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Antakya
Antakya
(Arabic: انطاكيا‎, Anṭākyā from Syriac: ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ‎, Anṭiokia; Greek: Ἀντιόχεια, Antiócheia) is the seat of the Hatay Province
Hatay Province
in southern Turkey. In ancient times, Antakya
Antakya
was known as Antioch, and was for centuries one of the largest cities in the Roman Empire. It was an influential early center of Christianity. It has a population of about 250,000. Most of the population speaks Turkish as their native language, while a minority are native Arabic
Arabic
speakers. Antakya
Antakya
is situated in a well-watered and fertile valley.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Antiquity 1.2 Rashidun period 1.3 Crusader era 1.4 Ottoman city 1.5 Republic of Hatay
Republic of Hatay
and modern Turkey

2 Demographics in 1935 3 City of Antakya
Antakya
today 4 Geography

4.1 Climate

5 Education 6 Main sights 7 Cuisine 8 Twin towns 9 Notable people 10 References 11 External links

History[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2016)

Antiquity[edit] Main article: Antioch The area of Antioch
Antioch
has been occupied by humans since the Calcolithic era (6th millennium BC), as revealed by archeological excavations of the mound of Tell-Açana, among others. The King of Macedon Alexander the Great, after defeating the Persians in the Battle of Issus
Battle of Issus
in 333 BC, followed the Orontes south into Syria and occupied the area. The city of Antioch
Antioch
was founded in 300 BC, after the death of Alexander, by the Hellenistic Seleucid
Seleucid
King Seleucus I Nicator. It played an important role as one of the largest cities in the Hellenistic Seleucid
Seleucid
Kingdom, in the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and in the Byzantium, and it was a key city during the early years of Christianity, and of the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Antiochian Orthodox Church, and also since the 7th c. AD with the rise of Islam, and after the 10th c. AD with the Crusades. Rashidun period[edit]

Recapture of Antioch
Antioch
in 969

In 637, during the reign of the Byzantine emperor Heraclius, Antioch was conquered by the Rashidun Caliphate
Rashidun Caliphate
during the Battle of the Iron Bridge. The city became known in Arabic
Arabic
as أنطاكيّة (Anṭākiyyah). Since the Umayyad
Umayyad
dynasty was unable to penetrate the Anatolian plateau, Antioch
Antioch
found itself on the frontline of the conflicts between two hostile empires during the next 350 years, so that the city went into a precipitous decline. In 969, the city was reconquered for the Byzantine Emperor Nikephoros II Phokas by Michael Bourtzes
Michael Bourtzes
and the stratopedarches Peter. It soon became the seat of a dux, who commanded the forces of the local themes and was the most important officer on the Empire's eastern border,[citation needed] held by such men as Nikephoros Ouranos. In 1078, Philaretos Brachamios, an Armenian rebel seized power. He held the city until the Seljuk Turks
Seljuk Turks
captured it from him in 1084. The Sultanate of Rum
Sultanate of Rum
held it only fourteen years before the Crusaders arrived.[3] Crusader era[edit]

Capture of Antioch
Antioch
by Bohemund of Taranto in June 1098.

Main article: Principality of Antioch The Crusaders' Siege of Antioch
Antioch
resulted in its fall and the Crusaders caused significant damage during the First Crusade
First Crusade
including a 3-day massacre of its population both Christian
Christian
and Muslim. Following the defeat of the Turkish garrison, Bohemond I became its overlord. It remained the capital of the Latin Principality of Antioch
Antioch
for nearly two centuries. In 1268 it fell to the Egyptian Mamluk Sultan Baibars
Baibars
after another siege. Baibars
Baibars
proceeded to massacre the Christian
Christian
population.[4] In addition to suffering the ravages of war, the city lost its commercial importance because trade routes to the Far East
Far East
moved north following the 13th-century Mongol
Mongol
conquests. Antioch
Antioch
never recovered as a major city, with much of its former role falling to the port city of Alexandretta
Alexandretta
(İskenderun). An account of both cities as they were in 1675 appears in the diary of the English naval chaplain Henry Teonge. Ottoman city[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (July 2015)

Densely built Antakya
Antakya
in 1912: the traditional Muslim
Muslim
city shows no trace of its Hellenistic planning. To the east, orchards (green) fill the plain.

