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English[3] Local regional languages are also commonly spoken

Religion

Christianity
Christianity
( Protestantism
Protestantism
or Catholicism), Hinduism, Islam, Sikhism, Jainism, Irreligion, Atheism

Related ethnic groups

Indo-Aryan people, Dravidian people, British people, Anglo-Burmese, Scottish-Indian, Irish Indians, Burghers, Kristang people, Indo people, Singaporean Eurasians, Macanese people

The term Anglo-Indians can refer to at least two groups of people: those with mixed Indian and British ancestry, and people of British descent born or living in the Indian subcontinent. The latter sense is now mainly historical,[8][9] but confusions can arise. The Oxford English Dictionary, for example, gives three possibilities: "Of mixed British and Indian parentage, of Indian descent but born or living in Britain, or (chiefly historical) of British descent or birth but living or having lived long in India".[10] People fitting the middle definition are more usually known as British Asian
British Asian
or British Indian. This article focuses primarily on the modern definition, a distinct minority community of mixed Eurasian ancestry, whose native language is English. During the centuries that Britain was in India, the children born to the British and Indians began to form a new community. (This process was replicated in many other meetings of European traders and colonisers across the subcontinent, creating the Anglo-Burmese
Anglo-Burmese
people in Myammar and the Burgher people
Burgher people
in Sri Lanka.) These Anglo-Indians formed a small but significant portion of the population during the British Raj, and were well represented in certain administrative roles. The Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
population dwindled from roughly 500,000 at the time of independence in 1947 to fewer than 150,000 by 2010. Many have adapted to local communities or emigrated to the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, the United States and New Zealand.[6][11]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Creation 1.2 Neglect 1.3 Consolidation 1.4 Independence and choices 1.5 21st century cultural resurgence

2 Present communities 3 Political status 4 Other populations

4.1 Britons in colonial India 4.2 Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
population in Britain

5 Population in other countries

5.1 Bangladesh

6 Notable people of Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
descent

6.1 Anglo-Indians of European descent (original definition) 6.2 Anglo-Indians of mixed South Asian and European descent (modern definition)

7 See also 8 References 9 Books 10 External links

History[edit]

An Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
gathering

A male Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
being washed, dressed and attended by fi Wellcome V0019936

The first use of "Anglo-Indian" was to describe all British people living in India. People of mixed British and Indian descent were referred to as "Eurasians". Terminology has changed, and the latter group are now called "Anglo-Indians",[12] the term that will be used throughout this article. The Hindi phrase Kutcha butcha (कच्चा बच्चे), meaning "half-baked bread,” is used to refer to this community.[13] Creation[edit] During the British East India
India
Company's rule in India
India
in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, it was fairly common for British officers and soldiers to take local wives and have Eurasian children, owing to a lack of British women in India.[14][15] By the mid-19th century, there were around 40,000 British soldiers, but fewer than 2,000 British officials present in India.[16] Neglect[edit] Originally, under Regulation VIII of 1813, they were excluded from the British legal system and in Bengal
Bengal
became subject to the rule of Islamic law
Islamic law
outside Calcutta
Calcutta
– and yet found themselves without any caste or status amongst those who were to judge them. In 1821, a pamphlet entitled "Thoughts on how to better the condition of Indo-Britons" by a "Practical Reformer," was written to promote the removal of prejudices existing in the minds of young Eurasians against engaging in trades. This was followed up by another pamphlet, entitled "An Appeal on behalf of Indo-Britons." Prominent Eurasians in Calcutta formed the "East Indian Committee" with a view to send a petition to the British Parliament for the redress of their grievances. John William Ricketts, a pioneer in the Eurasian cause, volunteered to proceed to England. His mission was successful, and on his return to India, by way of Madras, he received quite an ovation from his countrymen in that presidency; and was afterwards warmly welcomed in Calcutta, where a report of his mission was read at a public meeting held in the Calcutta
Calcutta
Town Hall. In April 1834, in obedience to an Act of Parliament passed in August 1833, the Indian Government was forced to grant government jobs to Anglo-Indians.[17] As British women began arriving in India
India
in large numbers around the early to mid-19th century, mostly as family members of officers and soldiers, British men became less likely to marry Indian women. Intermarriage declined after the events of the Rebellion of 1857,[18] after which several anti-miscegenation laws were implemented.[19][20] As a result, Eurasians were neglected by both the British and Indian populations in India. Consolidation[edit] Over generations, Anglo-Indians intermarried with other Anglo-Indians to form a community that developed a culture of its own. Their cuisine, dress, speech (use of English as their mother tongue), and religion (Christianity) all served to further segregate them from the native population. A number of factors fostered a strong sense of community among Anglo-Indians. Their English language school system, their Anglo-centric culture, and their Christian beliefs in particular helped bind them together.[17] They formed social clubs and associations to run functions, including regular dances on occasions such as Christmas
Christmas
and Easter.[21] Indeed, their Christmas
Christmas
balls, held in most major cities, still form a distinctive part of Indian Christian culture.[22] Over time Anglo-Indians were specifically recruited into the Customs and Excise, Post and Telegraphs, Forestry Department, the railways and teaching professions – but they were employed in many other fields as well. The Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
community also had a role as go-betweens in the introduction of Western musical styles, harmonies and instruments in post-Independence India. During the colonial era, genres including ragtime and jazz were played by bands for the social elites, and these bands often contained Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
members.[23] Independence and choices[edit] During the independence movement, many Anglo-Indians identified (or were assumed to identify) with British rule, and, therefore, incurred the distrust and hostility of Indian nationalists.[citation needed] Their position at independence was difficult. They felt a loyalty to a British "home" that most had never seen and where they would gain little social acceptance. ( Bhowani Junction
Bhowani Junction
touches on the identity crisis faced by the Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
community during the independence struggle.) They felt insecure in an India
India
that put a premium on participation in the independence movement as a prerequisite for important government positions. Many Anglo-Indians left the country in 1947, hoping to make a new life in the United Kingdom or elsewhere in the Commonwealth of Nations, such as Australia or Canada. The exodus continued through the 1950s and 1960s and by the late 1990s most had left with many of the remaining Anglo-Indians still aspiring to leave.[24] Like the Parsi community, the Anglo-Indians are essentially urban dwellers. Unlike the Parsis, the mass migrations saw more of the better educated and financially secure Anglo-Indians depart for other Commonwealth nations.[21] 21st century cultural resurgence[edit]

