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The ANGLICAN COMMUNION is an international association of autonomous churches consisting of the Church of England
England
and national and regional Anglican
Anglican
churches ("provinces") in full communion with it. Full participation in the sacramental life of each church is available to all communicant Anglicans.

The Archbishop of Canterbury , Primate of All England
England
, has a place of honour among the bishops of the Anglican
Anglican
churches. He is recognised as _primus inter pares _ ("first among equals"). The archbishop does not exercise authority in the provinces outside England, but instead acts as a focus of unity.

The churches of the Anglican
Anglican
Communion considers themselves to be part of the one, holy, catholic and apostolic church and to be both Catholic
Catholic
and Reformed . For some adherents, Anglicanism represents a non-papal Catholicism, for others a form of Protestantism though without a dominant guiding figure such as Luther , Knox , Calvin , Zwingli or Wesley . For others, their self-identity represents some combination of the two. The communion encompasses a wide spectrum of belief and practice including evangelical , liberal and Anglo-Catholic .

With a membership estimated at around 85 million members, the Anglican
Anglican
Communion is the third largest Christian communion in the world, after the Catholic
Catholic
Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church . Some of these churches are known as Anglican, such as the Anglican Church of Canada
Canada
, due to their historical link to England
England
(_Ecclesia Anglicana_ means "English Church"). Some, for example the Church of Ireland , the Scottish and American Episcopal churches, and some other associated churches have a separate name. Each independent church has its own doctrine and liturgy , aligned in most cases with that of the Church of England; and each church has its own legislative process and overall episcopal polity , under the leadership of a local primate.

CONTENTS

* 1 Ecclesiology, polity and ethos * 2 Chicago Lambeth Quadrilateral * 3 Instruments of communion * 4 Provinces

* 5 History

* 5.1 Global spread of Anglicanism * 5.2 Lambeth 1998

* 6 Ecumenical relations * 7 Historic episcopate

* 8 Controversies

* 8.1 Same-sex unions and LGBT Clergy

* 9 See also * 10 Notes

* 11 References

* 11.1 Citations * 11.2 Bibliography

* 12 Further reading * 13 External links

ECCLESIOLOGY, POLITY AND ETHOS

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Main article: Anglican
Anglican
doctrine

The Anglican
Anglican
Communion has no official legal existence nor any governing structure which might exercise authority over the member churches. There is an Anglican
Anglican
Communion Office in London, under the aegis of the Archbishop of Canterbury, but it only serves in a supporting and organisational role. The Communion is held together by a shared history, expressed in its ecclesiology , polity and ethos and also by participation in international consultative bodies.

Three elements have been important in holding the Communion together: first, the shared ecclesial structure of the component churches, manifested in an episcopal polity maintained through the apostolic succession of bishops and synodical government; second, the principle of belief expressed in worship, investing importance in approved prayer books and their rubrics; and third, the historical documents and the writings of early Anglican
Anglican
divines that have influenced the ethos of the Communion.

Originally, the Church of England
England
was self-contained and relied for its unity and identity on its own history, its traditional legal and episcopal structure and its status as an established church of the state. As such Anglicanism was, from the outset, a movement with an explicitly episcopal polity , a characteristic which has been vital in maintaining the unity of the Communion by conveying the episcopate's role in manifesting visible catholicity and ecumenism.

Early in its development, Anglicanism developed a vernacular prayer book, called the Book of Common Prayer
Book of Common Prayer
. Unlike other traditions, Anglicanism has never been governed by a magisterium nor by appeal to one founding theologian , nor by an extra-credal summary of doctrine (such as the Westminster Confession of the Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church). Instead, Anglicans have typically appealed to the Book of Common Prayer (1662) and its offshoots as a guide to Anglican
Anglican
theology and practice. This had the effect of inculcating the principle of _Lex orandi, lex credendi _ (Latin loosely translated as "the law of praying the law of believing") as the foundation of Anglican
Anglican
identity and confession.

