Animal fur
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Fur is a thick growth of
hair Hair is a protein filament In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Phy ...

hair
that covers the skin of many different
animals Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular Multicellular organisms are organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the L ...

animals
, particularly
mammals Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the R ...
. It consists of a combination of oily
guard hair Fur is a thick growth of hair Hair is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis. Hair is one of the defining characteristics of mammals. The human body, apart from areas of glabrous skin, is covered in follicles ...
on top and thick
underfur Fur is a thick growth of hair that covers the skin of many different animals, particularly mammals. It consists of a combination of oily #Guard hair, guard hair on top and thick #Down hair, underfur beneath. The guard hair keeps moisture from rea ...
beneath. The guard hair keeps moisture from reaching the skin; the underfur acts as an
insulating Insulation may refer to: Thermal * Thermal insulation, use of materials to reduce rates of heat transfer ** List of insulation materials ** Building insulation, thermal insulation added to buildings for comfort and energy efficiency *** Insulated s ...

insulating
blanket that keeps the animal warm. The fur of mammals has many uses: protection, sensory purposes, waterproofing, and camouflaging, with the primary usage being thermoregulation. The types of hair include: * ''definitive'', which may be
shed A shed is typically a simple, single-story roofed structure in a back garden A back garden is a residential garden located at the rear of a property, on the other side of the house from the front garden. Such gardens have a special place in ...
after reaching a certain length; * ''
vibrissae showing four major cranial groups of vibrissae: supraorbital (above the eye), mystacial (where a moustache would be), genal (on the cheek, far left), and mandibular (pointing down, under the snout). may be vibrissae. ''. with large macrovibrissa ...
'', which are sensory hairs and are most commonly whiskers; * ''pelage'', which consists of guard hairs, under-fur, and
awn hair Awn hairs are the intermediate hair Hair is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis. Hair is one of the defining characteristics of mammals. The human body, apart from areas of glabrous skin, is covered in follicle ...
; * '' spines'', which are a type of stiff guard hair used for defense in, for example,
porcupine Porcupines are large rodent Rodents (from Latin , 'to gnaw') are mammals of the Order (biology), order Rodentia (), which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws. About 40% o ...

porcupine
s; * ''bristles'', which are long hairs usually used in visual signals, such as the
mane Mane may refer to: *Mane (horse), the line of hair along the spine of the neck *Mane (lion), found around the male mammal's neck In arts and entertainment *Mane (film), ''Mane'' (film) is a 1990 Kannada language film directed by Girish Kasaravall ...
of a lion; * ''velli'', often called "down fur," which insulates newborn mammals; and * ''
wool Wool is the textile A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking bundle of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitti ...
'', which is long, soft, and often curly. Hair length is negligible in thermoregulation, as some tropical mammals, such as sloths, have the same fur length as some arctic mammals but with less insulation; and, conversely, other tropical mammals with short hair have the same insulating value as arctic mammals. The denseness of fur can increase an animal's insulation value, and arctic mammals especially have dense fur; for example, the
musk ox Musk is a class of aromatic substances commonly used as base notes in perfume Perfume (, ; french: parfum) is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds, fixatives and solvent A solvent (from the Latin language, Latin ''wikt ...

musk ox
has guard hairs measuring as well as a dense underfur, which forms an airtight coat, allowing them to survive in temperatures of . Some desert mammals, such as camels, use dense fur to prevent solar heat from reaching their skin, allowing the animal to stay cool; a camel's fur may reach in the summer, but the skin stays at .
Aquatic mammal Aquatic and semiaquatic mammals are a diverse group of mammal Mammals (from Latin language, Latin , 'breast') are a group of vertebrate animals constituting the class (biology), class Mammalia (), and characterized by the presence of mamma ...
s, conversely, trap air in their fur to conserve heat by keeping the skin dry. Mammalian coats are colored for a variety of reasons, the major selective pressures including
camouflage Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see, or by disguising them as something else. Examples include the leopard's spotted coat, the battl ...

