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Coordinates: 12°30′S 18°30′E / 12.500°S 18.500°E / -12.500; 18.500

Republic
Republic
of Angola República de Angola  (Portuguese)

Flag

Emblem

Motto: 

Virtus Unita Fortior  (Latin) (English: "Virtue is stronger when united")

Anthem:  Angola
Angola
Avante Onwards Angola

Location of  Angola  (dark blue) in the African Union  (light blue)

Capital and largest city Luanda 8°50′S 13°20′E / 8.833°S 13.333°E / -8.833; 13.333

Official languages Portuguese

Co-official languages

Kikongo Kimbundu Umbundu

Ethnic groups (2000) 36% Ovimbundu 25% Ambundu 13% Bakongo 22% other African 2% Mestiço 1% Chinese 1% European

Demonym Angolan

Government Unitary dominant-party presidential constitutional republic

• President

João Manuel Gonçalves Lourenço

• Vice President

Bornito de Sousa

Legislature National Assembly

Formation

• Portuguese colonization

1575

• Independence from Portugal, under Communist rule

11 November 1975

•  United Nations
United Nations
full membership

22 November 1976

• Current constitution

21 January 2010

Area

• Total

1,246,700 km2 (481,400 sq mi) (22nd)

• Water (%)

negligible

Population

• 2014 census

25,789,024[1]

• Density

20.69/km2 (53.6/sq mi) (199th)

GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate

• Total

$193.935 billion[2] (64th)

• Per capita

$6,881[2] (107th)

GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate

• Total

$122.365 billion[2] (61st)

• Per capita

$4,342[2] (91st)

Gini (2009) 42.7[3] medium

HDI (2015)  0.564[4] medium · 150th

Currency Kwanza (AOA)

Time zone WAT (UTC+1)

Drives on the right

Calling code +244

ISO 3166 code AO

Internet TLD .ao

Angola
Angola
(/æŋˈɡoʊlə/), officially the Republic
Republic
of Angola (Portuguese: República de Angola
Angola
pronounced [ɐ̃ˈɡɔlɐ]; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Umbundu: Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa. It is the seventh-largest country in Africa, bordered by Namibia
Namibia
to the south, the Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo to the north, Zambia
Zambia
to the east, and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west. The exclave province of Cabinda borders the Republic
Republic
of the Congo and the Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo. The capital and largest city of Angola
Angola
is Luanda. Although inhabited since the Paleolithic Era, what is now Angola
Angola
was molded by Portuguese colonisation. It began with, and was for centuries limited to, coastal settlements and trading posts established starting in the 16th century. In the 19th century, European settlers slowly and hesitantly began to establish themselves in the interior. The Portuguese colony that became Angola
Angola
did not have its present borders until the early 20th century because of resistance by groups such as the Cuamato, the Kwanyama and the Mbunda. After a protracted anti-colonial struggle, independence was achieved in 1975 as the Marxist-Leninist
Marxist-Leninist
People's Republic
Republic
of Angola, a one-party state supported by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Cuba. The civil war between the ruling People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) and the insurgent anti-communist National Union for the Total Independence of Angola
Angola
(UNITA), supported by the United States
United States
and apartheid South Africa, lasted until 2002. It has since become a relatively stable unitary presidential republic. Angola
Angola
has vast mineral and petroleum reserves, and its economy is among the fastest-growing in the world, especially since the end of the civil war; however the standard of living remains low for most of the population, and life expectancy in Angola
Angola
is among the lowest in the world, while infant mortality is among the highest.[5] Angola's economic growth is highly uneven, with most of the nation's wealth concentrated in a disproportionately small sector of the population.[6] Angola
Angola
is a member state of the United Nations, OPEC, African Union, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, and the Southern African Development Community. A highly multiethnic country, Angola's 25.8 million people span tribal groups, customs, and traditions. Angolan culture reflects centuries of Portuguese rule, in the predominance of the Portuguese language
Portuguese language
and of the Catholic Church.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Early migrations and political units 2.2 Portuguese colonisation 2.3 Rise of Angolan nationalism 2.4 Civil war 2.5 Ceasefire with UNITA

3 Geography 4 Climate 5 Politics

5.1 Armed forces 5.2 Police 5.3 Justice 5.4 Foreign relations 5.5 Human rights

6 Administrative divisions

6.1 Exclave
Exclave
of Cabinda

7 Economy

7.1 Agriculture 7.2 Transport 7.3 Telecommunications 7.4 Technology

8 Demographics

8.1 Languages 8.2 Religion 8.3 Largest cities

9 Culture 10 Health 11 Education 12 Sports 13 See also 14 Notes 15 References 16 External links

Etymology[edit] The name Angola
Angola
comes from the Portuguese colonial name Reino de Angola
Angola
(Kingdom of Angola), which appeared as early as Dias de Novais's 1571 charter.[7] The toponym was derived by the Portuguese from the title ngola held by the kings of Ndongo. Ndongo
Ndongo
in the highlands, between the Kwanza and Lukala Rivers, was nominally a possession of the Kingdom of Kongo, but was seeking greater independence in the 16th century. History[edit] Main article: History of Angola Early migrations and political units[edit]

Territory comprising Kingdom of Ndongo, present-day Angola

Modern Angola
Angola
was populated predominantly by nomadic Khoi
Khoi
and San prior to the first Bantu migrations. The Khoi
Khoi
and San peoples were neither pastoralists nor cultivators, but hunter-gatherers.[8] They were displaced by Bantu peoples
Bantu peoples
arriving from the north, most of whom likely originated in what is today northwestern Nigeria
Nigeria
and southern Niger.[9] Bantu speakers introduced the cultivation of bananas and taro, as well as large cattle herds, to Angola's central highlands and the Luanda
Luanda
plain.[10] To its south lay the Kingdom of Ndongo, from which the area of the later Portuguese colony was sometimes known as Dongo.[11] Portuguese colonisation[edit] Main articles: Colonial history of Angola and Portuguese Angola

Queen Nzinga
Queen Nzinga
in peace negotiations with the Portuguese governor in Luanda, 1657.

Portuguese explorer Diogo Cão
Diogo Cão
reached the area in 1484.[11] The previous year, the Portuguese had established relations with the Kongo, which stretched at the time from modern Gabon
Gabon
in the north to the Kwanza River in the south. The Portuguese established their primary early trading post at Soyo, which is now the northernmost city in Angola
Angola
apart from the Cabinda exclave. Paulo Dias de Novais founded São Paulo de Loanda (Luanda) in 1575 with a hundred families of settlers and four hundred soldiers. Benguela
Benguela
was fortified in 1587 and became a township in 1617. The Portuguese established several other settlements, forts and trading posts along the Angolan coast, principally trading in Angolan slaves for Brazilian plantations. Local slave dealers provided a large number of slaves for the Portuguese Empire,[12] usually in exchange for manufactured goods from Europe.[13][14] This part of the Atlantic slave trade
Atlantic slave trade
continued until after Brazil's independence in the 1820s.[15] Despite Portugal's territorial claims in Angola, its control over much of the country's vast interior was minimal.[11] In the 16th century Portugal
Portugal
gained control of the coast through a series of treaties and wars. Life for European colonists was difficult and progress slow. John Iliffe notes that "Portuguese records of Angola
Angola
from the 16th century show that a great famine occurred on average every seventy years; accompanied by epidemic disease, it might kill one-third or one-half of the population, destroying the demographic growth of a generation and forcing colonists back into the river valleys".[16]

An illustration depicting Portuguese encounter with Kongo Royal family.

During the Portuguese Restoration War, the Dutch West India Company occupied the principal settlement of Luanda
Luanda
in 1641, using alliances with local peoples to carry out attacks against Portuguese holdings elsewhere.[15] A fleet under Salvador de Sá
Salvador de Sá
retook Luanda
Luanda
in 1648; reconquest of the rest of the territory was completed by 1650. New treaties with the Kongo were signed in 1649; others with Njinga's Kingdom of Matamba
Matamba
and Ndongo
Ndongo
followed in 1656. The conquest of Pungo Andongo in 1671 was the last major Portuguese expansion from Luanda, as attempts to invade Kongo in 1670 and Matamba
Matamba
in 1681 failed. Colonial outposts also expanded inward from Benguela, but until the late 19th century the inroads from Luanda
Luanda
and Benguela
Benguela
were very limited.[11] Hamstrung by a series of political upheavals in the early 1800s, Portugal
Portugal
was slow to mount a large scale annexation of Angolan territory.[15] The slave trade was abolished in Angola
Angola
in 1836, and in 1854 the colonial government freed all its existing slaves.[15] Four years later, a more progressive administration appointed by Lisbon abolished slavery altogether. However, these decrees remained largely unenforceable, and the Portuguese depended on assistance from the British Royal Navy
Royal Navy
to enforce their ban on the slave trade.[15] This coincided with a series of renewed military expeditions into the hinterland. By the mid-nineteenth century Portugal
Portugal
had established its dominion as far east as the Congo River
Congo River
and as far south as Mossâmedes.[15] Until the late 1880s, Lisbon entertained proposals to link Angola
Angola
with its colony in Mozambique
Mozambique
but was blocked by British and Belgian opposition.[17] In this period, the Portuguese came up against different forms of armed resistance from various peoples in Angola.[18] The Berlin Conference
Berlin Conference
in 1884–1885 set the colony's borders, delineating the boundaries of Portuguese claims in Angola,[17] although many details were unresolved until the 1920s.[19] Trade between Portugal
Portugal
and her African territories also rapidly increased as a result of protective tariffs, leading to increased development, and a wave of new Portuguese immigrants.[17] Rise of Angolan nationalism[edit] Main articles: Angolan War of Independence
Angolan War of Independence
and Portuguese Colonial War

Portuguese troops on patrol during the Portuguese Colonial War.

