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Irish Republic
Irish Republic
United Kingdom
United Kingdom

LANGUAGES English

The ANGLO-IRISH TREATY (Irish : An Conradh Angla-Éireannach), commonly known as THE TREATY and officially the ARTICLES OF AGREEMENT FOR A TREATY BETWEEN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND, was an agreement between the government of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Ireland
Ireland
and representatives of the Irish Republic
Irish Republic
that concluded the Irish War of Independence
Irish War of Independence
. It provided for the establishment of the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
within a year as a self-governing dominion within the 'community of nations known as the British Empire
British Empire
', a status 'the same as that of the Dominion
Dominion
of Canada
Canada
'. It also provided Northern Ireland
Ireland
, which had been created by the Government of Ireland
Ireland
Act 1920 , an option to opt out of the Irish Free State, which it exercised.

The agreement was signed in London on 6 December 1921, by representatives of the British government
British government
(which included Prime Minister David Lloyd George
David Lloyd George
, who was head of the British delegates) and by representatives of the Irish Republic
Irish Republic
including Michael Collins and Arthur Griffith
Arthur Griffith
. The Irish representatives had plenipotentiary status (negotiators empowered to sign a treaty without reference back to their superiors) acting on behalf of the Irish Republic, though the British government
British government
declined to recognise that status. As required by its terms, the agreement was ratified by 'a meeting' of the members elected to sit in the House of Commons of Southern Ireland and by the British Parliament . In reality, Dáil Éireann
Dáil Éireann
(the legislative assembly for the de facto Irish Republic) first debated then ratified the treaty; members then went ahead with the 'meeting'. Though the treaty was narrowly ratified, the split led to the Irish Civil War
Irish Civil War
, which was won by the pro-treaty side.

The Irish Free State
Irish Free State
as contemplated by the treaty came into existence when its constitution became law on 6 December 1922 by a royal proclamation giving the force of law to the Irish Free State Constitution Act 1922 .

CONTENTS

* 1 Content * 2 Negotiators * 3 Status of the Irish plenipotentiaries * 4 Negotiations

* 5 Ratification

* 5.1 Dáil debates

* 6 Results * 7 See also

* 8 Notes and references

* 8.1 Sources * 8.2 Citations

* 9 External links

CONTENT

Page from a draft of the Treaty, as annotated by Arthur Griffith

Among the treaty's main clauses were that:

* Crown forces would withdraw from most of Ireland. * Ireland
Ireland
was to become a self-governing dominion of the British Empire , a status shared by Australia
Australia
, Canada
Canada
, Newfoundland , New Zealand and the Union of South Africa
Union of South Africa
. * As with the other dominions, the King would be the Head of State of the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
(Saorstát Éireann) and would be represented by a Governor General (See Representative of the Crown ). * Members of the new free state's parliament would be required to take an Oath of Allegiance to the Irish Free State. A secondary part of the oath was to "be faithful to His Majesty King George V
George V
, His heirs and successors by law, in virtue of the common citizenship". * Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
(which had been created earlier by the Government of Ireland
Ireland
Act ) would have the option of withdrawing from the Irish Free State within one month of the Treaty coming into effect. * If Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
chose to withdraw, a Boundary Commission would be constituted to draw the boundary between the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
and Northern Ireland. * Britain, for its own security, would continue to control a limited number of ports, known as the Treaty Ports , for the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
. * The Irish Free State
Irish Free State
would assume responsibility for a proportionate part of the United Kingdom's debt, as it stood on the date of signature. * The treaty would have superior status in Irish law, i.e., in the event of a conflict between it and the new 1922 Constitution of the Irish Free State, the treaty would take precedence.

