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The Info List - Anthophyta



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The ANTHOPHYTES were thought to be a clade comprising plants bearing flower-like structures. The group contained the angiosperms - the extant flowering plants, such as roses and grasses - as well as the Gnetales and the extinct Bennettitales
Bennettitales
.

Detailed morphological and molecular studies have shown that the group is not actually monophyletic, with proposed floral homologies of the gnetophytes and the angiosperms having evolved in parallel. This makes it easier to reconcile molecular clock data that suggests that the angiosperms diverged from the gymnosperms around 300 million years ago .

Some more recent studies have used the word anthophyte to describe a group which includes the angiosperms and a variety of fossils (glossopterids , Pentoxylon , Bennettitales
Bennettitales
, and Caytonia
Caytonia
), but not the Gnetales.

Phylogeny of anthophytes and gymnosperms, from

Cycads

Ginkgo

Conifers

Anthophytes

Bennettitales
Bennettitales

Gnetales

Angiosperms

Angiosperms

Gymnosperms

Cycads

Bennettitales
Bennettitales

Ginkgo

Conifers

Gnetales

TRADITIONAL VIEW MODERN VIEW

REFERENCES

* ^ Doyle, J. A.; Donoghue, M. J. (1986). "SEED PLANT PHYLOGENY AND THE ORIGIN OF ANGIOSPERMS - AN EXPERIMENTAL CLADISTIC APPROACH". Botanical Review. 52 (4): 321–431. doi :10.1007/bf02861082 . * ^ A B Crepet, W. L. (2000). "Progress in understanding angiosperm history, success, and relationships: Darwin\'s abominably "perplexing phenomenon"". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 97 (24): 12939–41. PMC 34068  . PMID 11087846 . doi :10.1073/pnas.97.24.12939 . * ^ Nam J.; et al. (2003). "Antiquity and Evolution of the MADS-Box Gene Family Controlling Flower Development in Plants". Mol. Biol. Evol. 20 (9): 1435–1447. PMID 12777513 . doi :10.1093/molbev/msg152  . Archived from the original on 30 August 2008. * ^ Soltis, D. E.; Bell, CD; Kim, S; Soltis, PS (June 2008). "The Year in Evolutionary Biology 2008". Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1133 (1): 3–25. PMID 18559813 . doi :10.1196/annals.1438.005 . Archived from the original on 8 January 2009.

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