ANTHROPOCENTRISM is (/ˌænθroʊpoʊˈsɛntrɪzəm/ ; from Greek
However, many proponents of anthropocentrism state that this is not necessarily the case: they argue that a sound long-term view acknowledges that a healthy, sustainable environment is necessary for humans and that the real issue is shallow anthropocentrism.
* 1 Origins
* 3 Judeo-Christian tradition
Some proponents of human exceptionalism point to evidence of unusual rapid evolution of the brain and the emergence of exceptional aptitudes . As one commentator put it, "Over the course of human history , we have been successful in cultivating our faculties, shaping our development, and impacting upon the wider world in a deliberate fashion, quite distinct from evolutionary processes ."
Anthropocentrism, also known as homocentricism or human supremacism , has been posited by some environmentalists , in such books as Confessions of an Eco-Warrior by Dave Foreman and Green Rage by Christopher Manes, as the underlying (if unstated) reason why humanity dominates and sees the need to "develop" most of the Earth. Anthropocentrism is believed by some to be the central problematic concept in environmental philosophy, where it is used to draw attention claims of a systematic bias in traditional Western attitudes to the non-human world. Val Plumwood has argued that anthropocentrism plays an analogous role in green theory to androcentrism in feminist theory and ethnocentrism in anti-racist theory. Plumwood calls human-centredness "anthrocentrism" to emphasise this parallel.
One of the first extended philosophical essays addressing
John Passmore 's Man's Responsibility for Nature
has been criticised by defenders of deep ecology because of its
anthropocentrism, often claimed to be constitutive of traditional
Western moral thought. Indeed, defenders of anthropocentrism
concerned with the ecological crisis contend that the maintenance of a
healthy, sustainable environment is necessary for human well-being as
opposed to for its own sake. The problem with a "shallow" viewpoint is
not that it is human-centred but that according to William Grey:
"What's wrong with shallow views is not their concern about the
well-being of humans, but that they do not really consider enough in
what that well-being consists. According to this view, we need to
develop an enriched, fortified anthropocentric notion of human
interest to replace the dominant short-term, sectional and
self-regarding conception." In turn, Plumwood in Environmental
It is important to take note that many devoted environmentalists encompass a somewhat anthropocentric-based philosophical view supporting the fact that they will argue in favor of saving the environment for the sake of human populations. Grey writes: "We should be concerned to promote a rich, diverse, and vibrant biosphere. Human flourishing may certainly be included as a legitimate part of such a flourishing." Such a concern for human flourishing amidst the flourishing of life as a whole, however, is said to be indistinguishible from that of deep ecology and biocentrism , which has been proposed as both an antithesis of anthropocentrism. and as a generalised form of anthropocentrism.
In the 1985 CBC series "A Planet For the Taking", Dr. David Suzuki
And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.
The use of the word "dominion" in the Genesis is controversial. Many
Biblical scholars, especially
Anthropocentrism is the grounding for some naturalistic concepts of human rights . Defenders of anthropocentrism argue that it is the necessary fundamental premise to defend universal human rights , since what matters morally is simply being human. For example, noted philosopher Mortimer J. Adler wrote, "Those who oppose injurious discrimination on the moral ground that all human beings, being equal in their humanity, should be treated equally in all those respects that concern their common humanity, would have no solid basis in fact to support their normative principle." Adler is stating here, that denying what is now called human exceptionalism could lead to tyranny, writing that if we ever came to believe that humans do not possess a unique moral status, the intellectual foundation of our liberties collapses: "Why, then, should not groups of superior men be able to justify their enslavement, exploitation, or even genocide of inferior human groups on factual and moral grounds akin to those we now rely on to justify our treatment of the animals we harness as beasts of burden, that we butcher for food and clothing, or that we destroy as disease-bearing pests or as dangerous predators?"
Author and anthropocentrism defender
Wesley J. Smith from the
In cognitive psychology , anthropocentric thinking can be defined as "the tendency to reason about unfamiliar biological species or processes by analogy to humans". Reasoning by analogy is an attractive thinking strategy, and it can be tempting to apply our own experience of being human to other biological systems. For example, because death is commonly felt to be undesirable, it may be tempting to form the misconception that death at a cellular level or elsewhere in nature is similarly undesirable (whereas in reality programmed cell death is an essential physiological phenomenon, and ecosystems also rely on death). Conversely, anthropocentric thinking can also lead people to underattribute human characteristics to other organisms. For instance, it may be tempting to wrongly assume that an animal that is very different from humans, such as an insect, will not share particular biological characteristics, such as reproduction or blood circulation.
Anthropocentric thinking has predominantly been studied in young children (mostly up to the age of 10) by developmental psychologists interested in its relevance to biology education . Although relatively little is known about its persistence at a later age, evidence exists that this pattern of human exceptionalist thinking can continue through young adulthood, even among students who have been increasingly educated in biology.