camouflage
,
sexual selection Sexual selection is a mode of natural selection in which members of one biological sex mate choice, choose mates of the other sex to mating, mate with (intersexual selection), and compete with members of the same sex for access to members of the ...
, communication, and physiological processes such as temperature regulation. Camouflage is a powerful influence in many mammals, as it helps to conceal individuals from predators or prey.
Aposematism Aposematism is the advertising by an animal to potential predation , predators that it is not worth attacking or eating. This unprofitability may consist of any defences which make the prey difficult to kill and eat, such as toxicity, venom, f ...
, warning off possible predators, is the most likely explanation of the black-and-white pelage of many mammals which are able to defend themselves, such as in the foul-smelling
skunk Skunks are North and South American mammals Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around ...

skunk
and the powerful and aggressive
honey badger The honey badger (''Mellivora capensis''), also known as the ratel ( or ), is a mammal widely distributed in Africa, Southwest Asia, and the Indian subcontinent. Because of its wide range and occurrence in a variety of habitats, it is listed as ...

honey badger
. In arctic and subarctic mammals such as the
arctic fox The Arctic fox (''Vulpes lagopus''), also known as the white fox, polar fox, or snow fox, is a small fox native to the Arctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere and common throughout the Arctic tundra biome A biome is a collection of pl ...

arctic fox
(''Alopex lagopus''),
collared lemming ''Dicrostonyx'' is a genus of rodent Rodents (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known ...
(''Dicrostonyx groenlandicus''),
stoat The stoat or short-tailed weasel (''Mustela erminea''), also known as the ermine, is a mustelid native to Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continental area on Earth, comprising all of Europe and Asia. Primarily in the Northern Hemispher ...
(''Mustela erminea''), and
snowshoe hare The snowshoe hare (''Lepus americanus''), also called the varying hare or snowshoe rabbit, is a species of hare found in North America. It has the name "snowshoe" because of the large size of its hind feet. The animal's feet prevent it from sinki ...

snowshoe hare
(''Lepus americanus''), seasonal color change between brown in summer and white in winter is driven largely by camouflage. Differences in female and male coat color may indicate nutrition and hormone levels, important in mate selection. Some arboreal mammals, notably primates and marsupials, have shades of violet, green, or blue skin on parts of their bodies, indicating some distinct advantage in their largely
arboreal Arboreal locomotion is the locomotion of animals in trees. In habitats in which trees are present, animals have evolved to move in them. Some animals may scale trees only occasionally, but others are exclusively arboreal. The habitats pose numer ...
habitat due to
convergent evolution Convergent evolution is the independent evolution Evolution is change in the heritable Heredity, also called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of Phenotypic trait, traits from parents to their offspring; eithe ...
. The green coloration of sloths, however, is the result of a
symbiotic Symbiosis (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 mil ...

symbiotic
relationship with algae. Coat color is sometimes
sexually dimorphic Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics, particularly characteristics not directly involved in reproduction. The condition occurs in most animals and some plants. Differences may in ...
, as in many primate species. Coat color may influence the ability to retain heat, depending on how much light is reflected. Mammals with darker colored coats can absorb more heat from solar radiation and stay warmer; some smaller mammals, such as
voles Voles are small rodents that are relatives of lemmings and hamsters, but with a stouter body; a shorter, hairy tail; a slightly rounder head; smaller ears and eyes; and differently formed molar (tooth), molars (high-crowned with angular cusps i ...
, have darker fur in the winter. The white, pigmentless fur of arctic mammals, such as the polar bear, may reflect more solar radiation directly onto the skin. The term ''pelage''first known use in English (French, from Middle French, from for 'hair', from
Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the Latin spok ...
, from
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the ...

