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Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici
Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici
(11 August 1667 – 18 February 1743) was the last lineal descent of the House of Medici. A patron of the arts, she bequeathed the Medici's large art collection, including the contents of the Uffizi, Palazzo Pitti
Palazzo Pitti
and the Medicean villas, which she inherited upon her brother Gian Gastone's death in 1737, and her Palatine treasures to the Tuscan state, on the condition that no part of it could be removed from "the Capital of the grand ducal State....[and from] the succession of His Serene Grand Duke."[1][2] Anna Maria Luisa was the only daughter of Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Marguerite Louise d'Orléans, a niece of Louis XIII of France. On her marriage to Elector Johann Wilhelm II, she became Electress of the Palatinate, and, by patronising musicians, she earned for the contemporary Palatine court the reputation of an important music centre. As Johann Wilhelm had syphilis the union produced no offspring, which, combined with her siblings' barrenness, meant that the Medici were on the verge of extinction. In 1713 Cosimo III altered the Tuscan laws of succession to allow the accession of his daughter, and spent his final years canvassing the European powers to agree to recognise this statute. However, in 1735, as part of a territorial arrangement, the European powers appointed Francis Stephen of Lorraine as heir, and he duly ascended the Tuscan throne in her stead. After the death of Johann Wilhelm, Anna Maria Luisa returned to Florence, where she enjoyed the rank of first lady until the accession of her brother Gian Gastone, who banished her to the Villa La Quiete. When Gian Gastone died in 1737, Francis Stephen's envoy offered Anna Maria Luisa the position of nominal regent of Tuscany, but she declined. Her death, in 1743, brought the grand ducal House of Medici
House of Medici
to an end. Her remains were interred in the Medicean necropolis, the Basilica of San Lorenzo, Florence, which she helped complete.

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Early life 1.2 Electress of the Palatinate 1.3 Tuscan succession 1.4 Return to Florence 1.5 Death and legacy

2 Ancestors 3 Titles, styles, honours and arms

3.1 Titles and styles

4 References

4.1 Citations 4.2 Bibliography

5 External links

Biography[edit] Early life[edit] Despite her mother's efforts to induce a miscarriage by means of riding,[3] Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici, the only daughter and second child of Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and his consort, Marguerite Louise d'Orléans, was born in Florence
Florence
on 11 August 1667. She was named after her maternal aunt Anne Marie Louise d'Orléans, Duchess of Montpensier.[4] Her parents' relationship was quarrelsome; Marguerite Louise took every chance to humiliate Cosimo.[5] On one documented occasion, she branded him "a poor groom" in the presence of the Papal nuncio.[5] The enmity between them continued until 26 December 1674; after all attempts at conciliation failed, a stressed Cosimo consented to his wife's departure for the Convent of Montmartre, France. The contract created that day revoked her privileges as a petite fille de France, and declared that upon her death all her assets were to be inherited by her children. Cosimo granted her a pension of 80,000 livres in compensation.[6] She abandoned Tuscany in June 1675; Anna Maria Luisa never saw her again.[7] Although Cosimo doted on his daughter, she was raised by her paternal grandmother, Vittoria della Rovere.[4][8] Electress of the Palatinate[edit] In 1669, Anna Maria Luisa was considered as a potential bride to Louis, le Grand Dauphin, the heir-apparent of Louis XIV of France.[9] Cosimo III did not like the idea of a French marriage, and never devoted himself fully to the cause (she was later rejected).[9] Instead, Cosimo offered her to his first choice, Peter II of Portugal. Peter's ministers, fearing that Princess Anna Maria Luisa would dominate Peter II and fearing she might have inherited Marguerite Louise’s manner, declined.[10] In fact, contemporaries thought her traits to be a combination of those of her father and paternal grandmother, Vittoria della Rovere.[10] Following refusals from Spain, Portugal, France and Savoy, Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, suggested Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine.[11] James II of England
James II of England
put forward his brother-in-law, Francesco II d'Este, Duke of Modena, but the Princess deemed a duke too lowly in terms of protocol for the daughter of a grand duke.[12] The Elector Palatine obtained the style Royal Highness
Royal Highness
from the Holy Roman Emperor for Cosimo III in February 1691. (Cosimo had hitherto been outranked by the Duke of Savoy — much to his anger—who derived royal status from his successful pretendership to the abolished Cypriot throne).[11] Consequently, Johann Wilhelm was ultimately chosen. He and Anna Maria Luisa were married by proxy on 29 April 1691. At the accompanying festivities, a contemporary describes the Electress's physical attributes: "In her person, she is tall, her complexion was fair, her eyes large and expressive, both those and her hair were black; her mouth was small, with a fullness of the lips; her teeth were as white as ivory...."[12]

