Coordinates: 12°30′S 18°30′E / 12.500°S 18.500°E /
Republic of Angola
República de Angola (Portuguese)
Virtus Unita Fortior (Latin)
(English: "Virtue is stronger when united")
Location of Angola (dark blue)
in the African Union (light blue)
and largest city
8°50′S 13°20′E / 8.833°S 13.333°E / -8.833; 13.333
Ethnic groups (2000)
22% other African
Unitary dominant-party presidential constitutional republic
João Manuel Gonçalves Lourenço
• Vice President
Bornito de Sousa
• Portuguese colonization
• Independence from Portugal, under Communist rule
11 November 1975
United Nations full membership
22 November 1976
• Current constitution
21 January 2010
1,246,700 km2 (481,400 sq mi) (22nd)
• Water (%)
• 2014 census
20.69/km2 (53.6/sq mi) (199th)
$193.935 billion (64th)
• Per capita
$122.365 billion (61st)
• Per capita
medium · 150th
Drives on the
ISO 3166 code
Angola (/æŋˈɡoʊlə/), officially the
Republic of Angola
(Portuguese: República de
Angola pronounced [ɐ̃ˈɡɔlɐ];
Kimbundu and Umbundu: Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in
Southern Africa. It is the seventh-largest country in Africa, bordered
Namibia to the south, the Democratic
Republic of the Congo to the
Zambia to the east, and the
Atlantic Ocean to the west. The
exclave province of Cabinda borders the
Republic of the Congo and the
Republic of the Congo. The capital and largest city of
Angola is Luanda.
Although inhabited since the Paleolithic Era, what is now
molded by Portuguese colonisation. It began with, and was for
centuries limited to, coastal settlements and trading posts
established starting in the 16th century. In the 19th century,
European settlers slowly and hesitantly began to establish themselves
in the interior. The Portuguese colony that became
Angola did not have
its present borders until the early 20th century because of resistance
by groups such as the Cuamato, the Kwanyama and the Mbunda.
After a protracted anti-colonial struggle, independence was achieved
in 1975 as the
Republic of Angola, a
one-party state supported by the
Soviet Union and Cuba. The civil war
between the ruling People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola
(MPLA) and the insurgent anti-communist National Union for the Total
Angola (UNITA), supported by the
United States and
apartheid South Africa, lasted until 2002. It has since become a
relatively stable unitary presidential republic.
Angola has vast mineral and petroleum reserves, and its economy is
among the fastest-growing in the world, especially since the end of
the civil war; however the standard of living remains low for most of
the population, and life expectancy in
Angola is among the lowest in
the world, while infant mortality is among the highest. Angola's
economic growth is highly uneven, with most of the nation's wealth
concentrated in a disproportionately small sector of the
Angola is a member state of the United Nations, OPEC, African Union,
the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, and the Southern
African Development Community. A highly multiethnic country, Angola's
25.8 million people span tribal groups, customs, and traditions.
Angolan culture reflects centuries of Portuguese rule, in the
predominance of the
Portuguese language and of the Catholic Church.
2.1 Early migrations and political units
2.2 Portuguese colonisation
2.3 Rise of Angolan nationalism
2.4 Civil war
2.5 Ceasefire with UNITA
5.1 Armed forces
5.4 Foreign relations
5.5 Human rights
6 Administrative divisions
Exclave of Cabinda
8.3 Largest cities
13 See also
16 External links
Angola comes from the Portuguese colonial name Reino de
Angola (Kingdom of Angola), which appeared as early as Dias de
Novais's 1571 charter. The toponym was derived by the Portuguese
from the title ngola held by the kings of Ndongo.
Ndongo in the
highlands, between the Kwanza and Lukala Rivers, was nominally a
possession of the Kingdom of Kongo, but was seeking greater
independence in the 16th century.
Main article: History of Angola
Early migrations and political units
Territory comprising Kingdom of Ndongo, present-day Angola
Angola was populated predominantly by nomadic
Khoi and San
prior to the first Bantu migrations. The
Khoi and San peoples were
neither pastoralists nor cultivators, but hunter-gatherers. They
were displaced by
Bantu peoples arriving from the north, most of whom
likely originated in what is today northwestern
Nigeria and southern
Niger. Bantu speakers introduced the cultivation of bananas and
taro, as well as large cattle herds, to Angola's central highlands and
Luanda plain. To its south lay the Kingdom of Ndongo, from
which the area of the later Portuguese colony was sometimes known as
Colonial history of Angola and Portuguese Angola
Queen Nzinga in peace negotiations with the Portuguese governor in
Diogo Cão reached the area in 1484. The
previous year, the Portuguese had established relations with the
Kongo, which stretched at the time from modern
Gabon in the north to
Kwanza River in the south. The Portuguese established their
primary early trading post at Soyo, which is now the northernmost city
Angola apart from the Cabinda exclave. Paulo
Dias de Novais founded
São Paulo de Loanda (Luanda) in 1575 with a hundred families of
settlers and four hundred soldiers.
Benguela was fortified in 1587 and
became a township in 1617.
The Portuguese established several other settlements, forts and
trading posts along the Angolan coast, principally trading in Angolan
slaves for Brazilian plantations. Local slave dealers provided a large
number of slaves for the Portuguese Empire, usually in exchange
for manufactured goods from Europe.
This part of the
Atlantic slave trade
Atlantic slave trade continued until after Brazil's
independence in the 1820s.
Despite Portugal's territorial claims in Angola, its control over much
of the country's vast interior was minimal. In the 16th century
Portugal gained control of the coast through a series of treaties and
wars. Life for European colonists was difficult and progress slow.
John Iliffe notes that "Portuguese records of
Angola from the 16th
century show that a great famine occurred on average every seventy
years; accompanied by epidemic disease, it might kill one-third or
one-half of the population, destroying the demographic growth of a
generation and forcing colonists back into the river valleys".
An illustration depicting Portuguese encounter with Kongo Royal
During the Portuguese Restoration War, the Dutch West India Company
occupied the principal settlement of
Luanda in 1641, using alliances
with local peoples to carry out attacks against Portuguese holdings
elsewhere. A fleet under
Salvador de Sá
Salvador de Sá retook
Luanda in 1648;
reconquest of the rest of the territory was completed by 1650. New
treaties with the Kongo were signed in 1649; others with Njinga's
Ndongo followed in 1656. The conquest of Pungo
Andongo in 1671 was the last major Portuguese expansion from Luanda,
as attempts to invade Kongo in 1670 and
Matamba in 1681 failed.
Colonial outposts also expanded inward from Benguela, but until the
late 19th century the inroads from
Benguela were very
limited. Hamstrung by a series of political upheavals in the early
Portugal was slow to mount a large scale annexation of Angolan
The slave trade was abolished in
Angola in 1836, and in 1854 the
colonial government freed all its existing slaves. Four years
later, a more progressive administration appointed by Lisbon abolished
slavery altogether. However, these decrees remained largely
unenforceable, and the Portuguese depended on assistance from the
Royal Navy to enforce their ban on the slave trade. This
coincided with a series of renewed military expeditions into the
hinterland. By the mid-nineteenth century
Portugal had established its
dominion as far east as the
Congo River and as far south as
Mossâmedes. Until the late 1880s, Lisbon entertained proposals to
Angola with its colony in
Mozambique but was blocked by British
and Belgian opposition. In this period, the Portuguese came up
against different forms of armed resistance from various peoples in
Berlin Conference in 1884–1885 set the colony's borders,
delineating the boundaries of Portuguese claims in Angola,
although many details were unresolved until the 1920s. Trade
Portugal and her African territories also rapidly increased as
a result of protective tariffs, leading to increased development, and
a wave of new Portuguese immigrants.
Rise of Angolan nationalism
Angolan War of Independence
Angolan War of Independence and Portuguese Colonial War
Portuguese troops on patrol during the Portuguese Colonial War.
Under colonial law, black Angolans were forbidden from forming
political parties or labour unions. The first nationalist
movements did not take root until after World War II, spearheaded by a
largely Westernised, Portuguese-speaking urban class which included
many mestiços. During the early 1960s they were joined by other
associations stemming from ad hoc labour activism in the rural
workforce. Portugal's refusal to address increasing Angolan
demands for self-determination provoked an armed conflict which
erupted in 1961 with the
Baixa de Cassanje revolt and gradually
evolved into a protracted war of independence that persisted for the
next twelve years. Throughout the conflict, three militant
nationalist movements with their own partisan guerrilla wings emerged
from the fighting between the Portuguese government and local forces,
supported to varying degrees by the Portuguese Communist
The National Front for the Liberation of
Angola (FNLA) recruited from
Bakongo refugees in Zaire. Benefiting from particularly favourable
political circumstances in Léopoldville, and especially from a common
border with Zaire, Angolan political exiles were able to build up a
power base among a large expatriate community from related families,
clans, and traditions. People on both sides of the border spoke
mutually intelligible dialects and enjoyed shared ties to the
historical Kingdom of Kongo. Though as foreigners skilled Angolans
could not take advantage of Mobutu Sese Seko's state employment
programme, some found work as middlemen for the absentee owners of
various lucrative private ventures. The migrants eventually formed the
FNLA with the intention of making a bid for political power upon their
envisaged return to Angola.
