The Info List - Ann Radcliffe

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Ann Radcliffe
Ann Radcliffe
(born Ward, 9 July 1764 – 7 February 1823) was an English author and pioneer of the Gothic novel. Radcliffe's technique of explaining the supernatural elements of her novels has been credited with enabling Gothic fiction
Gothic fiction
to achieve respectability in the 1790s.[1]


1 Biography 2 Literary life 3 Accusations of Anti-Catholicism 4 Art connection 5 Novels 6 Influence on later writers 7 Film reference 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

Biography[edit] Radcliffe was born Ann Ward in Holborn, London, on 9 July 1764. Her father was William Ward (1737–1798), a haberdasher, who moved the family to Bath to manage a china shop in 1772. Her mother was Ann Oates (1726–1800) of Chesterfield.[2] Radcliffe occasionally lived with her Uncle, Thomas Bentley, in Chelsea, who was in partnership with a fellow Unitarian, Josiah Wedgwood, maker of the famous Wedgwood china. Sukey, Wedgwood's daughter, also stayed in Chelsea and is Radcliffe's only known childhood companion. Sukey later married Dr Robert Darwin and had a son, Charles Darwin. Although mixing in some distinguished circles, Radcliffe seems to have made little impression in this society and was described by Wedgwood as "Bentley's shy niece".[3] In 1787, she married the Oxford graduate and journalist William Radcliffe (1763–1830), part-owner and editor of the English Chronicle. He often came home late, and to occupy her time she began to write, and read her work to him when he returned. Theirs was a childless, but seemingly happy marriage. Radcliffe called him her "nearest relative and friend".[4] The money she earned from her novels later allowed them to travel together, along with their dog, Chance. In her final years, Radcliffe retreated from public life and was rumoured to have become insane as a result of her writing.[citation needed] Ann died on 7 February 1823 and was buried in a vault in the Chapel of Ease at St George's, Hanover Square, London. Although she had suffered from asthma for twelve years previously,[4] her modern biographer, Rictor Norton, cites the description given by her physician, Dr Scudamore, of how "a new inflammation seized the membranes of the brain," which led to "violent symptoms" and argues that they suggest a "bronchial infection, leading to pneumonia, high fever, delirium and death."[5] There are few artefacts or manuscripts that give insight into Radcliffe's personal life, but in 2014 a rare letter from Radcliffe to her mother-in-law was found in an archive at the British Library. Its tone suggests a strained relationship between the two, similar to the one between Ellena Rosalba and the Marchesa di Vivaldi in her novel The Italian.[6] Little is known of Ann Radcliffe's life. In 1823, the year of her death, the Edinburgh Review, said, "She never appeared in public, nor mingled in private society, but kept herself apart, like the sweet bird that sings its solitary notes, shrouded and unseen."[4] Christina Rossetti attempted to write a biography of her, but abandoned it for lack of information.[7] According to Ruth Facer, "Physically, she was said to be 'exquisitely proportioned' – quite short, complexion beautiful – 'as was her whole countenance, especially her eyes, eyebrows and mouth.'"[4] Literary life[edit] Radcliffe published five novels during her lifetime, which she always referred to as romances; a final novel, Gaston de Blondeville
Gaston de Blondeville
was published posthumously in 1826. She also published a travel narrative of her European travels, A Journey Made in the Summer of 1794, through Holland and the Western Frontier of Germany, in 1795. At a time when the average amount earned by an author for a manuscript was £10, her publishers, G. G. and J. Robinson, bought the copyright for The Mysteries of Udolpho (1794) for £500, while Cadell and Davies paid £800 for The Italian (1797), making Radcliffe the highest paid professional writer of the 1790s.[1] Jane Austen
Jane Austen
parodied The Mysteries of Udolpho
The Mysteries of Udolpho
in Northanger Abbey. Radcliffe did not like the direction in which Gothic literature was heading – one of her later novels, The Italian, was written in response to Matthew Gregory Lewis's The Monk. Contrary to the direction in which Gothic literature was previously heading, Radcliffe began to portray her women characters as equal to male characters, allowing them to dominate and overtake the typically powerful male dominant villains and heroes, creating new roles for women in literature that were previously not available.[8] It is assumed that this frustration is what caused Radcliffe to cease writing. After Radcliffe's death, her husband released her unfinished essay "On the Supernatural in Poetry", which details the difference between the sensation of terror her works aimed to achieve and the horror Lewis sought to evoke.[9] She states that terror aims to stimulate readers through imagination and perceived evils while horror closes them off through fear and physical dangers.[10] "Terror and Horror are so far opposite, that the first expands the soul and awakens the faculties to a high degree of life; the other contracts, freezes and nearly annihilates them."[11] Radcliffe's fiction is marked by seemingly supernatural events that are then provided with rational explanations. Some modern critics have been frustrated by her work, as she fails to include "real ghosts". This could be motivated by the idea that works in the Romantic period, from the late 18th century to the mid-19th century, had to undermine Enlightenment values such as rationalism and realism.[12] Throughout her work, traditional moral values are asserted, the rights of women are advocated, and reason prevails.[citation needed] Accusations of Anti-Catholicism[edit] Ann Radcliffe's works are traditionally seen as anti-Catholic. She was seen as one of the Gothic authors that brought this prejudice more into the public eye of Anglican England.[13] Her works, especially in her book The Italian, often have Catholic imagery in them presented in a negative light, including the Inquisition, negative depictions of convents and nuns, monks attempting to kill people, and ruined abbeys. Another noted depictions is in the confessional, where it is portrayed as a danger zone controlled by the priests power, and in turn, the church.[14] The Italian is also targeted for describing a decidedly un-English land, and a Catholic land, Italy. As many of her readers would have likely not been to Italy before and seen the Catholic practices in the country, combined with the bias they already might have being that they live in England, it displays Catholicism as something ultimately cruel and corrupt, and therefore alienates the denomination and its practitioners.[15] This connection to anti-Catholicism has been suggested to be at least partially in response to the Catholic Relief Act of 1791, allowing Catholics to practice law, open Catholic schools, and exercise their religion.[13] On the other end of the spectrum, some think she was ultimately ambivalent toward Catholicism and more of an Latitudinarian Anglican,[16] or even Unitarian.[17] Art connection[edit] Radcliffe's elaborate descriptions of landscape were influenced by the painters Claude Lorrain
Claude Lorrain
and Salvator Rosa. She often wrote about places she had never visited. Lorrain's influence can be seen through Radcliffe's picturesque, romantic descriptions, as seen in the first volume of The Mysteries of Udolpho. Rosa's influence can be seen through dark landscapes and elements of the Gothic. Radcliffe said of Lorrain:[4]