Anna Maria Luisa in Portrait of Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici
Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici
with flowers by Antonio Franchi, c. 1682–1683

She departed for Düsseldorf, her husband’s capital, on 6 May 1691, accompanied by her younger brother, Gian Gastone. Johann Wilhelm surprised her at Innsbruck, where they officially married. The Palatinate Anna Maria Luisa arrived in was ravaged by the ongoing Nine Years' War, in which Louis XIV assaulted the Palatinate on behalf of his brother, Philippe of France, Duke of Orléans, occupying the city of Philippsburg
Philippsburg
in the process.[13][14][15] The Electress became pregnant in 1692; however, she miscarried.[4] It is thought that soon after arrival she contracted syphilis from the Elector, which explains why Anna Maria Luisa and Johann Wilhelm failed to produce any children.[16][17][18] Anna Maria Luisa and Johann Wilhelm, notwithstanding, shared a harmonious marriage.[19] The Electress spent her time enjoying balls, musical performances and other festivities.[20] He commissioned a theatre for her where the comedies of French playwright Molière
Molière
were performed.[20] Because Anna Maria Luisa patronised many musicians, the contemporary Palatine court enjoyed regard as an international centre of music.[21] She invited Fortunato Chelleri to court and appointed him maestro di cappella ("music teacher"). Agostino Steffani, a polymath, was sponsored by the Electress from his arrival in Düsseldorf, in 1703, until her return to Tuscany; the Conservatorio library in Florence houses two editions of his chamber duets.[22] Anna Maria Luisa arranged a marriage for her younger brother at the instigation of their father: On 2 July 1697 Gian Gastone de' Medici married Anna Maria Franziska of Saxe-Lauenburg, heiress of the eponymous duchy, in Düsseldorf.[23] Gian Gastone's wife repulsed him, and for that reason, they separated in 1708.[24] The same year as Gian Gastone's marriage, the Peace of Ryswick
Peace of Ryswick
ended the Nine Years' War: French troops withdrew from the Electoral Palatinate and Johann Wilhelm received the County of Megen. Following the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, a document which had hitherto given rights to Calvinists, in 1685, 2,000 French Huguenots emigrated to the Electoral Palatinate.[15] Johann Wilhelm, under criticism for his treatment of the Palatine Protestants from the Elector of Brandenburg introduced a Religionsdeklartion in 1705, which sanctioned religious freedom.[25] Tuscan succession[edit]

Anna Maria Luisa and her husband, Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine, from a painting after Jan Frans van Douven, 1708