Ovimbundu guerrilla initiative against the Portuguese in
Angola from 1966 was spearheaded by
Jonas Savimbi and the
National Union for the Total Independence of Angola
National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA). It
remained handicapped by its geographic remoteness from friendly
borders, the ethnic fragmentation of the Ovimbundu, and the isolation
of peasants on European plantations where they had little opportunity
FNLA insurgents being trained in
Zaire in 1973
During the late 1950s, the rise of the
Movement for the Liberation of
Angola (MPLA) in the east and Dembos
hills north of
Luanda came to hold special significance. Formed as a
coalition resistance movement by the Angolan Communist Party, the
organisation's leadership remained predominantly
Ambundu and courted
public sector workers in Luanda. Although both the
MPLA and its
rivals accepted material assistance from the
Soviet Union or the
Republic of China, the former harboured strong
anti-imperialist views and was openly critical of the United States
and its support for Portugal. This allowed it to win important
ground on the diplomatic front, soliciting support from nonaligned
governments in Morocco, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, and the United Arab
MPLA attempted to move its headquarters from
Léopoldville in October 1961, renewing efforts to create a common
front with the FNLA, then known as the Union of Angolan Peoples (UPA)
and its leader Holden Roberto. Roberto turned down the offer. When
MPLA first attempted to insert its own insurgents into Angola, the
cadres were ambushed and annihilated by UPA partisans on Roberto's
orders—setting a precedent for the bitter factional strife which
would later ignite the Angolan Civil War.
Main article: Angolan Civil War
Alvor Agreement and Cuban intervention in Angola
Monument to the memory of
Agostinho Neto and Angolan independence, in
Throughout the war of independence, the three rival nationalist
movements were severely hampered by political and military
factionalism, as well as their inability to unite guerrilla efforts
against the Portuguese. Between 1961 and 1975 the MPLA, UNITA, and
FNLA competed for influence in the Angolan population and the
international community. The
Soviet Union and
especially sympathetic towards the
MPLA and supplied that party with
arms, ammunition, funding, and training. They also backed UNITA
militants until it became clear that the latter was at irreconcilable
odds with the MPLA.
The collapse of Portugal's Estado Novo government following the 1974
Carnation Revolution suspended all Portuguese military activity in
Africa and the brokering of a ceasefire pending negotiations for
Angolan independence. Encouraged by the Organisation of African
Unity, Holden Roberto, Jonas Savimbi, and
MPLA chairman Agostinho Neto
Mombasa in early January 1975 and agreed to form a coalition
government. This was ratified by the
Alvor Agreement later that
month, which called for general elections and set the country's
independence date for 11 November 1975. All three factions,
however, followed up on the ceasefire by taking advantage of the
gradual Portuguese withdrawal to seize various strategic positions,
acquire more arms, and enlarge their militant forces. The rapid
influx of weapons from numerous external sources, especially the
Soviet Union and the United States, as well as the escalation of
tensions between the nationalist parties, fueled a new outbreak of
hostilities. With tacit American and Zairean support the FNLA
began massing large numbers of troops in northern
Angola in an attempt
to gain military superiority. Meanwhile, the
MPLA began securing
control of Luanda, a traditional
Ambundu stronghold. Sporadic
violence broke out in
Luanda over the next few months after the FNLA
MPLA forces in March 1975. The fighting intensified with
street clashes in April and May, and
UNITA became involved after over
two hundred of its members were massacred by an
MPLA contingent that
June. An upswing in Soviet arms shipments to the
MPLA influenced a
decision by the
Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency to likewise provide
substantial covert aid to the
FNLA and UNITA.
In August 1975, the
MPLA requested direct assistance from the Soviet
Union in the form of ground troops. The Soviets declined, offering
to send advisers but no troops; however,
Cuba was more forthcoming and
in late September dispatched nearly five hundred combat personnel to
Angola, along with sophisticated weaponry and supplies. By
independence there were over a thousand Cuban soldiers in the
country. They were kept supplied by a massive airbridge carried
out with Soviet aircraft. The persistent buildup of Cuban and
Soviet military aid allowed the
MPLA to drive its opponents from
Luanda and blunt an abortive intervention by Zairean and South African
troops, which had deployed in a belated attempt to assist the
FNLA was largely annihilated, although
UNITA managed to
withdraw its civil officials and militia from
Luanda and seek
sanctuary in the southern provinces. From there, Savimbi continued
to mount a determined insurgent campaign against the MPLA.
MPLA staff car burns after being destroyed in the fighting outside
Novo Redondo (present day Sumbe) in late 1975.
Between 1975 and 1991, the
MPLA implemented an economic and political
system based on the principles of scientific socialism, incorporating
central planning and a
Marxist–Leninist one-party state. It
embarked on an ambitious programme of nationalisation, and the
domestic private sector was essentially abolished. Privately owned
enterprises were nationalised and incorporated into a single umbrella
of state-owned enterprises known as Unidades Economicas Estatais
(UEE). Under the MPLA,
Angola experienced a significant degree of
modern industrialisation. However, corruption and graft also
increased and public resources were either allocated inefficiently or
simply embezzled by officials for personal enrichment. The ruling
party survived an attempted coup d'état by the Maoist-oriented
Communist Organisation of
Angola (OCA) in 1977, which was suppressed
after a series of bloody political purges left thousands of OCA
MPLA abandoned its former Marxist ideology at its third party
congress in 1990, and declared social democracy to be its new
Angola subsequently became a member of the International
Monetary Fund; restrictions on the market economy were also reduced in
an attempt to draw foreign investment. By May 1991 it reached a
peace agreement with UNITA, the Bicesse Accords, which scheduled new
general elections for September 1992. When the
MPLA secured a
major electoral victory,
UNITA objected to the results of both the
presidential and legislative vote count and returned to war.
Following the election, the Halloween massacre occurred from October
30 to November 1, where
MPLA forces killed thousands of UNITA
Ceasefire with UNITA
Main article: 2000s in Angola
Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
The rest of Angola
On 22 March 2002,
Jonas Savimbi was killed in action against
UNITA and the
MPLA reached a cease-fire shortly
UNITA gave up its armed wing and assumed the role of a
major opposition party. Although the political situation of the
country began to stabilise, regular democratic processes did not
prevail until the elections in
Angola in 2008 and 2012 and the
adoption of a new constitution in 2010, all of which strengthened the
prevailing dominant-party system.
Angola has a serious humanitarian crisis; the result of the prolonged
war, of the abundance of minefields, of the continued political (and
to a much lesser degree) military activities in favour of the
independence of the exclave of Cabinda (carried out in the context of
Cabinda Conflict by the Frente para a Libertação do
Enclave de Cabinda, (FLEC)), but most of all, by the depredation of
the country's rich mineral resources by the régime.
While most of the internally displaced have now settled around the
capital, in the so-called musseques, the general situation for
Angolans remains desperate.
Drought in 2016 caused the worst food crisis in
Southern Africa in 25
Drought affected 1.4 million people across seven of Angola's 18
provinces. Food prices rose and acute malnutrition rates doubled, with
more than 95,000 children affected.
Food insecurity was expected[by
whom?] to worsen from July to December 2016.
Main article: Geography of Angola
At 1,246,620 km2 (481,321 sq mi),
Angola is the
world's twenty-third largest country. It is comparable in size to
Mali, or twice the size of
France or Texas. It lies mostly between
latitudes 4° and 18°S, and longitudes 12° and 24°E.
Angola is bordered by
Namibia to the south,
Zambia to the east, the
Republic of the Congo to the north-east and the South
Atlantic Ocean to the west. The coastal exclave of Cabinda in the
north, borders the
Republic of the Congo to the north, and the
Republic of the Congo to the south. Angola's capital,
Luanda, lies on the Atlantic coast in the northwest of the country.
Geography of Angola
Coatinha beach in Benguela.
Miradouro da Lua on the south coast of Luanda.
Cunene River on the border of
Angola and Namibia.
Black Stones of Pungo Adongo near Malage, Angola.
Topographic map of Angola.
Main article: Climate of Angola
Angola map of Köppen climate classification.
Angola, although located in a tropical zone, has a climate that is not
characterized for this region, due to the confluence of three factors:
Benguela Current, cold, along the southern part of the coast;
The relief in the interior;
Influence of the
Namib Desert in the southwest.
