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The Info List - Anglo-Dutch Treaties Of 1870–1871


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The Anglo-Dutch Treaties of 1870–1871 were three related treaties between Great Britain and the Netherlands, dealing with colonial disputes and other colonial affairs between the two countries.

Contents

1 History 2 See also 3 Notes 4 References

History[edit] In 1868, two treaties were being drafted which regulated colonial affairs between the Netherlands
Netherlands
and the United Kingdom. The first was regarding Dutch control over the island of Sumatra. Since 1858, the Dutch had subjected the Sultanate of Siak Sri Indrapura
Sultanate of Siak Sri Indrapura
to its rule, drawing protest from the British. At the same time, the British were dismayed by the duties their citizens had to pay to do business there. It was clear to both parties that the First Sumatra
Sumatra
Treaty
Treaty
of 1824 had to be revised; in return for recognition of full control over Siak, the Dutch awarded the British with equal commercial rights in Siak. The other treaty regulated the recruitment of contract workers from British India
British India
for the Dutch colony of Suriname.[7] Around the same time, Engelbertus de Waal, the new liberal Dutch minister for Colonial Affairs, wanted to cede the costly Dutch Gold Coast to Britain, drafting a report to that effect in 1869. Due to the negative opinion on the report by the Dutch Council of State, the issue was put off the agenda for the time being. In the meantime, though, minister De Waal secretly began negotiating with the British about relinquishing the Gold Coast to British control, provoking an official British proposal to that effect in 1870. On 21 June 1870, the Council of State replied positive to this proposal, on the condition that such a cession be coupled with a recognition of Dutch control and influence in the East Indies.[8] To this effect, the Dutch requested a more extensive application of the recruitment treaty for contract workers, and an extra clause in the Siak Treaty
Treaty
establishing the Aceh Sultanate
Aceh Sultanate
as part of the Dutch area of influence. The British rejected these requests, and because the Netherlands
Netherlands
itself had provoked the British request for cession of the Gold Coast, the Dutch government could do little more than signing the Recruitment and Siak treaties on 8 September 1870.[2] Meanwhile, the British put forward some additional conditions on the cession of the Gold Coast, requesting that the Siak and Recruitment treaties should be ratified simultaneously, so that recruitment could only happen if the British would have their equal rights in Siak. For reasons of personal prestige, minister De Waal requested that the Gold Coast treaty would be ratified simultaneously as well, making the three treaties dependent on each other. The Gold Coast Treaty
Treaty
was signed on 25 February 1871.[9] In a curious twist of events, the Siak Treaty
Treaty
was rejected in the Dutch House of Representatives by a vote of 38-36, while the Gold Coast Treaty
Treaty
was adopted by a vote of 34-30. Instead of withdrawing all three treaties, the British conceded to renegotiating the Siak Treaty, eager as they were to gain equal rights in Siak. As per Dutch requests, the new treaty, now termed Sumatra
Sumatra
Treaty, established full Dutch influence over the Aceh Sultanate.[10] The new treaty was signed in The Hague
The Hague
on 2 November 1871, together with an additional protocol to the Gold Coast Treaty
Treaty
which allowed the Netherlands
Netherlands
to once more recruit soldiers for the Netherlands
Netherlands
Indies Army in the Gold Coast.[6][11] The Dutch Senate adopted the three treaties on 17 and 18 January 1872, paving the way for full Dutch ratification on 17 February 1872.[10] On 6 April 1872, the Dutch Gold Coast
Dutch Gold Coast
was officially ceded to the United Kingdom.[12] See also[edit]

Anglo- Dutch Gold Coast
Dutch Gold Coast
Treaty
Treaty
(1867) Anglo-Dutch Treaty
Treaty
of 1814 Anglo-Dutch Treaty
Treaty
of 1824 Aceh War Netherlands– United Kingdom
United Kingdom
relations

Notes[edit]

^ a b c Foreign and Commonwealth Office - Convention between Great Britain and the Netherlands
Netherlands
relative to the treatment of British Subjects in the Kingdom of Siak Sree Indrapoora, in the Island of Sumatra
Sumatra
Archived 27 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c Adhin 1961, p. 9 ^ a b c Foreign and Commonwealth Office - Convention between Great Britain and the Netherlands, relative to the Emigration of Labourers from India to the Dutch Colony of Surinam Archived 28 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c Foreign and Commonwealth Office - Convention between Great Britain and the Netherlands, for the transfer to Great Britain of the Dutch Possessions on the Coast of Guinea Archived 27 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Adhin 1961, p. 10 ^ a b c d Foreign and Commonwealth Office - Convention between Great Britain and the Netherlands, for the Settlement of their Mutual Relations in the Island of Sumatra
Sumatra
Archived 28 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Adhin 1961, pp. 8–9 ^ Adhin 1961, pp. 7–8 ^ Adhin 1961, pp. 9–10 ^ a b Adhin 1961, p. 11 ^ Foreign and Commonwealth Office - Protocol additional to the Convention of February 25, 1871 between Great Britain and the Netherlands
Netherlands
for the transfer to Great Britain of the Dutch Possessions on the Gold Coast, (Recruitment of Free Labourers) Archived 28 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Adhin 1961, p. 6

References[edit]

Adhin, J. H. (1961). "De immigratie van Hindostanen en de afstand van de Goudkust". Nieuwe West-Indische Gids. 41 (1): 4–13. doi:10.1163/22134360-90002334.  Ibrahim, Alfian. "Aceh and the Perang Sabil." Indonesian Heritage: Early Modern History. Vol. 3, ed. Anthony Reid, Sian Jay and T. Durairajoo. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, 2001. 132-133 Ricklefs, M.C (1993). A History of Modern Indonesia Since c. 1300. Hampshire, UK: MacMillan Press. pp. 143–46. ISBN 978-0-8047-2

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