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Ani
Ani
(Armenian: Անի; Greek: Ἄνιον, Ánion;[5] Latin: Abnicum;[6][7] Georgian: ანი, Ani, or ანისი, Anisi;[8] Turkish: Ani)[9] is a ruined medieval Armenian city now situated in Turkey's province of Kars, next to the closed border with Armenia. Between 961 and 1045, it was the capital of the Bagratid Armenian kingdom that covered much of present-day Armenia
Armenia
and eastern Turkey. Called the "City of 1001 Churches",[7][10][11] Ani
Ani
stood on various trade routes and its many religious buildings, palaces, and fortifications were amongst the most technically and artistically advanced structures in the world.[12][13] At its height, the population of Ani
Ani
probably was on the order of 100,000.[14][15] Long ago renowned for its splendor and magnificence, Ani
Ani
was sacked by the Mongols in 1236 and devastated in a 1319 earthquake, after which it was reduced to a village and gradually abandoned and largely forgotten by the seventeenth century.[16][15] Ani
Ani
is a widely recognized cultural, religious, and national heritage symbol for Armenians.[17] According to Razmik Panossian, Ani
Ani
is one of the most visible and ‘tangible’ symbols of past Armenian greatness and hence a source of pride.[15]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Location 3 History

3.1 Early history 3.2 Bagratuni capital 3.3 Cultural and economic center 3.4 Gradual decline and abandonment 3.5 Modern times

4 Current state 5 Monuments at Ani

5.1 The Cathedral 5.2 Surp Stephanos Church 5.3 The church of St Gregory of Tigran Honents 5.4 The church of the Holy Redeemer 5.5 The church of St Gregory of the Abughamrents 5.6 King Gagik's church of St Gregory 5.7 The church of the Holy Apostles 5.8 The mosque of Manuchihr 5.9 The citadel 5.10 The city walls 5.11 Other monuments 5.12 Cave Village

6 Gallery

6.1 Panorama

7 In culture 8 See also 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 Further reading 12 External links

Etymology[edit] The city took its name from the Armenian fortress-city and pagan center of Ani-Kamakh located in the region of Daranaghi in Upper Armenia.[14][clarification needed] Ani
Ani
was also previously known as Khnamk (Խնամք), although historians are uncertain as to why it was called so.[14][clarification needed] Johann Heinrich Hübschmann, a German philologist and linguist who studied the Armenian language, suggested that the word may have come from the Armenian word "khnamel" (խնամել), an infinitive which means "to take care of".[14] Ani was also the diminutive name of ancient Armenian goddess Anahit
Anahit
who was seen as the mother-protector of Armenia.[citation needed] Location[edit] The city is located on a triangular site, visually dramatic and naturally defensive, protected on its eastern side by the ravine of the Akhurian River
Akhurian River
and on its western side by the Bostanlar or Tzaghkotzadzor valley.[6] The Akhurian is a branch of the Araks River[6] and forms part of the currently closed border between Turkey and Armenia. The site is at an elevation of around 4,390 feet (1,340 m).[7] History[edit] Early history[edit] Armenian chroniclers such as Yeghishe
Yeghishe
and Ghazar Parpetsi
Ghazar Parpetsi
first mentioned Ani
Ani
in the 5th century.[14] They described it as a strong fortress built on a hilltop and a possession of the Armenian Kamsarakan dynasty. Bagratuni capital[edit]

The Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia, c. 1000

By the early 9th century, the former territories of the Kamsarakans in Arsharunik and Shirak (including Ani) had been incorporated into the territories of the Armenian Bagratuni dynasty.[18] Their leader, Ashot Msaker (Ashot the Meateater) (806–827) was given the title of ishkhan (prince) of Armenia
Armenia
by the Caliphate
Caliphate
in 804.[19] The Bagratunis had their first capital at Bagaran, some 40 km south of Ani, before moving it to Shirakavan, some 25 km northeast of Ani, and then transferring it to Kars
Kars
in the year 929. In 961, king Ashot III
Ashot III
(953–77) transferred the capital from Kars
Kars
to Ani.[7] Ani expanded rapidly during the reign of King Smbat II
Smbat II
(977–89). In 992 the Armenian Catholicosate moved its seat to Ani. In the 10th century the population was perhaps 50,000–100,000.[20] By the start of the eleventh century the population of Ani
Ani
was well over 100,000,[citation needed] and its renown was such that it was known as the "city of forty gates" and the "city of a thousand and one churches." Ani
Ani
also became the site of the royal mausoleum of Bagratuni kings.[21] Ani
Ani
attained the peak of its power during the long reign of King Gagik I (989–1020). After his death his two sons quarreled over the succession. The eldest son, Hovhannes-Smbat
Hovhannes-Smbat
(1020–41), gained control of Ani
Ani
while his younger brother, Ashot IV (1020–40), controlled other parts of the Bagratuni kingdom. Hovhannes-Smbat, fearing that the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
would attack his now-weakened kingdom, made the Byzantine Emperor Basil II
Basil II
his heir.[22] When Hovhannes-Smbat
Hovhannes-Smbat
died in 1041, Emperor Michael IV the Paphlagonian, claimed sovereignty over Ani. The new king of Ani, Gagik II (1042–45), opposed this and several Byzantine armies sent to capture Ani
Ani
were repulsed. However, in 1046 Ani
Ani
surrendered to the Byzantines,[7] after Gagik was invited to Constantinople and detained there, and at the instigation of pro-Byzantine elements among its population. A Byzantine governor was installed in the city.[14] Cultural and economic center[edit]