As a result, Angola's climate is characterized by two seasons:
rainfall from October to April and drought, known as Cacimbo, from May
to August, drier, as the name implies, and with lower temperatures. On
the other hand, while the coastline has high rainfall rates,
decreasing from North to South and from 800 mm to 50 mm,
with average annual temperatures above 23 °C, the interior zone
can be divided into three areas:
North, with high rainfall and high temperatures;
Central Plateau, with a dry season and average temperatures of the
order of 19 °C;
South with very high thermal amplitudes due to the proximity of the
Kalahari Desert and the influence of masses of tropical air.
Main article: Politics of Angola
See also: Elections in Angola, Constitution of Angola, List of
political parties in Angola, Foreign relations of Angola, and List of
diplomatic missions of Angola
José Eduardo dos Santos
José Eduardo dos Santos meets with Vladimir Putin.
The National Assembly building in
Luanda was built by a Portuguese
company in 2013 at a cost of US$185 million
The Angolan government is composed of three branches of government:
executive, legislative and judicial. The executive branch of the
government is composed of the President, the Vice-Presidents and the
Council of Ministers. The legislative branch comprises a 220-seat
unicameral legislature elected from both provincial and nationwide
constituencies. For decades, political power has been concentrated in
The Constitution of 2010 establishes the broad outlines of government
structure and delineates the rights and duties of citizens. The legal
system is based on Portuguese law and customary law but is weak and
fragmented, and courts operate in only 12 of more than 140
municipalities. A Supreme Court serves as the appellate tribunal;
a Constitutional Court does not hold the powers of judicial
review. Governors of the 18 provinces are appointed by the
After the end of the civil war the regime came under pressure from
within as well as from the international community to become more
democratic and less authoritarian. Its reaction was to implement a
number of changes without substantially changing its character.
Angola is classified as 'not free' by
Freedom House in the Freedom in
the World 2014 report. The report noted that the August 2012
parliamentary elections, in which the ruling Popular Movement for the
Angola won more than 70% of the vote, suffered from
serious flaws, including outdated and inaccurate voter rolls.
Voter turnout dropped from 80% in 2008 to 60%.
Angola scored poorly on the 2013 Ibrahim Index of African Governance.
It was ranked 39 out of 52 sub-Saharan African countries, scoring
particularly badly in the areas of participation and human rights,
sustainable economic opportunity and human development. The Ibrahim
Index uses a number of variables to compile its list which reflects
the state of governance in Africa.
José Eduardo dos Santos, second
President of Angola
President of Angola from 1979 to
The new constitution, adopted in 2010, did away with presidential
elections, introducing a system in which the president and the
vice-president of the political party that wins the parliamentary
elections automatically become president and vice-president. Directly
or indirectly, the president controls all other organs of the state,
so there is de facto no separation of powers. In the
classifications used in constitutional law, this government falls
under the category of authoritarian regime. 
On 16 October 2014,
Angola was elected for the second time as a
non-permanent member of the UN Security Council, with 190 favourable
votes out of 193. The mandate began on 1 January 2015 and lasts for
Also that month, the country took on the leadership of the African
ministers and governors at the
International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund and the
World Bank, following debates at the annual meetings of both
Since January 2014 the
Angola has held the rotating
presidency of the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region
(ICGLR). In 2015, the executive secretary of ICGLR, Ntumba Luaba,
Angola an example to be followed because of the significant
progress it made over the 12 years of peace, particularly in terms of
socioeconomic and political-military stability.
After 38 years of rule, in 2017 President dos Santos stepped down from
MPLA leadership. The leader of the winning party at the
parliamentary elections in August 2017 become the next president of
MPLA selected Defense Minister General
João Lourenço and
won the election.
In what has been described as a political purge[by whom?] to
cement his power and reduce the influence of the Dos Santos family,
Lourenço subsequently sacked the chief of the national police,
Ambrósio de Lemos, and the head of the intelligence service,
Apolinário José Pereira. Both are considered allies of former
president Dos Santos. He also removed Isabel Dos Santos, daughter
of the former president, as head of the country's state oil company
Main article: Angolan Armed Forces
Angolan Air Force Ilyushin Il-76TD Karpezo-1
Angolan Army training in Russia. From left to right, the ranks of the
men are Second Lieutenant, First Lieutenant, and Captain.
Angolan Armed Forces
Angolan Armed Forces (AAF) is headed by a Chief of Staff who
reports to the Minister of Defence. There are three divisions—the
Army (Exército), Navy (Marinha de Guerra, MGA) and National Air Force
(Força Aérea Nacional, FAN). Total manpower is about
110,000. Its equipment includes Russian-manufactured
fighters, bombers and transport planes. There are also Brazilian-made
EMB-312 Tucanos for training, Czech-made L-39s for training and
bombing, and a variety of western-made aircraft such as the
C-212Aviocar, Sud Aviation Alouette III, etc. A small number of AAF
personnel are stationed in the Democratic
Republic of the Congo
(Kinshasa) and the
Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville).
The National Police departments are Public Order, Criminal
Investigation, Traffic and Transport, Investigation and Inspection of
Economic Activities, Taxation and Frontier Supervision, Riot Police
and the Rapid Intervention Police. The National Police are in the
process of standing up an air wing,[when?] to provide helicopter
support for operations. The National Police are developing their
criminal investigation and forensic capabilities. The force has an
estimated 6,000 patrol officers, 2,500 taxation and frontier
supervision officers, 182 criminal investigators and 100 financial
crimes detectives and around 90 economic activity inspectors.[citation
The National Police have implemented a modernisation and development
plan to increase the capabilities and efficiency of the total force.
In addition to administrative reorganisation, modernisation projects
include procurement of new vehicles, aircraft and equipment,
construction of new police stations and forensic laboratories,
restructured training programmes and the replacement of AKM rifles
with 9 mm Uzis for officers in urban areas.
A Supreme Court serves as a court of appeal. The Constitutional Court
is the supreme body of the constitutional jurisdiction, its Organic
Law was approved by Law no. 2/08, of June 17, and its first task was
the validation of the candidacies of the political parties to the
legislative elections of 5 September 2008. The legal system is based
on Portuguese and customary laws, but it is weak and fragmented. There
are only 12 courts in more than 140 counties in the country. A Supreme
Court serves as a court of appeal. With the approval of Law no. 2/08,
of June 17 – Organic Law of the Constitutional Court and Law n.
3/08, of June 17 – Organic Law of the Constitutional Process, the
Legal Creation of the Constitutional Court. Thus, on June 25, 2008,
the Constitutional Court was institutionalized and its Judicial
Counselors assumed the position before the President of the Republic.
On this date, seven advisory judges took office, four men and three
In 2014, a new penal code took effect in Angola. The classification of
money-laundering as a crime is one of the novelties in the new
Diplomatic missions of Angola.
On 16 October 2014,
Angola was elected for the second time a
non-permanent member of the
United Nations Security Council, with 190
favorable votes out of a total of 193. The term of office begins on 1
January 2015 and lasts for two Years.
Since January 2014, the
Angola has been chairing the
International Conference for the Great Lakes Region (CIRGL).  In
2015, CIRGL Executive Secretary
Ntumba Luaba said that
Angola is the
example to be followed by the members of the organization, due to the
significant progress made during the 12 years of peace, namely in
terms of socio-economic stability and political- military.
Human rights in Angola
Human rights in Angola and LGBT rights in Angola
Homosexual acts are currently illegal in Angola. However, in
February 2017, the Angolan Parliament approved a new penal code which
does not outlaw homosexual acts. The law will take effect in late
2017. In 2010, the Angolan Government refused to
receive openly gay Isi Yanouka as the new Israeli ambassador,
allegedly due to his sexual orientation.
Main articles: Provinces of Angola, Municipalities of Angola, and
Communes of Angola
Angola with the provinces numbered
As of March 2016[update],
Angola is divided into eighteen provinces
(províncias) and 162 municipalities. The municipalities are further
divided into 559 communes (townships). The provinces are:
Exclave of Cabinda
Main articles: Cabinda and
Republic of Cabinda
Flag of the
Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda
Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda (FLEC)
With an area of approximately 7,283 square kilometres
(2,812 sq mi), the Northern Angolan province of Cabinda is
unusual in being separated from the rest of the country by a strip,
some 60 kilometres (37 mi) wide, of the Democratic
Congo along the lower Congo River. Cabinda borders the Congo Republic
to the north and north-northeast and the DRC to the east and south.
The town of Cabinda is the chief population centre.
According to a 1995 census, Cabinda had an estimated population of
600,000, approximately 400,000 of whom live in neighbouring countries.
