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Ankhesenamun
Ankhesenamun
(ˁnḫ-s-n-imn, "Her Life Is of Amun"; c. 1348 – after 1322 BC) was a queen of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Born as Ankhesenpaaten, she was the third of six known daughters of the Egyptian Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Akhenaten
Akhenaten
and his Great Royal Wife
Great Royal Wife
Nefertiti, and became the Great Royal Wife
Great Royal Wife
of her half-brother Tutankhamun.[1] The change in her name reflects the changes in Ancient Egyptian religion during her lifetime after her father's death. Her youth is well documented in the ancient reliefs and paintings of the reign of her parents. Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
and Ankhesenamun
Ankhesenamun
shared the same father but Tutankhamun's mother has recently been established by genetic evidence as one of Akhenaten's sisters, a daughter (so far unidentified) of Amenhotep III. She was most likely born in year 4 of Akhenaten's reign and by year 12 of her father's reign she was joined by her three younger sisters. He possibly made his wife his co-regent and had his family portrayed in a realistic style in all official artwork. Ankhesenamun
Ankhesenamun
was definitely married to one king; she was the Great Royal Wife of Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Tutankhamun. It is also possible that she was briefly married to Tutankhamun's successor, Ay, believed by some to be her maternal grandfather.[2] It has also been posited that she may have been the Great Royal Wife
Great Royal Wife
of her father, Akhenaten, after the possible death of her mother, and co-regent of Akhenaten's immediate successor, Smenkhkare. Recent DNA
DNA
tests released in February 2010 have also speculated that one of two late 18th dynasty
18th dynasty
queens buried in KV21
KV21
could be her mummy. Both mummies are thought, because of DNA, to be members of the ruling house.[3]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Later life 3 Hittite letters 4 Mummy KV21A 5 KV63 6 In popular culture 7 Ancestry and family 8 References 9 Further reading

Early life[edit] Ankhesenpaaten was born in a time when Egypt was in the midst of an unprecedented religious revolution (c. 1348 BC). Her father had abandoned the old deities of Egypt in favor of the Aten, hitherto a minor aspect of the sun-god, characterised as the sun's disc. She is believed to have been born in Waset (present-day Thebes), but probably grew up in her father's new capital city of Akhetaten (present-day Amarna). The three eldest daughters – Meritaten, Meketaten, and Ankhesenpaaten – became the "Senior Princesses" and participated in many functions of the government and religion. Her birthdate is not known. Later life[edit]

Partially restored alabaster jar with 2 handles. It bears the cartouches of pharaoh Tutankhamen
Tutankhamen
and Queen Ankhesenamun. 18th Dynasty. From Gurob, Fayum, Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London

Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
receives flowers from Ankhesenpaaten as a sign of love.

She is believed to have been married first to her own father.[4] This was not unusual for Egyptian royal families. She is thought to have been the mother of the princess Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit
Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit
(possibly by her father or by Smenkhkare), although the parentage is unclear.[1]

Ankhesenamun
Ankhesenamun
in hieroglyphs

Ankhesenpaaten (anḫ s n pa itn) Translation, Living for Aten

Ankhesenamun
Ankhesenamun
(anḫ s n imn) Translation, Living for Amun

Great Royal Wife
Great Royal Wife
of Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Tutankhamen Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt

After her father's death and the short reigns of Smenkhkare
Smenkhkare
and Neferneferuaten, she became the wife of Tutankhamun.[5] Following their marriage, the couple honored the deities of the restored religion by changing their names to Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
and Ankhesenamun.[6] The couple appear to have had two stillborn daughters.[6] As Tutankhamun's only known wife was Ankhesenamun, it is highly likely the fetuses found in Tutankhamun's tomb are her daughters. Some time in the ninth year of his reign, at about the age of eighteen, Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
died suddenly, leaving Ankhesenamun
Ankhesenamun
alone without an heir at about age twenty-one.[6] A ring discovered is thought to show that Ankhesenamun
Ankhesenamun
married Ay shortly before she disappeared from history, although no monuments show her as a royal consort.[7] On the walls of Ay's tomb it is Tey (Ay's senior wife), not Ankhesenamun, who appears as queen. She probably died during or shortly after his reign and no burial has been found for her yet. Hittite letters[edit] A document was found in the ancient Hittite capital of Hattusa
Hattusa
which dates to the Amarna
Amarna
period; the so-called "Deeds" of Suppiluliuma I. The Hittite ruler receives a letter from the Egyptian queen, while being in siege on Karkemish. The letter reads:

My husband has died and I have no son. They say about you that you have many sons. You might give me one of your sons to become my husband. I would not wish to take one of my subjects as a husband... I am afraid.[5]

This document is considered extraordinary, as Egyptians traditionally considered foreigners to be inferior. Suppiluliuma I
Suppiluliuma I
was surprised and exclaimed to his courtiers:

Nothing like this has happened to me in my entire life![8]