Plan of the city

Ani
Ani
did not lie along any previously important trade routes, but because of its size, power, and wealth it became an important trading hub. Its primary trading partners were the Byzantine Empire, the Persian Empire, the Arabs, as well as smaller nations in southern Russia and Central Asia.[14] Gradual decline and abandonment[edit] In 1064, a large Seljuk army under Alp Arslan
Alp Arslan
attacked Ani; after a siege of 25 days, they captured the city and slaughtered its population.[6] An account of the sack and massacres in Ani
Ani
is given by the Arab historian Sibt ibn al-Jawzi, who quotes an eyewitness saying:

The army entered the city, massacred its inhabitants, pillaged and burned it, leaving it in ruins and taking prisoner all those who remained alive...The dead bodies were so many that they blocked the streets; one could not go anywhere without stepping over them. And the number of prisoners was not less than 50,000 souls. I was determined to enter city and see the destruction with my own eyes. I tried to find a street in which I would not have to walk over the corpses; but that was impossible.[23]

In 1072, the Seljuks sold Ani
Ani
to the Shaddadids, a Muslim Kurdish dynasty.[6] The Shaddadids generally pursued a conciliatory policy towards the city’s overwhelmingly Armenian and Christian population and actually married several members of the Bagratid nobility. Whenever the Shaddadid
Shaddadid
governance became too intolerant, however, the population would appeal to the Christian Kingdom of Georgia
Kingdom of Georgia
for help. The Georgians captured Ani
Ani
five times between 1124 and 1209:[7] in 1124, 1161, 1174, 1199, and 1209.[citation needed] The first three times, it was recaptured by the Shaddadids. In the year 1199, Georgia's Queen Tamar captured Ani
Ani
and gave the governorship of the city to the generals Zakare and Ivane.[24] They were succeeded by Zakare's son Shahanshah.[citation needed] Zakare's new dynasty—the Zakarids—considered themselves to be the successors to the Bagratids. Prosperity quickly returned to Ani; its defences were strengthened and many new churches were constructed. The Mongols unsuccessfully besieged Ani
Ani
in 1226, but in 1236 they captured and sacked the city, massacring large numbers of its population. Ani
Ani
had fallen when Shahanshah
Shahanshah
was absent. On his return the Zakarids continued to rule Ani, only now as vassals of the Mongols rather than the Georgians. By the 14th century, the city was ruled by a succession of local Turkish dynasties, including the Jalayrids and the Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
(Black Sheep clan) who made Ani
Ani
their capital. It was ruined by an earthquake in 1319.[6][7] Tamerlane captured Ani
Ani
in the 1380s. On his death the Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
regained control but transferred their capital to Yerevan. In 1441 the Armenian Catholicosate did the same. The Persian Safavids then ruled Ani
Ani
until it became part of the Turkish Ottoman Empire in 1579. A small town remained within its walls at least until the middle of the seventeenth century, but the site was entirely abandoned by 1735 when the last monks left the monastery in the Virgin's Fortress or Kizkale. Modern times[edit]

"Of true Armenian architecture the finest and most characteristic specimens are to be found in the ruined city of Ani..."

 —James Bryce, 1876[25]

In 1905–06, archaeological excavations of the church of Saint Gregory of King Gagik were undertaken, headed by Nikolai Marr.

In the first half of the 19th century, European travelers discovered Ani
Ani
for the outside world, publishing their descriptions in academic journals and travel accounts. The private buildings were little more than heaps of stones but grand public buildings and the city's double wall were preserved and reckoned to present "many points of great architectural beauty".[6] Ohannes Kurkdjian
Ohannes Kurkdjian
produced stereoscopic image of Ani
Ani
in the 2nd half of the 19th century. In 1878, the Ottoman Empire's Kars
Kars
region—including Ani—was incorporated into the Russian Empire's Transcaucasian region.[7] In 1892 the first archaeological excavations were conducted at Ani, sponsored by the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences
St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences
and supervised by the Georgian archaeologist and orientalist Nicholas Marr (1864–1934). Marr's excavations at Ani
Ani
resumed in 1904 and continued yearly until 1917. Large sectors of the city were professionally excavated, numerous buildings were uncovered and measured, the finds were studied and published in academic journals, guidebooks for the monuments and the museum were written, and the whole site was surveyed for the first time.[26] Emergency repairs were also undertaken on those buildings that were most at risk of collapse. A museum was established to house the tens of thousands of items found during the excavations. This museum was housed in two buildings: the Minuchihr mosque, and a purpose-built stone building.[27] Armenians
Armenians
from neighboring villages and towns also began to visit the city on a regular basis,[28] and there was even talk by Marr's team of building a school for educating the local Armenian children, building parks, and planting trees to beautify the site.[29] In 1918, during the latter stages of World War I, the armies of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
were fighting their way across the territory of the newly declared Republic of Armenia, capturing Kars
Kars
in April 1918. At Ani, attempts were made to evacuate the artifacts contained in the museum as Turkish soldiers were approaching the site. About 6000 of the most portable items were removed by archaeologist Ashkharbek Kalantar, a participant of Marr's excavation campaigns. At the behest of Joseph Orbeli, the saved items were consolidated into a museum collection; they are currently part of the collection of Yerevan's State Museum of Armenian History.[30] Everything that was left behind was later looted or destroyed.[31] Turkey's surrender at the end of World War I
World War I
led to the restoration of Ani
Ani
to Armenian control, but a resumed offensive against the Armenian Republic in 1920 resulted in Turkey's recapture of Ani. In 1921 the signing of the Treaty of Kars formalized the incorporation of the territory containing Ani
Ani
into the Republic of Turkey.[32] In May 1921, the government minister Rıza Nur ordered the commander of the Eastern Front, Kazım Karabekir, for the monuments of Ani
Ani
to "be wiped off the face of the earth."[33] Karabekir records in his memoirs that he has vigorously rejected this command and it has never been carried out,[34] but the wiping-out of all traces of Marr's excavations and building repairs suggests that the command was partially carried out.[35] Current state[edit] Today, according to Lonely Planet
Lonely Planet
and Frommer's travel guides to Turkey:

Official permission to visit Ani
Ani
is no longer needed. Just go to Ani and buy a ticket. If you don't have your own car, haggle with a taxi or minibus driver in Kars
Kars
for the round-trip to Ani, perhaps sharing the cost with other travelers. If you have trouble, the Tourist Office may help. Plan to spend at least a half-day at Ani. It's not a bad idea to bring a picnic lunch and a water bottle.[36]

According to The Economist, Armenians
Armenians
have "accused the Turks of neglecting the place in a spirit of chauvinism. The Turks retort that Ani's remains have been shaken by blasts from a quarry on the Armenian side of the border.[13] Another commentator said: Ani
Ani
is now a ghost city, uninhabited for over three centuries and marooned inside a Turkish military zone on Turkey's decaying closed border with the modern Republic of Armenia. Ani's recent history has been one of continuous and always increasing destruction. Neglect, earthquakes, cultural cleansing, vandalism, quarrying, amateurish restorations and excavations – all these and more have taken a heavy toll on Ani's monuments.[12] In the estimation of the Landmarks Foundation
Landmarks Foundation
(a non-profit organization established for the protection of sacred sites) this ancient city "needs to be protected regardless of whose jurisdiction it falls under. Earthquakes in 1319, 1832, and 1988, Army Target practice and general neglect all have had devastating effects on the architecture of the city. The city of Ani
Ani
is a sacred place which needs ongoing protection.[37]" Turkey's authorities now say they will do their best to conserve and develop the site and the culture ministry has listed Ani
Ani
among the sites it is keenest to conserve. In the words of Mehmet Ufuk Erden, the local governor: "By restoring Ani, we'll make a contribution to humanity...We will start with one church and one mosque, and over time we will include every single monument."[13] In an October 2010 report titled Saving Our Vanishing Heritage, Global Heritage Fund identified Ani
Ani
as one of 12 worldwide sites most "On the Verge" of irreparable loss and destruction, citing insufficient management and looting as primary causes.[38][39] The World Monuments Fund
World Monuments Fund
(WMF) placed Ani
Ani
on its 1996, 1998, and 2000 Watch Lists of 100 Most Endangered Sites. In May 2011, WMF announced it was beginning conservation work on the cathedral and Church of the Holy Redeemer in partnership with the Turkish Ministry of Culture.[40] In March 2015, it was reported that Turkey
Turkey
will nominate Ani
Ani
to be listed as a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
in 2016.[41] The archaeological site of Ani
Ani
was inscribed as a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
on July 15, 2016.[42] According to art historian Heghnar Zeitlian Watenpaugh the addition "would secure significant benefits in protection, research expertise, and funding."[43] Monuments at Ani[edit] All the structures at Ani
Ani
are constructed using the local volcanic basalt, a sort of tufa stone. It is easily carved and comes in a variety of vibrant colors, from creamy yellow, to rose-red, to jet black. The most important surviving monuments are as follows.

Cathedral of Ani

The Cathedral[edit] Main article: Cathedral of Ani Also known as Surp Asdvadzadzin (the Church of the Holy Mother of God), its construction was started in the year 989, under King Smbat II. Work was halted after his death, and was only finished in 1001 (or in 1010 under another reading of its building inscription). The design of the cathedral was the work of Trdat, the most celebrated architect of medieval Armenia. The cathedral is a domed basilica (the dome collapsed in 1319). The interior contains several progressive features (such as the use of pointed arches and clustered piers) that give to it the appearance of Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture
(a style which the Ani cathedral predates by several centuries).[44] Surp Stephanos Church[edit] There is no inscription giving the date of its construction, but an edict in Georgian is dated 1218. The church was referred to as "Georgian". During this period "Georgian" did not simply mean an ethnic Georgian, it had a denominational meaning and would have designated all those in Ani
Ani
who professed the Chalcedonian faith, mostly Armenians. Although the Georgian Church controlled this church, its congregation would have mostly been Armenians.[45] The church of St Gregory of Tigran Honents[edit] This church, finished in 1215, is the best-preserved monument at Ani. It was built during the rule of the Zakarids and was commissioned by the wealthy Armenian merchant Tigran Honents.[46] Its plan is of a type called a domed hall. In front of its entrance are the ruins of a narthex and a small chapel that are from a slightly later period. The exterior of the church is spectacularly decorated. Ornate stone carvings of real and imaginary animals fill the spandrels between blind arcade that runs around all four sides of the church. The interior contains an important and unique series of frescoes cycles that depict two main themes. In the eastern third of the church is depicted the Life of Saint Gregory the Illuminator, in the middle third of the church is depicted the Life of Christ. Such extensive fresco cycles are rare features in Armenian architecture – it is believed that these ones were executed by Georgian artists, and the cycle also includes scenes from the life of St. Nino, who converted the Georgians to Christianity. In the narthex and its chapel survive fragmentary frescoes that are more Byzantine in style.[47] The church of the Holy Redeemer[edit]