Under colonial law, black Angolans were forbidden from forming political parties or labour unions.[20] The first nationalist movements did not take root until after World War II, spearheaded by a largely Westernised, Portuguese-speaking urban class which included many mestiços.[21] During the early 1960s they were joined by other associations stemming from ad hoc labour activism in the rural workforce.[20] Portugal's refusal to address increasing Angolan demands for self-determination provoked an armed conflict which erupted in 1961 with the Baixa de Cassanje revolt and gradually evolved into a protracted war of independence that persisted for the next twelve years.[22] Throughout the conflict, three militant nationalist movements with their own partisan guerrilla wings emerged from the fighting between the Portuguese government and local forces, supported to varying degrees by the Portuguese Communist Party.[21][23] The National Front for the Liberation of Angola
Angola
(FNLA) recruited from Bakongo
Bakongo
refugees in Zaire.[24] Benefiting from particularly favourable political circumstances in Léopoldville, and especially from a common border with Zaire, Angolan political exiles were able to build up a power base among a large expatriate community from related families, clans, and traditions.[25] People on both sides of the border spoke mutually intelligible dialects and enjoyed shared ties to the historical Kingdom of Kongo.[25] Though as foreigners skilled Angolans could not take advantage of Mobutu Sese Seko's state employment programme, some found work as middlemen for the absentee owners of various lucrative private ventures. The migrants eventually formed the FNLA
FNLA
with the intention of making a bid for political power upon their envisaged return to Angola.[25] A largely Ovimbundu
Ovimbundu
guerrilla initiative against the Portuguese in central Angola
Angola
from 1966 was spearheaded by Jonas Savimbi
Jonas Savimbi
and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola
National Union for the Total Independence of Angola
(UNITA).[24] It remained handicapped by its geographic remoteness from friendly borders, the ethnic fragmentation of the Ovimbundu, and the isolation of peasants on European plantations where they had little opportunity to mobilise.[25]

FNLA
FNLA
insurgents being trained in Zaire
Zaire
in 1973

During the late 1950s, the rise of the Marxist-Leninist
Marxist-Leninist
Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola
Angola
(MPLA) in the east and Dembos hills north of Luanda
Luanda
came to hold special significance. Formed as a coalition resistance movement by the Angolan Communist Party,[22] the organisation's leadership remained predominantly Ambundu
Ambundu
and courted public sector workers in Luanda.[24] Although both the MPLA
MPLA
and its rivals accepted material assistance from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
or the People's Republic
Republic
of China, the former harboured strong anti-imperialist views and was openly critical of the United States and its support for Portugal.[23] This allowed it to win important ground on the diplomatic front, soliciting support from nonaligned governments in Morocco, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, and the United Arab Republic.[22] The MPLA
MPLA
attempted to move its headquarters from Conakry
Conakry
to Léopoldville in October 1961, renewing efforts to create a common front with the FNLA, then known as the Union of Angolan Peoples (UPA) and its leader Holden Roberto. Roberto turned down the offer.[22] When the MPLA
MPLA
first attempted to insert its own insurgents into Angola, the cadres were ambushed and annihilated by UPA partisans on Roberto's orders—setting a precedent for the bitter factional strife which would later ignite the Angolan Civil War.[22] Civil war[edit] Main article: Angolan Civil War Further information: Alvor Agreement
Alvor Agreement
and Cuban intervention in Angola

Monument to the memory of Agostinho Neto
Agostinho Neto
and Angolan independence, in Luanda

Throughout the war of independence, the three rival nationalist movements were severely hampered by political and military factionalism, as well as their inability to unite guerrilla efforts against the Portuguese.[26] Between 1961 and 1975 the MPLA, UNITA, and the FNLA
FNLA
competed for influence in the Angolan population and the international community.[26] The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Cuba
Cuba
became especially sympathetic towards the MPLA
MPLA
and supplied that party with arms, ammunition, funding, and training.[26] They also backed UNITA militants until it became clear that the latter was at irreconcilable odds with the MPLA.[27] The collapse of Portugal's Estado Novo government following the 1974 Carnation Revolution
Carnation Revolution
suspended all Portuguese military activity in Africa
Africa
and the brokering of a ceasefire pending negotiations for Angolan independence.[26] Encouraged by the Organisation of African Unity, Holden Roberto, Jonas Savimbi, and MPLA
MPLA
chairman Agostinho Neto met in Mombasa
Mombasa
in early January 1975 and agreed to form a coalition government.[28] This was ratified by the Alvor Agreement
Alvor Agreement
later that month, which called for general elections and set the country's independence date for 11 November 1975.[28] All three factions, however, followed up on the ceasefire by taking advantage of the gradual Portuguese withdrawal to seize various strategic positions, acquire more arms, and enlarge their militant forces.[28] The rapid influx of weapons from numerous external sources, especially the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the United States, as well as the escalation of tensions between the nationalist parties, fueled a new outbreak of hostilities.[28] With tacit American and Zairean support the FNLA began massing large numbers of troops in northern Angola
Angola
in an attempt to gain military superiority.[26] Meanwhile, the MPLA
MPLA
began securing control of Luanda, a traditional Ambundu
Ambundu
stronghold.[26] Sporadic violence broke out in Luanda
Luanda
over the next few months after the FNLA attacked MPLA
MPLA
forces in March 1975.[28] The fighting intensified with street clashes in April and May, and UNITA
UNITA
became involved after over two hundred of its members were massacred by an MPLA
MPLA
contingent that June.[28] An upswing in Soviet arms shipments to the MPLA
MPLA
influenced a decision by the Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
to likewise provide substantial covert aid to the FNLA
FNLA
and UNITA.[29] In August 1975, the MPLA
MPLA
requested direct assistance from the Soviet Union in the form of ground troops.[29] The Soviets declined, offering to send advisers but no troops; however, Cuba
Cuba
was more forthcoming and in late September dispatched nearly five hundred combat personnel to Angola, along with sophisticated weaponry and supplies.[27] By independence there were over a thousand Cuban soldiers in the country.[29] They were kept supplied by a massive airbridge carried out with Soviet aircraft.[29] The persistent buildup of Cuban and Soviet military aid allowed the MPLA
MPLA
to drive its opponents from Luanda
Luanda
and blunt an abortive intervention by Zairean and South African troops, which had deployed in a belated attempt to assist the FNLA
FNLA
and UNITA.[28] The FNLA
FNLA
was largely annihilated, although UNITA
UNITA
managed to withdraw its civil officials and militia from Luanda
Luanda
and seek sanctuary in the southern provinces.[26] From there, Savimbi continued to mount a determined insurgent campaign against the MPLA.[29]

An MPLA
MPLA
staff car burns after being destroyed in the fighting outside Novo Redondo (present day Sumbe) in late 1975.

Between 1975 and 1991, the MPLA
MPLA
implemented an economic and political system based on the principles of scientific socialism, incorporating central planning and a Marxist–Leninist
Marxist–Leninist
one-party state.[30] It embarked on an ambitious programme of nationalisation, and the domestic private sector was essentially abolished.[30] Privately owned enterprises were nationalised and incorporated into a single umbrella of state-owned enterprises known as Unidades Economicas Estatais (UEE).[30] Under the MPLA, Angola
Angola
experienced a significant degree of modern industrialisation.[30] However, corruption and graft also increased and public resources were either allocated inefficiently or simply embezzled by officials for personal enrichment.[31] The ruling party survived an attempted coup d'état by the Maoist-oriented Communist Organisation of Angola
Angola
(OCA) in 1977, which was suppressed after a series of bloody political purges left thousands of OCA supporters dead.[32] The MPLA
MPLA
abandoned its former Marxist ideology at its third party congress in 1990, and declared social democracy to be its new platform.[32] Angola
Angola
subsequently became a member of the International Monetary Fund; restrictions on the market economy were also reduced in an attempt to draw foreign investment.[33] By May 1991 it reached a peace agreement with UNITA, the Bicesse Accords, which scheduled new general elections for September 1992.[33] When the MPLA
MPLA
secured a major electoral victory, UNITA
UNITA
objected to the results of both the presidential and legislative vote count and returned to war.[33] Following the election, the Halloween massacre occurred from October 30 to November 1, where MPLA
MPLA
forces killed thousands of UNITA supporters.[34] Ceasefire with UNITA[edit] Main article: 2000s in Angola

  Cabinda Province    Republic
Republic
of the Congo   Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo   The rest of Angola

On 22 March 2002, Jonas Savimbi
Jonas Savimbi
was killed in action against government troops. UNITA
UNITA
and the MPLA
MPLA
reached a cease-fire shortly afterwards. UNITA
UNITA
gave up its armed wing and assumed the role of a major opposition party. Although the political situation of the country began to stabilise, regular democratic processes did not prevail until the elections in Angola
Angola
in 2008 and 2012 and the adoption of a new constitution in 2010, all of which strengthened the prevailing dominant-party system. Angola
Angola
has a serious humanitarian crisis; the result of the prolonged war, of the abundance of minefields, of the continued political (and to a much lesser degree) military activities in favour of the independence of the exclave of Cabinda (carried out in the context of the protracted Cabinda Conflict
Cabinda Conflict
by the Frente para a Libertação do Enclave de Cabinda, (FLEC)), but most of all, by the depredation of the country's rich mineral resources by the régime.[citation needed] While most of the internally displaced have now settled around the capital, in the so-called musseques, the general situation for Angolans remains desperate.[35][36] Drought
Drought
in 2016 caused the worst food crisis in Southern Africa
Southern Africa
in 25 years. Drought
Drought
affected 1.4 million people across seven of Angola's 18 provinces. Food prices rose and acute malnutrition rates doubled, with more than 95,000 children affected. Food insecurity
Food insecurity
was expected[by whom?] to worsen from July to December 2016.[37] Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Angola At 1,246,620 km2 (481,321 sq mi),[38] Angola
Angola
is the world's twenty-third largest country. It is comparable in size to Mali, or twice the size of France
France
or Texas. It lies mostly between latitudes 4° and 18°S, and longitudes 12° and 24°E. Angola
Angola
is bordered by Namibia
Namibia
to the south, Zambia
Zambia
to the east, the Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo to the north-east and the South Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west. The coastal exclave of Cabinda in the north, borders the Republic
Republic
of the Congo to the north, and the Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo to the south.[39] Angola's capital, Luanda, lies on the Atlantic coast in the northwest of the country.

Geography of Angola

Coatinha beach in Benguela.

Miradouro da Lua on the south coast of Luanda.

Epupa Falls, Cunene River
Cunene River
on the border of Angola
Angola
and Namibia.

Black Stones of Pungo Adongo near Malage, Angola.