The city was the center of the Sanjak of Antakya, part of the Damascus Eyalet. In 1822 (and again in 1872), Antakya
Antakya
was hit by an earthquake and damaged. When Ottoman general Ibrahim Pasha established his headquarters in the city in 1835, it had only some 5,000 inhabitants. Supporters hoped the city might develop thanks to the Euphrates
Euphrates
Valley Railway, which was supposed to link it to the port of Sueida (now Samandağı). However, such plans were doomed to come to naught. The city suffered repeated outbreaks of cholera due to inadequate infrastructure for sanitation.[3] Later the city developed and rapidly resumed much of its old importance when a railway was built along the lower Orontes Valley. Republic of Hatay
Republic of Hatay
and modern Turkey[edit] See Hatay Province
Hatay Province
for the history of the region during the demise of the Ottoman Empire, the short-lived Republic of Hatay
Republic of Hatay
(in 1938), and the area's incorporation into the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
in 1939. Demographics in 1935[edit] In 1935, Turkish and Arab
Arab
Muslims made more than 80% of population.

Census of 1935[5][6]

Ethnic group Population (percentage)

Sunni
Sunni
Muslims 19,720 (58%)[6]

Alawites 8,670 (25.5%)[6]

Christians 4,930 (14.5%)[6]

Others 680 (2%)

Total¹ 34,000 (100%)[6]

¹Most Alawis and Armenians spoke Turkish as a second language[5] and spoke either Arabic
Arabic
or Armenian as a first language. A British traveller at Antakya
Antakya
in year 1798 said "the language here is generally Turkish" (while, by contrast the prevalent language at Aleppo
Aleppo
at the time was Arabic).[7] City of Antakya
Antakya
today[edit]

The market place in central Antakya

Courtyard of the Church of Apostles Peter and Paul in Antakya

Mount Habib-i Neccar (Habib An-Najar in Sura al Yassin 36:13 ) and the city walls which climb the hillsides symbolise Antakya, making the city a formidable fortress built on a series of hills running north-east to south-west. Antakya
Antakya
was originally centred on the east bank of the river. Since the 19th century, the city has expanded with new neighbourhoods built on the plains across the river to the south-west, and four bridges connect the old and new cities. Many of the buildings of the last two decades are styled as concrete blocks, and Antakya
Antakya
has lost much of its classic beauty.[citation needed] The narrow streets of the old city can become clogged with traffic. Although the port city Iskenderun
Iskenderun
has become the largest city in Hatay, Antakya
Antakya
is a provincial capital still of considerable importance as the centre of a large district. The draining of Lake Amik
Amik
and development of land has caused the region's economy to grow in wealth and productivity. The town is a lively shopping and business centre with many restaurants, cinemas and other amenities. This district is centred on a large park opposite the governor's building and the central avenue Kurtuluş Caddesı. The tea gardens, cafes and restaurants in the neighbourhood of Harbiye are popular destinations, particularly for the variety of meze in the restaurants. The Orontes River
River
can be malodorous when water is low in summer. Rather than formal nightlife, in the summer heat, people will stay outside until late in the night to walk with their families and friends, and munch on snacks. Its location near the Syrian border makes Antakya
Antakya
more cosmopolitan than many cities in Turkey. It did not attract the mass immigration of people from eastern Anatolia
Anatolia
in the 1980s and 1990s that radically swelled the populations of Mediterranean
Mediterranean
cities such as Adana
Adana
and Mersin. Both Turkish and Arabic
Arabic
are still widely spoken in Antakya, although written Arabic
Arabic
is rarely used. A mixed community of faiths and denominations co-exist peacefully here. Although almost all the inhabitants are Muslim, a substantial proportion adhere to the Alevi and the Arab
Arab
Alawi traditions, in 'Harbiye' there is a place to honour the Alawite
Alawite
saint Hızır. Numerous tombs of saints, of both Sunni
Sunni
and Alawite, are located throughout the city. Several small Christian communities are active in the city, with the largest church being St. Peter and St. Paul on Hurriyet Caddesi. With its long history of spiritual and religious movements, Antakya
Antakya
is a place of pilgrimage for Christians. The Jewish community of Antakya
Antakya
had shrunk to 14 members in 2014.[8][9] It has a reputation in Turkey
Turkey
as a place for spells, fortune telling, miracles and spirits. Local crafts include a soap scented with the oil of bay tree. Geography[edit] Antakya
Antakya
is located on the banks of the Orontes River
Orontes River
(Turkish: Asi Nehri), approximately 22 km (14 mi) inland from the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coast. The city is in a valley surrounded by mountains, the Nur Mountains
Nur Mountains
(ancient Amanos) to the north and Mount Keldağ (Jebel Akra) to the south, with the 440 m high Mount Habib-i Neccar (the ancient Mount Silpius) forming its eastern limits. The mountains are a source of a green marble. Antakya
Antakya
is at the northern edge of the Dead Sea Rift
Dead Sea Rift
and vulnerable to earthquakes. The plain of Amik
Amik
to the north-east of the city is fertile soil watered by the Orontes, the Karasu and the Afrin rivers; the lake in the plain was drained in 1980 by a French company. At the same time channels were built to widen the Orontes and let it pass neatly through the city centre. The Orontes is joined in Antakya
Antakya
by the Hacı Kürüş stream to the north-east of the city near the church of St Peter, and the Hamşen which runs down from Habib-i Neccar to the south-west, under Memekli Bridge near the army barracks. Flora includes the bay trees and myrtle. Climate[edit] The city enjoys a Mediterranean
Mediterranean
climate with hot and dry summers, and mild and wet winters; however due to its higher altitude, Antakya
Antakya
has slightly cooler temperatures than the coast.