Protracted conflict through the seventeenth century with more radical Protestants on the one hand and Catholics who recognised the primacy of the Pope
Pope
on the other, resulted in an association of churches that were both deliberately vague about doctrinal principles, yet bold in developing parameters of acceptable deviation. These parameters were most clearly articulated in the various rubrics of the successive prayer books, as well as the Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion. These Articles have historically shaped and continue to direct the ethos of the Communion, an ethos reinforced by their interpretation and expansion by such influential early theologians as Richard Hooker , Lancelot Andrewes , John Cosin , and others.

With the expansion of the British Empire
British Empire
, and hence the growth of Anglicanism outside Great Britain and Ireland, the Communion sought to establish new vehicles of unity. The first major expression of this were the Lambeth Conferences of the communion's bishops, first convened by Archbishop of Canterbury Charles Longley in 1869. From the beginning, these were not intended to displace the autonomy of the emerging provinces of the Communion, but to "discuss matters of practical interest, and pronounce what we deem expedient in resolutions which may serve as safe guides to future action."

CHICAGO LAMBETH QUADRILATERAL

One of the enduringly influential early resolutions of the conference was the so-called Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral of 1888. Its intent was to provide the basis for discussions of reunion with the Roman Catholic
Catholic
and Orthodox Churches, but it had the ancillary effect of establishing parameters of Anglican
Anglican
identity. It establishes four principles with these words: That, in the opinion of this Conference, the following Articles supply a basis on which approach may be by God's blessing made towards Home Reunion: (a) The Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, as "containing all things necessary to salvation," and as being the rule and ultimate standard of faith. (b) The Apostles\' Creed
Creed
, as the Baptismal Symbol; and the Nicene Creed
Nicene Creed
, as the sufficient statement of the Christian faith. (c) The two Sacraments ordained by Christ Himself - Baptism
Baptism
and the Supper of the Lord - ministered with unfailing use of Christ's Words of Institution , and of the elements ordained by Him. (d) The Historic Episcopate , locally adapted in the methods of its administration to the varying needs of the nations and peoples called of God into the Unity of His Church.

INSTRUMENTS OF COMMUNION

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As mentioned above, the Anglican
Anglican
Communion has no international juridical organisation. The Archbishop of Canterbury's role is strictly symbolic and unifying and the communion's three international bodies are consultative and collaborative, their resolutions having no legal effect on the autonomous provinces of the communion. Taken together, however, the four do function as "instruments of communion", since all churches of the communion participate in them. In order of antiquity, they are: The Chair of St Augustine (the episcopal throne in Canterbury Cathedral
Canterbury Cathedral
, Kent), seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury
Canterbury
in his role as head of the Anglican
Anglican
Communion

* The Archbishop of Canterbury functions as the spiritual head of the Communion. He is the focus of unity, since no church claims membership in the Communion without being in communion with him. The present incumbent is Justin Welby . * The Lambeth Conference (first held in 1867) is the oldest international consultation. It is a forum for bishops of the Communion to reinforce unity and collegiality through manifesting the episcopate , to discuss matters of mutual concern, and to pass resolutions intended to act as guideposts. It is held roughly every ten years and invitation is by the Archbishop of Canterbury. * The Anglican
Anglican
Consultative Council (first met in 1971) was created by a 1968 Lambeth Conference resolution, and meets usually at three-yearly intervals. The council consists of representative bishops, clergy, and laity chosen by the thirty-eight provinces. The body has a permanent secretariat, the Anglican
Anglican
Communion Office, of which the Archbishop of Canterbury is president. * The Primates\' Meeting (first met in 1979) is the most recent manifestation of international consultation and deliberation, having been first convened by Archbishop Donald Coggan as a forum for "leisurely thought, prayer and deep consultation".

Since there is no binding authority in the Anglican
Anglican
Communion, these international bodies are a vehicle for consultation and persuasion. In recent years, persuasion has tipped over into debates over conformity in certain areas of doctrine, discipline, worship and ethics. The most notable example has been the objection of many provinces of the communion (particularly in Africa and Asia) to the changing role of homosexuals in the North American churches (e.g., by blessing same-sex unions and ordaining and consecrating gays and lesbians in same-sex relationships) and to the process by which changes were undertaken. (See Anglican
Anglican
realignment .)