Topographic map of Angola.

Climate[edit] Main article: Climate of Angola

Angola
Angola
map of Köppen climate classification.

Angola, although located in a tropical zone, has a climate that is not characterized for this region, due to the confluence of three factors:

The Benguela
Benguela
Current, cold, along the southern part of the coast; The relief in the interior; Influence of the Namib Desert
Namib Desert
in the southwest.

As a result, Angola's climate is characterized by two seasons: rainfall from October to April and drought, known as Cacimbo, from May to August, drier, as the name implies, and with lower temperatures. On the other hand, while the coastline has high rainfall rates, decreasing from North to South and from 800 mm to 50 mm, with average annual temperatures above 23 °C, the interior zone can be divided into three areas:

North, with high rainfall and high temperatures; Central Plateau, with a dry season and average temperatures of the order of 19 °C; South with very high thermal amplitudes due to the proximity of the Kalahari Desert
Kalahari Desert
and the influence of masses of tropical air.[40][41]

Politics[edit] Main article: Politics of Angola See also: Elections in Angola, Constitution of Angola, List of political parties in Angola, Foreign relations of Angola, and List of diplomatic missions of Angola

José Eduardo dos Santos
José Eduardo dos Santos
meets with Vladimir Putin.

The National Assembly building in Luanda
Luanda
was built by a Portuguese company in 2013 at a cost of US$185 million

The Angolan government is composed of three branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial. The executive branch of the government is composed of the President, the Vice-Presidents and the Council of Ministers. The legislative branch comprises a 220-seat unicameral legislature elected from both provincial and nationwide constituencies. For decades, political power has been concentrated in the presidency. The Constitution of 2010 establishes the broad outlines of government structure and delineates the rights and duties of citizens. The legal system is based on Portuguese law and customary law but is weak and fragmented, and courts operate in only 12 of more than 140 municipalities.[42] A Supreme Court serves as the appellate tribunal; a Constitutional Court does not hold the powers of judicial review.[43] Governors of the 18 provinces are appointed by the president. After the end of the civil war the regime came under pressure from within as well as from the international community to become more democratic and less authoritarian. Its reaction was to implement a number of changes without substantially changing its character.[44] Angola
Angola
is classified as 'not free' by Freedom House
Freedom House
in the Freedom in the World 2014 report.[45] The report noted that the August 2012 parliamentary elections, in which the ruling Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola
Angola
won more than 70% of the vote, suffered from serious flaws, including outdated and inaccurate voter rolls.[45] Voter turnout dropped from 80% in 2008 to 60%.[45] Angola
Angola
scored poorly on the 2013 Ibrahim Index of African Governance. It was ranked 39 out of 52 sub-Saharan African countries, scoring particularly badly in the areas of participation and human rights, sustainable economic opportunity and human development. The Ibrahim Index uses a number of variables to compile its list which reflects the state of governance in Africa.[46]

José Eduardo dos Santos, second President of Angola
President of Angola
from 1979 to 2017.

The new constitution, adopted in 2010, did away with presidential elections, introducing a system in which the president and the vice-president of the political party that wins the parliamentary elections automatically become president and vice-president. Directly or indirectly, the president controls all other organs of the state, so there is de facto no separation of powers.[47] In the classifications used in constitutional law, this government falls under the category of authoritarian regime. [48] On 16 October 2014, Angola
Angola
was elected for the second time as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council, with 190 favourable votes out of 193. The mandate began on 1 January 2015 and lasts for two years.[49] Also that month, the country took on the leadership of the African ministers and governors at the International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
and the World Bank, following debates at the annual meetings of both entities.[50] Since January 2014 the Republic
Republic
of Angola
Angola
has held the rotating presidency of the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region (ICGLR).[51] In 2015, the executive secretary of ICGLR, Ntumba Luaba, called Angola
Angola
an example to be followed because of the significant progress it made over the 12 years of peace, particularly in terms of socioeconomic and political-military stability.[52] After 38 years of rule, in 2017 President dos Santos stepped down from MPLA
MPLA
leadership.[53] The leader of the winning party at the parliamentary elections in August 2017 become the next president of Angola. The MPLA
MPLA
selected Defense Minister General João Lourenço
João Lourenço
and won the election.[54] In what has been described as a political purge[55][by whom?] to cement his power and reduce the influence of the Dos Santos family, Lourenço subsequently sacked the chief of the national police, Ambrósio de Lemos, and the head of the intelligence service, Apolinário José Pereira. Both are considered allies of former president Dos Santos.[56] He also removed Isabel Dos Santos, daughter of the former president, as head of the country's state oil company Sonangol.[57] Armed forces[edit] Main article: Angolan Armed Forces

Angolan Air Force Ilyushin Il-76TD Karpezo-1

Angolan Army
Angolan Army
training in Russia. From left to right, the ranks of the men are Second Lieutenant, First Lieutenant, and Captain.

The Angolan Armed Forces
Angolan Armed Forces
(AAF) is headed by a Chief of Staff who reports to the Minister of Defence. There are three divisions—the Army (Exército), Navy (Marinha de Guerra, MGA) and National Air Force (Força Aérea Nacional, FAN). Total manpower is about 110,000.[citation needed] Its equipment includes Russian-manufactured fighters, bombers and transport planes. There are also Brazilian-made EMB-312 Tucanos for training, Czech-made L-39s for training and bombing, and a variety of western-made aircraft such as the C-212Aviocar, Sud Aviation Alouette III, etc. A small number of AAF personnel are stationed in the Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo (Kinshasa) and the Republic
Republic
of the Congo (Brazzaville). Police[edit] The National Police departments are Public Order, Criminal Investigation, Traffic and Transport, Investigation and Inspection of Economic Activities, Taxation and Frontier Supervision, Riot Police and the Rapid Intervention Police. The National Police are in the process of standing up an air wing,[when?] to provide helicopter support for operations. The National Police are developing their criminal investigation and forensic capabilities. The force has an estimated 6,000 patrol officers, 2,500 taxation and frontier supervision officers, 182 criminal investigators and 100 financial crimes detectives and around 90 economic activity inspectors.[citation needed] The National Police have implemented a modernisation and development plan to increase the capabilities and efficiency of the total force. In addition to administrative reorganisation, modernisation projects include procurement of new vehicles, aircraft and equipment, construction of new police stations and forensic laboratories, restructured training programmes and the replacement of AKM rifles with 9 mm Uzis for officers in urban areas. Justice[edit] A Supreme Court serves as a court of appeal. The Constitutional Court is the supreme body of the constitutional jurisdiction, its Organic Law was approved by Law no. 2/08, of June 17, and its first task was the validation of the candidacies of the political parties to the legislative elections of 5 September 2008. The legal system is based on Portuguese and customary laws, but it is weak and fragmented. There are only 12 courts in more than 140 counties in the country. A Supreme Court serves as a court of appeal. With the approval of Law no. 2/08, of June 17 – Organic Law of the Constitutional Court and Law n. 3/08, of June 17 – Organic Law of the Constitutional Process, the Legal Creation of the Constitutional Court. Thus, on June 25, 2008, the Constitutional Court was institutionalized and its Judicial Counselors assumed the position before the President of the Republic. On this date, seven advisory judges took office, four men and three women. In 2014, a new penal code took effect in Angola. The classification of money-laundering as a crime is one of the novelties in the new legislation.[58] Foreign relations[edit]

Diplomatic missions of Angola.

On 16 October 2014, Angola
Angola
was elected for the second time a non-permanent member of the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council, with 190 favorable votes out of a total of 193. The term of office begins on 1 January 2015 and lasts for two Years.[59] Since January 2014, the Republic
Republic
of Angola
Angola
has been chairing the International Conference for the Great Lakes Region (CIRGL). [80] In 2015, CIRGL Executive Secretary Ntumba Luaba said that Angola
Angola
is the example to be followed by the members of the organization, due to the significant progress made during the 12 years of peace, namely in terms of socio-economic stability and political- military.[60] Human rights[edit] See also: Human rights in Angola
Human rights in Angola
and LGBT rights in Angola Homosexual acts are currently illegal in Angola.[61] However, in February 2017, the Angolan Parliament approved a new penal code which does not outlaw homosexual acts. The law will take effect in late 2017.[citation needed] In 2010, the Angolan Government refused to receive openly gay Isi Yanouka as the new Israeli ambassador, allegedly due to his sexual orientation.[62] Administrative divisions[edit] Main articles: Provinces of Angola, Municipalities of Angola, and Communes of Angola

Map of Angola
Angola
with the provinces numbered

As of March 2016[update], Angola
Angola
is divided into eighteen provinces (províncias) and 162 municipalities. The municipalities are further divided into 559 communes (townships).[63] The provinces are:

Bengo Benguela Bié Cabinda Cuando Cubango Cuanza Norte Cuanza Sul Cunene Huambo Huíla Luanda Lunda Norte Lunda Sul Malanje Moxico Namibe Uíge Zaire

Exclave
Exclave
of Cabinda[edit] Main articles: Cabinda and Republic
Republic
of Cabinda

Flag of the Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda
Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda
(FLEC)

With an area of approximately 7,283 square kilometres (2,812 sq mi), the Northern Angolan province of Cabinda is unusual in being separated from the rest of the country by a strip, some 60 kilometres (37 mi) wide, of the Democratic Republic
Republic
of Congo along the lower Congo River. Cabinda borders the Congo Republic to the north and north-northeast and the DRC to the east and south. The town of Cabinda is the chief population centre. According to a 1995 census, Cabinda had an estimated population of 600,000, approximately 400,000 of whom live in neighbouring countries. Population estimates are, however, highly unreliable. Consisting largely of tropical forest, Cabinda produces hardwoods, coffee, cocoa, crude rubber and palm oil. The product for which it is best known, however, is its oil, which has given it the nickname, "the Kuwait of Africa". Cabinda's petroleum production from its considerable offshore reserves now accounts for more than half of Angola's output.[64] Most of the oil along its coast was discovered under Portuguese rule by the Cabinda Gulf Oil Company (CABGOC) from 1968 onwards. Ever since Portugal
Portugal
handed over sovereignty of its former overseas province of Angola
Angola
to the local independence groups (MPLA, UNITA
UNITA
and FNLA), the territory of Cabinda has been a focus of separatist guerrilla actions opposing the Government of Angola
Government of Angola
(which has employed its armed forces, the FAA—Forças Armadas Angolanas) and Cabindan separatists. The Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda-Armed Forces of Cabinda (FLEC-FAC) announced a virtual Federal Republic
Republic
of Cabinda under the Presidency of N'Zita Henriques Tiago. One of the characteristics of the Cabindan independence movement is its constant fragmentation, into smaller and smaller factions. Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Angola

A booming economy due to oil revenues and stable politics, Angola
Angola
has seen an increase in its international trading sector.