Admiral Oscar Stanley Dawson
Oscar Stanley Dawson
as Chief of the Naval Staff

There has been a resurgence in celebrating Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
culture in the twenty-first century, in the form of International Anglo-Indian Reunions and in publishing books. There have been nine reunions, with the latest being held in 2015 in Calcutta. Several narratives and novels have been published recently. The Leopard's Call: An Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
Love Story (2005) by Reginald Shires, tells of the life of two teachers at the small Bengali town of Falakata, down from Bhutan; At the Age for Love: A Novel of Bangalore during World War II (2006) is by the same author. In the Shadow of Crows (2009)[25] by David Charles Manners, is the critically acclaimed true account of a young Englishman's unexpected discovery of his Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
relations in the Darjeeling
Darjeeling
district. The Hammarskjold Killing (2007) by William Higham, is a novel in which a London-born Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
heroine is caught up in a terrorist crisis in Sri Lanka. Where The Bulbul Sings (2011) by Serena Fairfax features a young Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
woman who seeks to deny her heritage and bury her past.[26] Present communities[edit] India
India
constitutionally guarantees of the rights of communities and religious and linguistic minorities, and thus permits Anglo-Indians to maintain their own schools and to use English as the medium of instruction. In order to encourage the integration of the community into the larger society, the government stipulates that a certain percentage of the student body come from other Indian communities.[citation needed] In a 2013 BBC news
BBC news
feature on Anglo-Indians, journalist Kris Griffiths wrote: "It has been noted in recent years that the number of Anglo-Indians who have succeeded in certain fields is remarkably disproportionate to the community's size. For example, in the music industry there are Engelbert Humperdinck (born Madras), Peter Sarstedt (Delhi) and Cliff Richard
Cliff Richard
(Lucknow). The looser definition of Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
(any mixed British-Indian parentage) encompasses the likes of cricketer Nasser Hussain, footballer Michael Chopra
Michael Chopra
and actor Ben Kingsley."[27] Anglo-Indians distinguished themselves in the military. Air Vice-Marshal Maurice Barker was India's first Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
Air Marshal. At least seven other Anglo-Indians subsequently reached that post, a notable achievement for a small community. A number of others have been decorated for military achievements. Air Marshal Malcolm Wollen is often considered the man who won India's 1971 war fighting alongside Bangladesh.[28] Anglo-Indians made similarly significant contributions to the Indian Navy and Army.[29] Another field in which Anglo-Indians won distinction was education. The second most respected matriculation qualification in India, the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education, was started and built by some of the community's best known educationalists, including Frank Anthony, who served as its president, and A.E.T. Barrow, its secretary for the better part of half a century. Most Anglo-Indians, even those without much formal education, find that gaining employment in schools is fairly easy because of their fluency in English. In sporting circles Anglo-Indians have made a significant contribution, particularly at Olympic level where Norman Pritchard became India's first ever Olympic medallist, winning two silver medals at the 1900 Olympic Games
1900 Olympic Games
in Paris, France. In cricket Roger Binny was the leading wicket-taker during the Indian cricket team's 1983 World Cup triumph. Wilson Jones was India's first ever World Professional Billiards Champion. Several charities have been set up abroad to help the less fortunate in the community in India. Foremost among these is CTR (Calcutta Tiljallah Relief – based in the US), which has instituted a senior pension scheme, and provides monthly pensions to over 300 seniors. CTR also provides education to over 200 needy children.[30] Today, there are estimated to be 80,000–125,000 Anglo-Indians living in India, most of whom are based in the cities of Madras, Bangalore, Calcutta, Mumbai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Trivandrum, Kochi, Pune, Secunderabad, Mysore, Mangalore, Kolar Gold Fields, Kanpur, Lucknow, Agra, Varanasi, Madurai, Coimbatore, Pothanur, Tiruchirapalli, The Nilgiris District, Nagercoil
Nagercoil
and a few in Hospet
Hospet
and Hatti Gold Mines. Anglo-Indians also live in the towns of Varkala, Allepey
Allepey
(Alappuzha), Kollam
Kollam
(Quilon/Coulão), Kozhikode
Kozhikode
(Calicut), Cannanore
Cannanore
(Kannur), Fort Kochi
Kochi
in Cochin
Cochin
(Kochi) in the South Indian state of Kerala
Kerala
also at Goa
Goa
and Pondicherry
Pondicherry
and in some towns of Bihar
Bihar
such as Jamalpur, McCluskieganj
McCluskieganj
and in Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
such as Dehra Dun, Jharkhand
Jharkhand
such as Ranchi, Dhanbad
Dhanbad
and West Bengal
Bengal
such as Asansol, Kharagpur, Kalimpong. Also a significant number of this population resides in Odisha's Khurda Road, which is a busy railway junction and some in Cuttack. However, the Anglo Indian population has dwindled over the years with most people migrating abroad or to other parts of the country.[3] Tangasseri
Tangasseri
in Kollam
Kollam
city is the only place in Kerala
Kerala
State where Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
tradition is maintained. But almost all the colonial constructions got erased except the Tangasseri
Tangasseri
Lighthouse built by the British in 1902.[31] Most of the Anglo-Indians overseas are concentrated in Britain, Australia, Canada, United States, and New Zealand. Of the estimated million or so (including descendants), who have emigrated from India[citation needed], some have settled in European countries like Switzerland, Germany, and France. According to the Anglo-Indians who have settled in Australia, integration for the most part has not been difficult.[32] The community in Burma frequently intermarried with the local Anglo-Burmese
Anglo-Burmese
community but both communities suffered from adverse discrimination since Burma's military took over the government in the 1962, with most having now left the country to settle overseas. Political status[edit] Main article: Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
reserved seats Article 366(2) of the Indian Constitution defines Anglo-Indian as:[33][34]