Understandably, he was wary, and had an envoy investigate, but by so doing, he missed his chance to bring Egypt into his empire. He eventually did send one of his sons, Zannanza, but the prince died, perhaps murdered, en route.[9] The identity of the queen who wrote the letter is uncertain. She is called Dakhamunzu
Dakhamunzu
in the Hittite annuals, a possible transliteration of the Egyptian title Tahemetnesu (The King's Wife).[10][not in citation given] Possible candidates are Nefertiti, Meritaten,[2] and Ankhesenamun. Ankhesenamun
Ankhesenamun
seemed once likely since there were no candidates for the throne on the death of her husband, Tutankhamun, whereas Akhenaten
Akhenaten
had at least two legitimate successors.[5] but this was based on a 27-year reign for the last 18th pharaoh Horemheb
Horemheb
who is now accepted to have had a shorter reign of only 14 years. This makes the deceased Egyptian king appear to be Akhenaten
Akhenaten
instead rather than Tutankhamun. The phrase regarding marriage to 'one of my subjects' (translated by some as 'servants') is possibly a reference to the Grand Vizier Ay or a secondary member of the Egyptian royal family line. Since Nefertiti
Nefertiti
was depicted as powerful as her husband in official monuments smiting Egypt's enemies, she might be the Dakhamunzu
Dakhamunzu
in the Amarna
Amarna
correspondence as Nicholas Reeves believes.[11] Ankhesenamun
Ankhesenamun
may have been pressured by Ay to marry him and legitimise his claim to the throne of Egypt (which she eventually did)[12] This also might explain why she describes herself as 'afraid', especially considering the popular (but not widely accepted) theory that Ay had a hand in her husband's death.[13] A CT scan taken in 2005 shows that he had badly broken his leg shortly before his death, and that the leg had become infected. DNA
DNA
analysis conducted in 2010 showed the presence of malaria in his system. It is believed that these two conditions, malaria and leiomyomata, combined, led to his death.[14] However, Ankhesenamun
Ankhesenamun
was not as powerful as Nefertiti
Nefertiti
to be able to choose her spouse from a foreign state. Mummy KV21A[edit] DNA
DNA
testing announced in February 2010 has speculated that her mummy is one of two 18th Dynasty
18th Dynasty
queens recovered from KV21
KV21
in the Valley of the Kings.[3] The two fetuses found buried with Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
have been proven to be his children, and the current theory is Ankhesenamun
Ankhesenamun
is their mother. Not enough DNA
DNA
was able to be retrieved from the mummies in KV21
KV21
to make positive identities of the queens. Enough DNA
DNA
was pulled to show that the mummy known as KV21a fits as the mother of the two fetuses in Tutankhamun's tomb.[3] The assumption that she is Ankhesenamun
Ankhesenamun
fit with her being the only known wife of Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
in the historical record. There is however one problem with this identification: if KV21a is Ankhesenamun, then the KV55
KV55
mummy probably is not Akhenaten, known to be her father from historical records. The DNA
DNA
retrieved of the KV21a mummy fits with her being the mother of the fetuses, but not the daughter of KV55. Therefore:

this mummy is not Ankhesenamun, but another, unknown wife of Tutankhamun, or the KV55
KV55
mummy is not Akhenaten, but another brother of his, possibly the ephemeral Smenkhare, or the KV55
KV55
mummy is Akhenaten
Akhenaten
and KV21a is Ankhesenamun, but he was not the biological father of his daughter.

Nevertheless, the KV21a mummy has DNA
DNA
consistent with the 18th dynasty royal line, therefore making it likely she was a member of the Thutmoside ruling house and supporting her identification with Ankhesenamun. KV63[edit] After excavating the tomb KV63
KV63
it is speculated that it was designed for Ankhesenamen due to its proximity to the tomb of Tutankhamun's KV62.[citation needed] Also found in the tomb were coffins (one with an imprint of a woman on it), women's clothing, jewelry and natron. Fragments of pottery bearing the partial name Paaten were also in the tomb. The only royal person known to bear this name was Ankhesenamen, whose name was originally Ankhesenpaaten. However, there were no mummies found in KV63. In popular culture[edit]

This article appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated references to popular culture. Please reorganize this content to explain the subject's impact on popular culture rather than simply listing appearances; add references to reliable sources if possible. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2017)