Population estimates are, however, highly unreliable. Consisting
largely of tropical forest, Cabinda produces hardwoods, coffee, cocoa,
crude rubber and palm oil. The product for which it is best known,
however, is its oil, which has given it the nickname, "the Kuwait of
Africa". Cabinda's petroleum production from its considerable offshore
reserves now accounts for more than half of Angola's output. Most
of the oil along its coast was discovered under Portuguese rule by the
Cabinda Gulf Oil Company (CABGOC) from 1968 onwards.
Portugal handed over sovereignty of its former overseas
Angola to the local independence groups (MPLA,
FNLA), the territory of Cabinda has been a focus of separatist
guerrilla actions opposing the
Government of Angola
Government of Angola (which has
employed its armed forces, the FAA—Forças Armadas Angolanas) and
Cabindan separatists. The Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of
Cabinda-Armed Forces of Cabinda (FLEC-FAC) announced a virtual Federal
Republic of Cabinda under the Presidency of N'Zita Henriques Tiago.
One of the characteristics of the Cabindan independence movement is
its constant fragmentation, into smaller and smaller factions.
Main article: Economy of Angola
A booming economy due to oil revenues and stable politics,
seen an increase in its international trading sector.
Luanda city centre.
Banco Nacional de Angola building on the Marginal in
TAAG Angolan Airlines
TAAG Angolan Airlines is Angola's national airline.
New suburb (new housing area) in
Luanda built in 2010.
Offshore petrol platform prepared for moving to final destination on
high sea, Luanda, Angola, Atlantic Ocean
Angola has diamonds, oil, gold, copper and a rich wildlife
(dramatically impoverished during the civil war), forest and fossil
fuels. Since independence, oil and diamonds have been the most
important economic resource. Smallholder and plantation agriculture
dramatically dropped in the Angolan Civil War, but began to recover
after 2002. The transformation industry[clarification needed] of the
late colonial period collapsed at independence, because of the exodus
of most of the ethnic Portuguese population, but it has begun to
re-emerge with updated technologies, partly because of an influx of
new Portuguese entrepreneurs. Similar developments have taken place in
the service sector.
Angola's economy has in recent years moved on from the disarray caused
by a quarter-century of
Angolan civil war
Angolan civil war to become the
fastest-growing economy in
Africa and one of the fastest-growing in
the world, with an average
GDP growth of 20% between 2005 and
2007. In the period 2001–10,
Angola had the world's highest
GDP growth, at 11.1%.
In 2004, the
Exim Bank of China
Exim Bank of China approved a $2 billion line of
credit to Angola, to be used for rebuilding Angola's infrastructure,
and to limit the influence of the International Monetary Fund
China is Angola's biggest trade partner and export destination as well
as the fourth-largest source of imports. Bilateral trade reached
$27.67 billion in 2011, up 11.5% year-on-year. China's imports,
mainly crude oil and diamonds, increased 9.1% to $24.89 billion
while China's exports to Angola, including mechanical and electrical
products, machinery parts and construction materials, surged
38.8%. The oil glut led to a local price for unleaded
gasoline of £0.37 a gallon.
The Economist reported in 2008 that diamonds and oil make up 60% of
Angola's economy, almost all of the country's revenue and all of its
dominant exports. Growth is almost entirely driven by rising oil
production which surpassed 1.4 million barrels per day
(220,000 m3/d) in late 2005 and was expected to grow to 2 million
barrels per day (320,000 m3/d) by 2007. Control of the oil
industry is consolidated in
Sonangol Group, a conglomerate owned by
the Angolan government. In December 2006,
Angola was admitted as a
member of OPEC.
Operations in its diamond mines include partnerships between state-run
Endiama and mining companies such as
ALROSA which operate in
The Angolan economy grew 18% in 2005, 26% in 2006 and 17.6% in 2007.
Due to the global recession the economy contracted an estimated
−0.3% in 2009. The security brought about by the 2002 peace
settlement has allowed the resettlement of 4 million displaced
persons and a resulting large-scale increases in agriculture
Although the country's economy has grown significantly since Angola
achieved political stability in 2002, mainly due to fast-rising
earnings in the oil sector,
Angola faces huge social and economic
problems. These are in part a result of almost continual armed
conflict from 1961 on, although the highest level of destruction and
socio-economic damage took place after the 1975 independence, during
the long years of civil war. However, high poverty rates and blatant
social inequality chiefly stem from persistent authoritarianism,
"neo-patrimonial" practices at all levels of the political,
administrative, military and economic structures, and of a pervasive
corruption. The main beneficiaries are political,
administrative, economic and military power holders, who have
accumulated (and continue to accumulate) enormous wealth.
"Secondary beneficiaries" are the middle strata which are about to
become social classes. However, almost half the population has to be
considered poor, with dramatic differences between the countryside and
the cities (where by now slightly more than 50% of the people live).
A study carried out in 2008 by the Angolan Instituto Nacional de
Estatística found that in rural areas roughly 58% must be classified
as "poor" according to UN norms, but in the urban areas only 19%, and
an overall rate of 37%. In cities, a majority of families, well
beyond those officially classified as poor, must adopt a variety of
survival strategies.[clarification needed] In urban areas social
inequality is most evident and it's extreme in Luanda. In the
Human Development Index
Human Development Index
Angola constantly ranks in the bottom
According to the Heritage Foundation, a conservative American think
tank, oil production from
Angola has increased so significantly that
Angola now is China's biggest supplier of oil. “China has
extended three multibillion dollar lines of credit to the Angolan
government; two loans of $2 billion from China Exim Bank, one in 2004,
the second in 2007, as well as one loan in 2005 of $2.9 billion from
China International Fund Ltd.”
Growing oil revenues also created opportunities for corruption:
according to a recent
Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch report, 32 billion US
dollars disappeared from government accounts in 2007–2010.
Furthermore, Sonangol, the state-run oil company, controls 51% of
Cabinda’s oil. Due to this market control the company ends up
determining the profit received by the government and the taxes it
pays. The council of foreign affairs states that the World Bank
Sonangol " is a taxpayer, it carries out quasi-fiscal
activities, it invests public funds, and, as concessionaire, it is a
sector regulator. This multifarious work programme creates conflicts
of interest and characterises a complex relationship between Sonangol
and the government that weakens the formal budgetary process and
creates uncertainty as regards the actual fiscal stance of the
Before independence in 1975,
Angola was a breadbasket of southern
Africa and a major exporter of bananas, coffee and sisal, but three
decades of civil war (1975–2002) destroyed fertile countryside, left
it littered with landmines and drove millions into the cities. The
country now depends on expensive food imports, mainly from South
Africa and Portugal, while more than 90% of farming is done at the
family and subsistence level. Thousands of Angolan small-scale farmers
are trapped in poverty.
The enormous differences between the regions pose a serious structural
problem for the Angolan economy, illustrated by the fact that about
one third of economic activities are concentrated in
neighbouring Bengo province, while several areas of the interior
suffer economic stagnation and even regression.
One of the economic consequences of the social and regional
disparities is a sharp increase in Angolan private investments abroad.
The small fringe of Angolan society where most of the asset
accumulation takes place seeks to spread its assets, for reasons of
security and profit. For the time being, the biggest share of these
investments is concentrated in
Portugal where the Angolan presence
(including the family of the state president) in banks as well as in
the domains of energy, telecommunications, and mass media has become
notable, as has the acquisition of vineyards and orchards as well as
of touristic enterprises.
Africa nations are globally achieving impressive
improvements in well-being, according to a report by Tony Blair's
Africa Governance Initiative and the Boston Consulting Group.
Angola has upgraded critical infrastructure, an investment made
possible by funds from the nation's development of oil resources.
According to this report, just slightly more than ten years after the
end of the civil war Angola's standard of living has overall greatly
improved. Life expectancy, which was just 46 years in 2002, reached 51
in 2011. Mortality rates for children fell from 25 percent in 2001 to
19 percent in 2010 and the number of students enrolled in primary
school has tripled since 2001. However, at the same time the
social and economic inequality that has characterised the country
since long has not diminished, but on the contrary deepened in all
With a stock of assets corresponding to 70 billion Kz
(6.8 billion USD),
Angola is now the third largest financial
market in sub-Saharan Africa, surpassed only by
Nigeria and South
Africa. According to the Angolan Minister of Economy, Abraão Gourgel,
the financial market of the country grew modestly from 2002 and now
lies in third place at the level of sub-Saharan Africa.
Angola's economy is expected to grow by 3.9 percent in 2014 said the
International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund (IMF), robust growth in the non-oil
economy, mainly driven by a very good performance in the agricultural
sector, is expected to offset a temporary drop in oil production.