NEGOTIATORS

The negotiators included:

BRITISH SIDE

PORTRAIT NAME PORTFOLIO

David Lloyd George
David Lloyd George
(delegation chairman) MP for Caernarvon Boroughs Prime Minister

Lord Birkenhead Lord Chancellor
Lord Chancellor

Austen Chamberlain
Austen Chamberlain
MP for Birmingham West Lord Privy Seal
Lord Privy Seal
Leader of the House of Commons
Leader of the House of Commons

Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
MP for Dundee Secretary of State for the Colonies
Secretary of State for the Colonies

Sir Laming Worthington-Evans, Bt MP for Colchester Secretary of State for War
Secretary of State for War

Sir Gordon Hewart MP for Leicester East Attorney General

Sir Hamar Greenwood MP for Sunderland Chief Secretary for Ireland

IRISH SIDE

PORTRAIT NAME PORTFOLIO

Arthur Griffith
Arthur Griffith
(delegation chairman) TD for Cavan and Fermanagh and Tyrone (MP for East Cavan and North West Tyrone ) Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs

Michael Collins TD for Armagh and Cork Mid, North, South, South East and West (MP for South Cork ) Secretary of State for Finance

Robert Barton
Robert Barton
TD for Kildare–Wicklow (MP for West Wicklow ) Secretary of State for Economic Affairs

Eamonn Duggan
Eamonn Duggan
TD for Louth–Meath (MP for South Meath )

George Gavan Duffy TD for Dublin County (MP for West Wicklow )

David Lloyd George
David Lloyd George
, British Prime Minister and head of the British delegation Arthur Griffith
Arthur Griffith
, Irish Minister for Foreign Affairs and leader of the Irish delegation Providing Secretarial Assistance

BRITISH SIDE

NAME

Thomas Jones

Lionel George Curtis

IRISH SIDE

NAME

Robert Erskine Childers
Robert Erskine Childers

Fionán Lynch
Fionán Lynch

Diarmuid O\'Hegarty

John Smith Chartres

Robert Barton
Robert Barton
was the last surviving signatory. He died on 10 August 1975 at the age of 94.

Notably, the Irish President Éamon de Valera
Éamon de Valera
did not attend.

Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
had a dual role in the British cabinet concerning the treaty: firstly as secretary of state for war hoping to end the Irish War of Independence
Irish War of Independence
in 1921; then in 1922, as secretary of state for the colonies (which included dominion affairs), he was charged with implementing it.

Robert Erskine Childers
Robert Erskine Childers
, the author of the Riddle of the Sands and former Clerk of the British House of Commons, served as one of the secretaries of the Irish delegation. Tom Jones was one of Lloyd George's principal assistants, and described the negotiations in his book Whitehall Diary.

STATUS OF THE IRISH PLENIPOTENTIARIES

Éamon de Valera
Éamon de Valera
, who, as President of the Irish Republic, opposed the Treaty

Éamon de Valera
Éamon de Valera
sent the Irish plenipotentiaries to the 1921 negotiations in London with several draft treaties and secret instructions from his cabinet. Pointedly the British side never asked to see their formal accreditation with the full status of plenipotentiaries, but considered that it had invited them as elected MPs: "...to ascertain how the association of Ireland
Ireland
with the community of nations known as the British Empire
British Empire
can best be reconciled with Irish national aspirations". This invitation in August had been delayed for over a month by a correspondence in which de Valera argued that Britain was now negotiating with a sovereign state, a position Lloyd George continually denied.

In the meantime, de Valera had been elevated to President of the Republic
Republic
on 26 August, primarily to be able to accredit plenipotentiaries for the negotiations, as is usual between sovereign states. On 14 September all the Dáil speakers unanimously commented that the plenipotentiaries were being sent to represent the sovereign Irish Republic, and accepted de Valera's nominations without dissent, although some argued that de Valera himself should attend the conference.

On 18 September Lloyd George recalled that:

From the very outset of our conversations I told you that we looked to Ireland
Ireland
to own allegiance to the Throne, and to make her future as a member of the British Commonwealth. That was the basis of our proposals, and we cannot alter it. The status which you now claim in advance for your delegates is, in effect, a repudiation of that basis. I am prepared to meet your delegates as I met you in July, in the capacity of 'chosen spokesmen' for your people, to discuss the association of Ireland
Ireland
with the British Commonwealth.

On 29 September Lloyd George reiterated to de Valera that recognition of the Irish republic was "a recognition which no British Government can accord", and he repeated his invitation for talks on "ascertaining how the association of Ireland
Ireland
with the community of nations known as the British Empire
British Empire
may best be reconciled with Irish national aspirations", to start in London on 11 October, which was tacitly accepted by the Irish side. On 7 October de Valera signed a letter of accreditation as "President" on behalf of the "Government of the Republic
Republic
of Ireland" (see image), but the letter was never requested by the British side. Both the Irish and British sides knew that, in the event of failure, the truce agreed in July 1921 would end and the war would inevitably resume, a war that neither side wanted. Three months had passed by with nothing agreed.