In a shaded corner, near the chimney, a most exquisite Claude, an evening view, perhaps over the Campagna of Rome. The sight of this picture imparted much of the luxurious repose and satisfaction, which we derive from contemplating the finest scenes of nature. Here was the poet, as well as the painter, touching the imagination, and making you see more than the picture contained. You saw the real light of the sun, you breathed the air of the country, you felt all the circumstances of a luxurious climate on the most serene and beautiful landscape; and the mind thus softened, you almost fancied you hear Italian music in the air.


The Castles of Athlin and Dunbayne
The Castles of Athlin and Dunbayne
(1 vol.) 1789 A Sicilian Romance
A Sicilian Romance
(2 vols) 1790 The Romance of the Forest (3 vols) 1791 The Mysteries of Udolpho
The Mysteries of Udolpho
(4 vols) 1794 The Italian (3 vols) 1797 Gaston de Blondeville
Gaston de Blondeville
(4 vols) 1826

Influence on later writers[edit] Radcliffe influenced many later authors, including the Marquis de Sade (1740–1814), Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe
(1809–1849), and Sir Walter Scott (1771–1832), and many lesser imitators of the "Radcliffe School", such as Harriet Lee and Catherine Cuthbertson. For example, Scott interspersed his work with poems in a similar manner to Radcliffe, and one assessment of her reads, "Scott himself said that her prose was poetry and her poetry was prose. She was, indeed, a prose poet, in both the best and the worst senses of the phrase. The romantic landscape, the background, is the best thing in all her books; the characters are two dimensional, the plots far fetched and improbable, with 'elaboration of means and futility of result.'"[18] As a child the young Fyodor Dostoyevsky
Fyodor Dostoyevsky
was deeply impressed by Radcliffe. In Winter Notes on Summer Impressions (1863) he writes, "I used to spend the long winter hours before bed listening (for I could not yet read), agape with ecstasy and terror, as my parents read aloud to me from the novels of Ann Radcliffe. Then I would rave deliriously about them in my sleep." A number of scholars have noted elements of Gothic literature in Dostoyevsky's novels,[19] and some have attempted to show direct influence of Radcliffe's work.[20] Jane Austen's parody of The Mysteries of Udolpho
The Mysteries of Udolpho
in Northanger Abbey is frequently mentioned. Scholars have also noted a number of other apparent allusions to Radcliffe's novels and life in Austen's work.[21] Honoré de Balzac's novel of the supernatural L'Héritière de Birague (1822) follows the tradition of Radcliffe's style and parodies it.[22] Film reference[edit] Helen McCrory
Helen McCrory
plays Ann Radcliffe
Ann Radcliffe
in the 2007 film Becoming Jane, starring Anne Hathaway
Anne Hathaway
as Jane Austen. The film depicts Radcliffe as meeting the young Jane Austen
Jane Austen
and encouraging her to pursue a literary career. There is no evidence of such a meeting having actually occurred. References[edit]