Climate data for Antakya

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °F (°C) 51 (11) 57 (14) 64 (18) 71 (22) 78 (26) 82 (28) 86 (30) 87 (31) 86 (30) 80 (27) 68 (20) 55 (13) 71 (22)

Average low °F (°C) 39 (4) 41 (5) 46 (8) 51 (11) 59 (15) 68 (20) 73 (23) 75 (24) 68 (20) 57 (14) 46 (8) 41 (5) 55 (13)

Average precipitation inches (mm) 7.5 (191) 6.5 (165) 5.6 (142) 4.2 (107) 3.2 (81) 1.3 (33) 0.3 (8) 0.2 (5) 1.1 (28) 3.5 (89) 4.3 (109) 7.5 (191) 45.1 (1,146)

Source: Weatherbase [10]

Education[edit] Mustafa Kemal University, abbreviated as MKU, has several faculties including Engineering and Medicine, while having a campus called Tayfur Sökmen
Tayfur Sökmen
located in Serinyol district 15 km (9.3 mi), north of Antakya
Antakya
(centrum). Established in 1992, currently more than 32,000 students enrolled at the university.[11] Besides the campus in Serinyol, MKU has its faculties spread out in all main districts of the province including Altınözü, Antakya, Belen, Dörtyol, Erzin, Hassa, İskenderun, Kırıkhan, Reyhanlı, Samandağ
Samandağ
and Yayladağı. Main sights[edit] The long and varied history has created many architectural sites of interest. There is much for visitors to see in Antakya, although many buildings have been lost in the rapid growth and redevelopment of the city in recent decades.

Hatay Archaeology Museum
Hatay Archaeology Museum
has the second largest collection of Roman mosaics in the world. The rock-carved Church of St Peter, with its network of refuges and tunnels carved out of the rock, a site of Christian
Christian
pilgrimage. There are also tombs cut into the rock face at various places along the Orontes valley. Old market district: It offers plenty of traditional shops, where you can explore what you have not seen before. It is exactly in the city centre, you are in when you see the sign Uzun Çarşı Caddesi. The seedy Gündüz cinema in the city centre was once used as parliament building of the Republic of Hatay. The waterfalls at the Harbiye / Daphne promenade. The Ottoman Habib-i Neccar Camii, the oldest mosque in Antakya
Antakya
and one of the oldest in Anatolia. The labyrinth of narrow streets and old Antakya
Antakya
houses. This district is the oldtown in fact. Vespasianus Titus Tunnel-Samandagı. It is approximately 35 km. far from the centre. Beşikli Cave and Graves (the antique city of Seleukeia Pierria) St. Simon Monastery Bagras
Bagras
(Bakras) Castle, which was built in antiquity and restored many times in later centuries (particularly during the Crusades, when it was a stronghold of the Knights Templar), served as a watchtower on the 27 km (17 mi) mountain road from İskenderun (Alexandretta) to Antakya
Antakya
(Antioch). The panoramic view of the city from the heights of Mount Habib-i Neccar

