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The Anisopodidae
Anisopodidae
are a small cosmopolitan family of gnat-like flies known as wood gnats or window-gnats, with 154 described extant species in 15 genera, and several described fossil taxa. Some species are saprophagous or fungivorous. They are mostly small to medium-sized flies, except the genera Olbiogaster and Lobogaster, which are large with bizarrely spatulated abdomens. Their phylogenetic placement is controversial. They have been proposed to be the sister group to the higher flies, the Brachycera.[1] Some authors consider this group to be four distinct families – Anisopodidae, Mycetobiidae, Olbiogastridae, and Valeseguyidae.[2]

Sylvicola wing veins

Mycetobia wing veins

Contents

1 Description 2 Identification 3 References 4 Species lists 5 External links

Description[edit] For terms see Morphology of Diptera. Authors disagree on the circumscription of this taxon. Published accounts differ. The Anisopodidae
Anisopodidae
are small or medium-sized (mostly 4–12 mm, Lobogaster found in Chile 17–18 mm) yellowish to brownish gnats with long, thin legs. The tibiae have apical spurs. The head is small and rounded and with small mouthparts. The eyes are dichoptic or holoptic. Ocelli are present and form an equilateral triangle. The slender antennae vary from relatively short to longer than head and thorax together. The antennae have 14-16 segments. The mesonotum is without a transverse suture; the wing is wide, with a clear anal lobe and a pattern of smaller markings (sometimes hyaline). The alula is strongly differentiated in Olbiogaster and Sylvicola. Both wings lie flat over the abdomen in the resting position. A pterostigma is present or absent, and the wing membrane is densely covered with microtrichia (macrotrichia present in Sylvicola). The costa (C) ends at or just beyond the tip of R4+5. The subcosta (Sc) ends in the costa near the middle of wing and distal to base of Rs. The stem of R is straight (sometimes with an interruption or weakening below crossvein h). Rs arises near but proximal to the middle of the wing, with two branches. R4+5 is long, ending near tip of wing; crossvein r-m is situated near or distal to the fork of Rs. Radial vein 2+3 (R2+3) may end in R1 or end in the costa. The median vein (M) has three or two branches and the discal cell (d) is present or absent. CuA2 is straight or sinuous distally. CuA1, CuA2, and A1 all reach the wing margin. CuP when present is variably distinct; A2 is present but weak apically. The abdomen is slender.[3][4] Identification[edit]

Online-Keys: The Palaearctic species of Sylvicola Coe, R.L., Freeman, P., & Mattingly, P.F. (1950) Diptera: Nematocera, families Tipulidae to Chironomidae. Royal Entomological Society of London Handbook 9(2)ii. pdf Shtakel'berg, A.A. Family Anisopodidae
Anisopodidae
(Rhyphidae, Phryneidae) in Bei-Bienko, G. Ya, 1988 Keys to the insects of the European Part of the USSR Volume 5 (Diptera) Part 2 English edition.Keys to Palaearctic species but now needs revision . Séguy, E. (1940) Diptères: Nématocères. Paris: Éditions Faune de France.Bibliothèque virtuelle numérique

References[edit]

^ P. Oosterbroek & G. Courtney (1995). "Phylogeny of the nematocerous families of Diptera (Insecta)" (PDF). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 115 (3): 267–311. doi:10.1006/zjls.1995.0080. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-09-27.  ^ Dalton De Souza Amorim & David A. Grimaldi (2006). "Valeseguyidae, a new family of Diptera in the Scatopsoidea, with a new genus in Cretaceous amber from Myanmar" (PDF). Systematic Entomology. 31 (3): 508–516. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3113.2006.00326.x. [permanent dead link] ^ Peterson B.V.(1981) Anisopodidae. in: McAlpine J.F. (Ed.), Manual of Nearctic Diptera. Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, pp. 305-312. [www.esc-sec.ca/aafcmonographs/manual_of_nearctic_diptera_vol_1.pdf pdf] ^ F. Christian Thompson, 2005 New Mesochria species (Diptera: Anisopodidae) from Fiji,with notes on the classification of the family In Fiji Arthropods IV. Edited by Neal L. Evenhuis & Daniel J. Bickel. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 86: 11–21 (2006)."Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-02-16. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 