Luanda
Luanda
city centre.

The Banco Nacional de Angola building on the Marginal in Luanda
Luanda
dates from 1956.

TAAG Angolan Airlines
TAAG Angolan Airlines
is Angola's national airline.

New suburb (new housing area) in Luanda
Luanda
built in 2010.

Offshore petrol platform prepared for moving to final destination on high sea, Luanda, Angola, Atlantic Ocean

Angola
Angola
has diamonds, oil, gold, copper and a rich wildlife (dramatically impoverished during the civil war), forest and fossil fuels. Since independence, oil and diamonds have been the most important economic resource. Smallholder and plantation agriculture dramatically dropped in the Angolan Civil War, but began to recover after 2002. The transformation industry[clarification needed] of the late colonial period collapsed at independence, because of the exodus of most of the ethnic Portuguese population, but it has begun to re-emerge with updated technologies, partly because of an influx of new Portuguese entrepreneurs. Similar developments have taken place in the service sector. Angola's economy has in recent years moved on from the disarray caused by a quarter-century of Angolan civil war
Angolan civil war
to become the fastest-growing economy in Africa
Africa
and one of the fastest-growing in the world, with an average GDP
GDP
growth of 20% between 2005 and 2007.[65] In the period 2001–10, Angola
Angola
had the world's highest annual average GDP
GDP
growth, at 11.1%. In 2004, the Exim Bank of China
Exim Bank of China
approved a $2 billion line of credit to Angola, to be used for rebuilding Angola's infrastructure, and to limit the influence of the International Monetary Fund there.[66] China is Angola's biggest trade partner and export destination as well as the fourth-largest source of imports. Bilateral trade reached $27.67 billion in 2011, up 11.5% year-on-year. China's imports, mainly crude oil and diamonds, increased 9.1% to $24.89 billion while China's exports to Angola, including mechanical and electrical products, machinery parts and construction materials, surged 38.8%.[citation needed] The oil glut led to a local price for unleaded gasoline of £0.37 a gallon.[67] The Economist
The Economist
reported in 2008 that diamonds and oil make up 60% of Angola's economy, almost all of the country's revenue and all of its dominant exports.[68] Growth is almost entirely driven by rising oil production which surpassed 1.4 million barrels per day (220,000 m3/d) in late 2005 and was expected to grow to 2 million barrels per day (320,000 m3/d) by 2007. Control of the oil industry is consolidated in Sonangol
Sonangol
Group, a conglomerate owned by the Angolan government. In December 2006, Angola
Angola
was admitted as a member of OPEC.[69] Operations in its diamond mines include partnerships between state-run Endiama
Endiama
and mining companies such as ALROSA
ALROSA
which operate in Angola.[70] The Angolan economy grew 18% in 2005, 26% in 2006 and 17.6% in 2007. Due to the global recession the economy contracted an estimated −0.3% in 2009.[43] The security brought about by the 2002 peace settlement has allowed the resettlement of 4 million displaced persons and a resulting large-scale increases in agriculture production. Although the country's economy has grown significantly since Angola achieved political stability in 2002, mainly due to fast-rising earnings in the oil sector, Angola
Angola
faces huge social and economic problems. These are in part a result of almost continual armed conflict from 1961 on, although the highest level of destruction and socio-economic damage took place after the 1975 independence, during the long years of civil war. However, high poverty rates and blatant social inequality chiefly stem from persistent authoritarianism, "neo-patrimonial" practices at all levels of the political, administrative, military and economic structures, and of a pervasive corruption.[71][72] The main beneficiaries are political, administrative, economic and military power holders, who have accumulated (and continue to accumulate) enormous wealth.[73] "Secondary beneficiaries" are the middle strata which are about to become social classes. However, almost half the population has to be considered poor, with dramatic differences between the countryside and the cities (where by now slightly more than 50% of the people live). A study carried out in 2008 by the Angolan Instituto Nacional de Estatística found that in rural areas roughly 58% must be classified as "poor" according to UN norms, but in the urban areas only 19%, and an overall rate of 37%.[74] In cities, a majority of families, well beyond those officially classified as poor, must adopt a variety of survival strategies.[75][clarification needed] In urban areas social inequality is most evident and it's extreme in Luanda.[76] In the Human Development Index
Human Development Index
Angola
Angola
constantly ranks in the bottom group.[77] According to the Heritage Foundation, a conservative American think tank, oil production from Angola
Angola
has increased so significantly that Angola
Angola
now is China's biggest supplier of oil.[78] “China has extended three multibillion dollar lines of credit to the Angolan government; two loans of $2 billion from China Exim Bank, one in 2004, the second in 2007, as well as one loan in 2005 of $2.9 billion from China International Fund Ltd.”[79] Growing oil revenues also created opportunities for corruption: according to a recent Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
report, 32 billion US dollars disappeared from government accounts in 2007–2010.[80] Furthermore, Sonangol, the state-run oil company, controls 51% of Cabinda’s oil. Due to this market control the company ends up determining the profit received by the government and the taxes it pays. The council of foreign affairs states that the World Bank mentioned that Sonangol
Sonangol
" is a taxpayer, it carries out quasi-fiscal activities, it invests public funds, and, as concessionaire, it is a sector regulator. This multifarious work programme creates conflicts of interest and characterises a complex relationship between Sonangol and the government that weakens the formal budgetary process and creates uncertainty as regards the actual fiscal stance of the state."[81] Before independence in 1975, Angola
Angola
was a breadbasket of southern Africa
Africa
and a major exporter of bananas, coffee and sisal, but three decades of civil war (1975–2002) destroyed fertile countryside, left it littered with landmines and drove millions into the cities. The country now depends on expensive food imports, mainly from South Africa
Africa
and Portugal, while more than 90% of farming is done at the family and subsistence level. Thousands of Angolan small-scale farmers are trapped in poverty.[82] The enormous differences between the regions pose a serious structural problem for the Angolan economy, illustrated by the fact that about one third of economic activities are concentrated in Luanda
Luanda
and neighbouring Bengo province, while several areas of the interior suffer economic stagnation and even regression.[83] One of the economic consequences of the social and regional disparities is a sharp increase in Angolan private investments abroad. The small fringe of Angolan society where most of the asset accumulation takes place seeks to spread its assets, for reasons of security and profit. For the time being, the biggest share of these investments is concentrated in Portugal
Portugal
where the Angolan presence (including the family of the state president) in banks as well as in the domains of energy, telecommunications, and mass media has become notable, as has the acquisition of vineyards and orchards as well as of touristic enterprises.[84] Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
nations are globally achieving impressive improvements in well-being, according to a report by Tony Blair's Africa
Africa
Governance Initiative and the Boston Consulting Group.[85] Angola
Angola
has upgraded critical infrastructure, an investment made possible by funds from the nation's development of oil resources. According to this report, just slightly more than ten years after the end of the civil war Angola's standard of living has overall greatly improved. Life expectancy, which was just 46 years in 2002, reached 51 in 2011. Mortality rates for children fell from 25 percent in 2001 to 19 percent in 2010 and the number of students enrolled in primary school has tripled since 2001.[86] However, at the same time the social and economic inequality that has characterised the country since long has not diminished, but on the contrary deepened in all respects. With a stock of assets corresponding to 70 billion Kz (6.8 billion USD), Angola
Angola
is now the third largest financial market in sub-Saharan Africa, surpassed only by Nigeria
Nigeria
and South Africa. According to the Angolan Minister of Economy, Abraão Gourgel, the financial market of the country grew modestly from 2002 and now lies in third place at the level of sub-Saharan Africa.[87] Angola's economy is expected to grow by 3.9 percent in 2014 said the International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
(IMF), robust growth in the non-oil economy, mainly driven by a very good performance in the agricultural sector, is expected to offset a temporary drop in oil production.[88] Angola's financial system is maintained by the National Bank of Angola and managed by governor Jose de Lima Massano. According to a study on the banking sector, carried out by Deloitte, the monetary policy led by Banco Nacional de Angola (BNA), the Angolan national bank, allowed a decrease in the inflation rate put at 7.96% in December 2013, which contributed to the sector's growth trend.[89] Estimates released by Angola's central bank, said country's economy should grow at an annual average rate of 5 percent over the next four years, boosted by the increasing participation of the private sector.[90] On 19 December 2014, the Capital Market in Angola
Angola
started. BODIVA ( Angola
Angola
Securities and Debt Stock Exchange, in English) received the secondary public debt market, and it is expected to start the corporate debt market by 2015, but the stock market should be a reality only in 2016.[91] Agriculture[edit] Agriculture and forestry is an area of opportunity for the country. “ Angola
Angola
requires 4.5 million tonnes a year of grain but grows only about 55% of the corn it needs, 20% of the rice and just 5% of its required wheat”(African economic Outlook)[92] but “less than 3 percent of Angola's abundant fertile land is cultivated and the economic potential of the forestry sector remains largely unexploited” (World Bank).[93] Transport[edit]

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Main article: Transport in Angola

Quatro de Fevereiro Luanda
Luanda
Airport arrivals.

Train station in Benguela.

Ship loading minerals at Namibe
Namibe
harbour, Angola.

Transport in Angola
Transport in Angola
consists of:

Three separate railway systems totalling 2,761 km (1,716 mi) 76,626 km (47,613 mi) of highway of which 19,156 km (11,903 mi) is paved 1,295 navigable inland waterways Eight major sea ports 243 airports, of which 32 are paved.

