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ANTHROPOCENTRISM (/ˌænθroʊpoʊˈsɛntrɪzəm/ ; from Greek Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: ἄνθρωπος, _ánthrōpos_, "human being"; and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: κέντρον , _kéntron_, "center") the belief that considers human beings to be the most significant entity of the universe and interprets or regards the world in terms of human values and experiences. The term can be used interchangeably with HUMANOCENTRISM, and some refer to the concept as HUMAN SUPREMACY or HUMAN EXCEPTIONALISM. The mediocrity principle is the opposite of anthropocentrism. Anthropocentrismis considered to be profoundly embedded in many modern human cultures and conscious acts. It is a major concept in the field of environmental ethics and environmental philosophy , where it is often considered to be the root cause of problems created by human action within the ecosphere .

However, many proponents of anthropocentrism state that this is not necessarily the case: they argue that a sound long-term view acknowledges that a healthy, sustainable environment is necessary for humans and that the real issue is shallow anthropocentrism.

CONTENTS

* 1 Origins * 2 Environmental philosophy * 3 Judeo-Christian tradition * 4 Human rights
Human rights
* 5 In popular culture * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading

ORIGINS

Some proponents of human exceptionalism point to evidence of unusual rapid evolution of the brain and the emergence of exceptional aptitudes . As one commentator put it, "Over the course of human history , we have been successful in cultivating our faculties, shaping our development, and impacting upon the wider world in a deliberate fashion, quite distinct from evolutionary processes ."

ENVIRONMENTAL PHILOSOPHY

Anthropocentrism, also known as homocentricism or human supremacism , has been posited by some environmentalists , in such books as _ Confessions of an Eco-Warrior_ by Dave Foremanand _Green Rage_ by Christopher Manes, as the underlying (if unstated) reason why humanity dominates and sees the need to "develop" most of the Earth. Anthropocentrismis believed by some to be the central problematic concept in environmental philosophy, where it is used to draw attention claims of a systematic bias in traditional Western attitudes to the non-human world. Val Plumwoodhas argued that anthropocentrism plays an analogous role in green theory to androcentrism in feminist theory and ethnocentrism in anti-racist theory. Plumwood calls human-centredness "anthrocentrism" to emphasise this parallel.

One of the first extended philosophical essays addressing environmental ethics, John Passmore's _Man's Responsibility for Nature_ has been criticised by defenders of deep ecology because of its anthropocentrism, often claimed to be constitutive of traditional Western moral thought. Indeed, defenders of anthropocentrism concerned with the ecological crisis contend that the maintenance of a healthy, sustainable environment is necessary for human well-being as opposed to for its own sake. The problem with a "shallow" viewpoint is not that it is human-centred but that according to William Grey: "What's wrong with shallow views is not their concern about the well-being of humans, but that they do not really consider enough in what that well-being consists. According to this view, we need to develop an enriched, fortified anthropocentric notion of human interest to replace the dominant short-term, sectional and self-regarding conception." In turn, Plumwood in _Environmental Culture: The Ecological Crisis of Reason_ argued that Grey's anthropocentrism is inadequate.

It is important to take note that many devoted environmentalists encompass a somewhat anthropocentric-based philosophical view supporting the fact that they will argue in favor of saving the environment for the sake of human populations. Grey writes: "We should be concerned to promote a rich, diverse, and vibrant biosphere. Human flourishing may certainly be included as a legitimate part of such a flourishing." Such a concern for human flourishing amidst the flourishing of life as a whole, however, is said to be indistinguishible from that of deep ecology and biocentrism , which has been proposed as both an antithesis of anthropocentrism. and as a generalised form of anthropocentrism.

JUDEO-CHRISTIAN TRADITION

Maimonides
Maimonides
, a scholar of the Torah
Torah
who lived in the 12th century AD, was noted for being decidedly anti-anthropocentric. Maimonides
Maimonides
called man "a mere 'drop of the bucket" and "not 'the axle of the world'". He also claimed that anthropocentric thinking is what causes humans to think that evil things exist in nature. According to Rabbi Norman Lamm , Maimonides
Maimonides
"thus deflate man's extravagant notions of his own importance and urge us to abandon these illusions."

In the 1985 CBC series "A Planet For the Taking", Dr. David Suzuki explored the Old Testament
Old Testament
roots of anthropocentrism and how it shaped our view of non-human animals. Some Christian proponents of anthropocentrism base their belief on the Bible, such as the verse 1:26 in the Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis
:

And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.