Cosimo III wished to alter the male-only Tuscan line of succession so as to allow the accession of his daughter, Anna Maria Luisa, in the event of a male-line succession failure. But his plan was met with fierce opposition from the European powers.[26] Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, Tuscany's nominal feudal over-lord, subscribed, but only if he should succeed her.[26] Cosimo and herself were at odds with the proposal. Without a concord in sight, the "Tuscan question" became dormant.[27] Some years later, as the question of the succession became more urgent, Cardinal Francesco Maria de' Medici, Cosimo III's brother, was released from his vows and coerced into marrying the incumbent Duke of Guastalla's elder daughter, Eleanor, in 1709.[28] The Electress urged him to care for his health and "give us the consolation of a little prince."[28] However, two years later, he died without issue, taking with him any hope of an heir.[29] Following the death of his heir apparent, Ferdinando, in 1713, Cosimo deposited a bill in the Senate, Tuscany's titular legislature, promulgating that if Cosimo and his new heir apparent, Gian Gastone, were to predecease the Electress, she would ascend the throne.[30] Charles VI was furious; he replied that the Grand Duchy was an imperial fief and therefore he alone possessed the prerogative to alter the laws of succession.[31] To complicate things further, Elisabeth Farnese, heiress of the Duchy of Parma, the second wife of Philip V of Spain, as a great-granddaughter of Margherita de' Medici, exercised a claim to Tuscany.[31][32][33] In May 1716, Charles VI, who constantly changed his stance on the issue, told Florence
Florence
that the Electress's succession was unquestioned, but added that Austria and Tuscany must soon reach an agreement regarding which royal house was to follow the Medici.[34] In June 1717, Cosimo declared his wish that the House of Este
House of Este
should succeed the Electress. Charles VI had previously offered the Grand Duke territorial compensation—in the form of the State of Presidi—if he chose quickly, but reneged.[35] In 1718, Charles VI repudiated Cosimo's decision, declaring a union of Tuscany and Modena (the Este lands) unacceptable.[35] Hereafter, a stalemate existed between them.[36] Return to Florence[edit]

Anna Maria Luisa in The Electress Palatine in mourning dress by Jan Frans van Douven, 1717. She points to the portrait of Johann Wilhelm's remains, adorned with the Palatine regalia, in the milieu.

The Elector Palatine died in June 1716. His widow, Anna Maria Luisa, returned to Florence
Florence
in October 1717.[37] Dowager Grand Princess Violante Beatrice, her brother Ferdinando's widow, and Anna Maria Luisa did not enjoy an amiable relationship. Upon hearing of Anna Maria Luisa's intention to return, Violante Beatrice prepared to depart for Munich, her brother's capital, but Gian Gastone wished her to stay, so she did.[38] To keep the two ladies from quarrelling over precedence, Cosimo III defined Violante Beatrice's status just before the Electress's arrival by appointing her Governess of Siena.[39] On 4 April 1718 England, France and the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
(and later Austria) selected Don Carlos of Spain, the elder child of Elisabeth Farnese and Philip V of Spain, as the Tuscan heir (with no mention of Anna Maria Luisa).[40] By 1722, the Electress was not even acknowledged as heiress, and Cosimo was reduced to a spectator at the conferences for Tuscany's future.[41] In the midst of this, Marguerite Louise, Anna Maria Luisa's mother, died. Instead of willing her valuables to her children, as prescribed by the 1674 agreement, they went to the Princess of Epinoy, a distant relative.[42] On 25 October 1723, six days before his death, Cosimo III distributed a final proclamation commanding that Tuscany shall stay independent; Anna Maria Luisa shall succeed uninhibited after Gian Gastone; the Grand Duke reserves the right to choose his successor.[43] Unfortunately for Cosimo, Europe completely ignored it.[43] Gian Gastone, now the Grand Duke, and Anna Maria Luisa were not on good terms. He despised the Electress for engineering his unhappy marriage with Anna Maria Franziska of Saxe-Lauenburg, while she detested his liberal policies: he repealed all of his father's anti-Semitic statutes and revelled in upsetting her.[44] Consequently, the Electress was compelled to abandon her apartment in the left wing of the royal palace, the Pitti, for the Villa La Quiete.[44] She refurbished La Quiete's house and gardens with the assistance of Sebastiano Rapi, the gardener of the Boboli Gardens, and the architects Giovanni Battista Foggini
Giovanni Battista Foggini
and Paolo Giovanozzi.[45][46] In the period 1722–1725, the Electress embellished the villa further by commissioning twelve statues of various religious figures.[4]

The Villa la Quiete in 2008. The villa served as Anna Maria Luisa's residence for the duration of the reign of her brother, Gian Gastone.