Species lists[edit]

West Palaearctic including Russia Australasian/Oceanian[permanent dead link] Nearctic Japan World list

External links[edit]

Anisopodidae
Anisopodidae
taxonomy[permanent dead link] BioSystematic Database of World Diptera Diptera.info Images Family Anisopodidae
Anisopodidae
at EOL images

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Extant Diptera families

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Subclass: Pterygota Infraclass: Neoptera Superorder: Endopterygota

Suborder Nematocera

Axymyiomorpha

Axymyiidae

Culicomorpha

Culicoidea

Dixidae
Dixidae
(meniscus midges) Corethrellidae
Corethrellidae
(frog-biting midges) Chaoboridae
Chaoboridae
(phantom midges) Culicidae (mosquitoes)

Chironomoidea

Thaumaleidae
Thaumaleidae
(solitary midges) Simuliidae (black flies) Ceratopogonidae
Ceratopogonidae
(biting midges) Chironomidae
Chironomidae
(non-biting midges)

Blephariceromorpha

Blephariceridae
Blephariceridae
(net-winged midges) Deuterophlebiidae (mountain midges) Nymphomyiidae

Bibionomorpha

Bibionoidea

Bibionidae
Bibionidae
(march flies, lovebugs)

Anisopodoidea

Anisopodidae
Anisopodidae
(wood gnats)

Sciaroidea (fungus gnats)

Bolitophilidae Diadocidiidae Ditomyiidae Keroplatidae Mycetophilidae Sciaridae
Sciaridae
(dark-winged fungus gnats) Cecidomyiidae
Cecidomyiidae
(gall midges)

Psychodomorpha

Scatopsoidea

Canthyloscelidae Perissommatidae Scatopsidae
Scatopsidae
(minute black scavenger flies, or dung midges)

Psychodoidea

Psychodidae (moth flies)

Ptychopteromorpha

Ptychopteridae
Ptychopteridae
(phantom crane flies) Tanyderidae (primitive crane flies)

Tipulomorpha

Trichoceroidea

Trichoceridae
Trichoceridae
(winter crane flies)

Tipuloidea

Pediciidae
Pediciidae
(hairy-eyed craneflies) Tipulidae (crane flies)

Suborder Brachycera

Asilomorpha

Asiloidea

Apioceridae (flower-loving flies) Apsilocephalidae Apystomyiidae Asilidae
Asilidae
(robber flies) Bombyliidae
Bombyliidae
(bee flies) Evocoidae Hilarimorphidae (hilarimorphid flies) Mydidae (mydas flies) Mythicomyiidae Scenopinidae
Scenopinidae
(window flies) Therevidae
Therevidae
(stiletto flies)

Empidoidea

Atelestidae Hybotidae
Hybotidae
(dance flies) Dolichopodidae
Dolichopodidae
(long-legged flies) Empididae
Empididae
(dagger flies, balloon flies)

Nemestrinoidea

Acroceridae
Acroceridae
(small-headed flies) Nemestrinidae
Nemestrinidae
(tangle-veined flies)

Muscomorpha

Aschiza

Platypezoidea

Phoridae
Phoridae
(scuttle flies, coffin flies, humpbacked flies) Opetiidae
Opetiidae
(flat-footed flies) Ironomyiidae (ironic flies) Lonchopteridae
Lonchopteridae
(spear-winged flies) Platypezidae
Platypezidae
(flat-footed flies)

Syrphoidea

Syrphidae (hoverflies) Pipunculidae
Pipunculidae
(big-headed flies)

Schizophora

Acalyptratae

Conopoidea

Conopidae
Conopidae
(thick-headed flies)

Tephritoidea

Pallopteridae
Pallopteridae
(flutter flies) Piophilidae
Piophilidae
(cheese flies) Platystomatidae
Platystomatidae
(signal flies) Pyrgotidae Richardiidae Tephritidae
Tephritidae
(peacock flies) Ulidiidae
Ulidiidae
(picture-winged flies)