The ambiguous status of the plenipotentiaries was to have unforeseeable consequences within the Nationalist movement when it divided over the treaty's contents in 1921–22. Plenipotentiaries usually have full powers to handle negotiations as they see fit, but de Valera had given them instructions to refer back to his cabinet on any "main question" and with "the complete text of the draft treaty about to be signed", which created difficulties. Subsequently, the anti-treaty side felt that the plenipotentiaries from the existing sovereign republic had somehow been persuaded to agree to accept much less. The pro-treaty side was to argue that after 11 October the negotiations had been conducted on the understanding that, even though the British were not negotiating with a sovereign state, the agreement was a significant first step towards Irish sovereignty. One of the five decrees giving power to the plenipotentiaries which Éamon de Valera signed is on permanent display at The Little Museum of Dublin .

NEGOTIATIONS

Days after the truce that ended the Anglo-Irish War , de Valera met Lloyd George in London four times in the week starting 14 July. Lloyd George sent his initial proposals on 20 July that were very roughly in line with the treaty that was eventually signed. This was followed by months of delay until October, when the Irish delegates set up headquarters in 22 Hans Place , Knightsbridge
Knightsbridge
.

The first two weeks of the negotiations were spent in formal sessions. Upon the request of Arthur Griffith
Arthur Griffith
and Michael Collins, the two delegations began informal negotiations, in which only two members of each negotiating team were allowed to attend. On the Irish side, these members were always Collins and Griffith, while on the British side, Austen Chamberlain
Austen Chamberlain
always attended, though the second British negotiator would vary from day to day. In late November, the Irish delegation returned to Dublin to consult the cabinet according to their instructions, and again on 3 December. Many points still had to be resolved, mainly surrounding the form of an oath to the monarch, but it was clear to all the politicians involved by this stage that a unitary 32-county Irish Republic
Irish Republic
was not on offer. Crowds holding a prayer vigil outside Whitehall during 1921, while negotiations were underway inside

When they returned, Collins and Griffith hammered out the final details of the treaty, which included British concessions on the wording of the oath and the defence and trade clauses, along with the addition of a boundary commission to the treaty and a clause upholding Irish unity. Collins and Griffith in turn convinced the other plenipotentiaries to sign the treaty. The final decisions to sign the treaty was made in private discussions at 22 Hans Place at 11:15am on 5 December 1921. Negotiations closed by signing on at 2:20am 6 December 1921.

Michael Collins later claimed that at the last minute Lloyd George threatened the Irish delegates with a renewal of, "terrible and immediate war". if the Treaty was not signed at once, but this was not mentioned as a threat in the Irish memorandum about the close of negotiations, but as a personal remark made by Lloyd George to Robert Barton, and merely a reflection of the reality of any military truce. Barton noted that:

At one time he particularly addressed himself to me and said very solemnly that those who were not for peace must take full responsibility for the war that would immediately follow refusal by any Delegate to sign the Articles of Agreement.

Éamon de Valera
Éamon de Valera
called a cabinet meeting to discuss the treaty on 8 December, where he came out against the treaty as signed. The cabinet decided by four votes to three to recommend the treaty to the Dáil on 14 December.

The contents of the treaty divided the Irish Republic's leadership, with the President of the Republic
Republic
, Éamon de Valera, leading the anti-treaty minority. The Treaty Debates were difficult but also comprised a wider and robust stock-taking of the position by the contending parties. Their differing views of the past and their hopes for the future were made public. The focus had to be on the constitutional options, but little mention was made of the economy, nor of how life would now be improved for the majority of the population. Though Sinn Féin
Sinn Féin
had also campaigned to preserve the Irish language, very little use was made of it in the debates. Some of the female TDs were notably in favour of continuing the war until a 32-county state was established. Much mention was made of '700 years' of British occupation. Personal bitterness developed; Arthur Griffith said of Erskine Childers : "I will not reply to any damned Englishman in this Assembly" and Cathal Brugha
Cathal Brugha
reminded everyone that the position of Michael Collins in the IRA was technically inferior to his.