The Church of the Redeemer (Surb Prkich).

This church was completed shortly after the year 1035. It had a unique design: 19-sided externally, 8-apsed internally, with a huge central dome set upon a tall drum. It was built by Prince Ablgharib Pahlavid to house a fragment of the True Cross. The church was largely intact until 1955, when the entire eastern half collapsed during a storm.[48] The church of St Gregory of the Abughamrents[edit] This small building probably dates from the late 10th century. It was built as a private chapel for the Pahlavuni family. Their mausoleum, built in 1040 and now reduced to its foundations, was constructed against the northern side of the church. The church has a centralised plan, with a dome over a drum, and the interior has six exedera.[49] King Gagik's church of St Gregory[edit] Also known as the Gagikashen, this church was constructed between the years 1001 and 1005 and intended to be a recreation of the celebrated cathedral of Zvartnots at Vagharshapat. Nikolai Marr
Nikolai Marr
uncovered the foundations of this remarkable building in 1905 and 1906. Before that, all that was visible on the site was a huge earthen mound. The designer of the church was the architect Trdat. The church is known to have collapsed a relatively short time after its construction and houses were later constructed on top of its ruins. Trdat's design closely follows that of Zvartnotz in its size and in its plan (a quatrefoil core surrounded by a circular ambulatory).[50] The church of the Holy Apostles[edit] The date of its construction is not known, but the earliest dated inscription on its walls is from 1031. It was founded by the Pahlavuni family and was used by the archbishops of Ani
Ani
(many of whom belonged to that dynasty). It has a plan of a type called an inscribed quatrefoil with corner chambers. Only fragments remain of the church, but a narthex with spectacular stonework, built against the south side of the church, is still partially intact. It dates from the early 13th century. A number of other halls, chapels, and shrines once surrounded this church: Nicholas Marr
Nicholas Marr
excavated their foundations in 1909, but they are now mostly destroyed.[51]

Manuchihr Mosque west view

The mosque of Manuchihr[edit] The mosque is named after its presumed founder, Manuchihr, the first member of the Shaddadid
Shaddadid
dynasty that ruled Ani
Ani
after 1072. The oldest surviving part of the mosque is its still intact minaret. It has the Arabic word Bismillah ("In the name of God") in Kufic
Kufic
lettering high on its northern face. The prayer hall, half of which survives, dates from a later period (the 12th or 13th century). In 1906 the mosque was partially repaired in order for it to house a public museum containing objects found during Nicholas Marr's excavations.[52] The citadel[edit] At the southern end of Ani
Ani
is a flat-topped hill once known as Midjnaberd (the Inner Fortress). It has its own defensive walls that date back to the period when the Kamsarakan dynasty ruled Ani
Ani
(7th century AD). Nicholas Marr
Nicholas Marr
excavated the citadel hill in 1908 and 1909. He uncovered the extensive ruins of the palace of the Bagratid kings of Ani
Ani
that occupied the highest part of the hill. Also inside the citadel are the visible ruins of three churches and several unidentified buildings. One of the churches, the "church of the palace" is the oldest surviving church in Ani, dating from the 6th or 7th century. Marr undertook emergency repairs to this church, but most of it has now collapsed – probably during an earthquake in 1966.[53] The city walls[edit]

The walls of Ani
Ani
showing a defensive tower.

A line of walls that encircled the entire city defended Ani. The most powerful defences were along the northern side of the city, the only part of the site not protected by rivers or ravines. Here the city was protected by a double line of walls, the much taller inner wall studded by numerous large and closely spaced semicircular towers. Contemporary chroniclers wrote that King Smbat (977–989) built these walls. Later rulers strengthened Smbat's walls by making them substantially higher and thicker, and by adding more towers. Armenian inscriptions from the 12th and 13th century show that private individuals paid for some of these newer towers. The northern walls had three gateways, known as the Lion Gate, the Kars
Kars
Gate, and the Dvin Gate (also known as the Chequer-Board Gate because of a panel of red and black stone squares over its entrance).[54] Other monuments[edit] There are many other minor monuments at Ani. These include a convent known as the Virgins' chapel; a church used by Chalcedonian Armenians; the remains of a single-arched bridge over the Arpa river; the ruins of numerous oil-presses and several bath houses; the remains of a second mosque with a collapsed minaret; a palace that probably dates from the 13th century; the foundations of several other palaces and smaller residences; the recently excavated remains of several streets lined with shops; etc. Cave Village[edit] Directly outside of Ani, there was a settlement-zone carved into the cliffs. It may have served as "urban sprawl" when Ani
Ani
grew too large for its city walls. Today, goats and sheep take advantage of the caves' cool interiors. One highlight of this part of Ani
Ani
is a cave church with frescos on its surviving walls and ceiling. Gallery[edit]

1885 engraving showing the walls of Ani.