^ a b The British Library
British Library
Retrieved 12 November 2016. ^ Miles, Robert. "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography". oxforddnb.com.  ^ Norton, Rictor (1999). Mistress of Udolpho: The Life of Ann Radcliffe. London: Leicester University Press. pp. 26–33.  ^ a b c d e Chawton House Library: Ruth Facer, "Anne Radcliffe (1764–1823)", retrieved 1 December 2012 ^ Norton, Rictor (1999). Mistress of Udolpho: The Life of Ann Radcliffe. London: Leicester University Press. p. 243.  ^ Alison Flood, Gothic fiction
Gothic fiction
pioneer Ann Radcliffe
Ann Radcliffe
may have been inspired by mother-in-law, The Guardian, 30 January 2014. ^ Rictor Norton
Rictor Norton
(1 May 1999). Mistress of Udolpho: The Life of Ann Radcliffe. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 8 ff. ISBN 978-1-84714-269-6.  ^ Pourteau, Leslie Katherine. “‘The Pride of Conscious Worth’: Characterization of the Female in the Novels of Ann Radcliffe.” Texas A&M University, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 1997, pp. 1–9. ^ Dr. Lilia Melani. "Gothic History" (PDF). Retrieved 3 May 2012.  ^ Eighteenth Century Lit, Ann Radcliffe's Gothic, The Mysteries of Udolpho: Discover the secrets within ... ^ "'On the Supernatural in Poetry'".  ^ Miller, Adam. "Ann Radcliffe's Scientific Romance". Eighteenth-Century Fiction. 28 (3): 527–545. doi:10.3138/ecf.28.3.527.  ^ a b Mulvey-Roberts, Marie, ed. (2016). Dangerous bodies. Historicising the Gothic corporeal. Manchester University Press. pp. 14–51. ISBN 9780719085413.  ^ Hoeveler, Diane Long, ed. (2014). The Gothic Ideology. Religious Hysteria and Anti-Catholicism in British Popular Fiction, 1780-1880 (1 ed.). University of Wales Press. pp. 15–50. ISBN 9781783160488.  ^ Schmitt, Cannon (1994). "Techniques of Terror, Technologies of Nationality: Ann Radcliffe's the Italian". ELH. 61 (4): 853–876.  ^ Mayhew, Robert J. (2002). "Latitudinarianism and the Novels of Ann Radcliffe". Texas Studies in Literature and Language. 44 (3): 273–301.  ^ CHANDLER, ANNE (2006). "ANN RADCLIFFE AND NATURAL THEOLOGY". Studies in the Novel. 38 (2): 133–153.  ^ Stanley Kunitz and Howard Haycraft, eds, British Authors Before 1800: A Biographical Dictionary (NY: H. W. Wilson, 1952), p. 427. ^ Berry, Robert. "Gothicism in Conrad and Dostoevsky". Retrieved 18 October 2014.  ^ Bowers, Katherine. "Dostoevsky's Gothic Blueprint: the Notebooks to The Idiot". Retrieved 17 October 2014.  ^ William Baker, Critical Companion to Jane Austen: A Literary Reference to Her Life and Work (Facts on File, 2007); see entry on Radcliffe, p. 578. ^ Samuel Rogers, Balzac and the Novel (Octagon Books, 1969), 21

Further reading[edit]

Cody, David (July 2000). "Ann Radcliffe: An Evaluation". The Victorian Web: An Overview. Retrieved 1 December 2010.  "Ann Radcliffe". Brooklyn College English Department. 9 May 2003. Retrieved 15 June 2015.  Norton, Rictor (1999). Mistress of Udolpho: The Life of Ann Radcliffe.  Rogers, Deborah (1996). Ann Radcliffe: A Bio-Bibliography. ISBN 978-0-313-28379-6.  Rogers, Deborah. The Critical Responses to Ann Radcliffe

External links[edit]

Library resources about Ann Radcliffe

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Wikiquote has quotations related to: Ann Radcliffe

has original works written by or about: Ann Radcliffe

 Garnett, Richard (1896). "Radcliffe, Ann". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 47. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 

Works by Ann Radcliffe
Ann Radcliffe
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Ann Radcliffe
Ann Radcliffe
at Internet Archive Works by Ann Radcliffe
Ann Radcliffe
at LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) Listing in 'The Literary Gothic' Listing in The Victorian Web Biography, links, and e-texts at The Literary Gothic Biography and brief description of her writing

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 64010774 LCCN: n79056784 ISNI: 0000 0001 1067 4293 GND: 118597590 SELIBR: 208785 SUDOC: 027087476 BNF: cb11920978p (data) NLA: 36532106 NDL: 00453572 NKC: jn20000604548 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV112561 BNE: XX1642