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The ANGLO–MYSORE WARS were a series of wars fought in over the last three decades of the 18th century between the Kingdom of Mysore
Kingdom of Mysore
on the one hand, and the British East India Company
East India Company
(represented chiefly by the Madras Presidency
Madras Presidency
), and Maratha Confederacy
Maratha Confederacy
and the Nizam of Hyderabad on the other. Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali
and his successor Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan
fought a war on four fronts with the British attacking from the west, south and east, while the Marathas and the Nizam's forces attacked from the north. The fourth war resulted in the overthrow of the house of Hyder Ali and Tipu (who was killed in the final war, in 1799), and the dismantlement of Mysore
Mysore
to the benefit of the East India Company, which won and took control of much of India . Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali
in 1762, incorrectly described as "Commander in Chief of the Marathas. At the head of his army in the war against the British in India". (French painting)

CONTENTS

* 1 First Anglo-Mysore War * 2 Second Anglo-Mysore War
Second Anglo-Mysore War
* 3 Third Anglo-Mysore War * 4 Fourth Anglo-Mysore War
Fourth Anglo-Mysore War
* 5 Rockets * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 Popular Culture * 9 See also

FIRST ANGLO-MYSORE WAR

The First Anglo-Mysore War (1767–69) saw Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali
gain some measure of success against the British, almost capturing Madras. The British convinced the Nizam of Hyderabad to attack Hyder, but the Nizam changed sides, supporting the Sultan. That was temporary however, and the Nizam signed a new treaty with the British in Feb. 1768. Hyder did contend with a British Bombay army attacking on the west and a Madras army attacking from the northeast. However, Hyder's attack towards Madras resulted in the Madras government suing for peace, and the resultant Treaty of Madras .

SECOND ANGLO-MYSORE WAR

The Second Anglo-Mysore War
Second Anglo-Mysore War
(1780–84) witnessed bloodier battles with fortunes fluctuating between the contesting powers. Tipu defeated Baillie at the Battle of Pollilur in Sept. 1780, and Braithwaite at Kumbakonam
Kumbakonam
in Feb. 1782, both of whom were taken prisoner to Seringapatam. This war saw the rise of Sir Eyre Coote , the British commander who defeated Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali
at the Battle of Porto Novo and Arni. Tipu continued the war following his father's death. Finally, the war ended with the last British-Indian treaty with an Indian ruler on equal footing, the 1784 Treaty of Mangalore , which restored the status quo ante bellum . The Treaty of Gajendragad in April 1787 ended the conflict with the Marathas.

THIRD ANGLO-MYSORE WAR

In the Third Anglo-Mysore War (1790–92), Tipu Sultan, the ruler of Mysore
Mysore
and an ally of France, invaded the nearby state of Travancore in 1789, which was a British ally.British forces were commanded by Governor-general Cornwallis himself. The resultant war lasted three years and was a resounding defeat for Mysore. The war ended after the 1792 siege of Seringapatam and the signing of the Treaty of Sriranghapatam , according to which Tipu had to surrender half of his kingdom to the British East India Company
East India Company
and its allies.

FOURTH ANGLO-MYSORE WAR

The Fourth Anglo-Mysore War
Fourth Anglo-Mysore War
(1799) saw the death of Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan
and further reductions in Mysorean territory. Mysore's alliance with the French was seen as a threat to the East India Company
East India Company
and Mysore
Mysore
was attacked from all four sides. Tipu's army were outnumbered 4:1 in this war. Mysore
Mysore
had 35,000 soldiers, whereas the British commanded 60,000 troops. The Nizam of Hyderabad and the Marathas launched an invasion from the north. The British won a decisive victory at the Siege of Srirangapatam (1799) . Tipu was killed during the defence of the city. Much of the remaining Mysorean territory was annexed by the British, the Nizam and the Marathas. The remaining core, around Mysore
Mysore
and Srirangapattana , was restored to the Indian prince belonging to the Wodeyar
Wodeyar
dynasty, whose forefathers had been the actual rulers before Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali
became the de facto ruler. The Wodeyars ruled the remnant state of Mysore
Mysore
until 1947, when it joined the Union of India.