Church of St. Gregory of the Abughamrents; in the background is the citadel.

Saint Gregory of Tigran Honents, western side.

Saint Gregory of Tigran Honents, drum and dome.

Saint Gregory of Tigran Honents - frescoes on the southern wall: the Dormition.

Saint Gregory of Tigran Honents - frescoes.

Saint Gregory of Tigran Honents - frescoes.

Saint Gregory of Tigran Honents - frescoes on the northern wall: the Raising of Lazarus.

Fresco on the ceiling of a cave church (supposed tomb chapel of Tigran Honents) outside Ani.

Panorama[edit]

Panoramic view of north walls of Ani, April 2011.

In culture[edit] Ani
Ani
is one of the most popular female given names in Armenia.[55] Songs and poems have been written about Ani
Ani
and its past glory. "Tesnem Anin u nor mernem" (Տեսնեմ Անին ու նոր մեռնեմ, Let me see Ani
Ani
before I die) is a famous poem by Hovhannes Shiraz. It was turned into a song by Turkish-Armenian composer Cenk Taşkan.[56][57] Ara Gevorgyan's 1999 album of folk instrumental songs is titled Ani.[58] See also[edit]

Ani
Ani
security fence List of kings of Ani

References[edit]

Notes

Citations

^ Watenpaugh 2014, p. 531: "The nearest inhabited village is Ocaklı, a farming village with little infrastructure." ^ "Büyük Katedral (Fethiye Cami) - Kars". kulturportali.gov.tr (in Turkish). Adres: Ocaklı Köyü, Ani
Ani
Antik Kenti  ^ Hasratyan, Murad (2011). "Անիի ճարտարապետությունը [Architecture of Ani]". Patma-Banasirakan Handes
Patma-Banasirakan Handes
(3): 8. Դարպասի վերևի պատին Անի քաղաքի զինանշանն է՝ հովազի բարձրաքանդակով:  ^ "Անի". encyclopedia.am (in Armenian). Armenian Encyclopedia. Անիի զինանշանը` վազող հովազը  ^ Garsoïan, Nina G.; Taylor, Alice (1991), "Ani", in Kazhdan, Alexander, The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780195046526  External link in contribution= (help) ^ a b c d e f g  Baynes, T.S., ed. (1878), "Anni", Encyclopædia Britannica, 2 (9th ed.), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 72  ^ a b c d e f g h  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911), "Ani", Encyclopædia Britannica, 2 (11th ed.), Cambridge University Press, p. 47  ^ "ანისი [anisi]" (in Georgian). National Parliamentary Library of Georgia. Retrieved 4 November 2013.  ^ Ziflioğlu, Vercihan (14 April 2009). "Building a dialogue atop old ruins of Ani". Hürriyet. Archived from the original on July 12, 2016. The Turkish government’s practice of calling the town “Anı,” rather than Ani, in order to give it a more Turkish character...  ^ (in Armenian) Hakobyan, Tadevos. (1980). Անիի Պատմություն, Հնագույն Ժամանակներից մինչև 1045 թ. [The History of Ani, from Ancient Times Until 1045], vol. I. Yerevan: Yerevan
Yerevan
State University Press, pp. 214–217. ^ Not to confuse with the Binbirkilise/'1001 churches' near Karaman
Karaman
in modern Turkey' ^ a b Sim, Steven. "VirtualANI – Dedicated to the Deserted Medieval Armenian City of Ani". VirtualANI. Archived from the original on January 20, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2007.  ^ a b c "Ani, a Disputed City Haunted by History". The Economist. June 15, 2006.  ^ a b c d e f g Ghafadaryan, Karo (1974). "Անի [Ani]". Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia Volume I (in Armenian). Armenian Academy of Sciences. p. 407–412.  ^ a b c Panossian 2006, p. 60. ^ Mutafian, Claude. " Ani
Ani
after Ani: Eleventh to Seventeenth Centuries", in Armenian Kars
Kars
and Ani, ed. Richard G. Hovannisian, Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 2011, pp. 163-64. ^ Vanadzin, Katie (29 January 2015). "Recent Publication Highlights Complexities of Uncovering the History of the Medieval City of Ani". Armenian Weekly. As Watenpaugh explains, “ Ani
Ani
is so symbolic, so central for Armenians, as a religious site, as a cultural site, as a national heritage symbol, a symbol of nationhood.”  ^ Whittow, Mark (1996). The Making of Byzantium, 600–1025. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 213–214. ISBN 978-0-520-20497-3.  ^ Garsoian, Nina. "The Arab Invasions and the Rise of the Bagratuni (649–684)" in The Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I, The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century, ed. Richard G. Hovannisian. New York: St Martin's Press, 1997, p. 146. ISBN 978-0-312-10169-5 ^ Redgate, Anne Elizabeth. The Armenians. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1998, p. 210. ^ Manuk-Khaloyan, Armen, "In the Cemetery of their Ancestors: The Royal Burial Tombs of the Bagratuni Kings of Greater Armenia (890-1073/79)", Revue des Études Arméniennes
Revue des Études Arméniennes
35 (2013): 147-155. ^ Whittow. Making of Byzantium, p. 383. ^ Quoted in Norwich, John Julius (1991). Byzantium: The Apogee. New York: Viking. pp. 342–343. ISBN 978-0-394-53779-5.  ^ Lordkipanidze, Mariam (1987). Georgia in the XI-XII Centuries. Tbilisi: Genatleba. p. 150.  ^ Bryce, James (1878). Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia
and Ararat: Being Notes of a Vacation Tour in Autumn of 1876 (3rd ed.). London: Macmillan and Co. p. 301.  ^ Kalantar, Ashkharbek, The Mediaeval Inscriptions of Vanstan, Armenia, Civilisations du Proche-Orient: Series 2 – Philologie – CDPOP 2, Vol. 2, Recherches et Publications, Neuchâtel, Paris, 1999; ISBN 978-2-940032-11-2 ^ Marr, Nicolas (2001). Ani
Ani
– Rêve d'Arménie. Anagramme Editions. ISBN 978-2-914571-00-5.  ^ Manuk-Khaloyan, Armen. "The God-Borne Days of Ani: A Revealing Look at the Former Medieval Armenian Capital of Armenia
Armenia
at the Turn of the 20th Century." Armenian Weekly. November 29, 2011. Retrieved March 30, 2012. ^ Hakobyan, Tadevos (1982). Անիի Պատմություն, 1045 թ. մինչև անկումն ու ամայացումը [The History of Ani, from 1045 Until its Collapse and Abandonment], vol. 2 (in Armenian). Yerevan: Yerevan
Yerevan
State University Press. pp. 368–386.  ^ Kalantar, Ashkharbek (1994). Armenia
Armenia
from the Stone Age to the Middle Ages. Recherches et Publications. ISBN 978-2-940032-01-3.  ^ Marr, Nikolai Y. "Ani, La Ville Arménniene en Ruines", Revue des Études Arméniennes. vol. 1 (original series), 1921. ^ (in Armenian) Zohrabyan, Edik A. (1979). Սովետական Ռուսաստանը և հայ-թուրքական հարաբերությունները, 1920–1922 թթ. [Soviet Russia and Armenian-Turkish Relations, 1920–1922]. Yerevan: Yerevan
Yerevan
State University Press, pp. 277–80. ^ Dadrian, Vahakn N. (1986). "The Role of Turkish Physicians in the World War I
World War I
Genocide of Ottoman Armenians". Holocaust and Genocide Studies. Oxford University Press. 1 (2): 192.  ^ Karabekir, Kazım (1960). Istiklal Harbimiz [Our War of Independence] (in Turkish). Istanbul: Türkiye Yayınevi. pp. 960–970.  ^ Sim, Steven. "The City of Ani: Recent History". VirtualANI. Archived from the original on January 26, 2007. Retrieved January 26, 2007.  ^ Brosnahan, Tom. "Ancient Armenian City of Ani". Turkey
Turkey
Travel Planner. Archived from the original on January 1, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2007.  ^ "SACRED SITE". Ani, Turkey. Landmarks Foundation. Archived from the original on May 26, 2008. Retrieved 22 January 2007.  ^ "Global Heritage in the Peril: Sites on the Verge". Global Heritage Fund. October 2010. Archived from the original on April 22, 2011. Retrieved June 3, 2011.  ^ John Roach (October 23, 2010). "Pictures: 12 Ancient Landmarks on Verge of Vanishing". National Geographic. Archived from the original on June 15, 2011. Retrieved June 3, 2011.  ^ "Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism and World Monuments Fund Collaborate on Historic Conservation Project in Eastern Turkey" (PDF). World Monuments Fund. May 2011. Retrieved November 17, 2011.  ^ "Work ongoing to put Ani
Ani
on UNESCO
UNESCO
heritage list". Hürriyet
Hürriyet
Daily News. 2 March 2015.  ^ "Five sites inscribed on UNESCO's World Heritage List". UNESCOPRESS. UNESCO. 15 July 2016.  ^ " Ani
Ani
Included on UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage List". Armenian Weekly. 15 July 2016.  ^ Sim, Steven. "The cathedral of Ani". VirtualANI. Archived from the original on January 20, 2007. Retrieved January 23, 2007.  ^ Sim, Steven. "THE GEORGIAN CHURCH". VirtualANI. Retrieved February 15, 2012.  ^ Coureas, Nicholas; Edbury, Peter; Walsh, Michael J.K. (2012). Medieval and Renaissance Famagusta : Studies in Architecture, Art and History. Farnham: Ashgate. p. 139. ISBN 1409435571.  ^ Sim, Steven. "The church of St. Gregory of Tigran Honents". VirtualANI. Retrieved January 23, 2007.  ^ Sim, Steven. "The church of the Redeemer". VirtualANI. Archived from the original on January 20, 2007. Retrieved January 23, 2007.  ^ Sim, Steven. "The church of St. Gregory of the Abughamir family". VirtualANI. Retrieved January 23, 2007.  ^ Sim, Steven. "King Gagik's church of St. Gregory". VirtualANI. Retrieved January 23, 2007.  ^ Sim, Steven. "Church of the Holy Apostles". VirtualANI. Archived from the original on February 16, 2007. Retrieved January 23, 2007.  ^ Sim, Steven. "The mosque of Minuchihr". VirtualANI. Archived from the original on January 20, 2007. Retrieved January 23, 2007.  ^ Sim, Steven. "The citadel of Ani". VirtualANI. Retrieved January 23, 2007.  ^ Sim, Steven. "The city walls of Ani". VirtualANI. Retrieved January 23, 2007.  ^ "Which are most common Armenian names?". News.am. 27 August 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2013.  ^ "Forums / Հայկական Երգերի Շտեմարան / Հայաստան - Կրթական Տեխնոլոգիաների Ազգային Կենտրոն". Ktak.am. Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved August 15, 2013.  ^ "'Ani', A Poem By Hovhannes Shiraz". Yerevan2012.org. 2012-02-16. Retrieved 2013-08-15.  ^ "Ani". Ara Gevorgyan Website. Retrieved 10 August 2013. 