Nerioidea

Cypselosomatidae Micropezidae
Micropezidae
(stilt-legged flies) Neriidae
Neriidae
(cactus flies, banana stalk flies)

Diopsoidea

Diopsidae (stalk-eyed flies) Gobryidae Megamerinidae Nothybidae Psilidae
Psilidae
(rust flies) Somatiidae Strongylophthalmyiidae Syringogastridae Tanypezidae

Sciomyzoidea

Coelopidae
Coelopidae
(kelp flies) Dryomyzidae Helosciomyzidae Ropalomeridae Huttoninidae Heterocheilidae Phaeomyiidae Sepsidae
Sepsidae
(black scavenger flies) Sciomyzidae
Sciomyzidae
(marsh flies)

Sphaeroceroidea

Chyromyidae Heleomyzidae Sphaeroceridae
Sphaeroceridae
(small dung flies) Nannodastiidae

Lauxanioidea

Celyphidae
Celyphidae
(beetle-backed flies) Chamaemyiidae
Chamaemyiidae
(aphid flies) Lauxaniidae

Opomyzoidea

Agromyzidae
Agromyzidae
(leaf miner flies) Anthomyzidae Asteiidae Aulacigastridae (sap flies) Clusiidae
Clusiidae
(lekking, or druid flies) Fergusoninidae Marginidae Neminidae Neurochaetidae (upside-down flies) Odiniidae Opomyzidae Periscelididae Teratomyzidae Xenasteiidae

Ephydroidea

Camillidae Curtonotidae
Curtonotidae
(quasimodo flies) Diastatidae
Diastatidae
(bog flies) Ephydridae
Ephydridae
(shore flies) Drosophilidae
Drosophilidae
(vinegar and fruit flies)

Carnoidea

Acartophthalmidae Australimyzidae Braulidae
Braulidae
(bee lice) Canacidae
Canacidae
(beach flies) Carnidae Chloropidae
Chloropidae
(frit flies) Cryptochaetidae Inbiomyiidae Milichiidae
Milichiidae
(freeloader flies)

Lonchaeoidea

Cryptochetidae Lonchaeidae
Lonchaeidae
(lance flies)

Calyptratae

Muscoidea

Anthomyiidae
Anthomyiidae
(cabbage flies) Fanniidae
Fanniidae
(little house flies) Muscidae
Muscidae
(house flies, stable flies) Scathophagidae
Scathophagidae
(dung flies)

Oestroidea

Calliphoridae
Calliphoridae
(blow-flies: bluebottles, greenbottles) Mystacinobiidae (New Zealand batfly) Oestridae (botflies) Rhinophoridae Sarcophagidae (flesh flies) Tachinidae
Tachinidae
(tachina flies)

Hippoboscoidea

Glossinidae (tsetse flies) Hippoboscidae
Hippoboscidae
(louse flies) Mormotomyiidae
Mormotomyiidae
(frightful hairy fly) Nycteribiidae
Nycteribiidae
(bat flies) Streblidae
Streblidae
(bat flies)

Stratiomyomorpha

Stratiomyoidea

Pantophthalmidae
Pantophthalmidae
(timber flies) Stratiomyidae
Stratiomyidae
(soldier flies) Xylomyidae
Xylomyidae
(wood soldier flies)

Tabanomorpha

Rhagionoidea

Austroleptidae Bolbomyiidae Rhagionidae
Rhagionidae
(snipe flies)

Tabanoidea

Athericidae
Athericidae
(water snipe flies) Oreoleptidae Pelecorhynchidae Tabanidae (horse and deer flies)

Vermileonomorpha

Vermileonoidea

Vermileonidae

Xylophagomorpha

Xylophagoidea

Xylophagidae
Xylophagidae
(awl flies)

List of families of Diptera

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q1404907 ADW: Anisopodidae BugGuide: 12265 EoL: 515 EPPO: 1ANISF Fauna Europaea: 11675 Fossilworks: 187114 GBIF: 7271 iNaturalist: 245529 ITIS: 125592 NCBI: 5

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