Travel on highways outside of towns and cities in Angola
Angola
(and in some cases within) is often not best advised for those without four-by-four vehicles. While a reasonable road infrastructure has existed within Angola, time and the war have taken their toll on the road surfaces, leaving many severely potholed, littered with broken asphalt. In many areas drivers have established alternate tracks to avoid the worst parts of the surface, although careful attention must be paid to the presence or absence of landmine warning markers by the side of the road. The Angolan government has contracted the restoration of many of the country's roads. The road between Lubango
Lubango
and Namibe, for example, was completed recently with funding from the European Union, and is comparable to many European main routes. Completing the road infrastructure is likely to take some decades, but substantial efforts are already being made. Transport is an important aspect in Angola
Angola
because it is strategically located and it could become a regional logistics hub. In addition Angola
Angola
has some of the most important and biggest ports and so it is vital to connect them to the interior of the country as well as to neighbouring countries. Tourism is restarting on the heels of the long ended stop in the civil war, and very few tourists venture anywhere in Angola
Angola
yet due to lack of infrastructure. Telecommunications[edit] The telecommunications industry is considered one of the main strategic sectors in Angola.[94] In October 2014, the building of an optic fiber underwater cable was announced.[95] This project aims to turn Angola
Angola
into a continental hub, thus improving Internet connections both nationally and internationally.[96] On 11 March 2015, the First Angolan Forum of Telecommunications
Telecommunications
and Information Technology was held in Luanda
Luanda
under the motto "The challenges of telecommunications in the current context of Angola",[97] to promote debate on topical issues on telecommunications in Angola
Angola
and worldwide.[98] A study of this sector, presented at the forum, said Angola
Angola
had the first telecommunications operator in Africa to test LTE – with speeds up to 400Mbit/s – and mobile penetration of about 75%; there are about 3.5 million smartphone in the Angolan market; There are about 25,000 kilometres (16,000 miles) of optical fibre installed in the country.[99][100] The first Angolan satellite, AngoSat-1, will be ready for launch into orbit in 2017[101] and ensure telecommunications throughout the country.[102] According to Aristides Safeca, Secretary of State for Telecommunications, the satellite will provide telecommunications services, TV, internet and e-government and will remain into orbit "at best" for 18 years.[103] Technology[edit] The management of the top-level domain '.ao' will pass from Portugal to Angola
Angola
in 2015, following new legislation.[104] A joint decree of minister of Telecommunications
Telecommunications
and Information Technologies José Carvalho da Rocha and the minister of Science and Technology, Maria Cândida Pereira Teixeira, states that "under the massification" of that Angolan domain, "conditions are created for the transfer of the domain root '.ao' of Portugal
Portugal
to Angola".[105] Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Angola

Population Pyramid of Angola
Angola
in 2012

Population in Angola[106][107]

Year Million

1950 4.1

2000 13.1

2014 25.8

Angola
Angola
has a population of 24,383,301 inhabitants according to the preliminary results of its 2014 census, the first one conducted or carried out since 15 December 1970.[1] It is composed of Ovimbundu (language Umbundu) 37%, Ambundu
Ambundu
(language Kimbundu) 23%, Bakongo
Bakongo
13%, and 32% other ethnic groups (including the Chokwe, the Ovambo, the Ganguela
Ganguela
and the Xindonga) as well as about 2% mestiços (mixed European and African), 1.6% Chinese and 1% European.[43] The Ambundu and Ovimbundu
Ovimbundu
ethnic groups combined form a majority of the population, at 62%.[108] The population is forecast to grow to over 60 million people to 2050, 2.7 times the 2014 population.[109] However, on 23 March 2016, official data revealed by Angola's National Statistic Institute – Instituto Nacional de Estatística (INE), states that Angola
Angola
has a population of 25.789.024 inhabitants. It is estimated that Angola
Angola
was host to 12,100 refugees and 2,900 asylum seekers by the end of 2007. 11,400 of those refugees were originally from the Democratic Republic
Republic
of Congo, who arrived in the 1970s.[110] As of 2008[update] there were an estimated 400,000 Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo migrant workers,[111] at least 220,000 Portuguese,[112] and about 259,000 Chinese living in Angola.[113] Since 2003, more than 400,000 Congolese migrants have been expelled from Angola.[114] Prior to independence in 1975, Angola
Angola
had a community of approximately 350,000 Portuguese,[115][116] but the vast majority left after independence and the ensuing civil war. However, Angola
Angola
has recovered its Portuguese minority in recent years; currently, there are about 200,000 registered with the consulates, and increasing due to the debt crisis in Portugal
Portugal
and the relative prosperity in Angola.[117] The Chinese population stands at 258,920, mostly composed of temporary migrants.[118] Also, there is a small Brazilian community of about 5,000 people.[119] The total fertility rate of Angola
Angola
is 5.54 children born per woman (2012 estimates), the 11th highest in the world.[43] Languages[edit]

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Main article: Languages of Angola

Ethnic groups
Ethnic groups
of Angola
Angola
1970

The languages in Angola
Angola
are those originally spoken by the different ethnic groups and Portuguese, introduced during the Portuguese colonial era. The most widely spoken indigenous languages are Umbundu, Kimbundu and Kikongo, in that order. Portuguese is the official language of the country. Although the exact numbers of those fluent in Portuguese or who speak Portuguese as a first language are unknown, a 2012 study mentions that Portuguese is the first language of 39% of the population.[120] In 2014, a census carried out by the Instituto Nacional de Estatística in Angola
Angola
mentions that 71.15% of the nearly 25.8 million inhabitants of Angola
Angola
(meaning around 18.3 million people) use Portuguese as a first or second language.[121] Religion[edit] Main articles: Religion in Angola, Christianity in Angola, and Islam in Angola

Catholic church in Benguela

There are about 1,000 religious communities, mostly Christian, in Angola.[122] While reliable statistics are nonexistent, estimates have it that more than half of the population are Catholics, while about a quarter adhere to the Protestant churches introduced during the colonial period: the Congregationalists mainly among the Ovimbundu
Ovimbundu
of the Central Highlands and the coastal region to its west, the Methodists
Methodists
concentrating on the Kimbundu speaking strip from Luanda
Luanda
to Malanje, the Baptists
Baptists
almost exclusively among the Bakongo
Bakongo
of the north-west (now present in Luanda
Luanda
as well) and dispersed Adventists, Reformed
Reformed
and Lutherans.[123][124] In Luanda
Luanda
and region there subsists a nucleus of the "syncretic" Tocoists and in the north-west a sprinkling of Kimbanguism
Kimbanguism
can be found, spreading from the Congo/Zaïre. Since independence, hundreds of Pentecostal
Pentecostal
and similar communities have sprung up in the cities, where by now about 50% of the population is living; several of these communities/churches are of Brazilian origin. As of 2008[update] the U.S. Department of State
U.S. Department of State
estimates the Muslim population at 80,000–90,000, less than 1% of the population,[125] while the Islamic Community of Angola
Angola
puts the figure closer to 500,000.[126] Muslims consist largely of migrants from West Africa
Africa
and the Middle East (especially Lebanon), although some are local converts.[127] The Angolan government does not legally recognize any Muslim organizations and often shuts down mosques or prevents their construction.[128] In a study assessing nations' levels of religious regulation and persecution with scores ranging from 0 to 10 where 0 represented low levels of regulation or persecution, Angola
Angola
was scored 0.8 on Government Regulation of Religion, 4.0 on Social Regulation of Religion, 0 on Government Favoritism of Religion and 0 on Religious Persecution.[129] Foreign missionaries were very active prior to independence in 1975, although since the beginning of the anti-colonial fight in 1961 the Portuguese colonial authorities expelled a series of Protestant missionaries and closed mission stations based on the belief that the missionaries were inciting pro-independence sentiments. Missionaries have been able to return to the country since the early 1990s, although security conditions due to the civil war have prevented them until 2002 from restoring many of their former inland mission stations.[130] The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and some major Protestant denominations mostly keep to themselves in contrast to the "New Churches" which actively proselytize. Catholics, as well as some major Protestant denominations, provide help for the poor in the form of crop seeds, farm animals, medical care and education.[131][132] Largest cities[edit]

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Angola Source?

Rank Name Province Pop.

Luanda

Huambo 1 Luanda Luanda 2,776,125

Lobito

Benguela

2 Huambo Huambo 226,177

3 Lobito Benguela 207,957

4 Benguela Benguela 151,235

5 Lucapa Lunda Norte 125,751

6 Kuito Bié 113,624

7 Lubango Huíla 102,541

8 Malanje Malanje 87,047

9 Namibe Namibe 80,150

10 Soyo Zaire 67,553

Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Angola See also: Music of Angola
Music of Angola
and Angolan cuisine

Yombe-sculpture, 19th century

The substrate of Angolan culture is African, predominantly Bantu, while Portuguese culture has had a significant impact, specifically in terms of language and religion. The diverse ethnic communities – the Ovimbundu, Ambundu, Bakongo, Chokwe, Mbunda and other peoples – to varying degrees maintain their own cultural traits, traditions and languages, but in the cities, where slightly more than half of the population now lives, a mixed culture has been emerging since colonial times; in Luanda, since its foundation in the 16th century. In this urban culture, the Portuguese heritage has become more and more dominant. African roots are evident in music and dance, and is moulding the way in which Portuguese is spoken. This process is well reflected in contemporary Angolan literature, especially in the works of Angolan authors. In 2014, Angola
Angola
resumed the National Festival of Angolan Culture after a 25-year break. The festival took place in all the provincial capitals and lasted for 20 days, with the theme Culture as a Factor of Peace and Development.[133] Health[edit] Main article: Health in Angola