The use of the word "dominion" in the _Genesis_ is controversial. Many Biblical scholars, especially Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
and other non-Protestant Christians, consider this to be a flawed translation of a word meaning "stewardship ", which would indicate that mankind should take care of the earth and its various forms of life.

HUMAN RIGHTS

Anthropocentrismis the grounding for some naturalistic concepts of human rights . Defenders of anthropocentrism argue that it is the necessary fundamental premise to defend universal human rights , since what matters morally is simply being human. For example, noted philosopher Mortimer J. Adlerwrote, "Those who oppose injurious discrimination on the moral ground that all human beings, being equal in their humanity, should be treated equally in all those respects that concern their common humanity, would have no solid basis in fact to support their normative principle." Adler is stating here, that denying what is now called human exceptionalism could lead to tyranny, writing that if we ever came to believe that humans do not possess a unique moral status, the intellectual foundation of our liberties collapses: "Why, then, should not groups of superior men be able to justify their enslavement, exploitation, or even genocide of inferior human groups on factual and moral grounds akin to those we now rely on to justify our treatment of the animals we harness as beasts of burden, that we butcher for food and clothing, or that we destroy as disease-bearing pests or as dangerous predators?"

Author and anthropocentrism defender Wesley J. Smithfrom the Discovery Institutehas written that human exceptionalism is what gives rise to human duties to each other, the natural world, and to treat animals humanely. Writing in _A Rat is a Pig is a Dog is a Boy_, a critique of animal rights ideology, "Because we _are_ unquestionably a unique species--the only species capable of even contemplating ethical issues and assuming responsibilities--we uniquely are capable of apprehending the difference between right and wrong, good and evil, proper and improper conduct toward animals. Or to put it more succinctly if being human isn't what requires us to treat animals humanely, what in the world does?"

IN POPULAR CULTURE

_ This article NEEDS ATTENTION FROM AN EXPERT IN WIKIPROJECT. The specific problem is: ANALYSIS OF GLOBAL FICTION AND SCIENCE FICTION WITHOUT NEITHER SOURCE NOR EXAMPLES. NEEDS AN EXPERT OF SCIENCE FICTION STUDIES . WikiProject WikiProject may be able to help recruit an expert. (November 2016)_

In fiction from all eras and societies, there is fiction treating as normal the actions of humans to ride, eat, milk, and otherwise treat animals as separate species. There are occasional exceptions, such as talking animals , but they are generally treated as exceptions, as aberrations to the rule distinguishing people from animals.

In science fiction , _humanocentrism_ is the idea that humans, as both beings and as a species, are the superior sentients . Essentially the equivalent of racial supremacy on a galactic scale, it entails intolerant discrimination against sentient non-humans , much like race supremacists discriminate against those not of their race. This idea is countered by anti-humanism . At times, this ideal also includes fear of and superiority over strong AIs and cyborgs , downplaying the ideas of integration , cybernetic revolts , machine rule and Tilden\'s Laws of Robotics .

Mark Twain
Mark Twain
mocked the belief in human supremacy in _Letters from the Earth _ (written c. 1909, published 1962).

The 2012 documentary _The Superior Human?_ systematically analyzes anthropocentrism and concludes that value is fundamentally an opinion, and since life forms naturally value their own traits, most humans are misled to believe that they are actually more valuable than other species. This natural bias, according to the film, combined with a received sense of comfort and an excuse for exploitation of non-humans cause anthropocentrism to remain in society.

SEE ALSO

* Anthropic principle * Anthropocene * Anthropocentric embodied energy analysis * Carbon chauvinism * Ecocentrism * Ecocriticism * Ecofeminism
Ecofeminism
* Existentialism * Great ape personhood * Great chain of being * Gynocentrism * Hot cognition * Humanism
Humanism
* Intrinsic value (animal ethics) * Object-oriented ontology * Sentiocentrism * Speciesism * Technocentrism * Theocentricism