In spite of their mutual dislike, the Electress and Violante Beatrice attempted to improve Gian Gastone's poor public image together.[47] Rumours abounded that the Grand Duke had died; it was a rarity for the public to see him.[48] To dispel the said rumours, the Electress compelled him to make an appearance—his last one—in 1729, on the feast day of the patron saint of Florence, John the Baptist.[48] The Ruspanti, Gian Gastone's morally corrupt entourage, hated the Electress; and she, them. Violante Beatrice tried to withdraw the Grand Duke from their sphere of influence by organising banquets. His conduct at these literally sent those in attendance scrambling for their carriages: he vomited repeatedly into his napkin, belched and told rude jokes.[49] These distractions ceased upon Violante Beatrice's death in 1731.[50] In 1736, during the War of the Polish Succession, Don Carlos was banished from Tuscany as part of a territorial swap, and Francis III of Lorraine was made heir in his stead.[51] In January 1737, the Spanish troops, who had occupied Tuscany since 1731, withdrew; 6,000 Austrian soldiers took their place.[52] Gian Gastone died from "an accumulation of diseases" on 9 July 1737, surrounded by prelates and his sister.[53] Anna Maria Luisa was offered a nominal regency by the Prince de Craon, the Grand Duke's envoy, until Francis III could arrive in Florence, but declined.[54] At Gian Gastone's demise, all the House of Medici's allodial possessions, including £2,000,000[55] liquid cash, a vast art collection, robes of state and lands in the former Duchy of Urbino, were conferred on Anna Maria Luisa.[2] In regards to this, her most notable act was the Patto di Famiglia ("Family Pact"), signed on 31 October 1737.[56] In collaboration with the Holy Roman Emperor and Francis of Lorraine, she willed all the personal property of the Medici's to the Tuscan state, provided that nothing was ever removed from Florence.[57] Death and legacy[edit] The "Lorrainers," as the occupying forces were dubbed, were popularly loathed. The Viceroy, the Prince de Craon, whom the Electress disliked for his "vulgar" court, allowed the Electress to live undisturbed in her own wing of the Pitti, living in virtual seclusion, only on occasion receiving a select-number of guests under a black dais in her silver-clad audience room.[58][59] She occupied herself financing and overseeing the construction of the Cappella dei Principi—started in 1604 by Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany—to the tune of 1,000 crowns per week, and she donated much of her fortune to charity: £4,000 per annum.[60][61] This is equivalent to £588 thousand in present-day terms.[62] On 18 February 1743, Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici, Dowager Electress Palatine, died of an "oppression on the breast".[61] Sir Horace Mann, 1st Baronet, a British resident in Florence, recalled in a letter that "The common people are convinced she went off in a hurricane of wind; a most violent one began this morning and lasted for about two hours, and now the sun shines as bright as ever..."[63] The royal line of the House of Medici became extinct with her death.[61] Her will, having been completed just months before, according to Sir Horace Mann, left £500,000[64] worth of jewellery to the Grand Duke Francis and her lands in the former Duchy of Urbino
Duchy of Urbino
to the Marquis Rinuccini, her main executor and a minister under her father, Cosimo III.[65] She was interred in the crypt that she helped to complete in San Lorenzo; although not entirely finished at the time of her death, her testament stipulated that part of the revenue of her estate should "be used to continue, finish and perfect...the said famous chapel San Lorenzo".[66] Anna Maria Luisa's single most enduring act was the Family Pact. It ensured that all the Medicean art and treasures collected over nearly three centuries of political ascendancy remained in Florence. Cynthia Miller Lawrence, an American art-historian, argues that Anna Maria Luisa thus provisioned for Tuscany's future economy through tourism.[67] Sixteen years after her death, the Uffizi
Uffizi
Gallery, built by Cosimo the Great, the founder of the Grand Duchy, was made open to public viewing.[68] In 2012 after concern caused by the 1966 Flood of the Arno River, her bones were exhumed. A scientific examination found no traces of syphilis, which she had long been thought to have died from.[69] Ancestors[edit]

Ancestors of Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici[70][citation needed]

16. Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany

8. Cosimo II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany

17. Christina of Lorraine

4. Ferdinando II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany

18. Charles II, Archduke of Inner Austria

9. Maria Magdalena of Austria

19. Maria Anna of Bavaria

2. Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany

20. Francesco Maria II della Rovere, Duke of Urbino

10. Federico Ubaldo della Rovere, Duke of Urbino

21. Livia della Rovere

5. Vittoria della Rovere

22. Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany
Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany
(= 16)

11. Claudia de' Medici

23. Christina of Lorraine
Christina of Lorraine
(= 17)

1. Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici

24. Antoine of Navarre

12. Henry IV of France

25. Jeanne III of Navarre

6. Gaston, Duke of Orléans

26. Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany

13. Marie de' Medici

27. Joanna of Austria

3. Marguerite Louise of Orléans

28. Charles III, Duke of Lorraine

14. Francis II, Duke of Lorraine

29. Claude of Valois

7. Marguerite of Lorraine

30. Paul of Salm-Brandenburg[71]

15. Christina of Salm

31. Marie Le Veneur de Tillières[71]

Titles, styles, honours and arms[edit]

Styles of Anna Maria Luisa, Electress of the Palatinate

Reference style Her Serene Highness

Spoken style Your Serene Highness

Alternative style Madam

Titles and styles[edit]

11 August 1667 – 29 April 1691: Her Highness Princess Anna Maria Luisa 29 April 1691 – 8 June 1716: Her Serene Highness[72] The Electress [Palatine of the Rhine] 8 June 1716 – 18 February 1743: Her Serene Highness The Dowager Electress [Palatine of the Rhine]

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Casciu, pp. 80–88 ^ a b Young, p 502; p 508 ^ Acton, p 101 ^ a b c d Galleria Palatina (2006). " Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici
Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici
– Biografia" (in Italian). www.polomuseale.firenze.it. Archived from the original on July 17, 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2009.  ^ a b Acton, p 93 ^ Acton, pp. 133–135 ^ Strathern, p 389 ^ Young p 471 ^ a b Acton, p 151 ^ a b Acton, p 165 ^ a b Acton, p 181 ^ a b Acton, p 182 ^ Wilson, p 88 ^ Pevitt, p 14 ^ a b Otterness, p 14 ^ Hale, p 189 ^ Hale, pp. 188–189 ^ Hibbert, p 304 ^ Lawrence, p 230 ^ a b Mosco, p 185 ^ Chelleri, Fortunato; Vavoulis, Vavoulis, p ix ^ Timms, p 116 ^ Acton, pp. 208–211 ^ Strathern, p 404 ^ Otterness, p 15 ^ a b Acton, p 255 ^ Acton, p 256 ^ a b Acton, p 246 ^ Acton, p 251 ^ Young, p 479 ^ a b Acton, p 261 ^ Solari, p 282 ^ Young, p 480 ^ Acton, p 262 ^ a b Acton, p 267 ^ Young, p 482 ^ Acton, p 264 ^ Acton, p 265 ^ Acton, pp. 265–266 ^ Solari, pp. 281–282 ^ Acton, p 275 ^ Acton, pp. 272–273 ^ a b Acton, pp. 275–276 ^ a b Acton, p 280 ^ Institute and Museum of the History of Science (11 January 2008). "Villa La Quiete – Pharmacy of the former Montalve Conservatory". brunelleschi.imss.fi.it. Retrieved 18 October 2009.  ^ Mosco, p 190 ^ Acton, p 288 ^ a b Strathern, p 407 ^ Acton, p 188 ^ Strathern, p 410 ^ Crankshaw, p 24 ^ Hale, p 192 ^ Young, p 494 ^ Acton, p 304 ^ This is equivalent to £306 million in present day terms. UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Measuring Worth: UK CPI ^ Napier, p 595 ^ Young, pp. 502–503 ^ Hibbert, p 308 ^ Young, pp. 497 - 498 ^ Acton, p 310 ^ a b c Acton, p 309 ^ UK Retail Price Index
Retail Price Index
inflation figures are based on data from Clark, Gregory (2017). "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved November 6, 2017.  ^ Strathern, p 411 ^ This is equivalent to £76.4 million in present day terms. UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Measuring Worth: UK CPI ^ Young, pp. 508–509 ^ Bertelli, p 229 ^ Lawrence, p 235 ^ Diaz-Andreu, p 62 ^ [1] ^ "The three branches of the Medici family". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 16 February 2018.  ^ a b (in French) Messager des sciences historiques, (Imprimerie et Lithogr. eug Vanderhaeghen, 1883), 256. ^ Young, p 501