Latin
)is sometimes used to refer to an animal's complete
coat A coat is a clothing, garment worn on the upper body by either gender for warmth or fashion. Coats typically have long sleeves and are open down the front, closing by means of Button (clothing), buttons, zippers, Velcro, hook-and-loop fasteners, ...
. The term fur is also used to refer to animal pelts which have been processed into leather with their hair still attached. The words ''fur'' or ''furry'' are also used, more casually, to refer to hair-like growths or formations, particularly when the subject being referred to exhibits a dense coat of fine, soft "hairs". If layered, rather than grown as a single
coat A coat is a clothing, garment worn on the upper body by either gender for warmth or fashion. Coats typically have long sleeves and are open down the front, closing by means of Button (clothing), buttons, zippers, Velcro, hook-and-loop fasteners, ...
, it may consist of short down hairs, long
guard hairs Fur is a thick growth of hair that covers the skin of many different animals. It is a defining characteristic of mammals. It consists of a combination of oily #Guard hair, guard hair on top and thick #Down hair, underfur beneath. The guard hair ...
, and in some cases, medium
awn hair Awn hairs are the intermediate hair Hair is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis. Hair is one of the defining characteristics of mammals. The human body, apart from areas of glabrous skin, is covered in follicle ...
s. Mammals with reduced amounts of fur are often called "naked", as with the
naked mole-rat The naked mole-rat (''Heterocephalus glaber''), also known as the sand puppy, is a burrowing rodent native to parts of East Africa. It is closely related to the blesmols and is the only species in the genus ''Heterocephalus'' of the family Heter ...
, or "hairless", as with
hairless dogImage:africanhairless.jpg, upright=1.1, An African hairless dog at the Walter Rothschild Zoological Museum, Tring, England A hairless dog is a dog with a Genetics, genetic disposition for hairlessness and hair loss. There are two known types of ge ...
s. An animal with commercially valuable fur is known within the
fur industry Fur farming is the practice of breeding or raising certain types of animals for their fur. Most of the world's farmed fur is produced by European farmers. There are 5,000 fur farms in the European Union, EU, all located across 22 countries; the ...
as a furbearer. The use of fur as clothing or decoration is controversial;
animal welfare Animal welfare is the well-being of non-human animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consume or ...
advocates object to the trapping and killing of wildlife, and to the confinement and killing of animals on .


Composition

The modern mammalian fur arrangement is known to have occurred as far back as docodonts,
haramiyida Haramiyidans were a long lived lineage of mammaliaform cynodonts or mammal Mammals (from Latin language, Latin , 'breast') are a group of vertebrate animals constituting the class (biology), class Mammalia (), and characterized by the pr ...
ns and eutriconodonts, with specimens of ''
Castorocauda ''Castorocauda'' is an extinct, semi-aquatic, beaver Beavers are large, semiaquatic rodents in the genus ''Castor'' native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere. There are two extant species: the North American beaver (''Castor canade ...
'', '' Megaconus'' and ''
Spinolestes ''Spinolestes'' is an extinct mammal Mammals (from Latin language, Latin , 'breast') are a group of vertebrate animals constituting the class (biology), class Mammalia (), and characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in Female# ...
'' preserving compound follicles with both guard hair and underfur. Fur may consist of three layers, each with a different type of hair.


Down hair

Down hair (also known as underfur, undercoat or ground hair) is the bottom—or inner—layer, composed of wavy or curly hairs with no straight portions or sharp points. Down hairs, which are also flat, tend to be the shortest and most numerous in the coat.
Thermoregulation Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Life#Biology, properties of life. It is a sy ...
is the principal function of the down hair, which insulates a layer of dry air next to the skin.


Awn hair

The
awn hair Awn hairs are the intermediate hair Hair is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis. Hair is one of the defining characteristics of mammals. The human body, apart from areas of glabrous skin, is covered in follicle ...
can be thought of as a hybrid, bridging the gap between the distinctly different characteristics of down and guard hairs. Awn hairs begin their growth much like guard hairs, but less than half way to their full length, awn hairs start to grow thin and wavy like down hair. The
proximal Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans. Terms used generally derive from Latin or Greek language, Greek roots and used to describe something in its standard anatomical position. This ...
part of the awn hair assists in thermoregulation (like the down hair), whereas the
distal Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans. Terms used generally derive from Latin or Greek language, Greek roots and used to describe something in its standard anatomical position. This ...
part can shed water (like the guard hair). The awn hair's thin basal portion does not allow the amount of
piloerection Goose bumps, goosebumps or goose-pimples are the bumps on a person's skin at the base of body hairs which may involuntarily develop when a person is tickled, cold , a common physiological response to cold, aiming to reduce the loss of bod ...

piloerection
that the stiffer guard hairs are capable of. Mammals with well developed down and guard hairs also usually have large numbers of awn hairs, which may even sometimes be the bulk of the visible coat.