Ankhesenpaaten/Ankhesenamum appears as a fictionalized character in these works:

in the Belgian series, Het Huis Anubis, as The Vengeful Wife of Tutankhamun as the main character in Christian Jacq's novel La reine soleil, and in the animated film adaptation of the same name as a main character in The Twelfth Transforming by Pauline Gedge in the manga series Red River by Chie Shinohara, in relation to the Hittite Letters event[clarification needed] a character in Nefertiti
Nefertiti
by Michelle Moran, as the third of her six daughters the main character in the novel Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
and the Daughter of Ra by Moyra Caldecott Her name is used as the love of Imhotep, the titular mummy in the original 1932 film The Mummy, which was made after the publicity surrounding the discovery of Tutankhamun's tomb. She is portrayed by Zita Johann. In the 1999 remake The Mummy and its sequel The Mummy Returns she is played by Patricia Velásquez. In the 1932 film, her name is spelled Ankh-es-en-amon. In the 1999 film, it is spelled Anck-su-namun. The novel Pillar of Fire by Judith Tarr deals in large part with the life of Ankhesenamun. in P.C. Doherty's Akhenaten
Akhenaten
trilogy where she is implicated in Tutankhamun's death and is to marry a Hittite prince as a major character in The Murder of King Tut, a murder mystery based on speculation about her husband's death by James Patterson
James Patterson
and Martin Dugard as a major character in Tutankhamun: the Book of Shadows, by Nick Drake in Tut on Spike she is played by Sibylla Deen

Ancestry and family[edit] See also: Family tree of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt

 

 

 

Amenhotep II

 

Tiaa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thutmose IV

 

Mutemwiya

 

 

Yuya

 

Tjuyu

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amenhotep III

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tiye

 

Ay

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Younger Lady

 

Akhenaten

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nefertiti

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tutankhamun

 

Smenkhkare

 

Meritaten

 

Meketaten

 

Ankhesenamun

 

Neferneferuaten
Neferneferuaten
Tasherit

 

Neferneferure

 

Setepenre

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2 Stillborn Foetuses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References[edit]

^ a b Dodson, Aidan; Dyan Hilton (2004). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. p. 148.  ^ a b Grajetzki, Wolfram (2000). Ancient Egyptian Queens; a hieroglyphic dictionary. London: Golden House. p. 64.  ^ a b c Lorenzi, Rosella. "King Tut Felled by Malaria, Bone Disease." Discovery News, February 16, 2010. Retrieved from http://news.discovery.com/archaeology/king-tut-dna-lineage.html. ^ Reeves, Nicholas (2001). Akhenaten: Egypt's False Prophet. Thames and Hudson.  ^ a b c Manley, Suzie. " Ankhesenamun
Ankhesenamun
- Queen of Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
and Daughter of Akhenaten". Egypt * Pyramids * History.  ^ a b c "Queen Ankhesenamun". Saint Louis University.  ^ Dodson, Aidan; Dyan Hilton (2004). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. p. 153.  ^ "The Deeds of Suppiluliuma as Told by His Son, Mursili II". Journal of Cuneiform Studies. 10 (2). 1956. JSTOR 1359041.  ^ Amelie Kuhrt (1997). The Ancient Middle East c. 3000 – 330 BC. 1. London: Routledge. p. 254.  ^ William McMurray. "Towards an Absolute Chronology for Ancient Egypt" (pdf). p. 5.  ^ Nicholas Reeves,Tutankhamun's Mask Reconsidered BES 19 (2014), pp.523 ^ Christine El Mahdy (2001), "Tutankhamun" (St Griffin's Press) ^ Brier, Bob (1999) "The Murder of Tutankhamen" (Berkeley Trade) ^ Roberts, Michelle (2010-02-16). "'Malaria' killed King Tutankhamun". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-03-12. 

Further reading[edit]

Akhenaten, King of Egypt by Cyril Aldred (1988), Thames & Hudson.

v t e

Tutankhamun

Family

Akhenaten
Akhenaten
(father) "The Younger Lady" (mother) Ankhesenamun
Ankhesenamun
(wife) Amenhotep III
Amenhotep III
(grandfather)

Discovery

Howard Carter George Herbert KV62
KV62
(Tutankhamun's tomb) Tutankhamun's mask Mummy Lotus chalice Trumpets Meteoric iron dagger blade Anubis Shrine

Other

Curse of the pharaohs Exhibitions

Popular culture

Steve Martin song Of Time, Tombs and Treasures
Of Time, Tombs and Treasures
(1977 documentary) The Curse of King Tut's Tomb (1980 film) Mysteries of Egypt
Mysteries of Egypt
(1998 film) Tutenstein
Tutenstein
(2003 series) The Curse of King Tut's Tomb (2006 film) Tut (2015 miniseries) Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
(2016 miniseries)

v t e

Amarna
Amarna
Period

Pharaohs

Akhenaten Smenkhkare Neferneferuaten Tutankhamun Ay

Royal family

Tiye Nefertiti Kiya "The Younger Lady" Tey

Children

Meritaten Meketaten Ankhesenamun Neferneferuaten
Neferneferuaten
Tasherit Neferneferure Setepenre Meritaten
Meritaten
Tasherit Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit

Nobles Officials

Mutbenret Aperel Bek Huya Meryre II Nakhtpaaten Panehesy Parennefer Penthu Thutmose

Locations

Akhetaten Karnak KV55 KV62 Amarna
Amarna
Tombs

Other

Amarna
Amarna
letters Amarna
Amarna
succession Aten Atenism Dakhamunzu Amarna
Amarna
Art Style

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 120238

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