(2) an Anglo Indian means a person whose father or any of whose other male progenitors in the male line is or was of European descent but who is domiciled within the territory of India
India
and is or was born within such territory of parents habitually resident therein and not established there for temporary purposes only;

Anglo-Indians are the only community that has its own representatives nominated to the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
(Lower House) in India's Parliament. This right was secured from Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
by Frank Anthony, the first and longtime president of the All India
India
Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
Association. The community is represented by two members. This is done because the community has no native state of its own. States like Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Bihar, West Bengal, Karnataka, Uttarakhand, Jharkhand
Jharkhand
and Kerala
Kerala
also have a nominated member each in their respective State Legislatures. Other populations[edit] Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
often only represents Indians mixed with British ancestry during the British Raj.[citation needed] There are many mixed Indians from other European countries during the colonial era. For example, the definition rarely embraces the descendants of the Indians from the old Portuguese colonies
Portuguese colonies
of both the Coromandel and Malabar Coasts, who joined the East India Company
East India Company
as mercenaries and brought their families with them.[35] The definition has many extensions, for example, Luso-Indian
Luso-Indian
(mixed Portuguese and Indian) of Goa, people of Indo-French descent, and Indo-Dutch descent. Indians have encountered Europeans since their earliest civilization. They have been a continuous element in the sub-continent. Their presence is not to be considered Anglo-Indian. Similarly, Indians who mixed with Europeans after the British Raj
British Raj
are also not be considered Anglo-Indian.[6][36] Britons in colonial India[edit] Historically, the term Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
was also used in common parlance in Britain during the colonial era to refer to those people (such as Rudyard Kipling, or the hunter-naturalist Jim Corbett), who were of British descent but were born and raised in India, usually because their parents were serving in the colonial administration or armed forces;[21] "Anglo-Indian", in this sense, was synonymous with "non-domiciled British". Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
population in Britain[edit] Since the mid-nineteenth century, there has been a population of people of Indian (like Lascars) or mixed British-Indian ethnic origin living in Britain, both through intermarriage between white Britons and Indians, and through the migration of Anglo-Indians from India
India
to Britain. Indian-British interracial marriage began in Britain from the 17th century, when the British East India Company
East India Company
began bringing over thousands of Lascar
Lascar
seamen to Britain, where they married local British women, due to a lack of Indian women in Britain at the time.[37] As there were no legal restrictions against mixed marriages in Britain,[37] families with Indian Lascar
Lascar
fathers and English mothers established interracial communities in Britain's dock areas.[38] This led to a growing number of "mixed race" children being born in the country; the number of ethnic minority females in Britain were often outnumbered by "half-caste Indian" daughters born from British mothers and Indian fathers.[39] By the time World War I
World War I
began, there were 51,616 Lascar
Lascar
seamen working in Britain.[40] Though sometimes referred to as Anglo-Indians,[10] people of Indian or mixed British-Indian ethnicity residing in Britain generally prefer the terms White British, British Indian
British Indian
and mixed White-Asian instead.[41] The first and last categorisations are also used by the UK census. Population in other countries[edit] Bangladesh[edit] There is a significant population of Anglo-Indians in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
of almost 200,000.[42] The presence of Anglo-Indians in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
is since the British period. But their population had decreased to 4,000 in 1947 during the Partition of India
Partition of India
from the present region of Bangladesh. Most of them had migrated to United Kingdom, United States, Australia, New Zealand
New Zealand
and Canada. And during the 1971 Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War, almost 1,500 Anglo-Indians lost their lives during fighting in the war. But in 1970, one year before the war almost 9,000 Anglo-Indians had come from India. Then after the independence of Bangladesh, during 1974–1976 almost 28,000 Anglo-Indians had arrived in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
from India
India
to settle down. After that in 1980 there were reported birth of 37,500 Anglo-Indian children in Bangladesh. And in 1993 there were almost 103,713 Anglo-Indians living here. Then finally it rose up to 200,000 in 2016.[43] Bangladesh
Bangladesh
constitutionally provides rights and freedom to the Anglo-Indians to perform their culture, customs, traditions and religions freely. They are allowed to maintain their own colonies even. They mainly live in Dhaka, Chittagong
Chittagong
and Sylhet. So, there are Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
shops, saloons, parlours and schools in this cities, especially in the colonies where they live. In Dhaka, specifically in Banani there have been many Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
colonies where there is a residence of estimated 45,000–59,000 Anglo-Indians.[citation needed] Notable people of Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
descent[edit] See also: List of Anglo-Indians Anglo-Indians of European descent (original definition)[edit]

