Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1930 was a treaty of alliance between the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the
British-Mandate-controlled administration of the Hashemite Kingdom of
Iraq. The treaty was between the governments of George V of the United
Kingdom and Faisal I of Iraq. High Commissioner Francis Humphrys
signed for the United Kingdom and Prime Minister
Nuri as-Said signed
for Iraq. The 1930 treaty was based upon an earlier Anglo-Iraqi Treaty
of 1922 but took into account Iraq's increased importance to British
interests given new oil finds made in 1927.
2 Full text
2.1 Article 1.
2.2 Article 2.
2.3 Article 3.
2.4 Article 4.
2.5 Article 5.
2.6 Article 6.
2.7 Article 7.
2.8 Article 8.
2.9 Article 9.
2.10 Article 10.
2.11 Article 11.
2.12 Annexure To Treaty of Alliance.
2.12.1 Clause 1.
2.12.2 Clause 2.
2.12.3 Clause 3.
2.12.4 Clause 4.
2.12.5 Clause 5.
2.12.6 Clause 6.
2.12.7 Clause 7.
3 See also
6 External links
During the Mesopotamian Campaign of World War I, armed forces of the
United Kingdom, fighting for the Allies, defeated the forces of the
Ottoman Empire, fighting for the Central Powers. After the war ended,
armed forces of the United Kingdom remained in the area that was to
become the Kingdom of Iraq. In 1920, after the
Ottoman Empire was
partitioned, the United Kingdom formally occupied what was to become
Iraq under a mandate from the League of Nations.
Kingdom of Iraq
Kingdom of Iraq began with the coronation of King Faisal I on 23
August 1921. The 1930 treaty provided a path towards nominal
independence for Iraq two years later at the termination of the
mandate and upon the entry of Iraq itself as a member of the League of
Nations. The main purpose of the treaty was to give the British a
variety of commercial and military rights within the country after
Critics[who?] point out that the treaty was not negotiated but
dictated to the British-controlled government to avoid any possibility
of real negotiations with a post-independence government.
British Prime Minister
Winston Churchill was to write that the 1930
treaty provided that the British could maintain air bases near Basra
and Habbaniya "in times of peace" and have the right of transit for
military forces and supplies "at all times". In addition, Churchill
indicated that the treaty would provide "all possible facilities"
including the use of railways, rivers, ports, and airways for the
passage of armed forces "during times of war".
The treaty gave the British almost unlimited rights to base military
forces in Iraq. It further provided for the unconditional and
unlimited right of the British to move troops into or through Iraq. In
1941, the terms of the treaty were used to justify a British
invasion and the occupation of Iraq after a
nationalist coup whose leaders had contacts among the Axis powers.
The British used the terms of the treaty as a basis for an occupation
that lasted until end of 1947. As they prepared to depart Iraq, an
attempt was made to get the British installed government of Iraq to
sign a new military treaty giving the British even more powers than
under the 1930 treaty. While that treaty was approved, it never came
into effect because of unrest and large demonstrations in Iraq against
Critics[who?] consider the treaty a document nothing more than a cover
for the British to permanently limit the independence of Iraq and to
give the British a right to intervene in the internal affairs of Iraq
as they pleased. The treaties always revolved around protecting the
access to Iraqi oil resources by British companies by giving the
British the right of military intervention in the country.[citation
TREATY OF ALLIANCE BETWEEN HIS MAJESTY IN RESPECT OF THE UNITED
KINGDOM AND HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF 'IRAQ. SIGNED AT BAGHDAD, 30 JUNE
His MAJESTY THE KING OF GREAT BRITAIN, IRELAND AND THE BRITISH
DOMINIONS BEYOND THE SEAS, EMPEROR OF INDIA, and His MAJESTY THE KING
OF 'IRAQ, whereas they desire to consolidate the friendship and to
maintain and perpetuate the relations of good understanding between
their respective countries; and Whereas His Britannic Majesty
undertook in the Treaty of Alliance signed at
Baghdad on the
thirteenth day of January, One thousand nine hundred and twenty-six of
the Christian Era, corresponding to the twenty-eighth day of
Jamadi-al-Ukhra, One thousand three hundred and forty-four, Hijrah,
that he would take into active consideration at successive intervals
of four years the question whether it was possible for him to press
for the admission of 'Iraq into the League of Nations; and
Whereas His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Northern Ireland informed the 'Iraq Government without