REFERENCES

* ^ Jones, Daniel (2003) , Peter Roach, James Hartmann and Jane Setter, eds., _English Pronouncing Dictionary_, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 3-12-539683-2 CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link ) * ^ Anthropocentrism- Merriam-Webster Dictionary. * ^ "Environmental Ethics, See: 1. Introduction: The Challenge of Environmental Ethics". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 13 August 2013. * ^ "Environmental Ethics, See: 1a. Human Beings". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 13 August 2013. * ^ Starr, Sandy. _What Makes Us Exceptional?_. Spiked Science * ^ Plumwood, Val (2002). _Environmental Culture: The Ecological Crisis of Reason_ (Google Books online preview version). ISBN 9780415178778 . Retrieved 12 June 2013. * ^ Naess, A. 1973. 'The Shallow and the Deep, Long-Range Ecology Movement' _Inquiry_ 16: 95-100 * ^ Plumwood, V. 1993. _ Feminism
Feminism
and the Mastery of Nature_. London: Routledge * ^ Plumwood, V. 1996. Androcentrismand Anthrocentrism: Parallels and Politics. _Ethics and the Environment_ 1 * ^ Passmore, J. 1974. _Man's Responsibility for Nature_ London: Duckworth * ^ Routley, R. and V. 1980. 'Human Chauvinism and Environmental Ethics' in _Environmental Philosophy_ (eds) D.S. Mannison, M. McRobbie and R. Routley. Canberra: ANU Research School of Social Sciences: 96-189 * ^ Grey, W. 1993. ' Anthropocentrismand Deep Ecology' _Australasian Journal of Philosophy_ 71: 463-475 * ^ Plumwood, Val (2002). "Chapter 6 Philosophy, Prudence and Anthropocentrism". _Environmental Culture: The Ecological Crisis of Reason_ (Google Books online preview version). pp. (123–) 130–142. ISBN 9780415178778 . Retrieved 12 June 2013. * ^ "The University of Queensland". Retrieved 4 May 2015. * ^ Taylor, Sandra G. (1990). "Naturalness: The concept and its application to Australian ecosystems". In Saunders, Denis Allen; Hopkins, Angus John Malcolm; How, R. A. _Australian ecosystems : 200 years of utilization, degradation and reconstruction_. Australian Ecosystems : 200 years of utilization, degradation and reconstruction : a symposium held in Geraldton, Western Australia, 28 August-2 September 1988. Proceedings of the Ecological Society of Australia. 16. Chipping Norton, N.S.W.: Surrey Beatty & Sons, for the Ecological Society of Australia. pp. 411–418. ISBN 0949324264 . * ^ "insurgentdesire.org.uk". Retrieved 4 May 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ Lamm, Norman (2006). _Faith and Doubt: Studies in Traditional Jewish Thought_. KTAV Publishing House, Inc. pp. 128–129. ISBN 978-0-88125-952-0 . * ^ Dan, Joseph (1989). _Studies in Jewish Thought_. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 145. ISBN 978-0-275-93038-7 . * ^ Mortimer J. Adler, _The Difference of Man and the Difference It Makes_, (New York, Fordham University Press, 1993), p.264. * ^ _A Rat is a Pig is a Dog is a Boy: The Human Cost of the Animal Rights Movement_ __, (New York, Encounter Books, 2010), pp. 243-244. * ^ Mark Twain. "Damned Human Race: Mark Twain". skeptically.org. Retrieved September 18, 2013. * ^ ""The Superior Human?" Official Movie Website". Retrieved 4 May 2015. * ^ "Now Online! Debut of New Anti-Speciesist Film, "The Superior Human?" - Dr. Steve Best". _Dr. Steve Best_. Retrieved 4 May 2015. * ^ "The Superior Human? Who Do We Think We Are?". _Psychology Today_. Retrieved 4 May 2015.

FURTHER READING

* Bertalanffy, Ludwig Von (1993) _General System Theory: Foundations, Development, Applications_ pp.239-48 * Boddice, Rob (ed.) (2011) _Anthropocentrism: Humans, Animals, Environments_ Leiden and Boston: Brill * Jensen, Derrick (2016). _The Myth of Human Supremacy_. Seven Stories Press. ISBN 978-1609806781 . * Seigel, Michael T. (May 2002). _Religion, science, and environment_. Meeting of the Victorian Medico-Legal Society. _Pacifica: Australian theological studies_. 16 (1). Brunswick, Australia: Pacifica Theological Studies Association (published Feb 2003). pp. 67–88. ISSN 1030-570X . Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 March 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-22. * Watson, Paul (June 2016). "Human Lives Are Not More Important Than Animal Lives". * White, Lynn Townsend, Jr , "The Historical Roots of Our Ecologic Crisis", _Science_, Vol 155 (Number 3767), 10 March 1967, pp 1203–1207

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RELATED TOPICS

* Allophilia * Anti-cultural sentiment * Anthropocentrism * Assimilation * Bias
Bias
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Racism
by country * Regressive left * Religious intolerance * Second-generation gender bias * Snobbery * Social exclusion * Social stigma

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Exceptionalism

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TERMS

* Chosen people * God\'s Own Country * Middle Kingdom * _ Sui generis_

OTHER

* Anthropocentrism * HIV exceptionalism * Sentiocentrism * Uniqueness of The Holocaust

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