Pete Best, original drummer for the Beatles. Ruskin Bond, writer Julie Christie, British actress. Augustus De Morgan, mathematician Ray Dorset, musician/songwriter with the band Mungo Jerry Lawrence Durrell, novelist, poet, dramatist, travel writer and diplomat. Gerald Durrell, writer, naturalist, conservationist and television presenter Rudyard Kipling, British writer. The first English-language writer to win the Nobel Prize for Literature. Vivien Leigh, stage and film actress Anna Leonowens
Anna Leonowens
(1834–1915), British governess to the Siamese court on whose life story The King and I
The King and I
was based. It is also speculated that Anna had Indian ancestry. Joanna Lumley, British actress. George Orwell, British author of 1984 and Animal Farm. Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts
Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts
– British soldier. Jesy Nelson, singer William Makepeace Thackeray, British novelist. Most famous for Vanity Fair.

Anglo-Indians of mixed South Asian and European descent (modern definition)[edit]

Sir Henry Gidney[citation needed] Frank Anthony, lawyer, activist, politician, Indian representative at the United Nations[44] Gabrielle Anwar, British actress Bob Woolmer, cricketer Marcus Bartley, cinematographer[citation needed] Lara Dutta Bhupathi, Indian actress and Miss Universe 2000 Roger Binny, Indian cricketer[citation needed] Stuart Clark[citation needed] Maxwell Trevor Indian cyclist Carlton Chapman Indian Footballer Stuart Binny Sheldon Jackson (cricketer) Tony Brent, singer Norman Anil Kumar Browne, Air Chief Marshal and former Chief of the Air Staff of the IAF Patrick Desmond Callaghan, Air Vice Marshal of the Pakistan Air Force Michael Chopra, British footballer[citation needed] Leslie Claudius, field hockey player, and four-time Olympic medallist (1948–1960; 3 gold, 1 silver). Alexander Cobbe, (General Sir Alexander Stanhope Cobbe) British general and VC winner Sean Connery, Actor Billy Connolly, Scottish comedian[45] Patience Cooper, Indian film actress. Oscar Stanley Dawson, Admiral, Chief of the Naval Staff of the Indian Navy from 1 March 1982 to 30 November 1984. Henry Derozio, Calcutta
Calcutta
poet, Glen Duncan, author Marc Elliott, British actor Denis La Fontaine, Air Chief Marshal, Chief of the Air Staff, Indian Air Force Naomi Scott, actress Rory Girvan, British actor. Cary Grant, Actor. Diana Hayden, actress and former Miss World Ricky Heppolette, footballer Engelbert Humperdinck, British singer Guy Sebastian, Australian singer Norman Douglas Hutchinson, painter Andrea Jeremiah, actress, singer Holly Johnson, singer. In his autobiography, Johnson stated that while his grandfather looked white, he was actually 3/4 Indian. Wilson Jones, former billiards World Champion Noel Jones, British ambassador. Katrina Kaif, Indian actress Denzil Keelor, IAF officer and hero of both India
India
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
in 1971 Indo- Bangladesh
Bangladesh
War with Pakistan Trevor Keelor, IAF officer and the hero of India, the temporary foreigner trainer, high officer of BAF and pioneer of the freedom fighters of 1971 Indo- Bangladesh
Bangladesh
War with Pakistan Helen Richardson Khan, Bollywood actress Ben Kingsley, British actor Louis T. Leonowens
Louis T. Leonowens
(1856–1919), Siamese cavalry officer and trader; son of Anna Leonowens Julian MacLaren-Ross, British novelist. Frederick Akbar Mahomed, physician; grandson of Sake Dean Mahomed Colin Mathura-Jeffree, New Zealand
New Zealand
model and actor John Mayer, violinist, composer and teacher. Put together the Indo- Jazz
Jazz
Fusions double quartet in 1967. Alistair McGowan, British impressionist, comedian and actor Rhona Mitra, British actress, model and singer Richard Nerurkar, British long-distance runner Betty Nuthall, tennis player Merle Oberon, actress, born in India. Derek O'Brien, quizmaster; Member of Parliament (Rajya Sabha) Admiral Ronald Lynsdale Pereira, chief of the Indian Navy (1979–1982) Cliff Richard, pop singer Russell Peters,[46] Canadian stand-up comic and actor Diana Quick, actress Timo Räisänen, Swedish Indie pop artist Paul Sabu, musician. Allan Sealy, novelist Adam Sinclair, Indian Hockey player born in Coimbatore Denzil Smith
Denzil Smith
actor Melanie Sykes, model and television presenter Ayesha Takia, actress Stephen Hector Taylor-Smith (1891 – 1951), pioneer of "Rocket Mail" in India, and immortalised by a postage stamp. Robert Warburton
Robert Warburton
Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
colonial administrator and soldier Norman Watt-Roy, bassist of Ian Dury
Ian Dury
and The Blockheads Charli XCX, singer