qualification or proviso on the fourteenth day of September, One
thousand nine hundred and twenty-nine that they were prepared to
support the candidature of 'Iraq for admission to the League of
Nations in the year One thousand nine hundred and thirty-two and
announced to the Council of the League on the fourth day of November,
One thousand nine hundred and twenty-nine, that this was their
Whereas the mandatory responsibilities accepted by His Britannic
Majesty in respect of 'Iraq will automatically terminate upon the
admission of 'Iraq to the League of Nations; and Whereas His Britannic
Majesty and His Majesty the King of 'Iraq consider that the relations
which will subsist between them as independent sovereigns should be
defined by the conclusion of a Treaty of Alliance and Amity:
Have agreed to conclude a new Treaty for this purpose on terms of
complete freedom, equality and independence which will become
operative upon the entry of 'Iraq into the League of Nations, and have
appointed as their Plenipotentiaries:
His MAJESTY THE KING OF GREAT BRITAIN, IRELAND, AND THE BRITISH
DOMINIONS BEYOND THE SEAS, EMPEROR OF INDIA, FOR GREAT BRITAIN AND
NORTHERN IRELAND: Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Francis Henry HUMPHRYS,
Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order, Knight Commander of
the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Knight
Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, Companion
of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, High Commissioner of
His Britannic Majesty in 'Iraq; and
His MAJESTY THE KING OF 'IRAQ: General Nuri Pasha al SA'ID, Order of
the Nadha, Second Class, Order of the Istiqlal, Second Class,
Companion of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint
George, Companion of the Distinguished Service Order, Prime Minister
of the 'Iraq Government and Minister for Foreign Affairs; Who having
communicated their full powers, found in due form, have agreed as
There shall be perpetual peace and friendship between His Britannic
Majesty and His Majesty the King of 'Iraq. There shall be established
between the High Contracting Parties a close alliance in consecration
of their friendship, their cordial understanding and their good
relations, and there shall be full and frank consultation between them
in all matters of foreign policy which may affect their common
Each of the High Contracting Parties undertakes not to adopt in
foreign countries an attitude which is inconsistent with the alliance
or might create difficulties for the other party thereto.
Each High Contracting Party will be represented at the Court of the
other High Contracting Party by a diplomatic representative duly
Should any dispute between 'Iraq and a third State produce a situation
which involves the risk of a rupture with that State, the High
Contracting Parties will concert together with a view to the
settlement of the said dispute by peaceful means in accordance with
the provisions of the Covenant of the
League of Nations
League of Nations and of any
other international obligation which may be applicable to the case.
Should, notwithstanding the provisions of Article 3 above, either of
the High Contracting Parties become engaged in war, the other High
Contracting Party will, subject always to the provisions of Article 9
below, immediately come to his aid in the capacity of an ally. In the
event of an imminent menace of war the High Contracting Parties will
immediately concert together the necessary measures of defence. The
aid of His Majesty the King of 'Iraq in the event of war or the
imminent menace of war will consist in furnishing to His Britannic
Majesty on 'Iraq territory all facilities and assistance in his power
including the use of railways, rivers, ports, aerodromes and means of
It is understood between the High Contracting Parties that
responsibility for the maintenance of internal order in 'Iraq and,
subject to the provisions of Article 4 above, for the defence of 'Iraq
from external aggression rests with His Majesty the King of 'Iraq.
Nevertheless, His Majesty the King of 'Iraq recognises that the
permanent maintenance and protection in all circumstances of the
essential communications of His Britannic Majesty is in the common
interest of the High Contracting Parties.
For this purpose and in order to facilitate the discharge of the
obligations of His Britanic Majesty under Article 4 above His Majesty
the King of 'Iraq undertakes to grant to His Britannic Majesty for the
duration of the Alliance sites for air bases to be selected by His
Britannic Majesty at or in the vicinity of
Basra and for an air base
to be selected by His Britannic Majesty to the west of the Euphrates.