Angola's financial system is maintained by the National Bank of Angola
and managed by governor Jose de Lima Massano. According to a study on
the banking sector, carried out by Deloitte, the monetary policy led
Banco Nacional de Angola (BNA), the Angolan national bank, allowed
a decrease in the inflation rate put at 7.96% in December 2013, which
contributed to the sector's growth trend. Estimates released by
Angola's central bank, said country's economy should grow at an annual
average rate of 5 percent over the next four years, boosted by the
increasing participation of the private sector.
On 19 December 2014, the Capital Market in
Angola started. BODIVA
Angola Securities and Debt Stock Exchange, in English) received the
secondary public debt market, and it is expected to start the
corporate debt market by 2015, but the stock market should be a
reality only in 2016.
Agriculture and forestry is an area of opportunity for the country.
Angola requires 4.5 million tonnes a year of grain but grows only
about 55% of the corn it needs, 20% of the rice and just 5% of its
required wheat”(African economic Outlook) but “less than 3
percent of Angola's abundant fertile land is cultivated and the
economic potential of the forestry sector remains largely
unexploited” (World Bank).
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Main article: Transport in Angola
Quatro de Fevereiro
Luanda Airport arrivals.
Train station in Benguela.
Ship loading minerals at
Namibe harbour, Angola.
Transport in Angola
Transport in Angola consists of:
Three separate railway systems totalling 2,761 km (1,716 mi)
76,626 km (47,613 mi) of highway of which 19,156 km
(11,903 mi) is paved
1,295 navigable inland waterways
Eight major sea ports
243 airports, of which 32 are paved.
Travel on highways outside of towns and cities in
Angola (and in some
cases within) is often not best advised for those without four-by-four
vehicles. While a reasonable road infrastructure has existed within
Angola, time and the war have taken their toll on the road surfaces,
leaving many severely potholed, littered with broken asphalt. In many
areas drivers have established alternate tracks to avoid the worst
parts of the surface, although careful attention must be paid to the
presence or absence of landmine warning markers by the side of the
road. The Angolan government has contracted the restoration of many of
the country's roads. The road between
Lubango and Namibe, for example,
was completed recently with funding from the European Union, and is
comparable to many European main routes. Completing the road
infrastructure is likely to take some decades, but substantial efforts
are already being made.
Transport is an important aspect in
Angola because it is strategically
located and it could become a regional logistics hub. In addition
Angola has some of the most important and biggest ports and so it is
vital to connect them to the interior of the country as well as to
Tourism is restarting on the heels of the long ended stop in the civil
war, and very few tourists venture anywhere in
Angola yet due to lack
The telecommunications industry is considered one of the main
strategic sectors in Angola.
In October 2014, the building of an optic fiber underwater cable was
announced. This project aims to turn
Angola into a continental
hub, thus improving Internet connections both nationally and
On 11 March 2015, the First Angolan Forum of
Information Technology was held in
Luanda under the motto "The
challenges of telecommunications in the current context of
Angola", to promote debate on topical issues on telecommunications
Angola and worldwide. A study of this sector, presented at the
Angola had the first telecommunications operator in Africa
to test LTE – with speeds up to 400Mbit/s – and mobile penetration
of about 75%; there are about 3.5 million smartphone in the Angolan
market; There are about 25,000 kilometres (16,000 miles) of optical
fibre installed in the country.
The first Angolan satellite, AngoSat-1, will be ready for launch into
orbit in 2017 and ensure telecommunications throughout the
country. According to Aristides Safeca, Secretary of State for
Telecommunications, the satellite will provide telecommunications
services, TV, internet and e-government and will remain into orbit "at
best" for 18 years.
The management of the top-level domain '.ao' will pass from Portugal
Angola in 2015, following new legislation. A joint decree of
Telecommunications and Information Technologies José
Carvalho da Rocha and the minister of Science and Technology, Maria
Cândida Pereira Teixeira, states that "under the massification" of
that Angolan domain, "conditions are created for the transfer of the
domain root '.ao' of
Portugal to Angola".
Main article: Demographics of Angola
Population Pyramid of
Angola in 2012
Population in Angola
Angola has a population of 24,383,301 inhabitants according to the
preliminary results of its 2014 census, the first one conducted or
carried out since 15 December 1970. It is composed of Ovimbundu
(language Umbundu) 37%,
Ambundu (language Kimbundu) 23%,
and 32% other ethnic groups (including the Chokwe, the Ovambo, the
Ganguela and the Xindonga) as well as about 2% mestiços (mixed
European and African), 1.6% Chinese and 1% European. The Ambundu
Ovimbundu ethnic groups combined form a majority of the
population, at 62%. The population is forecast to grow to over 60
million people to 2050, 2.7 times the 2014 population. However,
on 23 March 2016, official data revealed by Angola's National
Statistic Institute – Instituto Nacional de Estatística (INE),
Angola has a population of 25.789.024 inhabitants.
It is estimated that
Angola was host to 12,100 refugees and 2,900
asylum seekers by the end of 2007. 11,400 of those refugees were
originally from the Democratic
Republic of Congo, who arrived in the
1970s. As of 2008[update] there were an estimated 400,000
Republic of the Congo migrant workers, at least
220,000 Portuguese, and about 259,000 Chinese living in
Since 2003, more than 400,000 Congolese migrants have been expelled
from Angola. Prior to independence in 1975,
Angola had a
community of approximately 350,000 Portuguese, but the vast
majority left after independence and the ensuing civil war. However,
Angola has recovered its Portuguese minority in recent years;
currently, there are about 200,000 registered with the consulates, and
increasing due to the debt crisis in
Portugal and the relative
prosperity in Angola. The Chinese population stands at 258,920,
mostly composed of temporary migrants. Also, there is a small
Brazilian community of about 5,000 people.
The total fertility rate of
Angola is 5.54 children born per woman
(2012 estimates), the 11th highest in the world.
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Main article: Languages of Angola
Ethnic groups of
The languages in
Angola are those originally spoken by the different
ethnic groups and Portuguese, introduced during the Portuguese
colonial era. The most widely spoken indigenous languages are Umbundu,
Kimbundu and Kikongo, in that order. Portuguese is the official
language of the country.
Although the exact numbers of those fluent in Portuguese or who speak
Portuguese as a first language are unknown, a 2012 study mentions that
Portuguese is the first language of 39% of the population. In
2014, a census carried out by the Instituto Nacional de Estatística
Angola mentions that 71.15% of the nearly 25.8 million inhabitants
Angola (meaning around 18.3 million people) use Portuguese as a
first or second language.
Main articles: Religion in Angola, Christianity in Angola, and Islam
Catholic church in Benguela
There are about 1,000 religious communities, mostly Christian, in
Angola. While reliable statistics are nonexistent, estimates have
it that more than half of the population are Catholics, while about a
quarter adhere to the Protestant churches introduced during the
colonial period: the Congregationalists mainly among the
the Central Highlands and the coastal region to its west, the
Methodists concentrating on the
Kimbundu speaking strip from
Baptists almost exclusively among the
Bakongo of the
north-west (now present in
Luanda as well) and dispersed Adventists,
Reformed and Lutherans. In
Luanda and region there subsists
a nucleus of the "syncretic" Tocoists and in the north-west a
Kimbanguism can be found, spreading from the
Congo/Zaïre. Since independence, hundreds of
Pentecostal and similar
communities have sprung up in the cities, where by now about 50% of
the population is living; several of these communities/churches are of
As of 2008[update] the
U.S. Department of State
U.S. Department of State estimates the Muslim
population at 80,000–90,000, less than 1% of the population,
while the Islamic Community of
Angola puts the figure closer to
500,000. Muslims consist largely of migrants from West
the Middle East (especially Lebanon), although some are local
converts. The Angolan government does not legally recognize any
Muslim organizations and often shuts down mosques or prevents their
In a study assessing nations' levels of religious regulation and
persecution with scores ranging from 0 to 10 where 0 represented low
levels of regulation or persecution,
Angola was scored 0.8 on
Government Regulation of Religion, 4.0 on Social Regulation of
Religion, 0 on Government Favoritism of Religion and 0 on Religious
Foreign missionaries were very active prior to independence in 1975,
although since the beginning of the anti-colonial fight in 1961 the
Portuguese colonial authorities expelled a series of Protestant
missionaries and closed mission stations based on the belief that the
missionaries were inciting pro-independence sentiments. Missionaries
have been able to return to the country since the early 1990s,
although security conditions due to the civil war have prevented them
until 2002 from restoring many of their former inland mission
Catholic Church and some major Protestant denominations mostly
keep to themselves in contrast to the "New Churches" which actively
proselytize. Catholics, as well as some major Protestant
denominations, provide help for the poor in the form of crop seeds,
farm animals, medical care and education.