Guard hair

Guard hair is the top—or outer—layer of the coat. Guard hairs are longer, generally coarser, and have nearly straight shafts that protrude through the layer of softer down hair. The
distal Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans. Terms used generally derive from Latin or Greek language, Greek roots and used to describe something in its standard anatomical position. This ...
end of the guard hair is the visible layer of most mammal coats. This layer has the most marked
pigmentation A pigment is a colored material that is completely or nearly insoluble in water. In contrast, dyes 300px, Yarn drying after being dyed in the early American tradition, at living_history_museum.html"_;"title="Conner_Prairie_living_history_muse ...
and gloss, manifesting as coat markings that are adapted for
camouflage Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see, or by disguising them as something else. Examples include the leopard's spotted coat, the battl ...

camouflage
or display. Guard hair repels water and blocks sunlight, protecting the undercoat and skin in wet or aquatic habitats, and from the sun's
ultraviolet Ultraviolet (UV) is a form of electromagnetic radiation In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that stud ...

ultraviolet
radiation. Guard hairs can also reduce the severity of to the skin. Many mammals, such as the domestic dog and cat, have a pilomotor reflex that raises their guard hairs as part of a
threat display Deimatic behaviour or startle display means any pattern of bluffing ethology, behaviour in an animal that lacks strong defences, such as suddenly displaying conspicuous eyespot (mimicry), eyespots, to scare off or momentarily distract a predator, ...
when agitated.


Mammals with reduced fur

Hair is one of the defining characteristics of mammals; however, several species or breeds have considerably reduced amounts of fur. These are often called "naked" or "hairless".


Natural selection

Some mammals naturally have reduced amounts of fur. Some
semiaquatic In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanisms ...
or
aquatic Aquatic means relating to water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known li ...
mammals such as
cetacean Cetaceans (from la, cetus Cetus () is a constellation, sometimes called 'the whale' in English. The Cetus (mythology), Cetus was a sea monster in Greek mythology which both Perseus and Heracles needed to slay. Cetus is in the region of the s ...
s,
pinniped Pinnipeds (pronounced ), commonly known as seals, are a widely range (biology), distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, List of semiaquatic tetrapods, semiaquatic, mostly marine mammal, marine mammals. They comprise the extant ...
s and
hippopotamuses The hippopotamus ( ; ''Hippopotamus amphibius''), also called the hippo, common hippopotamus or river hippopotamus, is a large, mostly herbivorous, semiaquatic mammal and ungulate native to sub-Saharan Africa Sub-Saharan Africa is, g ...

hippopotamuses
have evolved hairlessness, presumably to reduce resistance through water. The
naked mole-rat The naked mole-rat (''Heterocephalus glaber''), also known as the sand puppy, is a burrowing rodent native to parts of East Africa. It is closely related to the blesmols and is the only species in the genus ''Heterocephalus'' of the family Heter ...
has evolved hairlessness, perhaps as an adaptation to their subterranean life-style. Two of the largest extant terrestrial mammals, the
elephant Elephants are the largest existing land animals. Three living species are currently recognised: the African bush elephant, the African forest elephant, and the Asian elephant. They are an paraphyly, informal grouping within the proboscidean F ...

elephant
and the
rhinoceros A rhinoceros (, , ), commonly abbreviated to rhino, is a member of any of the five Extant taxon, extant species (or numerous extinct species) of odd-toed ungulates in the family (biology), family Rhinocerotidae. (It can also refer to a member ...

