ANTHROPOCENTRISM (/ˌænθroʊpoʊˈsɛntrɪzəm/ ; from Greek
However, many proponents of anthropocentrism state that this is not necessarily the case: they argue that a sound long-term view acknowledges that a healthy, sustainable environment is necessary for humans and that the real issue is shallow anthropocentrism.
Some proponents of human exceptionalism point to evidence of unusual rapid evolution of the brain and the emergence of exceptional aptitudes . As one commentator put it, "Over the course of human history , we have been successful in cultivating our faculties, shaping our development, and impacting upon the wider world in a deliberate fashion, quite distinct from evolutionary processes ."
Anthropocentrism, also known as homocentricism or human supremacism , has been posited by some environmentalists , in such books as _ Confessions of an Eco-Warrior_ by Dave Foremanand _Green Rage_ by Christopher Manes, as the underlying (if unstated) reason why humanity dominates and sees the need to "develop" most of the Earth. Anthropocentrismis believed by some to be the central problematic concept in environmental philosophy, where it is used to draw attention claims of a systematic bias in traditional Western attitudes to the non-human world. Val Plumwoodhas argued that anthropocentrism plays an analogous role in green theory to androcentrism in feminist theory and ethnocentrism in anti-racist theory. Plumwood calls human-centredness "anthrocentrism" to emphasise this parallel.
One of the first extended philosophical essays addressing environmental ethics, John Passmore's _Man's Responsibility for Nature_ has been criticised by defenders of deep ecology because of its anthropocentrism, often claimed to be constitutive of traditional Western moral thought. Indeed, defenders of anthropocentrism concerned with the ecological crisis contend that the maintenance of a healthy, sustainable environment is necessary for human well-being as opposed to for its own sake. The problem with a "shallow" viewpoint is not that it is human-centred but that according to William Grey: "What's wrong with shallow views is not their concern about the well-being of humans, but that they do not really consider enough in what that well-being consists. According to this view, we need to develop an enriched, fortified anthropocentric notion of human interest to replace the dominant short-term, sectional and self-regarding conception." In turn, Plumwood in _Environmental Culture: The Ecological Crisis of Reason_ argued that Grey's anthropocentrism is inadequate.
It is important to take note that many devoted environmentalists encompass a somewhat anthropocentric-based philosophical view supporting the fact that they will argue in favor of saving the environment for the sake of human populations. Grey writes: "We should be concerned to promote a rich, diverse, and vibrant biosphere. Human flourishing may certainly be included as a legitimate part of such a flourishing." Such a concern for human flourishing amidst the flourishing of life as a whole, however, is said to be indistinguishible from that of deep ecology and biocentrism , which has been proposed as both an antithesis of anthropocentrism. and as a generalised form of anthropocentrism.
In the 1985 CBC series "A Planet For the Taking", Dr. David Suzuki
And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.
The use of the word "dominion" in the _Genesis_ is controversial.
Many Biblical scholars, especially
Anthropocentrismis the grounding for some naturalistic concepts of human rights . Defenders of anthropocentrism argue that it is the necessary fundamental premise to defend universal human rights , since what matters morally is simply being human. For example, noted philosopher Mortimer J. Adlerwrote, "Those who oppose injurious discrimination on the moral ground that all human beings, being equal in their humanity, should be treated equally in all those respects that concern their common humanity, would have no solid basis in fact to support their normative principle." Adler is stating here, that denying what is now called human exceptionalism could lead to tyranny, writing that if we ever came to believe that humans do not possess a unique moral status, the intellectual foundation of our liberties collapses: "Why, then, should not groups of superior men be able to justify their enslavement, exploitation, or even genocide of inferior human groups on factual and moral grounds akin to those we now rely on to justify our treatment of the animals we harness as beasts of burden, that we butcher for food and clothing, or that we destroy as disease-bearing pests or as dangerous predators?"