See also[edit]

India
India
portal United Kingdom portal Kollam
Kollam
portal

Christianity
Christianity
in India Luso-Indian British Asian British Indian British Pakistani British Bangladeshi British Mixed-Race Burgher people, Sri Lankan people of partly European ancestry Eurasian (mixed ancestry) FIBIS – Families in British India
India
Society Indo people
Indo people
(similar group in the Dutch East Indies)

References[edit]

^ "Death knell for Buckingham canal at Thangasseri". The New Indian Express. 23 July 2011. Retrieved 6 July 2017.  ^ "Anglo Indians of Tangasseri
Tangasseri
1959". Kevin-peterson.net. Retrieved 6 July 2017.  ^ a b c d Wright, Roy Dean; Wright, Susan W. "The Anglo-Indian Community in Contemporary India" (PDF). Midwest Quarterly. XII (Winter, 1971): 175–185. Retrieved 19 March 2015.  ^ Geoffrey K. Francis. "Perambur – an Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
bastion". Madramusings.com. Retrieved 30 August 2017.  ^ "Chennai's Anglo-Indians demand pension scheme for their poor". Times of India. Retrieved 30 August 2017.  ^ a b c d Fisher, Michael H. (2007), "Excluding and Including "Natives of India": Early-Nineteenth-Century British-Indian Race Relations in Britain", Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 27 (2): 303–314 [305], doi:10.1215/1089201x-2007-007 ^ Blair Williams, Anglo Indians, CTR Inc. Publishing, 2002, p.189 ^ Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
2nd Edition (1989) ^ Anglo-Indian, Dictionary.com. ^ a b "Anglo-Indian". Oxford Dictionary Online. Retrieved 2012-01-30.  ^ "Some corner of a foreign field". The Economist. 21 October 2010. Archived from the original on 19 January 2011. Retrieved 2011-02-18.  ^ "Eurasian". Dictionary.com. Archived from the original on 8 December 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-13.  ^ Griffiths, Kris (4 January 2013). "Anglo-Indians: Is their culture dying out?". BBC Online. Retrieved 17 February 2013.  ^ Fisher, Michael Herbert (2006), Counterflows to Colonialism: Indian Traveller and Settler in Britain 1600–1857, Orient Blackswan, pp. 111–9, 129–30, 140, 154–6, 160–8, ISBN 81-7824-154-4  ^ Fisher, Michael H. (2007), "Excluding and Including "Natives of India": Early-Nineteenth-Century British-Indian Race Relations in Britain", Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 27 (2): 303–314 [304–5], doi:10.1215/1089201x-2007-007  ^ Fisher, Michael H. (2007), "Excluding and Including "Natives of India": Early-Nineteenth-Century British-Indian Race Relations in Britain", Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 27 (2): 303–314 [305], doi:10.1215/1089201x-2007-007  ^ a b Maher, James, Reginald. (2007). These Are The Anglo Indians . London: Simon Wallenberg Press. (An Anglo Indian Heritage Book) ^ Beckman, Karen Redrobe (2003), Vanishing Women: Magic, Film, and Feminism, Duke University Press, pp. 31–3, ISBN 0-8223-3074-1  ^ Kent, Eliza F. (2004), Converting Women, Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
US, pp. 85–6, ISBN 0-19-516507-1  ^ Kaul, Suvir (1996), "Review Essay: Colonial Figures and Postcolonial Reading", Diacritics, 26 (1): 74–89 [83–9], doi:10.1353/dia.1996.0005  ^ a b c Stark, Herbert Alick. Hostages To India: OR The Life Story of the Anglo Indian Race. Third Edition. London: The Simon Wallenberg Press: Vol 2: Anglo Indian Heritage Books ^ "Anglo-Indians mark Christmas
Christmas
with charity". The Times of India. India. 26 December 2008.  ^ " Jazz
Jazz
and race in colonial India: The role of Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
musicians in the diffusion of jazz in Calcutta : Dorin : Jazz
Jazz
Research Journal". Equinoxpub.com. Retrieved 30 August 2017.  ^ Anthony, Frank. Britain's Betrayal in India: The Story of the Anglo Indian Community. Second Edition. London: The Simon Wallenberg Press, 2007 Pages 144–146, 92. ^ David Charles Manners. "In the Shadow of Crows". Signal Books. Retrieved 30 August 2017.  ^ "Serena Fairfax book author, writer, of creative fiction novels - Latest Online E-Books". Serenafairfax.com. Retrieved 30 August 2017.  ^ Griffiths, Kris (4 January 2013). "Anglo-Indians: Is their culture dying out?". BBC News. Retrieved 19 March 2015.  ^ "Anglo-Indians in the Indian Air Force". Sumgenius.com.au. Retrieved 2010-10-27.  ^ Anthony, Frank. Britain's Betrayal in India: The Story of the Anglo Indian Community. Second Edition. London: The Simon Wallenberg Press. ^ " Calcutta