Largest cities or towns in Angola
Main article: Culture of Angola
Music of Angola
Music of Angola and Angolan cuisine
Yombe-sculpture, 19th century
The substrate of Angolan culture is African, predominantly Bantu,
while Portuguese culture has had a significant impact, specifically in
terms of language and religion. The diverse ethnic communities – the
Ovimbundu, Ambundu, Bakongo, Chokwe, Mbunda and other peoples – to
varying degrees maintain their own cultural traits, traditions and
languages, but in the cities, where slightly more than half of the
population now lives, a mixed culture has been emerging since colonial
times; in Luanda, since its foundation in the 16th century. In this
urban culture, the Portuguese heritage has become more and more
dominant. African roots are evident in music and dance, and is
moulding the way in which Portuguese is spoken. This process is well
reflected in contemporary Angolan literature, especially in the works
of Angolan authors.
Angola resumed the National Festival of Angolan Culture after
a 25-year break. The festival took place in all the provincial
capitals and lasted for 20 days, with the theme Culture as a Factor of
Peace and Development.
Main article: Health in Angola
Angolan woman with children outside a health clinic
Epidemics of cholera, malaria, rabies and African hemorrhagic fevers
like Marburg hemorrhagic fever, are common diseases in several parts
of the country. Many regions in this country have high incidence rates
of tuberculosis and high HIV prevalence rates. Dengue, filariasis,
leishmaniasis and onchocerciasis (river blindness) are other diseases
carried by insects that also occur in the region.
Angola has one of
the highest infant mortality rates in the world and one of the world's
lowest life expectancies. A 2007 survey concluded that low and
deficient niacin status was common in Angola. Demographic and
Health Surveys is currently conducting several surveys in
malaria, domestic violence and more.
In September 2014, the Angolan Institute for Cancer Control (IACC) was
created by presidential decree, and it will integrate the National
Health Service in Angola. The purpose of this new centre is to
ensure health and medical care in oncology, policy implementation,
programmes and plans for prevention and specialised treatment.
This cancer institute will be assumed as a reference institution in
the central and southern regions of Africa.
Angola launched a national campaign of vaccination against
measles, extended to every child under ten years old and aiming to go
to all 18 provinces in the country. The measure is part of the
Strategic Plan for the Elimination of
Measles 2014–2020 created by
the Angolan Ministry of Health which includes strengthening routine
immunisation, a proper dealing with measles cases, national campaigns,
introducing a second dose of vaccination in the national routine
vaccination calendar and active epidemiological surveillance for
measles. This campaign took place together with the vaccination
against polio and vitamin A supplementation.
A yellow fever outbreak, the worst in the country in three
decades began in December 2015. By August 2016, when the outbreak
began to subside, nearly 4,000 people were suspected of being
infected. As many as 369 may have died. The outbreak began in the
capital, Luanda, and spread to at least 16 of the 18 provinces.
Main article: Education in Angola
Lyceum Salvador Correia in Luanda
Kuito class, Angola
Although by law education in
Angola is compulsory and free for eight
years, the government reports that a percentage of pupils are not
attending due to a lack of school buildings and teachers. Pupils
are often responsible for paying additional school-related expenses,
including fees for books and supplies.
In 1999, the gross primary enrollment rate was 74 percent and in 1998,
the most recent year for which data are available, the net primary
enrollment rate was 61 percent. Gross and net enrollment ratios
are based on the number of pupils formally registered in primary
school and therefore do not necessarily reflect actual school
attendance. There continue to be significant disparities in
enrollment between rural and urban areas. In 1995, 71.2 percent of
children ages 7 to 14 years were attending school. It is reported
that higher percentages of boys attend school than girls. During
Angolan Civil War
Angolan Civil War (1975–2002), nearly half of all schools were
reportedly looted and destroyed, leading to current problems with
The Ministry of Education recruited 20,000 new teachers in 2005 and
continued to implement teacher trainings. Teachers tend to be
underpaid, inadequately trained and overworked (sometimes teaching two
or three shifts a day). Some teachers may reportedly demand
payment or bribes directly from their pupils. Other factors, such
as the presence of landmines, lack of resources and identity papers,
and poor health prevent children from regularly attending school.
Although budgetary allocations for education were increased in 2004,
the education system in
Angola continues to be extremely
According to estimates by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics, the
adult literacy rate in 2011 was 70.4%. By 2015, this had
increased to 71.1%. 82.9% of males and 54.2% of women are
literate as of 2001. Since independence from
Portugal in 1975, a
number of Angolan students continued to be admitted every year at high
schools, polytechnical institutes and universities in Portugal, Brazil
Cuba through bilateral agreements; in general, these students
belong to the elites.
In September 2014, the Angolan Ministry of Education announced an
investment of 16 million Euros in the computerisation of over 300
classrooms across the country. The project also includes training
teachers at a national level, "as a way to introduce and use new
information technologies in primary schools, thus reflecting an
improvement in the quality of teaching."
In 2010, the Angolan government started building the Angolan Media
Libraries Network, distributed throughout several provinces in the
country to facilitate the people's access to information and
knowledge. Each site has a bibliographic archive, multimedia resources
and computers with Internet access, as well as areas for reading,
researching and socialising. The plan envisages the establishment
of one media library in each Angolan province by 2017. The project
also includes the implementation of several media libraries, in order
to provide the several contents available in the fixed media libraries
to the most isolated populations in the country. At this time,
the mobile media libraries are already operating in the provinces of
Luanda, Malanje, Uíge, Cabinda and Lunda South. As for REMA, the
provinces of Luanda, Benguela,
Soyo have currently working
Interior of 11 November stadium in Luanda, Angola, with Tribunes and
Basketball is the most popular sports in Angola. Its national team has
AfroBasket 11 times and holds the record of most titles. As a
top team in Africa, it's a regular competitor at the Summer Olympic
Games and the FIBA World Cup. In football,
Angola hosted the 2010
Africa Cup of Nations. The
Angola national football team
Angola national football team qualified for
the 2006 FIFA World Cup, as this was their first appearance on the
World Cup finals stage. They were eliminated after one defeat and two
draws in the group stage. They won 3 COSAFA Cups and finished runner
up in 2011 African Nations Championship.
Angola has participated in
World Women's Handball Championship
World Women's Handball Championship for several years. The country
has also appeared in the Summer Olympics for seven years and both
regularly competes in and once has hosted the FIRS Roller Hockey World
Cup, where the best finish is sixth.
Angola is also often believed to
have historic roots in the martial art "Capoeira Angola" and "Batuque"
which were practiced by enslaved African Angolans transported as part
of the Atlantic slave trade.
Outline of Angola
Index of Angola-related articles
^ a b 2014 population census (INE Angola) Archived 6 May 2016 at the
^ a b c d "Angola". International Monetary Fund.
^ "Gini Index". World Bank. Archived from the original on 9 February
2015. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF).
United Nations Development
Programme. 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
Life expectancy at birth". World Fact Book.
United States Central
Intelligence Agency. 2014.
^ "Transparency and Accountability in Angola". Human Rights Watch.
Retrieved 1 April 2016.
^ Heywood, Linda M. & Thornton, John K. (2007) Central Africans,
Atlantic Creoles, and the foundation of the Americas, 1585–1660.
Cambridge University Press. p. 82. ISBN 0521770653
^ Henderson, Lawrence (1979). Angola: Five Centuries of Conflict.
Ithaca: Cornell University Press. pp. 40–42.
^ Miller, Josep h (1979). Kings and Kinsmen: Early Mbundu States in
Angola. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. pp. 55–56.
^ "The Story of Africa". BBC. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
^ a b c d EB (1878).
^ Fleisch, Axel (2004). "Angola: Slave Trade, Abolition of". In
Shillington, Kevin. Encyclopedia of African History 3-Volume Set. 1.
Routledge. pp. 131–133. ISBN 1-57958-245-1.
^ Global Investment and Business Center (1 January 2006).
the Eighteenth Century: Slave trading in the 1700s.
Jose Eduardo Dos Santos Handbook. Int'l Business Publications.
p. 153. ISBN 0739716069.
^ World Bank. The History of Brazil–
Africa Relations (PDF). Bridging
the Atlantic. p. 27. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
^ a b c d e f Collelo, Thomas, ed. (1991). Angola, a
Area Handbook Series (Third ed.). Washington, D.C.: Department of the
Army, American University. pp. 14–26.
^ Iliffe, John (2007) Africans: the history of a continent. Cambridge
University Press. p. 68. ISBN 0-521-68297-5. For valuable
complements for the 16th and 17th centuries see Beatrix Heintze,
Studien zur Geschichte Angolas im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert,
Colónia/Alemanha: Köppe, 1996
^ a b c Corrado, Jacopo (2008). The Creole Elite and the Rise of
Angolan Protonationalism: 1870–1920. Amherst, New York: Cambria
Press. pp. 11–13. ISBN 978-1604975291.