The main dispute was centred on the status as a dominion (as represented by the Oath of Allegiance and Fidelity) rather than as an independent republic , but partition was a significant matter for dissent. Ulstermen like Sean MacEntee spoke strongly against the partition clause. The Dáil voted to approve the treaty but the objectors refused to accept it, leading eventually to the Irish Civil War . McEntee was among their leaders.

RATIFICATION

Members of the Irish negotiation committee returning to Ireland in December 1921

Under the terms of the treaty, it required ratification by the UK Parliament and by a "meeting" in Ireland.

* The British House of Commons did so on 16 December 1921 by a vote of 401 to 58. On the same day the House of Lords voted in favour by 166 to 47. * In addition the treaty required the approval of "a meeting summoned for the purpose of the members elected to sit in the House of Commons of Southern Ireland". This wording was interpreted on the Irish side as "a meeting" open to those who had been successful in the elections to the House of Commons of Southern Ireland , which under British constitutional theory was the only "lawful" parliament of the twenty-six county state called Southern Ireland
Ireland
created under the Government of Ireland Act 1920
Government of Ireland Act 1920
. Of the 128 members so elected (all unopposed) in May 1921, the 124 Sinn Féin
Sinn Féin
candidates refused to sit in the House, which consequently never came into operation. They instead formed (along with Northern representatives) an alternative all- Ireland
Ireland
parliamentary assembly, the "Second Dáil", which had already approved the new treaty after nine days of public debate on 7 January 1922, by a vote of 64 to 57.

The "meeting" called for ratification on 14 January 1922 was thus of somewhat ambiguous status, not being convened or conducted in accordance with the procedures established for the House of Commons, nor being declared a session of Dáil Éireann. Anti-treaty members of the Dáil stayed away, meaning only pro-treaty members and the four elected unionists (who had never sat in Dáil Éireann) attended the meeting. Those assembled overwhelmingly ratified the treaty, nominated Michael Collins for appointment as chairman of the provisional government and immediately dispersed with no parliamentary business taking place. This was the nearest that the House of Commons of Southern Ireland
Ireland
ever came to functioning; no other meeting ever took place, but the vote on 14 January, in strict compliance with the treaty wording, allowed the British authorities to maintain that the legal niceties had been observed.

On 11 July 1924, the treaty was registered at the League of Nations by the Irish Free State.

DáIL DEBATES

Further information: Treaty Debates

The Dáil debates lasted much longer and exposed the diversity of opinion in Ireland. Opening the debate on 14 December, President de Valera stated his view on procedure:

it would be ridiculous to think that we could send five men to complete a treaty without the right of ratification by this assembly. That is the only thing that matters. Therefore it is agreed that this treaty is simply an agreement and that it is not binding until the Dáil ratifies it. That is what we are concerned with.

However, when the treaty was ratified by the Dáil on 7 January, he refused to accept the vote as final.

Secret sessions were held on 14 to 17 December, and on the morning of 6 January, to keep the discord out of the press and the public arena. During the first of these, de Valera also produced his ideal redraft, which was not in most respects radically different from the signed agreement, but which was probably not acceptable to the British side as the differing points had already been explored.

On 15 December, Robert Barton
Robert Barton
was questioned by Kevin O\'Higgins about his notes on Lloyd George's statement about signing the agreement or facing a renewal of war: "Did Mr Lloyd George single Mr Barton out as the left wing of the delegation and did he say, 'The man who is against peace may bear now and forever the responsibility for terrible and immediate war?'" Barton replied: "What he did say was that the signature and the recommendation of every member of the delegation was necessary, or war would follow immediately and that the responsibility for that war must rest directly upon those who refused to sign the Treaty". This was seized upon by opponents of the treaty as a convenient proof that the Irish delegates had been subjected to duress at the last minute, and "terrible and immediate war" became a catch-phrase in the debates that followed. The next day, de Valera took up this point: "... therefore what happened was that over there a threat of immediate force upon our people was made. I believe that that document was signed under duress and, though I have a moral feeling that any agreement entered into ought to be faithfully carried out, I have no hesitation in saying that I would not regard it as binding on the Irish nation."

The crucial private Dáil session on 6 January was informed that it could not be told about a private conference of nine TDs that had reached a compromise agreement on almost all points the night before. Most TDs wanted at least to be told what matters were still not agreed on, and from this point onwards the pro-treaty members insisted that all sessions should be held in public.