His Majesty the King of 'Iraq further authorises His Britannic Majesty
to maintain forces upon 'Iraq territory at the above localities in
accordance with the provisions of the Annexure of this Treaty on the
understanding that the presence of those forces shall not constitute
in any manner an occupation and will in no way prejudice the sovereign
rights of 'Iraq.
The Annexure hereto shall be regarded as an integral part of the
This Treaty shall replace the Treaties of Alliance signed at Baghdad
on the tenth day of October, One thousand nine hundred and twenty-two
of the Christian Era 1, corresponding to the nineteenth day of Safar,
One thousand three hundred and forty-one, Hijrah, and on the
thirteenth day of January, One thousand nine hundred and twenty-six,
of the Christian Era 2, corresponding to the twenty-eighth day of
Jamadi-al-Ukhra, One thousand three hundred and forty-four, Hijrah,
and the subsidiary agreements thereto, which shall cease to have
effect upon the entry into force of this Treaty. It shall be executed
in duplicate, in the English and Arabic languages, of which the former
shall be regarded as the authoritative version.
The High Contracting Parties recognise that, upon the entry into force
of this Treaty, all responsibilities devolving under the Treaties and
Agreements referred to in Article 7 hereof upon His Britannic Majesty
in respect of 'Iraq will, in so far as His Britannic Majesty is
concerned, then automatically and completely come to an end, and that
such responsibilities, in so far as they continue at all, will devolve
upon His Majesty the King of 'Iraq alone.
It is also recognised that all responsibilities devolving upon His
Britannic Majesty in respect of 'Iraq under any other international
instrument, in so far as they continue at all, should similarly
devolve upon His Majesty the King of 'Iraq alone, and the High
Contracting Parties shall immediately take such steps as may be
necessary to secure the transference to His Majesty the King of 'Iraq
of these responsibilities.
Nothing in the present Treaty is intended to or shall in any way
prejudice the rights and obligations which devolve, or may devolve,
upon either of the High Contracting Parties under the Covenant of the
League of Nations
League of Nations or the Treaty for the Renunciation of War signed at
Paris on the twenty-seventh day of August, One thousand nine hundred
Should any difference arise relative to the application or the
interpretation of this Treaty and should the High Contracting Parties
fail to settle such difference by direct negotiation, then it shall be
dealt with in accordance with the provisions of the Covenant of the
League of Nations.
This Treaty shall be ratified and ratifications shall be exchanged as
soon as possible. Thereafter it shall come into force as soon as 'Iraq
has been admitted to membership of the League of Nations. The present
Treaty shall remain in force for a period of twenty-five years from
the date of its coming into force. At any time after twenty years from
the date of the coming into force of this Treaty, the High Contracting
Parties will, at the request of either of them, conclude a new Treaty
which shall provide for the continued maintenance and protection in
all circumstances of the essential communications of His Britannic
Majesty. In case of disagreement in this matter the difference will be
submitted to the Council of the League of Nations. In faith whereof
the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the present Treaty and
have affixed thereto their seals. Done at
Baghdad in duplicate this
thirtieth day of June, One thousand nine hundred and thirty, of the
Christian Era, corresponding to the fourth day of Safar, One thousand
three hundred and forty-nine, Hijrah.
(L. S.) F. H. HUMPHRYS.
(L. S.) Noury SAID.
Annexure To Treaty of Alliance.
The strength of the forces maintained in 'Iraq by His Britannic
Majesty in accordance with the terms of Article 5 of this Treaty shall
be determined by His Britannic Majesty from time to time after
consultation with His Majesty the King of 'Iraq. His Britannic Majesty
shall maintain forces at Hinaidi for a period of five years after the
entry into force of this Treaty in order to enable His Majesty the
King of 'Iraq to organise the necessary forces to replace them. By the
expiration of that period the said forces of His Britannic Majesty
shall have been withdrawn from Hinaidi. It shall be also open to His
Britannic Majesty to maintain forces at Mosul for a maximum period of
five years from the entry into force of this Treaty. Thereafter it
shall be open to His Britannic Majesty to station his forces in the
localities mentioned in Article 5 of this Treaty, and His Majesty the
King of 'Iraq will grant to His Britannic Majesty for the duration of
the Alliance leases of the necessary sites for the accommodation of
the forces of His Britannic Majesty in those localities.