After the Battles of Plassey (1757) and after the Battle of Buxar (1764) which established British dominion over East India, the Anglo- Mysore
Mysore
wars (1766–1799), the Anglo–Maratha Wars (1775–1818), and finally the Anglo-Sikh Wars (1845–1849) consolidated the British claim over South Asia, resulting in the British Empire in India , though resistance among various groups such as the Afghans and the Burmese would last well into the 1880s.

ROCKETS

Main article: Mysorean rockets
Mysorean rockets

The Mysorean rockets
Mysorean rockets
used by Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan
during the Battle of Pollilur were much more advanced than any the British East India Company had previously seen, chiefly because of the use of iron tubes for holding the propellant. This enabled higher thrust and a longer range for the missile (up to 2 kilometres (1.2 mi)). After Tipu Sultan 's eventual defeat in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War
Fourth Anglo-Mysore War
and the capture of a number of Mysorean iron rockets, they were influential in British rocket development, inspiring the Congreve rocket
Congreve rocket
, which was soon put into use in the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
.

*

The First and the Second Anglo– Mysore
Mysore
War . *

The Third Anglo– Mysore
Mysore
War *

1793 map *

1800 map *

The Fourth Anglo– Mysore
Mysore
War

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C D E Naravane, M.S. (2014). Battles of the Honorourable East India Company. A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. pp. 172–181. ISBN 9788131300343 . * ^ Roddam Narasimha (1985). Rockets in Mysore
Mysore
and Britain, 1750–1850 A.D. Archived 3 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. National Aeronautical Laboratory and Indian Institute of Science.

FURTHER READING

* Brittlebank, Kate. Tipu Sultan's Search for Legitimacy: Islam and Kingship in a Hindu Domain (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1997) * Cooper, Randolf GS. "Culture, Combat, and Colonialism in Eighteenth-and Nineteenth-Century India." International History Review (2005) 27#3 pp: 534-549. * Jaim, HM Iftekhar, and Jasmine Jaim. "The Decisive Nature of the Indian War Rocket in the Anglo- Mysore
Mysore
Wars of the Eighteenth Century." Arms & Armour (2011) 8#2 pp: 131-138. * Kaliamurthy, G. Second Anglo-Mysore War
Second Anglo-Mysore War
(1780-84) (Mittal Publications, 1987) * Roy, Kaushik. War, culture and society in early modern South Asia, 1740-1849 (Taylor ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Mysore
Mysore
topics

KINGS

* Wodeyar
Wodeyar
dynasty * Chamarajendra Wodeyar
Wodeyar
X * Krishnaraja Wodeyar
Wodeyar
IV * Jayachamarajendra Wodeyar
Wodeyar
* Srikantadatta Wodeyar
Wodeyar

RELIGIOUS

* Dasara * Vijayadashami * Chamundi Temple * St. Philomena\'s Church

PALACES

* Mysore
Mysore
Palace * Jaganmohana Palace * Lalitha Mahal
Lalitha Mahal
* Rajendra Vilas * Jayalakshmi Vilas

ART AND CULTURE

* Mysore
Mysore
painting * Ganjifa
Ganjifa

CUISINE

* Mysore
Mysore
pak * Masala dosa

MUSEUMS AND INSTITUTIONS

* Chamarajendra Academy of Visual Arts * Regional Museum of Natural History * Folk Lore Museum * Rail Museum * Oriental Research Institute

PERSONALITIES

* Kuvempu
Kuvempu
* B. V. Karanth
B. V. Karanth
* S. Srikanta Sastri * R. K. Narayan
R. K. Narayan
* R. K. Laxman
R. K. Laxman
* Gopalakrishna Adiga
Gopalakrishna Adiga
* U. R. Ananthamurthy
U. R. Ananthamurthy

PLACES

* Mysore
Mysore
Airport * Kingdom of Mysore
Kingdom of Mysore
* Mysore
Mysore
Zoo * Tourist attractions

SEE ALSO

* Mysore
Mysore
invasion of Kerala

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