With its rich architectural heritage, Antakya
Antakya
is a member of the Norwich-based European Association of Historic Towns and Regions [1]. The Roman bridge (thought to date from the era of Diocletian) was destroyed in 1972 during the widening and channelling of the Orontes.[citation needed]

A panoramic view of Antakya
Antakya
from the Church of Saint Peter

Cuisine[edit] The cuisine of Antakya
Antakya
is renowned. Its cuisine is considered levantine rather than Turkish. The cuisine offers plenty of meals, where beef and lambs are mainly used. Popular dishes include the typical Turkish kebab, served with spices and onions in flat unleavened bread, with yoghurt as ali nazik kebab, oruk, kaytaz böreği and katıklı ekmek . Hot spicy food is a feature of this part of Turkey, along with Turkish coffee
Turkish coffee
and local specialities. Here are some savour:

İçli köfte and other oruk varieties: varieties of the Arabic kibbeh, deep-fried balls of bulgur wheat stuffed with minced meat; or baked in ovens in cylinder-cone shape. Saç oruğu is made of the same ingredients, however in circular shape. Kaytaz böreği: It is patty that is made of wheat, beef, tomato and onion. Katıklı ekmek: Ingredients in Katıklı Ekmek usually consist of wheat, traditional pepper (paste), spices such as sesame and theme, çökelek or cheese. It looks like an ancestor of pizza. Not a lot of restaurants serve it, however it can be found in old-market that is located in the centre and Harbiye. Pomegranate
Pomegranate
syrup, used as a salad dressing, called debes ramman, a traditional Levantine Arabic
Arabic
dressing. Semirsek, a thin bread with hot pepper, minced meat or spinach filling Spicy chicken, a specialty of Harbiye Za'atar
Za'atar
(Zahter) a traditional Levantine Arabic
Arabic
paste of spiced thyme, oregano, and sesame seeds, mixed with olive oil, spread on flat (called pide or in English pita) bread. Fresh chick peas, munched as a snack. Hirise, boiled and pounded wheat meal. Aşur, meat mixed with crushed wheat, chickpea, cumin, onion, pepper and walnut

Meze

Hummus
Hummus
- the chick-pea dip pureed fava beans Patlıcan salatası: Patlıcan salatası
Patlıcan salatası
or babaganoush, made of baked and sliced aubergines that mixed

with pepper and tomato. It is usually served with pomegranate syrup.

Taratur: Known also as Tarator, made of walnuts, 'tahin', yogurt and garlic. Süzme yoğurt: A type of yogurt that its water content is removed with traditional methods. Ezme biber: It is made of pepper and walnuts. Surke
Surke
- dried curds served in spicy olive oil Çökelek - the spicy sun-dried cheese Eels from the Orontes, spiced and fried in olive oil

Sweets/Desserts

Künefe - a hot cheese, kadaif-based sweet. Antakya
Antakya
is Turkey's künefe capital; the pastry shops in the centre compete to claim being kings Turkish: kral of the pastry.[citation needed] Müşebbek - rings of deep fried pastry. Peynirli irmik helvası - Peynirli İrmik Helvası is a dessert that is made of semolina, sugar and traditional cheese that is the same as used in künefe. It is served warm, especially in restaurants in the region Harbiye, rather than künefe shops that are located in the centre.

Twin towns[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Turkey Antakya
Antakya
is twinned with:

Aalen, Germany
Germany
(since 1995).

Notable people[edit]

Alexandros (1st century BC) Greek sculptor George of Antioch Ignatius of Antioch, Patriarch of Antioch John Chrysostom
John Chrysostom
(349–407) Patriarch of Constantinople Saint Luke, 1st century AD, Christian
Christian
evangelist and author of the Gospel of St. Luke
Gospel of St. Luke
and Acts of the Apostles Yağısıyan, Seljukid
Seljukid
governor of the city up to its capture by the Crusaders Selâhattin Ülkümen - Righteous among the nations Tayfur Sökmen
Tayfur Sökmen
- The president of the Republic of Hatay
Republic of Hatay
during its existence between the years 1938 and 1939.