The public sessions lasted nine days from 19 December to 7 January. On 19 December Arthur Griffith
Arthur Griffith
moved: "That Dáil Éireann
Dáil Éireann
approves of the Treaty between Great Britain and Ireland, signed in London on 6 December 1921."

By 6 January, the day before the final vote, de Valera acknowledged the deep division within his cabinet: "When these Articles of Agreement were signed, the body in which the executive authority of this assembly, and of the State, is vested became as completely split as it was possible for it to become. Irrevocably, not on personalities or anything of that kind or matter, but on absolute fundamentals."

The Second Dáil ratified the treaty on 7 January 1922 by a vote of 64 to 57. De Valera resigned as president on 9 January and was replaced by Arthur Griffith, on a vote of 60 to 58. On 10 January, de Valera published his second redraft, known generally as Document No. 2.

Griffith, as President of the Dáil, worked with Michael Collins, who chaired the new Provisional Government of the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
, theoretically answerable to the House of Commons of Southern Ireland , as the treaty laid down. On 25 October 1922, a new Irish constitution was enacted by the Third Dáil , sitting as a constituent assembly ; the British Parliament confirmed the enactment on 5 December 1922. This parallel enactment provided the legal basis for the Irish Free State .

RESULTS

British cavalry soldiers leaving Ireland, 1922

The split over the treaty led to the Irish Civil War
Irish Civil War
(1922–23). In 1922, its two main Irish signatories, Arthur Griffith
Arthur Griffith
and Michael Collins, both died. Birkenhead reportedly said on signing the treaty: "Mr Collins, in signing this Treaty I'm signing my political death warrant", to which Collins is said to have replied, "Lord Birkenhead, I'm signing my actual death warrant." Collins was killed by anti-treaty republicans in an ambush at Béal na Bláth
Béal na Bláth
in August 1922, ten days after Griffith's death from heart failure which was ascribed to exhaustion. Both men were replaced in their posts by W. T. Cosgrave . Two of the other members of the delegation, Robert Barton and Erskine Childers, sided against the treaty in the civil war. Childers, head of anti-treaty propaganda in the conflict, was executed by the free state for possession of a pistol in November 1922.

The treaty's provisions relating to the monarch, the governor-general, and the treaty's own superiority in law were all deleted from the Constitution of the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
in 1932, following the enactment of the Statute of Westminster by the British Parliament. By this statute, the British Parliament had voluntarily relinquished its ability to legislate on behalf of dominions without their consent. Thus, the Government of the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
was free to change any laws previously passed by the British Parliament on their behalf.

Nearly 10 years earlier, Michael Collins had argued that the treaty would give "the freedom to achieve freedom". De Valera himself acknowledged the accuracy of this claim both in his actions in the 1930s but also in words he used to describe his opponents and their securing of independence during the 1920s. "They were magnificent", he told his son in 1932, just after he had entered government and read the files left by Cosgrave's Cumann na nGaedheal Executive Council.

Although the British Government of the day had, since 1914, desired home rule for the whole of Ireland, the British Parliament believed that it could not possibly grant complete independence to all of Ireland
Ireland
in 1921 without provoking huge sectarian violence between overwhelmingly Protestant Irish Unionists and overwhelmingly Catholic Irish Nationalists. At the time, although there were Unionists throughout the country, they were concentrated in the north-east and their parliament first sat on 7 June 1921. An uprising by them against home rule would have been an insurrection against the "mother county" as well as a civil war in Ireland. (See Ulster Volunteers
Ulster Volunteers
). Dominion status for 26 counties, with partition for the six counties that the Unionists felt they could comfortably control, seemed the best compromise possible at the time.

In fact, what Ireland
Ireland
received in dominion status, on par with that enjoyed by Canada, New Zealand
New Zealand
and Australia, was far more than the Home Rule Act 1914
Home Rule Act 1914
, and certainly a considerable advance on the home rule once offered to Charles Stewart Parnell
Charles Stewart Parnell
in the nineteenth century albeit at the cost of the permanent exclusion of Northern Ireland. Even de Valera's proposals made in secret during the Treaty Debates differed very little in essential matters from the accepted text, and were far short of the autonomous 32-county republic that he publicly claimed to pursue.