Bibliography[edit]

Acton, Harold (1980). The Last Medici. Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-29315-0 Bertelli, Sergio (2003). The King's Body: Sacred Rituals of Power in Medieval and Early Modern Europe. Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 978-0-271-02344-1 (in Italian) Casciu, Stefano. (1993). Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici Elettrice Palatina: (1667–1743). Bruschi. ISBN 88-8347-359-0. Chelleri, Fortunato; Vavoulis, Vavoulis (2000). Keyboard Music. A-R Editions. ISBN 978-0-89579-457-4. Crankshaw, Edward (1969). Maria Theresa. Longmans, Green & Co. Diaz-Andreu, Margarita (2008). A World History of Nineteenth-Century Archaeology: Nationalism, Colonialism, and the Past. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-921717-5. Hale, J.R. (1977). Florence
Florence
and the Medici. Orion. ISBN 1-84212-456-0. Hibbert, Christopher (1979). The Rise and Fall of the House of Medici. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-005090-5 Lawrence, Cynthia Miller (1997). Women and Art in Early Modern Europe: Patrons, Collectors and Connoisseurs. Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 978-0-271-01969-7. Mosco, Marilena (2004). The Museo degli argenti: collections and collectors. Giunti. ISBN 88-09-03793-6. Napier, Edward Henry (1846). Florentine History: from the Earliest Authentic Records to the Accession of Ferdinand the Third: Volume V. Moxon. Otterness, Philip (2007). Becoming German: The 1709 Palatine Migration to New York. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-7344-9. Pevitt, Christine (1997). The Man Who Would Be King: The Life of Philippe d'Orleans, Regent of France. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-81317-X. Solari, Giovanna (1968). The House of Farnese: A Portrait of a Great Family of the Renaissance. Doubleday & Co. Strathern, Paul (2003). The Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance. Vintage. ISBN 978-0-09-952297-3. Timms, Colin (2003). Polymath
Polymath
of the Baroque: Agostino Steffani
Agostino Steffani
and His Music. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-515473-3. Wilson, Peter (1998). German Armies: War And German Society, 1648–1806. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-85728-106-4. Young, G.F. (1920). The Medici: Volume II. John Murray.

External links[edit] Media related to Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici
Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici
at Wikimedia Commons

Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici House of Medici Born: 11 August 1667 Died: 18 February 1743

German royalty

Preceded by Elizabeth Amelie of Hesse-Darmstadt Electress Palatine (consort) 1691–1716 Succeeded by Elizabeth Augusta of Sulzbach

Duchess consort of Jülich, Cleve and Berg 1691–1716

Preceded by Countess Alexander Otto von Velen Countess consort of Megen 1697–1716

Preceded by Theresa Kunegunda Sobieska Duchess consort of the Upper-Palatinate 1707–1714 Succeeded by Theresa Kunegunda Sobieska

Duchess consort of Cham 1707–1714

v t e

Tuscan princesses by birth

1st generation

Princess Maria Isabella, Duchess of Bracciano Lucrezia de' Medici, Duchess of Ferrara Princess Maria Virginia, Duchess of Modena^

2nd generation

Eleonora, Duchess of Mantua Princess Rommola Princess Anna Princess Isabella Princess Lucrezia Marie, Queen of France Princess Eleonora Princess Caterina Princess Maria Maddalena Claudia, Archduchess of Further Austria

3rd generation

Princess Maria Cristina Margherita, Duchess of Parma Anna, Archduchess of Further Austria Catherine, Duchess of Mantua and Montferrat