rhinoceros
, are largely hairless. The hairless bat is mostly hairless but does have short bristly hairs around its neck, on its front toes, and around the throat sac, along with fine hairs on the head and tail membrane. Most hairless animals cannot go in the sun for long periods of time, or stay in the cold for too long. Humans are the only primate species that have undergone significant hair loss. The hairlessness of humans compared to related species may be due to loss of functionality in the
pseudogene Pseudogenes are nonfunctional segments of DNA The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (; DNA) is a molecule File:Pentacene on Ni(111) STM.jpg, A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, wh ...
KRTHAP1 (which helps produce
keratin Keratin () is one of a family of structural fibrous proteins also known as ''scleroproteins''. Alpha-keratin (α-keratin) is a type of keratin found in vertebrates. It is the key structural material making up Scale (anatomy), scales, hair, Nail ...

keratin
) Although the researchers dated the mutation to 240 000 ya, both the Altai Neandertal and Denisovan have the loss-of-function mutation, indicating it is much older. Mutations in the gene HR can lead to complete hair loss, though this is not typical in humans. The hair of sheep is commonly referred to as
wool Wool is the textile A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking bundle of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitti ...
, rather than fur.


Artificial selection

At times, when a hairless domesticated animal is discovered, usually owing to a naturally occurring genetic mutation, humans may intentionally inbreed those hairless individuals and, after multiple generations, artificially create breeds that are hairless. There are several breeds of hairless cats, perhaps the most commonly known being the
Sphynx cat The Sphynx cat is a breed of cat known for its lack of coat A coat is a clothing, garment worn on the upper body by either gender for warmth or fashion. Coats typically have long sleeves and are open down the front, closing by means of Button ...
. Similarly, there are some breeds of
hairless dogImage:africanhairless.jpg, upright=1.1, An African hairless dog at the Walter Rothschild Zoological Museum, Tring, England A hairless dog is a dog with a Genetics, genetic disposition for hairlessness and hair loss. There are two known types of ge ...
s. Other examples of artificially selected hairless animals include the hairless guinea-pig, , and the hairless rat.


Use in clothing

Fur has long served as a source of clothing for humans, including
Neanderthal Neanderthals (, also Neandertals, ''Homo neanderthalensis'' or ''Homo sapiens neanderthalensis'') are an extinct species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, phys ...
s. Historically, it was worn for its insulating quality, with aesthetics becoming a factor over time. Pelts were worn in or out, depending on their characteristics and desired use. Today fur and trim used in garments may be dyed bright colors or to mimic exotic animal patterns, or shorn close like
velvet Velvet is a type of woven tufted fabric A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking network of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, ...

velvet
. The term "a fur" may connote a coat, wrap, or shawl. The manufacturing of fur clothing involves obtaining animal pelts where the hair is left on the animal's processed skin. In contrast, making
leather Leather is a strong, flexible and durable material obtained from the tanning Tanning may refer to: *Tanning (leather), treating animal skins to produce leather *Sun tanning, using the sun to darken pale skin **Indoor tanning, the use of artif ...

leather
involves removing the hair from the hide or pelt and using only the skin. Fur is also used to make
felt Felt is a textile material that is produced by matting, condensing and pressing fibers together. Felt can be made of natural fibers such as wool Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including Cashmere wool, ca ...
. A common felt is made from beaver fur and is used in
bowler hat The bowler hat, also known as a billycock, bob hat, bombín (Spanish) or derby (United States), is a hard felt hat with a rounded crown, originally created by the London hat-makers Thomas and William Bowler in 1849. It has traditionally been worn ...

bowler hat
s,
top hat ''Top Hat'' is a 1935 American screwball musical comedy film in which Fred Astaire plays an American dancer named Jerry Travers, who comes to London to star in a show produced by Horace Hardwick (Edward Everett Horton). He meets and attempts ...

top hat
s, and high-end
cowboy hats The cowboy hat is a high-crowned, wide-brimmed hat best known as the defining piece of attire for the North American cowboy A cowboy is an animal herder who tends cattle Cattle, or cows (female) and bulls (male), are the most commo ...
.Chamber's journal, Published by Orr and Smith, 1952, p. 200, Original from the University of Michigan. Common furbearers used include
fox Foxes are small to medium-sized, omnivorous An omnivore () is an animal that has the ability to eat and survive on both plant and animal matter. Obtaining energy and nutrients from plant and animal matter, omnivores digest carbohydrates, p ...