Those who objected condemned these actions as unscriptural, unilateral, and without the agreement of the Communion prior to these steps being taken. In response, the American Episcopal Church and the Anglican
Anglican
Church of Canada
Canada
answered that the actions had been undertaken after lengthy scriptural and theological reflection, legally in accordance with their own canons and constitutions and after extensive consultation with the provinces of the communion.

The Primates' Meeting voted to request the two churches to withdraw their delegates from the 2005 meeting of the Anglican
Anglican
Consultative Council. Canada
Canada
and the United States
United States
decided to attend the meeting but without exercising their right to vote. They have not been expelled or suspended, since there is no mechanism in this voluntary association to suspend or expel an independent province of the communion. Since membership is based on a province's communion with Canterbury, expulsion would require the Archbishop of Canterbury's refusal to be in communion with the affected jurisdiction(s). In line with the suggestion of the Windsor Report , Rowan Williams
Rowan Williams
(the previous Archbishop of Canterbury) established a working group to examine the feasibility of an Anglican
Anglican
covenant which would articulate the conditions for communion in some fashion.

PROVINCES

_ A world map showing the provinces of the Anglican
Anglican
Communion:

Autonomous churches Episcopal Church of the United States
United States
Church in the Province of the West Indies
West Indies
Anglican
Anglican
Church in Central America Anglican
Anglican
Church of the Southern Cone of America Anglican Church of Southern Africa Church of the Province of Central Africa
Central Africa
Church of the Province of West Africa Episcopal Church in Jerusalem and the Middle East Church of the Province of the Indian Ocean Anglican
Anglican
Church in Aotearoa, New Zealand and Polynesia Church of the Province of Melanesia Diocese in Europe of the Church of England
England
Extra-provincial to the Archbishop of Canterbury Church of the Province of South East Asia No organised Anglican
Anglican
presence

Note that the Church of Ireland_ serves both Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
and the Republic of Ireland, the _Episcopal Church of the Sudan_ serves both Sudan
Sudan
and South Sudan
South Sudan
and the _ Anglican
Anglican
Church of Korea_ serves South Korea and, theoretically, North Korea. Indian Anglicanism is divided into a Church of North India and a Church of South India. The Diocese in Europe (formally the Diocese of Gibraltar in Europe), in the Province of Canterbury, is also present in Portugal
Portugal
and Spain. The Episcopal Church, USA affiliated Convocation of Episcopal Churches in Europe has affiliates in France, Belgium, Austria, Switzerland, Italy and Kazakhstan.

All 38 provinces of the Anglican
Anglican
Communion are autonomous, each with its own primate and governing structure. These provinces may take the form of national churches (such as in Canada, Uganda, or Japan) or a collection of nations (such as the West Indies
West Indies
, Central Africa
Central Africa
, or Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
).

PROVINCES & NATIONAL CHURCHES TERRITORIAL JURISDICTION MEMBERSHIP (IN THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE)

Anglican
Anglican
Church in Aotearoa, New Zealand
New Zealand
and Polynesia Aotearoa New Zealand
New Zealand
, Cook Islands
Cook Islands
, Fiji
Fiji
, Samoa
Samoa
, Tonga
Tonga
581

Anglican
Anglican
Church of Australia
Australia
Australia
Australia
3,900

Church of Bangladesh Bangladesh
Bangladesh
16

Anglican
Anglican
Episcopal Church of Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
Brazil
120

Province of the Anglican
Anglican
Church of Burundi Burundi 800

Anglican
Anglican
Church of Canada
Canada
Canada
Canada
1,600

Church of the Province of Central Africa
Central Africa
Botswana
Botswana
, Malawi , Zambia
Zambia
, Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
900

Anglican
Anglican
Church in Central America Costa Rica
Costa Rica
, El Salvador
El Salvador
, Guatemala
Guatemala
, Nicaragua
Nicaragua
, Panama
Panama
35

