Frederick (1986). Skeptical Engagements. Oxford: Oxford
University Press. p. 176. ISBN 0-19-503950-5.
^ Kellner, Douglas (1989). Jean Baudrillard: From Marxism to
Postmodernism and Beyond. Cambridge: Polity Press. pp. 127, 223.
^ Kovel, Joel (1991). History and Spirit: An Inquiry into the
Philosophy of Liberation. Boston: Beacon Press. pp. 82, 255.
^ Elliott, Anthony (2002). Psychoanalytic Theory: An Introduction. New
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Anti-Oedipus available on Google Books
"Reading Notes on Deleuze and Guattari,
Capitalism and Schizophrenia"
by Michael Hardt
"Drive and Desire: Zizek and Anti-Oedipus"
Gilles Deleuze – Félix Guattari
Concepts and theories
Body without organs
Line of flight
Molar and molecular
Plane of immanence
Society of control
Works by Deleuze and Guattari
Capitalism and Schizophrenia
A Thousand Plateaus
Kafka: Towards a Minor Literature
Nomadology: The War Machine
What is Philosophy?
Works by Deleuze
Empiricism and Subjectivity
Nietzsche and Philosophy
Kant's Critical Philosophy
Proust and Signs
Masochism: Coldness and Cruelty
Difference and Repetition
Expressionism in Philosophy: Spinoza
The Logic of Sense
Spinoza: Practical Philosophy
The Intellectuals and Power: A Discussion Between
Gilles Deleuze and
Francis Bacon: The Logic of Sensation
Cinema 1: The Movement Image
Cinema 2: The Time-Image
The Fold: Leibniz and the Baroque
Périclès et Verdi: La philosophie de Francois Châtelet
Essays Critical and Clinical
Bartleby, la formula della creazione
Pure Immanence: Essays on a Life
Desert Islands and Other Texts 1953-1974
Two Regimes of Madness
Works by Guattari
Psychanalyse et transversalité
Desire and Revolution
L'inconscient machinique. Essais de Schizoanalyse
Les années d'hiver
Pratique de l'institutionnel et politique
Communists Like Us
Molecular Revolution in Brazil
The Three Ecologies
The Guattari Reader
The Anti-Œdipus Papers
Chaos and Complexity
L'Abécédaire de Gilles Deleuze
La Borde clinic
Philosophy of Society: Assemblage Theory and Social Complexity
Controversy surrounding psychiatry
Hearing Voices Movement
History of mental disorders
Martha Mitchell effect
Outline of the psychiatric survivors movement
Political abuse of psychiatry
Psychiatric survivors movement
Psychiatry: An Industry of Death
Rhetoric of therapy
Self-help groups for mental health
American Association for the Abolition of Involuntary Mental
Aspies For Freedom
Autism Network International
Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law
Citizens Commission on Human Rights
Disability Rights International
Hearing Voices Network
International Disability Alliance
Learning Disability Coalition
National Empowerment Center
Radical Psychology Network
Royal Association for Disability Rights
World Network of Users and Survivors of Psychiatry
Leonard Roy Frank
R. D. Laing
Anatomy of an Epidemic
Doctoring the Mind
Interpretation of Schizophrenia
Liberation by Oppression
Mad in America
Madness and Civilization
The Gene Illusion
The Myth of Mental Illness
The Politics of Experience and The Bird of Paradise
The Protest Psychosis
The Radical Therapist
We've Had a Hundred Years of Psychotherapy – And the World's Getting
Nephew and niece
Grandnephew and grandniece
Australian Aboriginal kinship
Agape (parental love)
Eros (marital love)
Storge (familial love)
National Grandparents Day
Sociology of the family
Museum of Motherhood
BNF: cb135437912 (da