Calcutta
Tiljallah Relief". Blairrw.org. Retrieved 2010-10-27.  ^ "Death knell for Buckingham canal at Thangasseri". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 20 March 2015.  ^ The Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
Australian Story: My Experience, Zelma Phillips 2004 ^ "Treaty Bodies Database – Document – State Party Report" United Nations Human Rights Website. 29 April 1996. ^ "Article 366(2) in The Constitution of India
Constitution of India
1949". Retrieved 2012-08-15.  ^ See Stark, op. cit. ^ Dover, Cedric. Cimmerii or Eurasians and Their Future: An Anglo Indian Heritage Book. London: Simon Wallenberg Press, 2007. Pages 62–63 ^ a b Fisher, Michael Herbert (2006). Counterflows to Colonialism. Orient Blackswan. ISBN 81-7824-154-4. . ^ "Growing Up". Moving Here. Retrieved 2009-02-12.  ^ Rose, Sonya O.; Frader, Laura Levine (1996). Gender and Class in Modern Europe. Cornell University Press. p. 184. ISBN 0-8014-8146-5.  ^ Ansari, Humayun (2004). The Infidel Within: The History of Muslims in Britain, 1800 to the Present. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. ISBN 1-85065-685-1. . ^ Ann Baker Cottrell (1979). "Today's Asian-Western Couples Are Not Anglo-Indians". Phylon. 40 (4): 351. JSTOR 274532. [not in citation given] ^ Anton Williams, Jake Peterson, Alexsander Stevenova, Jennifer Michealson's New Survey(2016) of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Population Research:"There are almost 200,000 Anglo-Indians living in Bangladesh."(The Natives of India). The Comparative Studies about Bangladesh. Retrieved 18 February 2016. ^ [1][dead link] ^ "Member's Profile - Lok Sabha". Lok Sabha
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Secretariat. Archived from the original on 19 December 2011. Retrieved 16 February 2012.  ^ "Billy Connolly". Who Do You Think You Are. Retrieved 20 September 2017.  ^ "FAQ". RussellPeters.com. 25 January 2009. Archived from the original on 7 November 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-27. 

Books[edit]

Anthony F "Britain's Betrayal in India: The Story Of The Anglo Indian Community" Simon Wallenberg Press, Amazon Books. Chapman, Pat "Taste of the Raj, Hodder & Stoughton, London – ISBN 0-340-68035-0 (1997) Bridget White-Kumar "The best of Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
Cuisine – A Legacy", "Flavours of the Past", " Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
Delicacies", "The Anglo-Indian festive Hamper", "A Collection of Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
Roasts, Casseroles and Bakes" Dady D S "Scattered Seeds: The Diaspora of the Anglo-Indians" Pagoda Press Dyer, Sylvia "The Spell of the Flying Foxes" ISBN 0143065343, Amazon Kindle Edition Gabb A "1600–1947 Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
Legacy" Hawes, Christopher J. (2013). Poor Relations: The Making of a Eurasian Community in British India, 1773–1833. London: Routledge.  Moore G J "The Anglo Indian Vision" Stark H A "Hostages To India: Or The Life Story of the Anglo Indian Race" Simon Wallenberg Press. Maher, Reginald "These Are The Anglo-Indians" – (An Anglo-Indian Heritage Book) Simon Wallenberg Press Phillips Z "The Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
Australian Story: My Experience. A collection of Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
Migration Heritage Stories" Thorpe, O "Paper Boats in the Monsoon: Life in the Lost World of Anglo-India" Trafford Publishing Thomas, Noel "Footprints On The Track" Williams, Blair "Anglo-Indians. Vanishing remnants of a bygone era" CTR books Deefholts, Margaret "Haunting India. Fiction, poems, travel tales and memoirs" CTR books Deefholts and Staub "Voices on the Verandah. An anthology of Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
poetry and prose" CTR books Deefholts, Margaret and Deefholts, Glen "The Way We Were. Anglo-Indian chronicles" CTR books Lumb, Lionel and Veldhuizen, Deb "The Way We Are" An Anglo-Indian Mossaic" CTR books Deefholts, Margaret and Deefholts, Susan "Woman of Anglo-India. Tales and Memoirs" CTR books Lionel Lumb "More Voices on the Verandah. An Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
Anthology" CTR books Mary Esther Lyons " Unwanted. Memoirs of and Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
daughter" Spectrum Publications