^ See René Pélissier, Les guerres grises: Résistance et revoltes en
Angola, (1845-1941), Éditions Pélissier, Montamets, 78630 Orgeval
^ See René Pélissier, La colonie du Minotaure. Nationalismes et
Angola (1926–1961), éditions Pélissier, Montamets,
78630 Orgeval (France), 1979
^ a b Okoth, Assa (2006). A History of Africa: African nationalism and
the de-colonisation process. Nairobi: East African Educational
Publishers. pp. 143–147. ISBN 9966-25-358-0.
^ a b Dowden, Richard (2010). Africa: Altered States, Ordinary
Miracles. London: Portobello Books. pp. 207–208.
^ a b c d e Cornwell, Richard (1 November 2000). "The War of
Independence" (PDF). Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 February 2015. Retrieved 20
^ a b Stockwell, John (1979) . In Search Of Enemies. London:
Futura Publications Limited. pp. 44–45.
^ a b c Hanlon, Joseph (1986). Beggar Your Neighbours: Apartheid Power
in Southern Africa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
p. 155. ISBN 978-0253331311.
^ a b c d Chabal, Patrick (2002). A History of Postcolonial Lusophone
Africa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. p. 142.
^ a b c d e f g Rothschild, Donald (1997). Managing Ethnic Conflict in
Africa: Pressures and Incentives for Cooperation. Washington: The
Brookings Institution. pp. 115–120.
^ a b Domínguez, Jorge (1989). To Make a World Safe for Revolution:
Cuba's Foreign Policy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
pp. 131–133. ISBN 978-0674893252.
^ a b c d e f g Weigert, Stephen (2011). Angola: A Modern Military
History. Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 56–65.
^ a b c d e Vanneman, Peter (1990). Soviet Strategy in Southern
Africa: Gorbachev's Pragmatic Approach. Stanford: Hoover Institution
Press. pp. 48–49. ISBN 978-0817989026.
^ a b c d Ferreira, Manuel (2002). Brauer, Jurgen; Dunne, J. Paul,
eds. Arming the South: The Economics of Military Expenditure, Arms
Production and Arms Trade in Developing Countries. Basingstoke:
Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 251–255.
^ Akongdit, Addis Ababa Othow (2013). Impact of Political Stability on
Economic Development: Case of South Sudan. Bloomington: AuthorHouse
Ltd, Publishers. pp. 74–75. ISBN 978-1491876442.
^ a b Tucker, Spencer (2013). Encyclopedia of Insurgency and
Counterinsurgency: A New Era of Modern Warfare. Santa Barbara:
ABC-CLIO Ltd, Publishers. pp. 374–375.
^ a b c Tordoff, William (1997). Government and Politics in Africa
(Third ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 97–98.
^ W. James, Martin (2004). Historical Dictionary of Angola. Rowman
& Littlefield. pp. 161–162. ISBN 978-1538111239.
^ Lari (2004),
Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch (2005)
^ For an overall analysis see Ricardo Soares de Oliveira, Magnificant
and Beggar Land:
Angola since the Civil War, London: Hurst, 2015
^ "How southern
Africa is coping with worst global food crisis for 25
years". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 December 2016.
Drought is affecting
1.4 million people across seven of Angola’s 18 provinces. Food
prices have rocketed and acute malnutrition rates have doubled, with
more than 95,000 children affected.
Food insecurity is expected to
worsen from July to the end of the year.
^ "CIA –
The World Factbook
The World Factbook –
Country Comparison :: Area".
United States Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 13 July
^ "Cabinda". Global Security. Archived from the original on 8 July
^ Mulenga, Henry Mubanga (1999). Southern African climate anomalies,
summer rainfall and the
Angola low. PhD Dissertation. University of
Cape Town. OCLC 85939351.
^ Jury, M. R.; Matari, E .E.; Matitu, M. (2008). "Equatorial African
climate teleconnections". Theoretical and Applied Climatology. 95
(3–4): 407–416. Bibcode:2009ThApC..95..407J.
^ "Angola". State.gov. US Department of State. Retrieved 22 November
^ a b c d "CIA – The World Factbook".
United States Central
^ Péclard, Didier (ed.) (2008) L'
Angola dans la paix: Autoritarisme
et reconversions, special issue of Politique africains (Paris), p.
^ a b c "Angola".
Freedom in the World
Freedom in the World 2014. Freedom House. Retrieved
7 February 2015.
^ "Ibrahim Index of African Governance". Mo Ibrahim Foundation.
Retrieved 9 August 2014.
^ Miranda, Jorge (2010) "A Constituição de
Angola de 2010", O
Direito (Lisbon), vol. 142.
^ Amundsen, Inge (2011).
Angola Party Politics: Into the African Trend
(PDF). Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI) and Centro de Estudos e
Investigação Científica (CEIC).
^ Venezuela, Malaysia, Angola, N.Z.,
Spain win U.N. Council seats
Reuters, 16 October 2014
Angola assume presidência do grupo africano junto do FMI e BM (in
Portuguese) Archived 20 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Rádio
Nacional de Angola, 10 December 2014
Angola takes over rotative
presidency of Great Lakes Region
Angola Press Agency, 13 January 2014
Angola should be an example for Great Lakes region – Ntumba Luaba
Angola Press Agency, 8 January 2015
^ Angolan Leader Dos Santos to Step Down After 38 Years in Power.
Bloomberg (3 February 2017). Retrieved on 26 April 2017.
^ En Angola, le ministre de la Défense devrait succèder au
président Dos Santos. Lefigaro.fr. Retrieved on 26 April 2017.
^ "Angola : une purge au sein de la
Sonangol emporte Isabel dos
Santos". BENIN WEB TV (in French). 15 November 2017. Retrieved 21
November 2017. [permanent dead link]
^ "Angola's Lourenco replaces police and intelligence chiefs".
Reuters. 20 November 2017. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
Angola sacks Africa's richest woman".
BBC News. British
Broadcasting Corporation. 15 November 2017. Retrieved 21 November
Angola com novo Código Penal ainda este ano, Notícias ao Minuto,
24 September 2014
Angola eleita para o Conselho de Segurança da ONU". Public,
16 October 2014
Angola deve servir de exemplo para os países da CIRGL – Ntumba
Luaba". Expansion, 08 January 2015
^ "LGBT relationships are illegal in 74 countries, research finds".
The Independent. 17 May 2016.
^ Hartman, Ben (30 April 2010). "Was diplomat denied post in Angola
because he is openly gay?". Jpost.com.
^ "Resultados Resultados Definitivos do Recenseamento Geral da
População e da Habitação de
Angola 2014" (PDF). Instituto Nacional
de Estatística. March 2016. p. 27. Archived from the original
(PDF) on 6 May 2016.
BBC News. 22 December 2013.
Angola Financial Sector Profile: MFW4A – Making Finance Work for
Africa. MFW4A. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
^ "The Increasing Importance of African Oil". Power and Interest
Report. 20 March 2006. Archived from the original on 5 May 2006.
^ Luanda, capital of Angola, retains title of world's most expensive
for expats. The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
^ "Marching towards riches and democracy?" The Economist. 30 August
2008. p. 46.
Country Admitted As Opec Member".
Angola Press Agency. 14
^ "Angolan Diamond Centenary Conference 2013 Highlights
Alrosa Joint Venture for Future Geological Exploration of diamond
deposits of Angola's Territory" (PDF). Press release.
angolancentenary.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 November
2013. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
^ Anti-corruption watchdog
Transparency International rates
of the 10 most corrupt countries in the world.
^ Dolan, Kerry A. (23 January 2013). "Isabel Dos Santos, Daughter Of
Angola's President, Is Africa's First Woman Billionaire". Forbes.
^ This process is well analyzed by authors like Christine Messiant,
Tony Hodges and others. For an eloquent illustration, see the Angolan
magazine Infra-Estruturas África 7/2010.
^ País ao raios X.
Angola Exame. 12 November 2010
^ Udelsmann Rodrigues, Cristina (2006) O Trabalho Dignifica o Homem:
Estratégias de Sobrevivência em Luanda, Lisbon: Colibri.
^ As an excellent illustration see Luanda: A vida na cidade dos
extremos, in: Visão, 11 November 2010.
^ The HDI 2010 lists
Angola in the 146th position among 169
countries—one position below that of Haiti. MLP l Human Development
Index and its components. Archived 28 April 2011 at the Wayback
^ Alt, Robert. "Into Africa: China's Grab for Influence and Oil".
Heritage.org. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
^ "Angola's Political and Economic Development". Council on Foreign
^ "Angola: Explain Missing Government Funds". Human Rights Watch. 20
December 2011. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
^ "Angola's political and economical development" (Council of Foreign
^ Redvers, Louise POVERTY-ANGOLA:
Inter Press Service News Agency –
NGOs Sceptical of Govt's Rural Development Plans Archived 12 May 2010
at the Wayback Machine..