Author and anthropocentrism defender Wesley J. Smithfrom the Discovery Institutehas written that human exceptionalism is what gives rise to human duties to each other, the natural world, and to treat animals humanely. Writing in _A Rat is a Pig is a Dog is a Boy_, a critique of animal rights ideology, "Because we _are_ unquestionably a unique species--the only species capable of even contemplating ethical issues and assuming responsibilities--we uniquely are capable of apprehending the difference between right and wrong, good and evil, proper and improper conduct toward animals. Or to put it more succinctly if being human isn't what requires us to treat animals humanely, what in the world does?"
IN POPULAR CULTURE
_ This article NEEDS ATTENTION FROM AN EXPERT IN WIKIPROJECT. The specific problem is: ANALYSIS OF GLOBAL FICTION AND SCIENCE FICTION WITHOUT NEITHER SOURCE NOR EXAMPLES. NEEDS AN EXPERT OF SCIENCE FICTION STUDIES . WikiProject WikiProject may be able to help recruit an expert. (November 2016)_
In fiction from all eras and societies, there is fiction treating as normal the actions of humans to ride, eat, milk, and otherwise treat animals as separate species. There are occasional exceptions, such as talking animals , but they are generally treated as exceptions, as aberrations to the rule distinguishing people from animals.
In science fiction , _humanocentrism_ is the idea that humans, as both beings and as a species, are the superior sentients . Essentially the equivalent of racial supremacy on a galactic scale, it entails intolerant discrimination against sentient non-humans , much like race supremacists discriminate against those not of their race. This idea is countered by anti-humanism . At times, this ideal also includes fear of and superiority over strong AIs and cyborgs , downplaying the ideas of integration , cybernetic revolts , machine rule and Tilden\'s Laws of Robotics .
The 2012 documentary _The Superior Human?_ systematically analyzes anthropocentrism and concludes that value is fundamentally an opinion, and since life forms naturally value their own traits, most humans are misled to believe that they are actually more valuable than other species. This natural bias, according to the film, combined with a received sense of comfort and an excuse for exploitation of non-humans cause anthropocentrism to remain in society.
* Anthropocentric embodied energy analysis
* ^ Jones, Daniel (2003) , Peter Roach, James Hartmann and Jane
Setter, eds., _English Pronouncing Dictionary_, Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, ISBN 3-12-539683-2 CS1 maint: Uses editors
parameter (link )
Anthropocentrism- Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
* ^ "Environmental Ethics, See: 1. Introduction: The Challenge of
Environmental Ethics". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved
13 August 2013.
* ^ "Environmental Ethics, See: 1a. Human Beings". Internet
Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
* ^ Starr, Sandy. _What Makes Us Exceptional?_. Spiked Science
* ^ Plumwood, Val (2002). _Environmental Culture: The Ecological
Crisis of Reason_ (Google Books online preview version). ISBN
9780415178778 . Retrieved 12 June 2013.
* ^ Naess, A. 1973. 'The Shallow and the Deep, Long-Range Ecology
Movement' _Inquiry_ 16: 95-100
* ^ Plumwood, V. 1993. _
* Bertalanffy, Ludwig Von (1993) _General System Theory: Foundations, Development, Applications_ pp.239-48 * Boddice, Rob (ed.) (2011) _Anthropocentrism: Humans, Animals, Environments_ Leiden and Boston: Brill * Jensen, Derrick (2016). _The Myth of Human Supremacy_. Seven Stories Press. ISBN 978-1609806781 . * Seigel, Michael T. (May 2002). _Religion, science, and environment_. Meeting of the Victorian Medico-Legal Society. _Pacifica: Australian theological studies_. 16 (1). Brunswick, Australia: Pacifica Theological Studies Association (published Feb 2003). pp. 67–88. ISSN 1030-570X . Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 March 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-22. * Watson, Paul (June 2016). "Human Lives Are Not More Important Than Animal Lives". * White, Lynn Townsend, Jr , "The Historical Roots of Our Ecologic Crisis", _Science_, Vol 155 (Number 3767), 10 March 1967, pp 1203–1207
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* American exceptionalism(USA) * Nihonjinron_ (Japan) * Cultural Exception (France) * _ Sonderweg_ (Germany) * Sinocentrism(China) * Third Rome(Europe border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">