Province of the Anglican
Anglican
Church of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo
, Republic of Congo 500

Church of England
England
comprising the Province of Canterbury
Canterbury
and the Province of York
Province of York
England
England
, Europe , Morocco
Morocco
26,000

Hong Kong Sheng Kung Hui Hong Kong
Hong Kong
, Macau
Macau
29

Church of the Province of the Indian Ocean Madagascar
Madagascar
, Mauritius
Mauritius
, Seychelles
Seychelles
505

Church of Ireland
Church of Ireland
comprising the Province of Armagh and the Province of Dublin Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
, Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
410

Nippon Sei Ko Kai Japan
Japan
57

Episcopal Church (United States) United States
United States
, Taiwan
Taiwan
, Micronesia
Micronesia
, Palau
Palau
, Northern Marianas , Marshall Islands , Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
, US Virgin Islands 3000

Episcopal Church in Jerusalem and the Middle East Algeria
Algeria
, Bahrain
Bahrain
, Cyprus
Cyprus
, Djibouti
Djibouti
, Egypt
Egypt
, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
, Eritrea , Jordan
Jordan
, Lebanon
Lebanon
, Libya
Libya
, Iran
Iran
, Iraq
Iraq
, Israel
Israel
, Jordan
Jordan
, Kuwait
Kuwait
, Oman
Oman
, Qatar
Qatar
, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
, Palestine , Somalia
Somalia
, Syria
Syria
, Tunisia
Tunisia
, United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
, Yemen
Yemen
40

Anglican
Anglican
Church of Kenya
Kenya
Kenya
Kenya
5,000

Anglican
Anglican
Church of Korea South Korea
South Korea
, North Korea
North Korea
65

Anglican
Anglican
Church of Melanesia New Caledonia
New Caledonia
, Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
, Vanuatu
Vanuatu
200

Anglican
Anglican
Church of Mexico
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico
100

Church of the Province of Myanmar Myanmar
Myanmar
62

Church of Nigeria Nigeria
Nigeria
18,000

Church of North India East India
East India
, North India
North India
, Northeast India
Northeast India
, West India
West India
1,500

Church of Pakistan Pakistan
Pakistan
500

Anglican
Anglican
Church of Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
167

Episcopal Church in the Philippines Philippines
Philippines
125

Province of the Anglican
Anglican
Church of Rwanda
Rwanda
Rwanda
Rwanda
1,000

Scottish Episcopal Church Scotland
Scotland
44

Church of the Province of South East Asia Brunei
Brunei
, Cambodia
Cambodia
, Indonesia
Indonesia
, Laos
Laos
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, Nepal
Nepal
, Singapore , Thailand
Thailand
, Vietnam
Vietnam
98

Church of South India
Church of South India
South India
South India
">Metropolitan Council comprising:

* Primate of the Anglican
Anglican
Church of Canada
Canada
* Archbishop of the West Indies
West Indies
* Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church (USA)

Cuba
Cuba

Parish of the Falkland Islands Archbishop of Canterbury Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands

Lusitanian Catholic
Catholic
Apostolic Evangelical Church Archbishop of Canterbury Portugal
Portugal

Spanish Reformed Episcopal Church Archbishop of Canterbury Spain
Spain

In addition to other member churches, the churches of the Anglican Communion are in full communion with the Old Catholic
Catholic
churches of the Union of Utrecht and the Scandinavian Lutheran
Lutheran
churches of the Porvoo Communion in Europe, the India-based Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian and Malabar Independent Syrian churches and the Philippine Independent Church , also known as the Aglipayan Church.

HISTORY

See also: History of the Anglican
Anglican
Communion

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The Anglican
Anglican
Communion traces much of its growth to the older mission organisations of the Church of England
England
such as the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (founded 1698), the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (founded 1701) and the Church Missionary Society (founded 1799). The Church of England (which until the 20th century included the Church in Wales ) initially separated from the Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church in 1538 in the reign of King Henry VIII , reunited in 1555 under Queen Mary I and then separated again in 1570 under Queen Elizabeth I (the Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church excommunicated Elizabeth I in 1570 in response to the Act of Supremacy 1559 ).