External links[edit]

Scattered Seeds: The Diaspora of the Anglo-Indians... an exploration through history, identity and photography

v t e

British diaspora

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Africa

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v t e

Kollam

History

Mar Sapir Iso Chera dynasty Kollam
Kollam
Port Nelcynda Kollam
Kollam
era (Malayalam calendar) Tharisapalli plates Venad Rajashekhara Varman Rama Varma of Venad Paravur Kundara Travancore Cantonment Maidan Tangasseri Portuguese Empire Dutch Malabar 4th Portuguese India
India
Armada (Gama, 1502) Portuguese Cemetery Buckingham Canal St Thomas Fort, Tangasseri Kollam
Kollam
Cantonment Battle of Quilon Christianity
Christianity
in India Christianity
Christianity
in Kerala Saint Thomas Christian churches Roman Catholic Diocese of Quilon Kollam
Kollam
Airport

Geography

Ashtamudi Lake Asramam
Asramam
Maidan Estuaries of Paravur Islands of Kollam Ithikkara River Kallada River Kattaka Kayal Kollam
Kollam
Beach Mundakkal
Mundakkal
Beach Paravur Lake Pozhikara Sasthamcotta Lake Thirumullavaram Thekkumbhagam-Kappil Beach

Zones

Central Zone-I Central Zone-II Sakthikulangara Kilikollur Vadakkevila Eravipuram

Administration & Authorities

Kollam
Kollam
Municipal Corporation Kollam
Kollam
Development Authority Kollam
Kollam
City Police Kollam
Kollam
Taluk Kollam
Kollam
Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
constituency Kollam
Kollam
Assembly constituency

Economy

Cashew Export Promotion Council of India
India
(CEPCI) Indian Rare Earths
Indian Rare Earths
Limited (IREL) Kerala
Kerala
Minerals and Metals Ltd.(KMML) Kerala
Kerala
State Cashew Development Corporation Limited List of cashew companies based in Kollam Kollam
Kollam
Techno-lodges Kollam
Kollam
Technopark Parvathy Mills Limited United Electrical Industries Limited(UNILEC)

Visitor attractions

8 Point Art Cafe Asramam
Asramam
Adventure Park & Picnic Village British Residency Asramam
Asramam
Children's Park Chinnakada
Chinnakada
Clock Tower Dutch Church, Munroe Island Estuaries of Paravur Islands of Kollam Kollam
Kollam
Beach Mahatma Gandhi Park Mundakkal
Mundakkal
Beach Portuguese Cemetery Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Police Museum St Thomas Fort Tangasseri
Tangasseri
Lighthouse Paravur Thekkumbhagam Thirumullavaram Beach

Healthcare

Medical College Hospitals

Azeezia Medical College
Azeezia Medical College
Hospital Government Medical College, Kollam Travancore
Travancore
Medicity Medical College

Meditrina Hospital N. S. Memorial Institute of Medical Sciences

Buildings & structures

British Residency Cashew House Cheena Kottaram Crowther Masonic Hall Kovilthottam Lighthouse SMP Palace St Thomas Fort Tangasseri
Tangasseri
Lighthouse Thevally
Thevally
Palace The Raviz

Shopping centres

Bishop Jerome Nagar Downtown Kollam RP Mall H&J Mall

Culture

Kalidasa Kalakendram Kollam
Kollam
Pooram Kottankulangara Festival President's Trophy Boat Race Kollam
Kollam
Kite Club Saint Thomas Christians Anglo-Indian Gujarati community

Sports & stadiums

Lal Bahadur Shastri Stadium, Kollam International Hockey Stadium, Kollam

Places of worship

Ammachiveedu Devi Temple Anandavalleeshwaram Sri Mahadevar Temple Asramam
Asramam
Sree Krishna Swamy Temple Kolloorvila Juma Masjid Infant Jesus Cathedral Paravur Puttingal Devi Temple Sasthamcotta Sree Dharma Sastha Temple St Andrew's Church, Kovilthottam St Antony's Church, Kanjiracode St Elijah Orthodox Syrian Church, Koduvila Valiya Koonambaikulam temple

Other topics

Kollam
Kollam
Metropolitan Area Cashew business in Kollam Neendakara Indo-Norwegian Project List of schools in Kollam
Kollam
district Jatayu Nature Park CSI Kollam
Kollam
Diocese