References[edit]

^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.  ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.  ^ a b Rockwell 1911, p. 131. ^ Vahan M. Kurkjian, "New Scourge from Egypt", in A History of Armenia ^ a b Dumper, Michael (2007). Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 40.  ^ a b c d e Go, Julian (2013). Decentering Social Theory. Emerald Group Publishing. p. 31. ISBN 9781781907276.  ^ Travels in Africa, Egypt, and Syria, from the Year 1792 to 1798, by William George Browne, year 1806 on page 449 (and page 442 for Aleppo). ^ Chudacoff, Danya (May 14, 2014). "Turkey's Jewish community longs for the past". Aljazeera. Retrieved February 18, 2018.  ^ Avotaynu: the international review of Jewish genealogy, Volume 14, G. Mokotoff, 1998, p. 40. ^ "Weatherbase: Weather for Antakya, Turkey". Weatherbase. 2011.  Retrieved on November 22, 2011. ^ "About Mustafa Kemal University
Mustafa Kemal University
(MKU)". MKU. Retrieved 2011-03-26. 

Glanville Downey (1963). Ancient Antioch. Princeton University Press.   Rockwell, William Walker (1911). "Antioch". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 130–132. 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Antakya.

Pictures of Antakya Pictures of Antakya
Antakya
Museum

v t e

Antakya
Antakya
in Hatay Province
Hatay Province
of Turkey

Districts

Altınözü Antakya Arsuz Belen Defne Dörtyol Erzin Hassa İskenderun Kırıkhan Kumlu Payas Reyhanlı Samandağ Yayladağı

List of Provinces by Region

Istanbul

Istanbul

West Marmara

Balıkesir Çanakkale Edirne Kırklareli Tekirdağ

Aegean

Afyonkarahisar Aydın Denizli İzmir Kütahya Manisa Muğla Uşak

East Marmara

Bilecik Bolu Bursa Düzce Eskişehir Kocaeli Sakarya Yalova

West Anatolia

Ankara Karaman Konya

Mediterranean

Adana Antalya Burdur Hatay Isparta Kahramanmaraş Mersin Osmaniye

Central Anatolia

Aksaray Kayseri Kırıkkale Kırşehir Nevşehir Niğde Sivas Yozgat

West Black Sea

Amasya Bartın Çankırı Çorum Karabük Kastamonu Samsun Sinop Tokat Zonguldak

East Black Sea

Artvin Giresun Gümüşhane Ordu Rize Trabzon

Northeast Anatolia

Ağrı Ardahan Bayburt Erzincan Erzurum Iğdır Kars

Central East Anatolia

Bingöl Bitlis Elazığ Hakkâri Malatya Muş Tunceli Van

Southeast Anatolia

Adıyaman Batman Diyarbakır Gaziantep Kilis Mardin Siirt Şanlıurfa Şırnak

Metropolitan municipalities are bolded.

v t e

People and things in the Quran

Characters

Non-humans

Allâh ("The God")

Names of Allah
Allah
found in the Quran

Beings in Paradise

Ghilmān or Wildān Ḥūr

Animals

Related

The baqarah (cow) of Israelites The dhi’b (wolf) that Jacob
Jacob
feared could attack Joseph The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians) Ḥimār (Domesticated donkey) The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave The nāqaṫ (she-camel) of Saleh The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah

Non-related

Ḥimār (Wild ass) Qaswarah
Qaswarah
('Lion', 'Beast of prey' or 'Hunter')

Jinns

‘Ifrîṫ ("Strong one") Mârid ("Rebellious one")

Iblīs the Shayṭān (Devil)

Qarīn

Prophets

Mentioned

Ādam (Adam) Al-Yasa‘ (Elisha) Ayyūb (Job) Dāwūd (David) Dhūl-Kifl (Ezekiel?) Hārūn (Aaron) Hūd (Eber?) Idrīs (Enoch?) Ilyās (Elijah) ‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam) Is-ḥāq (Isaac) Ismā‘īl (Ishmael)

Dhabih Ullah

Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise) Lūṭ (Lot) Ṣāliḥ Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?) Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd ( Solomon
Solomon
son of David) ‘ Uzair
Uzair
(Ezra?) Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā ( John the Baptist
John the Baptist
the son of Zechariah) Ya‘qūb (Jacob)

Isrâ’îl (Israel)

Yūnus (Jonah)

Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)" or "Owner of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)") Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūṫ ("Companion of the Whale")

Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb ( Joseph
Joseph
son of Jacob) Zakariyyā (Zechariah)

Ulu-l-‘Azm

Muḥammad

Aḥmad Other names and titles of Muhammad

ʿĪsā (Jesus)

Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah) Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary)

Mūsā Kalīmullāh ( Moses
Moses
He who spoke to God) Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh ( Abraham
Abraham
Friend of God) Nūḥ (Noah)

Debatable ones

Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?) Luqmân Maryam (Mary) Ṭâlûṫ (Saul or Gideon?)