Bibliography[edit]

General

Panossian, Razmik (2006). The Armenians: From Kings and Priests to Merchants and Commissars. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231139267. 

Specific

Watenpaugh, Heghnar Zeitlian (2014). "Preserving the Medieval City of Ani: Cultural Heritage between Contest and Reconciliation". Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. 73 (4): 528–555. doi:10.1525/jsah.2014.73.4.528. JSTOR 10.1525/jsah.2014.73.4.528. 

Further reading[edit]

Brosset, Marie-Félicité (1860–1861), Les Ruines d'Ani, Capital de l'Arménie sous les Rois Bagratides, aux Xe et XIe S, Histoire et Description, Ire Partie: Description, avec un Atlas de 24 Planches Lithographiées and IIe Partie: Histoire, avec un Atlas de 21 Planches Lithographiées, St Petersburg: Imperial Science Academy  External link in title= (help). (in French) Cowe, S. Peter (2001). Ani: World Architectural Heritage of a Medieval Armenian Capital. Sterling, Virginia: Peeters.  Hakobyan, Tadevos (1980–1982), Անիի Պատմություն, Հնագույն Ժամանակներից մինչև 1045 թ. [The History of Ani, from Ancient Times until 1045] and 1045 թ. մինչև անկումն ու ամայացումը [from 1045 until its Collapse and Abandonment], Yerevan: Yerevan
Yerevan
State University Press  (in Armenian) Kevorkian, Raymond (2001). Ani
Ani
– Capitale de l'Arménie en l'An Mil (in French).  Lynch, H.F.B. (1901). Armenia, Travels and Studies. London: Longmans. ISBN 1-4021-8950-8.  Marr, Nicolas Yacovlevich (2001). Ani
Ani
– Rêve d'Arménie (in French). Paris: Anagramme Editions.  Minorsky, Vladimir (1953). Studies in Caucasian History. ISBN 0-521-05735-3.  Paolo, Cuneo (1984). Documents of Armenian Architecture, Vol. 12: Ani.  Kalantar, Ashkharbek (1994). Armenia
Armenia
from the Stone Age to the Middle Ages.  Sinclair, Thomas Allen (1987). Eastern Turkey: An Architectural and Archeological Survey, Volume 1. London: Pindar Press. 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutAniat's sister projects

Media from Wikimedia Commons Travel guide from Wikivoyage

360 Degree Virtual Tour Ani
Ani
Armenian Cathedral – 360 Degree Virtual Tour Ani
Ani
Armenian Cathedral 360 Degree Virtual Tour Ani
Ani
Armenian Cathedral – 360 Degree Virtual Tour Ani
Ani
Armenian Cathedral Virtual Ani
Ani
– has clickable maps, extensive history and photos Photos of Ani World Monuments Fund/Turkish Ministry of Culture Ani
Ani
Cathedral conservation project World Monuments Fund/Turkish Ministry of Culture Church of the Holy Savior/Redeemer conservation project 400+ pictures of Ani "The Ancient Ghost City of Ani". The Atlantic. 24 January 2014.  - a gallery of 27 photos of Ani "The empire the world forgot". BBC. 15 March 2016. 