Angolan woman with children outside a health clinic

Epidemics of cholera, malaria, rabies and African hemorrhagic fevers like Marburg hemorrhagic fever, are common diseases in several parts of the country. Many regions in this country have high incidence rates of tuberculosis and high HIV prevalence rates. Dengue, filariasis, leishmaniasis and onchocerciasis (river blindness) are other diseases carried by insects that also occur in the region. Angola
Angola
has one of the highest infant mortality rates in the world and one of the world's lowest life expectancies. A 2007 survey concluded that low and deficient niacin status was common in Angola.[134] Demographic and Health Surveys is currently conducting several surveys in Angola
Angola
on malaria, domestic violence and more.[135] In September 2014, the Angolan Institute for Cancer Control (IACC) was created by presidential decree, and it will integrate the National Health Service in Angola.[136] The purpose of this new centre is to ensure health and medical care in oncology, policy implementation, programmes and plans for prevention and specialised treatment.[137] This cancer institute will be assumed as a reference institution in the central and southern regions of Africa.[138] In 2014, Angola
Angola
launched a national campaign of vaccination against measles, extended to every child under ten years old and aiming to go to all 18 provinces in the country.[139] The measure is part of the Strategic Plan for the Elimination of Measles
Measles
2014–2020 created by the Angolan Ministry of Health which includes strengthening routine immunisation, a proper dealing with measles cases, national campaigns, introducing a second dose of vaccination in the national routine vaccination calendar and active epidemiological surveillance for measles. This campaign took place together with the vaccination against polio and vitamin A supplementation.[140] A yellow fever outbreak, the worst in the country in three decades[141] began in December 2015. By August 2016, when the outbreak began to subside, nearly 4,000 people were suspected of being infected. As many as 369 may have died. The outbreak began in the capital, Luanda, and spread to at least 16 of the 18 provinces. Education[edit] Main article: Education in Angola

Lyceum Salvador Correia in Luanda

Kuito
Kuito
class, Angola

Although by law education in Angola
Angola
is compulsory and free for eight years, the government reports that a percentage of pupils are not attending due to a lack of school buildings and teachers.[142] Pupils are often responsible for paying additional school-related expenses, including fees for books and supplies.[142] In 1999, the gross primary enrollment rate was 74 percent and in 1998, the most recent year for which data are available, the net primary enrollment rate was 61 percent.[142] Gross and net enrollment ratios are based on the number of pupils formally registered in primary school and therefore do not necessarily reflect actual school attendance.[142] There continue to be significant disparities in enrollment between rural and urban areas. In 1995, 71.2 percent of children ages 7 to 14 years were attending school.[142] It is reported that higher percentages of boys attend school than girls.[142] During the Angolan Civil War
Angolan Civil War
(1975–2002), nearly half of all schools were reportedly looted and destroyed, leading to current problems with overcrowding.[142] The Ministry of Education recruited 20,000 new teachers in 2005 and continued to implement teacher trainings.[142] Teachers tend to be underpaid, inadequately trained and overworked (sometimes teaching two or three shifts a day).[142] Some teachers may reportedly demand payment or bribes directly from their pupils.[142] Other factors, such as the presence of landmines, lack of resources and identity papers, and poor health prevent children from regularly attending school.[142] Although budgetary allocations for education were increased in 2004, the education system in Angola
Angola
continues to be extremely under-funded.[142] According to estimates by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics, the adult literacy rate in 2011 was 70.4%.[143] By 2015, this had increased to 71.1%.[144] 82.9% of males and 54.2% of women are literate as of 2001.[145] Since independence from Portugal
Portugal
in 1975, a number of Angolan students continued to be admitted every year at high schools, polytechnical institutes and universities in Portugal, Brazil and Cuba
Cuba
through bilateral agreements; in general, these students belong to the elites. In September 2014, the Angolan Ministry of Education announced an investment of 16 million Euros in the computerisation of over 300 classrooms across the country. The project also includes training teachers at a national level, "as a way to introduce and use new information technologies in primary schools, thus reflecting an improvement in the quality of teaching."[146] In 2010, the Angolan government started building the Angolan Media Libraries Network, distributed throughout several provinces in the country to facilitate the people's access to information and knowledge. Each site has a bibliographic archive, multimedia resources and computers with Internet access, as well as areas for reading, researching and socialising.[147] The plan envisages the establishment of one media library in each Angolan province by 2017. The project also includes the implementation of several media libraries, in order to provide the several contents available in the fixed media libraries to the most isolated populations in the country.[148] At this time, the mobile media libraries are already operating in the provinces of Luanda, Malanje, Uíge, Cabinda and Lunda South. As for REMA, the provinces of Luanda, Benguela, Lubango
Lubango
and Soyo
Soyo
have currently working media libraries.[149] Sports[edit]

Interior of 11 November stadium in Luanda, Angola, with Tribunes and running track

Basketball
Basketball
is the most popular sports in Angola. Its national team has won the AfroBasket
AfroBasket
11 times and holds the record of most titles. As a top team in Africa, it's a regular competitor at the Summer Olympic Games and the FIBA World Cup. In football, Angola
Angola
hosted the 2010 Africa
Africa
Cup of Nations. The Angola national football team
Angola national football team
qualified for the 2006 FIFA World Cup, as this was their first appearance on the World Cup finals stage. They were eliminated after one defeat and two draws in the group stage. They won 3 COSAFA Cups and finished runner up in 2011 African Nations Championship. Angola
Angola
has participated in the World Women's Handball Championship
World Women's Handball Championship
for several years. The country has also appeared in the Summer Olympics for seven years and both regularly competes in and once has hosted the FIRS Roller Hockey World Cup, where the best finish is sixth. Angola
Angola
is also often believed to have historic roots in the martial art "Capoeira Angola" and "Batuque" which were practiced by enslaved African Angolans transported as part of the Atlantic slave trade.[150] See also[edit]

Angola
Angola
portal Africa
Africa
portal Geography portal

Outline of Angola Index of Angola-related articles

Notes[edit]