The notion that anthropocentric thinking is an innate human characteristic has been challenged by study of American children raised in urban environments, among whom it appears to emerge between the ages of 3 and 5 years as an acquired perspective. Children's recourse to anthropocentric thinking seems to vary with experience and cultural assumptions about the place of humans in the natural world. Children raised in rural environments appear to use it less than their urban counterparts because of their greater familiarity with different species of animals and plants. Studies involving children from some of the indigenous peoples of the Americas have found little use of anthropocentric thinking. Study of children among the Wichí people in South America showed a tendency to think of living organisms in terms of their taxonomic or perceived similarities , ecological considerations, and animistic traditions, resulting in a much less anthropocentric view of the natural world than is experienced by many children in Western societies.
IN POPULAR CULTURE
This article NEEDS ATTENTION FROM AN EXPERT IN WIKIPROJECT. The specific problem is: ANALYSIS OF GLOBAL FICTION AND SCIENCE FICTION WITHOUT NEITHER SOURCE NOR EXAMPLES. NEEDS AN EXPERT OF SCIENCE FICTION STUDIES . WikiProject WikiProject may be able to help recruit an expert. (November 2016)
In fiction from all eras and societies, there is fiction treating as normal the actions of humans to ride, eat, milk, and otherwise treat animals as separate species. There are occasional exceptions, such as talking animals , but they are generally treated as exceptions, as aberrations to the rule distinguishing people from animals.
In science fiction , humanocentrism is the idea that humans, as both beings and as a species, are the superior sentients . Essentially the equivalent of racial supremacy on a galactic scale, it entails intolerant discrimination against sentient non-humans , much like race supremacists discriminate against those not of their race. A prime example of this concept is utilized as a story element for the Mass Effect series. After humanity's first contact results in a brief war, many humans in the series develop suspicious or even hostile attitudes towards the game's various alien races. By the time of the first game, which takes place several decades after the war, many humans still retain such sentiments in addition to forming 'pro-human' organizations.
This idea is countered by anti-humanism . At times, this ideal also includes fear of and superiority over strong AIs and cyborgs , downplaying the ideas of integration , cybernetic revolts , machine rule and Tilden\'s Laws of Robotics .
The 2012 documentary The Superior Human? systematically analyzes anthropocentrism and concludes that value is fundamentally an opinion, and since life forms naturally value their own traits, most humans are misled to believe that they are actually more valuable than other species. This natural bias, according to the film, combined with a received sense of comfort and an excuse for exploitation of non-humans cause anthropocentrism to remain in society.
* ^ Jones, Daniel (2003) , Peter Roach, James Hartmann and Jane
Setter, eds., English Pronouncing Dictionary, Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, ISBN 3-12-539683-2 CS1 maint: Uses editors
parameter (link )
Anthropocentrism - Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
* ^ "Environmental Ethics, See: 1. Introduction: The Challenge of
Environmental Ethics". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved
13 August 2013.
* ^ "Environmental Ethics, See: 1a. Human Beings". Internet
Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
* ^ Starr, Sandy. What Makes Us Exceptional?. Spiked Science
* ^ Plumwood, Val (2002). Environmental Culture: The Ecological
Crisis of Reason (Google Books online preview version). ISBN
9780415178778 . Retrieved 12 June 2013.
* ^ Naess, A. 1973. 'The Shallow and the Deep, Long-Range Ecology
Movement' Inquiry 16: 95-100
* ^ Plumwood, V. 1993.
* Bertalanffy, Ludwig Von (1993) General System Theory: Foundations, Development, Applications pp. 239–48 * Boddice, Rob (ed.) (2011) Anthropocentrism: Humans, Animals, Environments Leiden and Boston: Brill * Jensen, Derrick (2016). The Myth of Human Supremacy. Seven Stories Press. ISBN 978-1609806781 . * Seigel, Michael T. (May 2002). Religion, science, and environment. Meeting of the Victorian Medico-Legal Society. Pacifica: Australian theological studies. 16 (1). Brunswick, Australia: Pacifica Theological Studies Association (published Feb 2003). pp. 67–88. ISSN 1030-570X . Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 March 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-22. * Watson, Paul (June 2016). "Human Lives Are Not More Important Than Animal Lives". * White, Lynn Townsend, Jr , "The Historical Roots of Our Ecologic Crisis", Science, Vol 155 (Number 3767), 10 March 1967, pp 1203–1207
* v * t * e
* AIDS stigma
* Arab * Black * White
* Group libel
* LGBT hate crime
* age * racial * religious * sex
* Jewish * Catholic
Gender pay gap
* Gender roles
* Anti-cultural sentiment
* v * t * e
* American exceptionalism (USA) * Nihonjinron (Japan) * Cultural Exception (France) * Sonderweg (Germany) * Sinocentrism (China) * Third Rome (Europe border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">
Jews as the chosen people
* Anthropocentrism * HIV exceptionalism * Senti