Implied

Irmiyā (Jeremiah) Ṣamû’îl (Samuel) Yūsha‘ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)

People of Prophets

Evil ones

Āzar (possibly Terah) Fir‘awn ( Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Moses' time) Hāmān Jâlûṫ (Goliath) Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses) As-Sāmirī Abî Lahab Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr)

Good ones

Adam's immediate relatives

Martyred son Wife

Believer of Ya-Sin Family of Noah

Father Lamech Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos

Luqman's son People of Aaron and Moses

Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura) Imra’aṫ Fir‘awn (Âsiyá bint Muzâḥim or Bithiah) Khidr Magicians of the Pharaoh Moses' wife Moses' sister-in-law Mother Sister

People of Abraham

Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo Ishmael's mother Isaac's mother

People of Jesus

Disciples (including Peter) Mary's mother Zechariah's wife

People of Joseph

Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon) Egyptians

‘Azîz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin) Malik (King Ar-Rayyân ibn Al-Walîd)) Wife of ‘Azîz (Zulaykhah)

Mother

People of Solomon

Mother Queen of Sheba Vizier

Zayd

Implied or not specified

Abrahah Bal'am/Balaam Barsisa Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua Luqman's son Nebuchadnezzar II Nimrod Rahmah the wife of Ayyub Shaddad

Groups

Mentioned

Aş-ḥāb al-Jannah

People of Paradise People of the Burnt Garden

Aş-ḥāb as-Sabṫ (Companions of the Sabbath) Christian
Christian
apostles

Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus)

Companions of Noah's Ark Aş-ḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim? Companions of the Elephant People of al-Ukhdūd People of a township in Surah Ya-Sin People of Yathrib or Medina Qawm Lûṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah) Nation of Noah

Tribes, ethnicities or families

A‘rāb (Arabs or Bedouins)

ʿĀd (people of Hud) Companions of the Rass Qawm Ṫubba‘ (People of Tubba')

People of Saba’ or Sheba

Quraysh Thamûd (people of Saleh)

Aṣ-ḥâb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland")

Ajam Ar- Rûm (literally "The Romans") Banî Isrâ’îl (Children of Israel) Mu’ṫafikāṫ (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah) People of Ibrahim People of Ilyas People of Nuh People of Shuaib

Ahl Madyan People of Madyan) Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
("Companions of the Wood")

Qawm Yûnus (People of Jonah) Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog Ahl al-Bayṫ ("People of the Household")

Household of Abraham

Brothers of Yūsuf Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.) Progeny of Imran Household of Moses Household of Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim

Daughters of Muhammad Wives of Muhammad

Household of Salih

People of Fir'aun Current Ummah of Islam
Islam
(Ummah of Muhammad)

Aṣ-ḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad)

Muhajirun (Emigrants) Anṣār Muslims of Medina
Medina
who helped Muhammad and his Meccan followers, literally 'Helpers')

People of Mecca

Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab)

Children of Ayyub Dead son of Sulaiman Qabil/Cain (son of Adam) Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh) Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut) Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj (Gog and Magog) Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh)

Implicitly mentioned

Amalek Ahl al-Suffa (People of the Verandah) Banu Nadir Banu Qaynuqa Banu Qurayza Iranian people Umayyad
Umayyad
Dynasty Aus & Khazraj People of Quba

Religious groups

Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi) Kâfirûn (Infidels) Zoroastrians Munāfiqūn (Hypocrites) Muslims People of the Book (Ahl al-Kiṫāb)

Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil)

Ruhban ( Christian
Christian
monks) Qissis ( Christian
Christian
priest)

Yahūd (Jews)

Ahbār (Jewish scholars) Rabbani/Rabbi

Sabians

Polytheists

Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of Abraham
Abraham
and Lot

Locations

Mentioned

Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
("The Land The Blessed")

Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Land The Holy")

In the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
(excluding Madyan)

Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills")

Iram dhāṫ al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars)

Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib) ‘Arafāṫ Al-Ḥijr (Hegra) Badr Ḥunayn Makkah (Mecca)