^ a b 2014 population census (INE Angola) Archived 6 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c d "Angola". International Monetary Fund.  ^ "Gini Index". World Bank. Archived from the original on 9 February 2015. Retrieved 2 March 2011.  ^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations
United Nations
Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2017.  ^ " Life expectancy
Life expectancy
at birth". World Fact Book. United States
United States
Central Intelligence Agency. 2014.  ^ "Transparency and Accountability in Angola". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 1 April 2016.  ^ Heywood, Linda M. & Thornton, John K. (2007) Central Africans, Atlantic Creoles, and the foundation of the Americas, 1585–1660. Cambridge University Press. p. 82. ISBN 0521770653 ^ Henderson, Lawrence (1979). Angola: Five Centuries of Conflict. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. pp. 40–42. ISBN 978-0812216202.  ^ Miller, Josep h (1979). Kings and Kinsmen: Early Mbundu States in Angola. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. pp. 55–56. ISBN 978-0198227045.  ^ "The Story of Africa". BBC. Retrieved 27 June 2010.  ^ a b c d EB (1878). ^ Fleisch, Axel (2004). "Angola: Slave Trade, Abolition of". In Shillington, Kevin. Encyclopedia of African History 3-Volume Set. 1. Routledge. pp. 131–133. ISBN 1-57958-245-1.  ^ Global Investment and Business Center (1 January 2006). Angola
Angola
in the Eighteenth Century: Slave trading in the 1700s. Angola
Angola
President Jose Eduardo Dos Santos Handbook. Int'l Business Publications. p. 153. ISBN 0739716069.  ^ World Bank. The History of Brazil– Africa
Africa
Relations (PDF). Bridging the Atlantic. p. 27. Retrieved 14 May 2016.  ^ a b c d e f Collelo, Thomas, ed. (1991). Angola, a Country
Country
Study. Area Handbook Series (Third ed.). Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army, American University. pp. 14–26. ISBN 978-0160308444.  ^ Iliffe, John (2007) Africans: the history of a continent. Cambridge University Press. p. 68. ISBN 0-521-68297-5. For valuable complements for the 16th and 17th centuries see Beatrix Heintze, Studien zur Geschichte Angolas im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert, Colónia/Alemanha: Köppe, 1996 ^ a b c Corrado, Jacopo (2008). The Creole Elite and the Rise of Angolan Protonationalism: 1870–1920. Amherst, New York: Cambria Press. pp. 11–13. ISBN 978-1604975291.  ^ See René Pélissier, Les guerres grises: Résistance et revoltes en Angola, (1845-1941), Éditions Pélissier, Montamets, 78630 Orgeval (France), 1977 ^ See René Pélissier, La colonie du Minotaure. Nationalismes et révoltes en Angola
Angola
(1926–1961), éditions Pélissier, Montamets, 78630 Orgeval (France), 1979 ^ a b Okoth, Assa (2006). A History of Africa: African nationalism and the de-colonisation process. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers. pp. 143–147. ISBN 9966-25-358-0.  ^ a b Dowden, Richard (2010). Africa: Altered States, Ordinary Miracles. London: Portobello Books. pp. 207–208. ISBN 978-1-58648-753-9.  ^ a b c d e Cornwell, Richard (1 November 2000). "The War of Independence" (PDF). Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 February 2015. Retrieved 20 February 2015.  ^ a b Stockwell, John (1979) [1978]. In Search Of Enemies. London: Futura Publications Limited. pp. 44–45. ISBN 978-0393009262.  ^ a b c Hanlon, Joseph (1986). Beggar Your Neighbours: Apartheid Power in Southern Africa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. p. 155. ISBN 978-0253331311.  ^ a b c d Chabal, Patrick (2002). A History of Postcolonial Lusophone Africa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. p. 142. ISBN 978-0253215659.  ^ a b c d e f g Rothschild, Donald (1997). Managing Ethnic Conflict in Africa: Pressures and Incentives for Cooperation. Washington: The Brookings Institution. pp. 115–120. ISBN 978-0815775935.  ^ a b Domínguez, Jorge (1989). To Make a World Safe for Revolution: Cuba's Foreign Policy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. pp. 131–133. ISBN 978-0674893252.  ^ a b c d e f g Weigert, Stephen (2011). Angola: A Modern Military History. Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 56–65. ISBN 978-0230117778.  ^ a b c d e Vanneman, Peter (1990). Soviet Strategy in Southern Africa: Gorbachev's Pragmatic Approach. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press. pp. 48–49. ISBN 978-0817989026.  ^ a b c d Ferreira, Manuel (2002). Brauer, Jurgen; Dunne, J. Paul, eds. Arming the South: The Economics of Military Expenditure, Arms Production and Arms Trade in Developing Countries. Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 251–255. ISBN 978-0-230-50125-6.  ^ Akongdit, Addis Ababa Othow (2013). Impact of Political Stability on Economic Development: Case of South Sudan. Bloomington: AuthorHouse Ltd, Publishers. pp. 74–75. ISBN 978-1491876442.  ^ a b Tucker, Spencer (2013). Encyclopedia of Insurgency and Counterinsurgency: A New Era of Modern Warfare. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO Ltd, Publishers. pp. 374–375. ISBN 978-1610692793.  ^ a b c Tordoff, William (1997). Government and Politics in Africa (Third ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 97–98. ISBN 978-0333694749.  ^ W. James, Martin (2004). Historical Dictionary of Angola. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 161–162. ISBN 978-1538111239.  ^ Lari (2004), Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
(2005) ^ For an overall analysis see Ricardo Soares de Oliveira, Magnificant and Beggar Land: Angola
Angola
since the Civil War, London: Hurst, 2015 ^ "How southern Africa
Africa
is coping with worst global food crisis for 25 years". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 December 2016. Drought
Drought
is affecting 1.4 million people across seven of Angola’s 18 provinces. Food prices have rocketed and acute malnutrition rates have doubled, with more than 95,000 children affected. Food insecurity
Food insecurity
is expected to worsen from July to the end of the year.  ^ "CIA – The World Factbook
The World Factbook
Country
Country
Comparison :: Area". United States
United States
Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 13 July 2014.  ^ "Cabinda". Global Security. Archived from the original on 8 July 2014.  ^ Mulenga, Henry Mubanga (1999). Southern African climate anomalies, summer rainfall and the Angola
Angola
low. PhD Dissertation. University of Cape Town. OCLC 85939351.  ^ Jury, M. R.; Matari, E .E.; Matitu, M. (2008). "Equatorial African climate teleconnections". Theoretical and Applied Climatology. 95 (3–4): 407–416. Bibcode:2009ThApC..95..407J. doi:10.1007/s00704-008-0018-4.  ^ "Angola". State.gov. US Department of State. Retrieved 22 November 2016.  ^ a b c d "CIA – The World Factbook". United States
United States
Central Intelligence Agency.  ^ Péclard, Didier (ed.) (2008) L' Angola
Angola
dans la paix: Autoritarisme et reconversions, special issue of Politique africains (Paris), p. 110. ^ a b c "Angola". Freedom in the World
Freedom in the World
2014. Freedom House. Retrieved 7 February 2015.  ^ "Ibrahim Index of African Governance". Mo Ibrahim Foundation. Retrieved 9 August 2014.  ^ Miranda, Jorge (2010) "A Constituição de Angola
Angola
de 2010", O Direito (Lisbon), vol. 142. ^ Amundsen, Inge (2011). Angola
Angola
Party Politics: Into the African Trend (PDF). Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI) and Centro de Estudos e Investigação Científica (CEIC).  ^ Venezuela, Malaysia, Angola, N.Z., Spain
Spain
win U.N. Council seats Reuters, 16 October 2014 ^ Angola
Angola
assume presidência do grupo africano junto do FMI e BM (in Portuguese) Archived 20 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Rádio Nacional de Angola, 10 December 2014 ^ in-50c6-47cf-9a2f-191c6d9d06ba.html Angola
Angola
takes over rotative presidency of Great Lakes Region Angola
Angola
Press Agency, 13 January 2014 ^ Angola
Angola
should be an example for Great Lakes region – Ntumba Luaba Angola
Angola
Press Agency, 8 January 2015 ^ Angolan Leader Dos Santos to Step Down After 38 Years in Power. Bloomberg (3 February 2017). Retrieved on 26 April 2017. ^ En Angola, le ministre de la Défense devrait succèder au président Dos Santos. Lefigaro.fr. Retrieved on 26 April 2017. ^ "Angola : une purge au sein de la Sonangol
Sonangol
emporte Isabel dos Santos". BENIN WEB TV (in French). 15 November 2017. Retrieved 21 November 2017. [permanent dead link] ^ "Angola's Lourenco replaces police and intelligence chiefs". Reuters. 20 November 2017. Retrieved 21 November 2017.  ^ " Angola
Angola
sacks Africa's richest woman". BBC
BBC
News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 15 November 2017. Retrieved 21 November 2017.  ^ Angola
Angola
com novo Código Penal ainda este ano, Notícias ao Minuto, 24 September 2014 ^ " Angola
Angola
eleita para o Conselho de Segurança da ONU".  Public, 16 October 2014 ^ " Angola
Angola
deve servir de exemplo para os países da CIRGL – Ntumba Luaba".  Expansion, 08 January 2015 ^ "LGBT relationships are illegal in 74 countries, research finds". The Independent. 17 May 2016.  ^ Hartman, Ben (30 April 2010). "Was diplomat denied post in Angola because he is openly gay?". Jpost.com.  ^ "Resultados Resultados Definitivos do Recenseamento Geral da População e da Habitação de Angola
Angola
2014" (PDF). Instituto Nacional de Estatística. March 2016. p. 27. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 May 2016.  ^ " Angola
Angola
profile". BBC
BBC
News. 22 December 2013.  ^ Angola
Angola
Financial Sector Profile: MFW4A – Making Finance Work for Africa. MFW4A. Retrieved 9 August 2013. ^ "The Increasing Importance of African Oil". Power and Interest Report. 20 March 2006. Archived from the original on 5 May 2006.  ^ Luanda, capital of Angola, retains title of world's most expensive for expats. The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 9 August 2013. ^ "Marching towards riches and democracy?" The Economist. 30 August 2008. p. 46. ^ "Angola: Country
Country
Admitted As Opec Member". Angola
Angola
Press Agency. 14 December 2006.  ^ "Angolan Diamond Centenary Conference 2013 Highlights Endiama
Endiama
and Alrosa Joint Venture for Future Geological Exploration of diamond deposits of Angola's Territory" (PDF). Press release. angolancentenary.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 November 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2014.  ^ Anti-corruption watchdog Transparency International
Transparency International
rates Angola
Angola
one of the 10 most corrupt countries in the world. ^ Dolan, Kerry A. (23 January 2013). "Isabel Dos Santos, Daughter Of Angola's President, Is Africa's First Woman Billionaire". Forbes. ^ This process is well analyzed by authors like Christine Messiant, Tony Hodges and others. For an eloquent illustration, see the Angolan magazine Infra-Estruturas África 7/2010. ^ País ao raios X. Angola
Angola
Exame. 12 November 2010 ^ Udelsmann Rodrigues, Cristina (2006) O Trabalho Dignifica o Homem: Estratégias de Sobrevivência em Luanda, Lisbon: Colibri. ^ As an excellent illustration see Luanda: A vida na cidade dos extremos, in: Visão, 11 November 2010. ^ The HDI 2010 lists Angola
Angola
in the 146th position among 169 countries—one position below that of Haiti. MLP l Human Development Index and its components. Archived 28 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Alt, Robert. "Into Africa: China's Grab for Influence and Oil". Heritage.org. Retrieved 27 June 2010.  ^ "Angola's Political and Economic Development". Council on Foreign Relations.  ^ "Angola: Explain Missing Government Funds". Human Rights Watch. 20 December 2011. Retrieved 22 December 2011.  ^ "Angola's political and economical development" (Council of Foreign Relation)http://www.cfr.org/world/angolas-political-economic-development/p16820 ^ Redvers, Louise POVERTY-ANGOLA: Inter Press Service News Agency – NGOs Sceptical of Govt's Rural Development Plans Archived 12 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ Manuel Alves da Rocha (2010) Desigualdades e assimetrias regionais em Angola: Os factores da competitividade territorial, Luanda: Centro de Estudos e Investigação Científica da Universidade Católica de Angola. ^ "A força do kwanza", Visão (Lisbon), 993, 15 May 2012, pp. 50–54 ^ The New Prosperity: Strategies for Improving Well-Being in Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
Tony Blair
Tony Blair
Africa
Africa
Governance Initiative 1 May 2013 ^ The New Prosperity: Strategies for Improving Well-Being in Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
Report by The Boston Consulting Group
The Boston Consulting Group
and Tony Blair Africa
Africa
Governance Initiative, May 2013 ^ Angola
Angola
is the third-largest sub-Saharan financial market, MacauHub, 23 July 2014 ^ Angola’s economy to grow by 3.9 percent-IMF StarAfrica, 4 September 2014 ^ Angola: Sector bancário mantém crescimento em 2013, Angola
Angola
Press (26 September 2014) ^ Angola
Angola
seen growing average 5 percent: Central Bank, Reuters (Africa), 10 June 2014 ^ CMC prepares launch of debt secondary market Angola
Angola
Press Agency, 16 December 2014 ^ Muzima, Joel. Mazivila, Domingos. “ Angola
Angola
2014” Retrieved from www.africaneconomicoutlook.org ^ “ Country
Country
partnership strategy for the republic of Angola” (15 August 2013). World Bank
World Bank
(Report No. 76225-A0) ^ "Sectores Económicos Prioritários" (in Portuguese). ANIP. Archived from the original on 11 April 2013.  ^ " Angola
Angola
Cables e parceiros estrangeiros anunciam construção de cabo submarino" (in Portuguese). ANGOP. 14 October 2014.  ^ Machado, André (30 January 2014). "Cabo submarino que ligará Brasil à África terá capacidade de 40 terabits por segundo" (in Portuguese). O Globo.  ^ Inácio, Adelina (12 March 2015). "Nação está mais ligada" (in Portuguese). Jornal de Angola.  ^ " Angola
Angola
has about 14 million mobile phone network users – Minister". ANGOP. 12 March 2015.  ^ " Angola
Angola
com crescimento anual superior a 55% no sector das TIC" (in Portuguese). Platina Line. 12 March 2015.  ^ "Sector das TIC com crescimento anual superior a 55 por cento na última década" (in Portuguese). Ver Angola. 13 March 2015.  ^ "Lançamento de satélite angolano volta a ser adiado, agora para 2017". br.sputniknews.com. Retrieved 19 November 2015.  ^ "Conclusion works of "Angosat" project set for 2016". ANGOP. 8 September 2014.  ^ Agência Lusa (4 November 2014). "Primeiro satélite angolano pronto para ser lançado em 2016" (in Portuguese). Observador.  ^ Angola
Angola
to manage own internet domain from 2015 Telecompaper, 16 September 2014 ^ Angola
Angola
manages its own Internet domain Macauhub, 16 September 2014 ^ "Table 2. Total population by country, 1950, 2000, 2015, 2025 and 2050 (medium-variant)". (PDF). United Nations
United Nations
Department of Economic and Social Affairs/Population Division. p. 27. ^ "Angola". CIA World Factbook. ^ As no reliable census data exist at this stage (2011), all these numbers are rough estimates only, subject to adjustments and updates. ^ 2050 Population as a Multiple of 2014 Archived 2 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine.. PRB 2014 World Population Data Sheet ^ U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants. "World Refugee Survey 2008". p. 37 ^ World Refugee Survey 2008 – Angola
Angola
Archived 10 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine., UNHCR. NB: This figure is highly doubtful, as it makes no clear distinction between migrant workers, refugees and immigrants. ^ " José Eduardo dos Santos
José Eduardo dos Santos
diz que trabalhadores portugueses são bem-vindos em Angola". Observatório da Emigração. Retrieved 22 July 2013. …presença de cerca de 200 mil trabalhadores portugueses no país…  ^ "Angola: Cerca de 259.000 chineses vivem atualmente no país". Visão. 25 April 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2013.  ^ "Calls for Angola
Angola
to Investigate Abuse of Congolese Migrants". Inter Press Service. 21 May 2012 ^ Bender, Gerald; Yoder, Stanley (1974). "Whites in Angola
Angola
on the Eve of Independence. The Politics of Numbers". Africa
Africa
Today. 21 (4): 23–27. JSTOR 4185453.  ^ Flight from Angola, The Economist
The Economist
, 16 August 1975 puts the number at 500,000, but this is an estimate lacking appropriate sources. ^ Siza, Rita (6 June 2013). " José Eduardo dos Santos
José Eduardo dos Santos
diz que trabalhadores portugueses são bem-vindos em Angola". Público. Lisbon.  ^ Phillips, Tom (26 August 2012) "Chinese 'gangsters' repatriated from Angola", The Daily Telegraph ^ Angola, Brazil
Brazil
– A culture shock divide[permanent dead link] ^ Silva, José António Maria da Conceição (2004) Angola. 7th World Urban Forum ^ "Angola: português é falado por 71,15% de angolanos" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 December 2016. Retrieved 10 January 2017.  ^ Viegas, Fátima (2008) Panorâmica das Religiões em Angola Independente (1975–2008), Ministério da Cultura/Instituto Nacional para os Assuntos Religiosos, Luanda ^ Schubert, Benedict (1997) Der Krieg und die Kirchen: Angola 1961–1991. Exodus, Luzern/Switzerland ^ Lawrence W. Henderson (1989) The Church in Angola: A river of many currents, Cleveland: Pilgrim Press ^ "Angola". State.gov. 19 September 2008. Retrieved 13 July 2014.  ^ Surgimento do Islão em Angola. O Pais. 2 September 2011. p. 18 ^ Oyebade, Adebayo O. Culture And Customs of Angola, 2006. Pages 45–46. ^ "ANGOLA 2012 INTERNATIONAL RELIGIOUS FREEDOM REPORT" (PDF). state.gov.  ^ Angola: Religious Freedom Profile at the Association of Religion Data Archives Brian J Grim and Roger Finke. "International Religion Indexes: Government Regulation, Government Favoritism and Social Regulation of Religion". Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion. 2 (2006) Article 1: www.religjournal.com. ^ "International Religious Freedom Report – Angola". U.S. Department of State. 1 January 2004. Retrieved 27 June 2010.  ^ Culture and customs of Angola. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. 2007. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-313-33147-3.  ^ "International Grants 2005" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 November 2008. Retrieved 27 June 2010.  ^ Retrospect2014: Fenacult marks cultural year Angola
Angola
Press Agency, 18 December 2014 ^ Seal, AJ; Creeke; Dibari; Cheung; Kyroussis; Semedo; Van Den Briel (January 2007). "Low and deficient niacin status and pellagra are endemic in postwar Angola". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 85 (1): 218–24. hdl:10144/125625 . PMID 17209199.  ^ Angola
Angola
Surveys, measuredhs.com ^ Novo instituto oncológico de Angola
Angola
quer ser referência em África, Notícias ao Minuto (Source: Lusa Agency), 9 September 2014 ^ Novo instituto oncológico de Angola
Angola
quer ser referência em África, Diário Digital (Source: Lusa Agency), 9 September 2014 ^ Novo instituto oncológico angolano quer ser instituição de referência no continente, Ver Angola, 11 September 2014 ^ Angola: Over 30,000 Children Vaccinated Against Measles
Measles
in Huila, All Africa, 30 September 2014 ^ Angola
Angola
lança vacinação nacional contra sarampo, Notícias ao Minuto (Source: Lusa Agency), 18 September 2014 ^ "WHO: Yellow fever outbreak is 'serious and of great concern'".  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Botswana". 2005 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor. Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department of Labor (2006). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. ^ "National adult literacy rates (15+), youth literacy rates (15–24) and elderly literacy rates (65+)". UNESCO Institute for Statistics.  ^ http://data.uis.unesco.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=EDULIT_DS&popupcustomise=true&lang=en# ^ " Angola
Angola
– Statistics". UNICEF. Archived from the original on 13 June 2010. Retrieved 27 June 2010.  ^ Angola
Angola
investe 16 milhões na informatização de 300 salas de aula em todo o país, jornal i (28 September 2014) ^ Sumário Executivo do Plano Director da ReMA. Rede de Mediatecas de Angola
Angola
(May 2013) ^ Government to open digital libraries in every province Angola
Angola
Press Agency, 8 January 2015 ^ Mediateca móvel aberta ao público Archived 9 February 2015 at the Portuguese Web Archive Jornal de Angola, 9 January 2015 ^ Poncianinho, Mestre; Almeida, Ponciano (2007). Capoeira: The Essential Guide to Mastering the Art. New Holland Publishers. pp. 18–. ISBN 978-1-84537-761-8. 