4th generation

none

5th generation

Anna Maria Luisa, Electress Palatine

6th generation

none

7th generation

Princess Maria Anna* Maria Christina, Duchess of Teschen* Princess Maria Elisabeth* Maria Amalia, Duchess of Parma* Princess Maria Johanna Gabriela* Princess Maria Josepha* Maria Carolina, Queen of Naples and Sicily* Maria Antonia, Queen of France*

8th generation

Maria Theresia, Queen of Saxony* Princess Maria Anna* Princess Maria Amalia* Maria Clementina, Hereditary Princess of Naples*

9th generation

Princess Carolina Ferdinande* Princess Maria Luisa* Maria Theresa, Queen of Sardinia*

10th generation

Princess Maria Carolina* Auguste Ferdinande, Princess Luitpold of Bavaria* Princess Maria Maximiliana* Maria Isabella, Countess of Trapani* Princess Maria Theresia* Princess Maria Cristina* Princess Maria Anna* Maria Luisa, Princess of Ysenburg and Büdingen*

11th generation

Princess Maria Antonietta* Louise, Crown Princess of Saxony* Anna, Princess of Hohenlohe-Bartenstein* Princess Margareta* Princess Germana* Princess Agnes* Maria Theresa, Archduchess Charles Stephen of Austria* Karoline Marie, Princess Leopold of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha* Princess Maria Antonietta* Maria Immakulata, Duchess Robert of Württemberg* Princess Henriette*

12th generation

Helena, Duchess Philipp of Württemberg* Rosa, Duchess of Württemberg* Princess Dolores* Maria Immaculada, Nobile Inigo Neri Sereneri* Margarita, Marchioness Taliani di Marchio* Princess Maria Antonia, Mrs. Luis Pérez* Princess Assunta, Mrs. Joseph Hopfinger* Elisabeth, Countess of Waldburg-Zeil-Hohenems* Hedwig, Countess of Stolberg-Stolberg* Gertrud, Countess of Waldburg-Zeil-Trauchburg* Princess Maria Elisabeth* Princess Agnes*

13th generation

Elisabeth, Edle Hubert von Braun* Alice, Baroness Vittorio Manno* Marie Antoinette, Freifrau von Proff zu Irnich* Princess Marie Christine* Princess Walburga, Mrs. Carlos Tasso* Princess Verena* Princess Katharina, Mrs. Roland Huber* Agnes, Freifrau Peter von Fürstenberg* Maria Ileana, Countess Adam Kottulinski* Alexandra, Freifrau Viktor von Baillou* Maria Magdalena, Freifrau von Holzhausen* Princess Elisabeth, Mrs. Friedrich Sandhofer* Agnes, Princess Karl Alfred of Liechtenstein* Princess Maria Margaretha* Princess Ludovica* Princess Allix* Josepha, Countess Clemens of Waldstein-Wartenberg* Valerie, Margravine of Baden* Alberta, Freifrau Alexander von Kottwitz-Erdödy* Theresa, Princess Rasso of Bavaria* Maria Inmakulata, Countess Reinhart of Hoensbroech*

14th generation

Princess Marie Bernadette, Mrs. Rupert Wolff* Princess Katharina, Mrs. Niall Brooks* Princess Alicia* Princess Maria Christina* Princess Margaretha, Mrs. Andreas Baumgartner* Princess Marie Valerie, Mrs. Martin Josef Wagner* Princess Hedwig* Princess Veronika*

15th generation

Princess Tatyana* Princess Anabella* Princess Tara*

* also an archduchess of Austria ^did not have a royal or noble birth

v t e

Electresses of the Palatinate

Landgravine Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel
Landgravine Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel
(1650-1657) Princess Wilhelmine Ernestine of Denmark
Princess Wilhelmine Ernestine of Denmark
(1680-1685) Landgravine Elisabeth Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt
Landgravine Elisabeth Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt
(1685-1690) Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici
Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici
(1691-1716) Countess Palatine Elisabeth Auguste of Sulzbach
Countess Palatine Elisabeth Auguste of Sulzbach
(1742–1777)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 72191546 LCCN: nr90007830 ISNI: 0000 0000 6121 6666 GND: 118846787 SUDOC: 087254735 BNF: cb12390134d

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