Bakkah Ka‘bah (Kaaba) Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham) Safa and Marwah

Saba’ (Sheba)

‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba)

Rass

Jahannam
Jahannam
(Hell) Jannah
Jannah
(Paradise, literally 'Garden') In Mesopotamia:

Al-Jūdiyy

Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed")

Bābil (Babylon) Qaryaṫ Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh)

Door of Hittah Madyan (Midian) Majma' al-Bahrain Miṣr (Mainland Egypt) Salsabîl (A river in Paradise) Sinai Region or Tīh Desert

Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa)

Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of Tuwa and Mount Sinai)

Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
or Mount Tabor

Implied

Antioch

Antakya

Arabia Ayla Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn Bayt al-Muqaddas
Bayt al-Muqaddas
& 'Ariha Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia) Canaan Cave of Seven Sleepers Dār al-Nadwa Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier")

Black Stone
Black Stone
(Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il Cave of Hira
Hira
& Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull) Ta'if

Hudaybiyyah Jordan River Nile
Nile
River Palestine River Paradise
Paradise
of Shaddad

Religious locations

Bay'a (Church) Mihrab Monastery Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration")

Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
("The Monument the Sacred") Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The Place-of-Prostration The Farthest") Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque
Mosque
of Mecca) Masjid al-Dirar A Mosque
Mosque
in the area of Medina, possibly:

Masjid Qubâ’ (Quba Mosque) The Prophet's Mosque

Salat (Synagogue)

Plant
Plant
matter

Fruits

Ḥabb dhul-‘aṣf (Corn of the husk) Rummān (Pomegranate) Ṫīn (Fig) Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba) Zayṫūn (Olive) In Paradise

Forbidden fruit of Adam

Bushes, trees or plants

Plants of Sheba

Athl (Tamarisk) Sidr (lote-tree)

Līnah (Tender palm tree) Nakhl (date palm) Rayḥān (Scented plant) Sidraṫ al-Munṫahā Zaqqūm

Texts

Al-Injîl (The Gospel
Gospel
of Jesus) Al-Qur’ân (The Book of Muhammad) Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrâhîm (Scroll(s) of Abraham) Aṫ-Ṫawrâṫ (The Torah)

Ṣuḥuf-i-Mûsâ (Scroll(s) of Moses) Tablets of Stone

Az-Zabûr (The Psalms
Psalms
of David) Umm al-Kiṫâb ("Mother of the Book(s)")

Objects of people or beings

Heavenly Food of Christian
Christian
Apostles Noah's Ark Staff of Musa Ṫābūṫ as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah) Throne of Bilqis Trumpet of Israfil

Mentioned idols (cult images)

'Ansāb Idols of Israelites:

Baal The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites

Idols of Noah's people:

Nasr Suwā‘ Wadd Yaghūth Ya‘ūq

Idols of Quraysh:

Al-Lāṫ Al-‘Uzzá Manāṫ

Jibṫ and Ṭâghûṫ

Celestial bodies

Maṣābīḥ (literally 'lamps'):

Al-Qamar (The Moon) Kawâkib (Planets)

Al-Arḍ (The Earth)

Nujūm (Stars)

Ash-Shams (The Sun)

Liquids

Mā’ ( Water
Water
or fluid)

Nahr (River) Yamm ( River
River
or sea)

Sharâb (Drink)

Events

Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates") Battle of Badr Battle of Hunayn Battle of Khaybar Battle of Tabouk Battle of Uhud Conquest of Mecca Incident of Ifk Laylat al-Mabit Mubahala Sayl al-‘Arim
Sayl al-‘Arim
(Flood of the Great Dam of Marib
Marib
in Sheba) The Farewell Pilgrimage
The Farewell Pilgrimage
(Hujja al-Wada') Treaty of Hudaybiyyah Umrah al-Qaza Yawm al-Dār

Implied

Event of Ghadir Khumm

Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name / Biblical name (title or relationship)

v t e

Metropolitan municipalities in Turkey

Adana Ankara Antalya Aydın Balıkesir Bursa Denizli Diyarbakır Erzurum Eskişehir Gaziantep Hatay İstanbul İzmir Kayseri Kocaeli Konya Kahramanmaraş Malatya Manisa Mardin Mersin Muğla Ordu Sakarya Samsun Şanlıurfa Tekirdağ Trabzon Van

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 240814297 GND: 4085823-6 BNF:

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