Education

Premier institutions

Indian Institute of Infrastructure and Construction Institute of Fashion Technology Kerala Kerala
Kerala
Maritime Institute Kerala
Kerala
State Institute of Design

Engineering colleges

Bishop Jerome Institute College of Engineering, Perumon College of Engineering Karunagappally TKM College of Engineering TKM Institute of Technology Younus College of Engineering & Technology

Arts, Science & Law colleges

Fatima Mata National College Mannam Memorial NSS College, Kottiyam Sree Narayana College, Kollam Sree Narayana Guru College of Legal Studies

Schools

Chinmaya Vidyalaya, Chandanathope Infant Jesus School Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Thrikkannamangal Kendriya Vidyalaya, Mulangadakam Mount Carmel Convent Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
Girls High School St. Aloysius Higher Secondary School

Other institutes

Govt. ITI, Chandanathope Sree Narayana Polytechnic College

Neighbourhoods

South Kollam

Eravipuram Koottikkada Mevaram Thattamala Vadakkevila Valathungal

North Kollam

Anchalumoodu Kavanad Kureepuzha Maruthadi Mathilil Ramankulangara Sakthikulangara Thrikkadavoor Vallikeezhu

Central Kollam

Andamukkam Asramam Cantonment Chamakada Chinnakada Cutchery Kadappakada Kochupilamoodu Mulamkadakam Mundakkal Pattathanam Polayathode Pullikada Thevally Thoppilkadavu Uliyakovil

East Kollam

Ayathil Chandanathoppe Chathinamkulam Kallumthazham Karicode Kilikollur Punthalathazham

West Kollam

Pallithottam Tangasseri Thamarakulam Thirumullavaram

Transport

Road

Bus stations

Andamukkam
Andamukkam
City Bus Stand Kollam
Kollam
KSRTC Bus Station Tangasseri
Tangasseri
Bus Terminal

National highways

National Highway 66 National Highway 183 National Highway 744 National Highway 183A Kollam
Kollam
Bypass

City roads

Asramam
Asramam
Link Road Kollam-Paravur Coastal Road Port Road, Kollam QAC Road Residency Road

Organisations

Kerala
Kerala
State Road Transport Corporation Kerala
Kerala
Urban Road Transport Corporation

Railway

Stations

Kollam
Kollam
Junction Eravipuram Kilikollur Chandanattop

Lines

Kollam–Thiruvananthapuram trunk line Kollam–Sengottai branch line

Sheds & maintenance yards

Kollam
Kollam
MEMU Shed

Air

Kerala
Kerala
Seaplane Kollam
Kollam
Airport(defunct)

Water

Kollam
Kollam
Port Kollam
Kollam
KSWTD Boat Jetty Kollam
Kollam
Canal National Waterway 3

Category Portal WikiProject

v t e

Non-resident Indians and people of Indian origin

Africa

South-East

Kenya Madagascar Mauritius

Bihari Tamil

Mozambique Réunion1 (Malbars) Seychelles

Tamil

Tanzania Uganda Zambia

Elsewhere

Botswana Egypt Ghana South Africa (Tamil) Zimbabwe

Americas

Caribbean

Barbados Belize Dominican Republic Grenada Guadeloupe2 Guyana Haiti (Marabou) Jamaica Martinique2 Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Suriname Trinidad and Tobago (Dougla) U.S. Virgin Islands

Latin America

Argentina Brazil Chile French Guiana2 Mexico Panama Peru Uruguay Venezuela

Elsewhere

Canada

Anglo-Indian Tamil British Columbia

Vancouver

Toronto

United States

by city Bengali Indo-Caribbean Punjabi Punjabi Mexican Sindhi Tamil

Asia

South

Afghanistan

Punjabi

Bangladesh Maldives Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka

Bharatha Chetty Kuruvan Tamil

South-East

Brunei Burma

Tamil

Cambodia Indonesia

Mardijker Tamil

Malaysia

Chitty Gujarati Jawi Peranakan Tamil Telugu Penang

Philippines Singapore

Tamil

Thailand Vietnam

East

China (Hong Kong) Japan Korea Taiwan

West

Bahrain Iran Israel Kuwait Lebanon Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia Turkey United Arab Emirates

Europe

Eastern

Lithuania Poland Russia

Northern

Finland Sweden

Southern

Cyprus Italy

Tamil

Malta Portugal Spain

Western

Belgium France

Tamil

Germany

Tamil

Luxembourg Netherlands United Kingdom

London Indo-Caribbean Punjabi Sindhi Tamil

Oceania

Australia

Malayali Tamil

Fiji

Gujarati South Indian

New Caledonia3 New Zealand

Tamil

See also

Related diasporas

Bengali Hindu Indo-Fijian Kashmiri Malayalis in the Gulf Oriya Punjabi (Sikhs) Romani Sindhi Tamil

Other related articles

Anglo-Indian Chindian Desi Little India Non-Resident Indian Award Non-Resident Indian Day

1 An overseas departments of France in the southwest Indian Ocean 2Overseas departments of France in the Americas 3A sui generis collectivity of France in the south

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