^ Manuel Alves da Rocha (2010) Desigualdades e assimetrias regionais
em Angola: Os factores da competitividade territorial, Luanda: Centro
de Estudos e Investigação Científica da Universidade Católica de
^ "A força do kwanza", Visão (Lisbon), 993, 15 May 2012, pp. 50–54
^ The New Prosperity: Strategies for Improving Well-Being in
Africa Governance Initiative 1 May 2013
^ The New Prosperity: Strategies for Improving Well-Being in
Africa Report by
The Boston Consulting Group
The Boston Consulting Group and Tony
Africa Governance Initiative, May 2013
Angola is the third-largest sub-Saharan financial market, MacauHub,
23 July 2014
^ Angola’s economy to grow by 3.9 percent-IMF StarAfrica, 4
^ Angola: Sector bancário mantém crescimento em 2013,
(26 September 2014)
Angola seen growing average 5 percent: Central Bank, Reuters
(Africa), 10 June 2014
^ CMC prepares launch of debt secondary market
Angola Press Agency, 16
^ Muzima, Joel. Mazivila, Domingos. “
Angola 2014” Retrieved from
Country partnership strategy for the republic of Angola” (15
World Bank (Report No. 76225-A0)
^ "Sectores Económicos Prioritários" (in Portuguese). ANIP. Archived
from the original on 11 April 2013.
Angola Cables e parceiros estrangeiros anunciam construção de
cabo submarino" (in Portuguese). ANGOP. 14 October 2014.
^ Machado, André (30 January 2014). "Cabo submarino que ligará
Brasil à África terá capacidade de 40 terabits por segundo" (in
Portuguese). O Globo.
^ Inácio, Adelina (12 March 2015). "Nação está mais ligada" (in
Portuguese). Jornal de Angola.
Angola has about 14 million mobile phone network users –
Minister". ANGOP. 12 March 2015.
Angola com crescimento anual superior a 55% no sector das TIC" (in
Portuguese). Platina Line. 12 March 2015.
^ "Sector das TIC com crescimento anual superior a 55 por cento na
última década" (in Portuguese). Ver Angola. 13 March 2015.
^ "Lançamento de satélite angolano volta a ser adiado, agora para
2017". br.sputniknews.com. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
^ "Conclusion works of "Angosat" project set for 2016". ANGOP. 8
^ Agência Lusa (4 November 2014). "Primeiro satélite angolano pronto
para ser lançado em 2016" (in Portuguese). Observador.
Angola to manage own internet domain from 2015 Telecompaper, 16
Angola manages its own Internet domain Macauhub, 16 September 2014
^ "Table 2. Total population by country, 1950, 2000, 2015, 2025 and
2050 (medium-variant)". (PDF).
United Nations Department of Economic
and Social Affairs/Population Division. p. 27.
^ "Angola". CIA World Factbook.
^ As no reliable census data exist at this stage (2011), all these
numbers are rough estimates only, subject to adjustments and updates.
^ 2050 Population as a Multiple of 2014 Archived 2 April 2015 at the
Wayback Machine.. PRB 2014 World Population Data Sheet
^ U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants. "World Refugee Survey
2008". p. 37
^ World Refugee Survey 2008 –
Angola Archived 10 May 2011 at the
Wayback Machine., UNHCR. NB: This figure is highly doubtful, as it
makes no clear distinction between migrant workers, refugees and
José Eduardo dos Santos
José Eduardo dos Santos diz que trabalhadores portugueses são
bem-vindos em Angola". Observatório da Emigração. Retrieved 22 July
2013. …presença de cerca de 200 mil trabalhadores portugueses no
^ "Angola: Cerca de 259.000 chineses vivem atualmente no país".
Visão. 25 April 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2013.
^ "Calls for
Angola to Investigate Abuse of Congolese Migrants". Inter
Press Service. 21 May 2012
^ Bender, Gerald; Yoder, Stanley (1974). "Whites in
Angola on the Eve
of Independence. The Politics of Numbers".
Africa Today. 21 (4):
23–27. JSTOR 4185453.
^ Flight from Angola,
The Economist , 16 August 1975 puts the number
at 500,000, but this is an estimate lacking appropriate sources.
^ Siza, Rita (6 June 2013). "
José Eduardo dos Santos
José Eduardo dos Santos diz que
trabalhadores portugueses são bem-vindos em Angola". Público.
^ Phillips, Tom (26 August 2012) "Chinese 'gangsters' repatriated from
Angola", The Daily Telegraph
Brazil – A culture shock divide[permanent dead link]
^ Silva, José António Maria da Conceição (2004) Angola. 7th World
^ "Angola: português é falado por 71,15% de angolanos" (PDF).
Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 December 2016. Retrieved 10
^ Viegas, Fátima (2008) Panorâmica das Religiões em Angola
Independente (1975–2008), Ministério da Cultura/Instituto Nacional
para os Assuntos Religiosos, Luanda
^ Schubert, Benedict (1997) Der Krieg und die Kirchen: Angola
1961–1991. Exodus, Luzern/Switzerland
^ Lawrence W. Henderson (1989) The Church in Angola: A river of many
currents, Cleveland: Pilgrim Press
^ "Angola". State.gov. 19 September 2008. Retrieved 13 July
^ Surgimento do Islão em Angola. O Pais. 2 September 2011. p. 18
^ Oyebade, Adebayo O. Culture And Customs of Angola, 2006. Pages
^ "ANGOLA 2012 INTERNATIONAL RELIGIOUS FREEDOM REPORT" (PDF).
^ Angola: Religious Freedom Profile at the Association of Religion
Data Archives Brian J Grim and Roger Finke. "International Religion
Indexes: Government Regulation, Government Favoritism and Social
Regulation of Religion". Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on
Religion. 2 (2006) Article 1: www.religjournal.com.
^ "International Religious Freedom Report – Angola". U.S. Department
of State. 1 January 2004. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
^ Culture and customs of Angola. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood
Press. 2007. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-313-33147-3.
^ "International Grants 2005" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF)
on 13 November 2008. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
^ Retrospect2014: Fenacult marks cultural year
Angola Press Agency, 18
^ Seal, AJ; Creeke; Dibari; Cheung; Kyroussis; Semedo; Van Den Briel
(January 2007). "Low and deficient niacin status and pellagra are
endemic in postwar Angola". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 85 (1): 218–24.
hdl:10144/125625 . PMID 17209199.
Angola Surveys, measuredhs.com
^ Novo instituto oncológico de
Angola quer ser referência em
África, Notícias ao Minuto (Source: Lusa Agency), 9 September 2014
^ Novo instituto oncológico de
Angola quer ser referência em
África, Diário Digital (Source: Lusa Agency), 9 September 2014
^ Novo instituto oncológico angolano quer ser instituição de
referência no continente, Ver Angola, 11 September 2014
^ Angola: Over 30,000 Children Vaccinated Against
Measles in Huila,
All Africa, 30 September 2014
Angola lança vacinação nacional contra sarampo, Notícias ao
Minuto (Source: Lusa Agency), 18 September 2014
^ "WHO: Yellow fever outbreak is 'serious and of great
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Botswana". 2005 Findings on the Worst Forms
of Child Labor. Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department
of Labor (2006). This article incorporates text from this source,
which is in the public domain.
^ "National adult literacy rates (15+), youth literacy rates (15–24)
and elderly literacy rates (65+)". UNESCO Institute for
Angola – Statistics". UNICEF. Archived from the original on 13
June 2010. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
Angola investe 16 milhões na informatização de 300 salas de aula
em todo o país, jornal i (28 September 2014)
^ Sumário Executivo do Plano Director da ReMA. Rede de Mediatecas de
Angola (May 2013)
^ Government to open digital libraries in every province
Agency, 8 January 2015
^ Mediateca móvel aberta ao público Archived 9 February 2015 at the
Portuguese Web Archive Jornal de Angola, 9 January 2015
^ Poncianinho, Mestre; Almeida, Ponciano (2007). Capoeira: The
Essential Guide to Mastering the Art. New Holland Publishers.
pp. 18–. ISBN 978-1-84537-761-8.
Baynes, T.S., ed. (1878), "Angola", Encyclopædia Britannica, 2
(9th ed.), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 45
Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911), "Angola", Encyclopædia Britannica,
2 (11th ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 38–40
Much of the material in this article comes from the CIA World Factbook
2000 and the 2003
U.S. Department of State
U.S. Department of State website. The information
given there is, however, corrected and updated on the basis of the
other sources indicated.
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1 Part of
São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe from 1753.
2 Or 1600.
3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases.
4 Part of Portuguese
Guinea from 1879.
5 Part of
Portuguese Angola from the 1920s.
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Gamru (Bandar Abbas)
Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah)
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