v t e

Historical capitals of Armenia

Tushpa
Tushpa
(832–590 BC) Armavir (331–210 BC) Yervandashat (210-176 BC) Artashat (176-77 BC and 69 BC-120 AD) Tigranakert (77-69 BC) Vagharshapat
Vagharshapat
(120-330) Dvin (336-428) Bagaran (885-890) Shirakavan (890-929) Kars
Kars
(929-961) Ani
Ani
(961-1045) Sis (1080-1375) Yerevan
Yerevan
(since 1918)

v t e

Ancient settlements in Turkey

Aegean

Aegae Aizanoi Alabanda Alinda Allianoi Amorium Amyzon Antioch
Antioch
on the Maeander Apamea in Phrygia Aphrodisias Apollonia in Mysia Apollonos Hieron Atarneus Aulai Bargylia Beycesultan Blaundus Caloe Caryanda Celaenae Ceramus Colophon Claros Cyme Didyma Dios Hieron Docimium Ephesus Erythrae Eucarpia Euromus Gambrion Gryneion Halicarnassus Hierapolis Iasos Karmylissos Kaunos Klazomenai Knidos Labraunda Laodicea on the Lycus Latmus Lebedus Leucae Limantepe Magnesia ad Sipylus Magnesia on the Maeander Metropolis Miletus Myndus Myriandrus Myrina Myus Notion Nysa on the Maeander Oenoanda Pepuza Pergamon Perperene Phocaea Pinara Pitane Priene Sardis Smyrna Stratonicea in Lydia Stratonicea in Caria Temnos Teos Tymion

Black Sea

Alaca Höyük Comana in the Pontus Euchaita Hattusa Heraclea Pontica Hüseyindede Tepe Ibora Laodicea Pontica Nerik Nicopolis Pompeiopolis Salatiwara Samuha Sapinuwa Tripolis Yazılıkaya Zaliche

Central Anatolia

Alişar Hüyük Binbirkilise Çatalhöyük Cotenna Derbe Dorylaeum Eudocia (Cappadocia) Eudocia (Phrygia) Gordium Heraclea Cybistra Irenopolis Kaman-Kalehöyük Kerkenes Kültepe
Kültepe
(Kanesh) Laodicea Combusta Meloë Mokissos Nyssa Pessinus Purushanda Tavium Tyana

Eastern Anatolia

Altıntepe Ani Cafer Höyük Melid Sugunia Tushpa

Marmara

Achilleion Aegospotami Ainos Alexandria Troas Apamea Myrlea Apollonia on the Rhyndax Apros Assos Byzantium Cardia Cebrene Chalcedon Charax Cius Cyzicus Drizipara/Drusipara Faustinopolis Germanicopolis Lamponeia Lampsacus Lygos Lysimachia Marpessos Neandreia Nicomedia Orestias Perinthos Sestos Sigeion Skepsis Troy
Troy
(Hisarlik)

Mediterranean

Acalissus Acarassus Alalakh Amelas Anazarbus Andriaca Antigonia Antioch
Antioch
on the Orontes Antioch
Antioch
of Pisidia Antiochia Lamotis Antioch
Antioch
on the Cragus Antioch
Antioch
on the Pyramis Antiphellus Aperlae Aphrodisias
Aphrodisias
of Cilicia Araxa Ariassos Arneae Arsinoe Arycanda Aspendos Bab al-Hawa Border Crossing Balbura Bubon Calynda Carallia Carmylessus Casae Castabala Cestrus Choma Cibyra Mikra Comama Comana in Cappadocia Comba Coracesium Corycus
Corycus
(Kızkalesi) Corydala Cremna Cyaneae Cyrrhus Dalisandus in Isauria Dalisandus in Pamphylia Dias Domuztepe Elaiussa Sebaste Emirzeli Epiphania Erymna Etenna Eudocia (Lycia) Eudocias (Pamphylia) Gagae Gözlükule Hacilar Idebessos Irenopolis Isba Issus Kandyba Karakabaklı Karatepe Kibyra Lebessus Limyra Lyrbe Magydus Mallus Mamure Castle Mastaura Meloë Mezgitkale Mopsuestia Myra Nisa Olba Olympos Öküzlü Orokenda Patara Perga Phaselis Phellus Podalia Rhodiapolis Rhosus Sagalassos Seleucia in Pamphylia Seleucia Pieria Seleucia Sidera Selge Side Sidyma Sillyon Simena Sinda Soli Sozopolis Syedra Tapureli Tell Tayinat Telmessos Telmessos
Telmessos
(Caria) Termessos Tlos Trebenna Xanthos Yanıkhan Yumuktepe

Southeastern Anatolia

Antioch
Antioch
in the Taurus Antioch
Antioch
in Mesopotamia Apamea on the Euphrates Carchemish Urshu Khashshum Çayönü Dara Edessa Göbekli Tepe Harran Kussara Nevalı Çori Sakçagözü Sam'al Samosata Sareisa Seleucia at the Zeugma Sultantepe Tille Tushhan Zeugma

v t e

UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites in Turkey

Aegean

Aphrodisias Ephesus Hierapolis
Hierapolis
/ Pamukkale Pergamon Xanthos
Xanthos
/ Letoon1

Black Sea

Hittite Capital of Hattusa Safranbolu

Central Anatolia

Göreme
Göreme
and Rock Sites of Cappadocia Neolithic Site of Çatalhöyük Divriği Great Mosque and Hospital

East Anatolia

Historic city of Ani

Marmara

Archaeological Site of Troy Bursa
Bursa
and Cumalıkızık Historic Areas of Istanbul Selimiye Mosque
Selimiye Mosque
and its Social Complex

Mediterranean

Xanthos
Xanthos
/ Letoon1

Southeastern Anatolia

Mount Nemrut
Mount Nemrut
in Commagene Diyarbakır Fortress
Diyarbakır Fortress
and Hevsel Gardens

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