The solution that was agreed had also been on Lloyd George's mind for years. He met Tim Healy , a senior barrister and former nationalist MP, in late 1919 to consider his options. Healy wrote to his brother on 11 December 1919: "Lloyd George said that, if he could get support for a plan whereby the six counties would be left as they are, he would be ready to give the rest of the country Dominion
Dominion
Home Rule, free from Imperial taxation, and with control of the Customs and Excise." Healy considered that the idea had foundered on de Valera's insistence on having an all- Ireland
Ireland
republic, months before the war of independence became seriously violent in mid-1920.

Lloyd George had supported the 1893 Home Rule Bill and the slow process of the 1914 Home Rule Act , and liaised with the Irish Convention members in 1917–18. By 1921 his coalition government depended on a large Conservative majority , and collapsed during the Chanak crisis in October 1922.

SEE ALSO

* v * t * e

Irish revolutionary period (1912–1923)

EVENTS

* Home Rule Crisis
Home Rule Crisis
(1912–14) * Dublin Lock-out
Dublin Lock-out
(1913) * Easter Rising
Easter Rising
(1916) * Conscription Crisis (1918) * Irish general election (1918) * Declaration of Independence (1919) * War of Independence (1919–22) * Creation of Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
(1921) * Partition (1920–22) * Anglo-Irish Treaty
Anglo-Irish Treaty
(1921) * Civil War (1922–23)

ORGANISATIONS

* Irish Republican Brotherhood
Irish Republican Brotherhood
* Irish Parliamentary Party
Irish Parliamentary Party
* Sinn Féin
Sinn Féin
* Irish Volunteers
Irish Volunteers
* Irish Republican Army
Irish Republican Army
* Irish Citizen Army
Irish Citizen Army
* Ulster Unionist Party * Ulster Volunteers
Ulster Volunteers

* Oath of Allegiance (Ireland) * Anglo-Irish Treaty Dáil vote
Anglo-Irish Treaty Dáil vote
* Irish Free State
Irish Free State
* Irish Civil War
Irish Civil War

* Other treaties between Britain and Ireland:

* Anglo-Irish Trade Agreement (1938) * Sunningdale Agreement
Sunningdale Agreement
(1973) * Anglo-Irish Agreement (1985) * Good Friday Agreement
Good Friday Agreement
(1998) * St Andrews Agreement (2006)

NOTES AND REFERENCES

This article includes a list of references , but ITS SOURCES REMAIN UNCLEAR because it has INSUFFICIENT INLINE CITATIONS . Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (December 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )

SOURCES

Primary

* Text of treaty:

* "Proposed Treaty Of Association Between Ireland
Ireland
And The British Commonwealth Presented By President De Valera To The Secret Session Of An Dáil". Dáil Éireann
Dáil Éireann
treaty debates. Oireachtas. 1922. Appendix 17. Retrieved 21 December 2015. * Final text of the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty between Great Britain and Ireland
Ireland
as signed. from British & Irish Delegations. Documents on Irish Foreign Policy. Vol.1. No.214. Retrieved 21 December 2015. * "Treaty between Great Britain and Ireland, signed at London, 6 December 1921" (PDF). League of Nations
League of Nations
Treaty Series. 26 (626): 9–19.

* Documents on Irish Foreign Policy: Royal Irish Academy
Royal Irish Academy
:

* Document indexes by year: 1921 and 1922

* Parliamentary debates:

* Dáil Éireann
Dáil Éireann
1921 (from 14 Dec); 1922 (to Jan 10) * Westminster: Dec 1921

Secondary

* Lord Beaverbrook (1963). The Decline and Fall of Lloyd George. London: Collins. * Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
, The World Crisis; the Aftermath (Thornton 1929) pp. 277–352. * Tim Pat Coogan , Michael Collins (1990) (ISBN 0-09-174106-8 ) * Tim Pat Coogan, De Valera (1993) (ISBN 0-09-175030-X ) * Knirck, Jason K. (2006-01-01). Imagining Ireland\'s Independence: The Debates Over the Anglo-Irish Treaty
Anglo-Irish Treaty
of 1921. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9780742541481 . Retrieved 21 December 2015. * Frank Pakenham, 7th Earl of Longford
Frank Pakenham, 7th Earl of Longford
, Peace By Ordeal (Cape 1935)