fox
,
rabbit Rabbits, also known as bunnies or bunny rabbits, are small mammals in the family (biology), family Leporidae (along with the hare) of the order (biology), order Lagomorpha (along with the pika). ''Oryctolagus cuniculus'' includes the European ...

rabbit
,
mink Mink are dark-colored, semiaquatic, carnivorous mammal Mammals (from Latin language, Latin , 'breast') are a group of vertebrate animals constituting the class (biology), class Mammalia (), and characterized by the presence of mammar ...

mink
,
beaver Beavers are large, semiaquatic In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions ...

beaver
,
ermine The stoat or short-tailed weasel (''Mustela erminea''), also known as the ermine, is a mustelid native to Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continental area on Earth, comprising all of Europe and Asia. Primarily in the Northern Hemispher ...
,
otter Otters are carnivorous mammals in the Rank (zoology), subfamily Lutrinae. The 13 extant otter species are all List of semiaquatic tetrapods, semiaquatic, aquatic animal, aquatic or Marine ecology, marine, with diets based on fish and invertebra ...

otter
,
sable The sable (''Martes zibellina'') is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the lar ...

sable
,
seal Seal may refer to any of the following: Common uses * Pinniped Pinnipeds (pronounced ), commonly known as seals, are a widely range (biology), distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, List of semiaquatic tetrapods, semiaquati ...
,
coyote The coyote (''Canis latrans'') is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the lar ...

coyote
,
chinchilla Chinchillas are either of two species ('' Chinchilla chinchilla'' and ''Chinchilla lanigera'') of crepuscular An adult firefly (''Photuris lucicrescens'') or "lightning bug" – a crepuscular beetle A crepuscular animal is one that is ...

chinchilla
,
raccoon The raccoon ( or , ''Procyon lotor''), sometimes called the common raccoon to distinguish it from other species, is a medium-sized mammal Mammals (from Latin language, Latin , 'breast') are a group of vertebrate animals constituting t ...

raccoon
, and
possum Possum may refer to: Animals * Phalangeriformes Phalangeriformes is a paraphyletic suborder of about 70 species of small to medium-sized arboreal Arboreal locomotion is the locomotion of animals in trees. In habitats in which trees are pr ...

possum
. Even though the use of fur has become controversial, the fur clothing industry is still a very large market.


See also

*
Angora wool Angora hair or Angora fibre refers to the downy coat produced by the Angora rabbit. While the names of the source animals are similar, Angora fibre is distinct from mohair, which comes from the Angora goat. Angora fibre is also distinct from ca ...
*
Animal coloration upBright coloration of orange elephant ear sponge, '' Agelas clathrodes'' signals its bitter taste to predators Animal coloration is the general appearance of an animal resulting from the reflection or emission of light Light or visible ...
*
Cat coat genetics Cat coat genetics determine the coloration, pattern, length, and texture of feline fur. Understanding how is challenging because many genes are involved. The variations among cat coats are physical properties and should not be confused with cat bre ...
*
Coat (animal) Coat is the nature and quality of a mammal Mammals (from Latin language, Latin , 'breast') are a group of vertebrate animals constituting the class (biology), class Mammalia (), and characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in ...
*
Plumage Plumage ( "feather") is a layer of feather Feathers are epidermal growths that form a distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on dinosaurs, both avian (bird) and some non-avian (non-bird) and possibly other archosauromorphs. They are co ...
*
Rabbit hair Rabbit hair (also called rabbit fur, cony, coney, comb or lapin) is the fur of the common rabbit. It is most commonly used in the making of fur hats and coats, and is considered quite valuable today, although it was once a lower-priced commodity ...
*
Tanning (leather) Tanning is the process of treating Skinning, skins and Hide (skin), hides of animals to produce leather. A tannery is the place where the skins are processed. Tanning hide into leather involves a process which permanently alters the protein stru ...


References


External links

{{Authority control Mammal anatomy Non-timber forest products