References[edit]

 Baynes, T.S., ed. (1878), "Angola", Encyclopædia Britannica, 2 (9th ed.), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 45   Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911), "Angola", Encyclopædia Britannica, 2 (11th ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 38–40  Much of the material in this article comes from the CIA World Factbook 2000 and the 2003 U.S. Department of State
U.S. Department of State
website. The information given there is, however, corrected and updated on the basis of the other sources indicated.

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16th century

1506–1615 Gamru (Bandar Abbas)

1507–1643 Sohar

1515–1622 Hormuz (Ormus)

1515–1648 Quriyat

1515–? Qalhat

1515–1650 Muscat

1515?–? Barka

1515–1633? Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah)

1521–1602 Bahrain
Bahrain
(Muharraq • Manama)

1521–1529? Qatif

1521?–1551? Tarut Island

1550–1551 Qatif

1588–1648 Matrah

17th century

1620–? Khor Fakkan

1621?–? As Sib

1621–1622 Qeshm

1623–? Khasab

1623–? Libedia

1624–? Kalba

1624–? Madha

1624–1648 Dibba Al-Hisn

1624?–? Bandar-e Kong

Indian subcontinent

15th century

1498–1545

Laccadive Islands (Lakshadweep)

16th century Portuguese India

 • 1500–1663 Cochim (Kochi)

 • 1501–1663 Cannanore (Kannur)

 • 1502–1658  1659–1661

Quilon (Coulão / Kollam)

 • 1502–1661 Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)

 • 1507–1657 Negapatam (Nagapatnam)

 • 1510–1961 Goa

 • 1512–1525  1750

Calicut (Kozhikode)

 • 1518–1619 Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)

 • 1521–1740 Chaul

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1523–1662 Mylapore

 • 1528–1666

Chittagong (Porto Grande De Bengala)

 • 1531–1571 Chaul

 • 1531–1571 Chalé

 • 1534–1601 Salsette Island

 • 1534–1661 Bombay (Mumbai)

 • 1535 Ponnani

 • 1535–1739 Baçaím (Vasai-Virar)

 • 1536–1662 Cranganore (Kodungallur)

 • 1540–1612 Surat

 • 1548–1658 Tuticorin (Thoothukudi)

 • 1559–1961 Daman and Diu

 • 1568–1659 Mangalore

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1579–1632 Hugli

 • 1598–1610 Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam)

1518–1521 Maldives

1518–1658 Portuguese Ceylon
Portuguese Ceylon
(Sri Lanka)

1558–1573 Maldives

17th century Portuguese India

 • 1687–1749 Mylapore

18th century Portuguese India

 • 1779–1954 Dadra and Nagar Haveli

East Asia and Oceania

16th century

1511–1641 Portuguese Malacca
Portuguese Malacca
[Malaysia]

1512–1621 Maluku [Indonesia]

 • 1522–1575  Ternate

 • 1576–1605  Ambon

 • 1578–1650  Tidore

1512–1665 Makassar

1557–1999 Macau [China]

1580–1586 Nagasaki [Japan]

17th century

1642–1975 Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
(East Timor)1

19th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1864–1999 Coloane

 • 1851–1999 Taipa

 • 1890–1999 Ilha Verde

20th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1938–1941 Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)

1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence was fully recognized.

North America & North Atlantic

15th century [Atlantic islands]

1420 Madeira

1432 Azores

16th century [Canada]

1500–1579? Terra Nova (Newfoundland)

1500–1579? Labrador

1516–1579? Nova Scotia

South America & Antilles

16th century

1500–1822 Brazil

 • 1534–1549  Captaincy Colonies of Brazil

 • 1549–1572  Brazil

 • 1572–1578  Bahia

 • 1572–1578  Rio de Janeiro

 • 1578–1607  Brazil

 • 1621–1815  Brazil

1536–1620 Barbados

17th century

1621–1751 Maranhão

1680–1777 Nova Colónia do Sacramento

18th century

1751–1772 Grão-Pará and Maranhão

1772–1775 Grão-Pará and Rio Negro

1772–1775 Maranhão and Piauí

19th century

1808–1822 Cisplatina
Cisplatina
(Uruguay)

1809–1817 Portuguese Guiana (Amapá)

1822 Upper Peru
Upper Peru
(Bolivia)

Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies Evolution of the Portuguese Empire Portuguese colonial architecture Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia Portuguese colonization of the Americas Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 152395020 LCCN: n80046439 ISNI: 0000 0004 0498 3083 GND: 4002050-2 BNF: cb11930899k (data) HDS:

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