CITATIONS

This article RELIES TOO MUCH ON REFERENCES TO PRIMARY SOURCES . Please improve this by adding secondary or tertiary sources . (December 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )

* ^ Irish Free State
Irish Free State
(Agreement) Act 1922 whose full title is "An Act to give the force of Law to certain Articles of Agreement for a Treaty between Great Britain and Ireland, and to enable effect to be given thereto, and for other purposes incidental thereto or consequential thereon." – and which was given Royal Assent
Royal Assent
on 31 March 1922 * ^ A B C "Official Correspondence relating to the Peace Negotiations, part 1: Preliminary Correspondence". CELT . University College, Cork. Retrieved 22 February 2016. * ^ "Constitution of the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
(Saorstát Eireann) Act, 1922, Schedule 2". Retrieved 15 May 2016. * ^ Dáil Proposal of De Valera as President Archived 7 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ Ratification of the plenipotentiaries Archived 7 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ Item No. 156, Official correspondence relating to the peace negotiations June–September 1921 (Dublin, 1921) online version * ^ Arthur Griffith; comment on the delegates\' credentials Archived 9 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ "Eamon de Valera to David Lloyd George
David Lloyd George
from Eamon de Valera to David Lloyd George
David Lloyd George
- 08 July 1921 - Documents on IRISH FOREIGN POLICY". Retrieved 15 May 2016. * ^ " David Lloyd George
David Lloyd George
to Eamon de Valera from David Lloyd George to Eamon de Valera - 20 July 1921 - Documents on IRISH FOREIGN POLICY". Retrieved 15 May 2016. * ^ "Copy of secretary\'s notes of meeting of the cabinet and delegation held 3 December 1921 from Cabinet minutes - 03 December 1921 - Documents on IRISH FOREIGN POLICY". Retrieved 15 May 2016. * ^ The phrase was also cited as "immediate and terrible war". See: Collins M., "The Path to Freedom Notes by General Michael Collins", August 1922; Collins did not state that the remark was made solely to Barton, implying that the whole Irish delegation had heard it: "The threat of `immediate and terrible war' did not matter overmuch to me. The position appeared to be then exactly as it appears now. The British would not, I think, have declared terrible and immediate war upon us." * ^ "Notes by Robert Barton
Robert Barton
of two sub-conferences held on December 5/6, 1921 at 10 Downing St.". Retrieved 15 May 2016. * ^ "Minutes of a Cabinet Meeting held on 8 December 1921". Retrieved 15 May 2016. * ^ Dáil Éireann
Dáil Éireann
– Volume 3 – 22 December 1921 Debate on Treaty Archived 7 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ "IRISH FREE STATE.". Retrieved 15 May 2016. * ^ "ADDRESS IN REPLY TO HIS MAJESTY\'S MOST GRACIOUS SPEECH.". Retrieved 15 May 2016. * ^ One formal meeting took place in June, followed by adjournment sine die: see Parliament of Southern Ireland#June 1921 meeting . * ^ "Treaty between Great Britain and Ireland, signed at London, 6 December 1921" (PDF). League of Nations
League of Nations
Treaty Series. 26 (626): 9–19. * ^ "Proposed Alternative Treaty of Association between Ireland
Ireland
and the British Commonwealth presented by Mr Eamon de Valera to a Secret Session of Dáil Éireann
Dáil Éireann
on 14 December 1921". Retrieved 15 May 2016.

* ^ Barton\'s statement, 15 Dec 1921 Archived 7 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ Secret debates, 16 Dec 1921; De Valera * ^ Private session, 6 January 1922 Archived 7 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ "Proposed Treaty of Association between Ireland
Ireland
and the British Commonwealth presented by Eamon de Valera to Dail Eireann from Eamon de Valera to Dail Eireann - Jan. 1921 - Documents on IRISH FOREIGN POLICY". Retrieved 15 May 2016. * ^ Furneaux Smith, Eleanor (1940). Life\'s a circus. Doubleday, Doran & Company, Inc. p. 142. * ^ De Valera\'s 2 proposals publicised on 10 January 1922 Archived 18 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ Chapter 43 of Healy\'s memoirs published in 1928

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Anglo-Irish Treaty
Anglo-Irish Treaty
eBook (links to EPUB and .mobi