Subject to any modifications which the two High Contracting Parties
may agree to introduce in the future, the immunities and privileges in
jurisdictional and fiscal matters, including freedom from taxation,
enjoyed by the British forces in 'Iraq will continue to extend to the
forces referred to in Clause 1 above and to such of His Britannic
Majesty's forces of all arms as may be in 'Iraq in pursuance of the
present Treaty and its annexure or otherwise by agreement between the
High Contracting Parties, and the existing provisions of any local
legislation affecting the armed forces of His Britannic Majesty in
'Iraq shall also continue. The 'Iraq Government will take the
necessary steps to ensure that the altered conditions will not render
the position of the British forces as regards immunities and
privileges in any way less favourable than that enjoyed by them at the
date of the entry into force of this Treaty.
His Majesty the King of 'Iraq agrees to provide all possible
facilities for the movement, training and maintenance of the forces
referred to in Clause 1 above and to accord to those forces the same
facilities for the use of wireless telegraphy as those enjoyed by them
at the date of the entry into force of the present Treaty.
His Majesty the King of 'Iraq undertakes to provide at the request and
at the expense of His Britannic Majesty and upon such conditions as
may be agreed between the High Contracting Parties special guards from
his own forces for the protection of such air bases as may, in
accordance with the provisions of this Treaty, be occupied by the
forces of His Britannic Majesty, and to secure the enactment of such
legislation as may be necessary for the fulfilment of the conditions
referred to above.
His Britannic Majesty undertakes to grant whenever they may be
required by His Majesty the King of 'Iraq all possible facilities in
the following matters, the cost of which will be met by His Majesty
the King of 'Iraq.
1. Naval, military and aeronautical instruction of 'Iraqi officers in
the United Kingdom.
2. The provision of arms, ammunition, equipment, ships and aeroplanes
of the latest available pattern for the forces of His Majesty the King
3. The provision of British naval, military and air force officers to
serve in an advisory capacity with the forces of His Majesty the King
In view of the desirability of identity in training and methods
between the 'Iraq and British armies. His Majesty the King of 'Iraq
undertakes that, should he deem it necessary to have recourse to
foreign military instructors, these shall be chosen from amongst
British subjects. He further undertakes that any personnel of his
forces that may be sent abroad for military training will be sent to
military schools, colleges and training centres in the territories of
His Britannic Majesty, provided that this shall not prevent him from
sending to any other country such personnel as cannot be received in
the said institutions and training centres. He further undertakes that
the armament and essential equipment of his forces shall not differ in
type from those of the forces of His Britannic Majesty.
His Majesty the King of 'Iraq agrees to afford, when requested to do
so by His Britannic Majesty, all possible facilities for the movement
of the forces of His Britannic Majesty of all arms in transit across
'Iraq and for the transport and storage of all supplies and equipment
that may be required by these forces during their passage across
'Iraq. These facilities shall cover the use of the roads, railways,
waterways, ports and aerodromes of 'Iraq, and His Britannic Majesty's
ships shall have general permission to visit the
Shatt-al-Arab on the
understanding that His Majesty the King of 'Iraq is given prior
notification of visits to 'Iraq ports.
F. H. H.
Anglo-French Declaration of November 1918
Treaty of Sèvres
Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1922
Treaty of Lausanne
British Mandate of Mesopotamia
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Kingdom of Iraq
RAF Iraq Command
1941 Iraqi coup d'état
^ Lyman, p. 8
^ Time Magazine, 14 July 1930
^ Churchill, p. 224
Churchill, Winston (1950). The Second World War, Volume III, The Grand
Alliance. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Lyman, Robert (2006). Iraq 1941: The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya,
Fallujah and Baghdad. Campaign. Oxford, New York: Osprey Publishing.
p. 96. ISBN 1-84176-991-6.
Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1930 (Wikisource full text)
"Free Baghdad". Time Magazine. 14 July 1930. Retrieved 17 August