The Church of England
England
has always thought of itself not as a new foundation but rather as a reformed continuation of the ancient "English Church" (_Ecclesia Anglicana_) and a reassertion of that church's rights. As such it was a distinctly national phenomenon. The Church of Scotland
Scotland
was formed as a separate church from the Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church as a result of the Scottish Reformation in 1560 and the later formation of the Scottish Episcopal Church began in 1582 in the reign of James VI of Scotland
Scotland
over disagreements about the role of bishops.

The oldest-surviving Anglican
Anglican
church building outside of the British Isles (Britain and Ireland) is St Peter\'s Church in St. George\'s , Bermuda
Bermuda
, established in 1612 (though the actual building had to be rebuilt several times over the following century). This is also the oldest surviving non-Roman Catholic
Catholic
church in the New World . It remained part of the Church of England
England
until 1978 when the Anglican Church of Bermuda
Bermuda
separated. The Church of England
England
was the established church not only in England, but in its trans-Oceanic colonies.

Thus the only member churches of the present Anglican
Anglican
Communion existing by the mid-18th century were the Church of England, its closely linked sister church the Church of Ireland
Church of Ireland
(which also separated from Roman Catholicism under Henry VIII) and the Scottish Episcopal Church which for parts of the 17th and 18th centuries was partially underground (it was suspected of Jacobite sympathies).

GLOBAL SPREAD OF ANGLICANISM

The enormous expansion in the 18th and 19th centuries of the British Empire brought Anglicanism along with it. At first all these colonial churches were under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of London
London
. After the American Revolution
American Revolution
, the parishes in the newly independent country found it necessary to break formally from a church whose supreme governor was (and remains) the British monarch . Thus they formed their own dioceses and national church, the Episcopal Church in the United States
United States
of America , in a mostly amicable separation.

At about the same time, in the colonies which remained linked to the crown, the Church of England
England
began to appoint colonial bishops. In 1787 a bishop of Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
was appointed with a jurisdiction over all of British North America; in time several more colleagues were appointed to other cities in present-day Canada. In 1814 a bishop of Calcutta
Calcutta
was made; in 1824 the first bishop was sent to the West Indies and in 1836 to Australia. By 1840 there were still only ten colonial bishops for the Church of England; but even this small beginning greatly facilitated the growth of Anglicanism around the world. In 1841 a "Colonial Bishoprics Council" was set up and soon many more dioceses were created.

In time, it became natural to group these into provinces and a metropolitan was appointed for each province. Although it had at first been somewhat established in many colonies, in 1861 it was ruled that, except where specifically established, the Church of England
England
had just the same legal position as any other church. Thus a colonial bishop and colonial diocese was by nature quite a different thing from their counterparts back home. In time bishops came to be appointed locally rather than from England
England
and eventually national synods began to pass ecclesiastical legislation independent of England.

A crucial step in the development of the modern communion was the idea of the Lambeth Conferences (discussed above). These conferences demonstrated that the bishops of disparate churches could manifest the unity of the church in their episcopal collegiality despite the absence of universal legal ties. Some bishops were initially reluctant to attend, fearing that the meeting would declare itself a council with power to legislate for the church; but it agreed to pass only advisory resolutions. These Lambeth Conferences have been held roughly every 10 years since 1878 (the second such conference) and remain the most visible coming-together of the whole Communion.

LAMBETH 1998

See also: Homosexuality and the Anglican
Anglican
Communion and Lambeth_Conferences § Thirteenth:_1998

The Lambeth Conference of 1998 included what has been seen by Philip Jenkins and others as a "watershed in global Christianity". The 1998 Lambeth Conference considered the issue of the theology of same-sex attraction in relation to human sexuality. At this 1998 conference for the first time in centuries the Christians of developing regions, especially, Africa, Asia, and Latin America, prevailed over the bishops of more prosperous countries (many from the USA, Canada, and the UK) who supported a redefinition of Anglican
Anglican
doctrine. Seen in this light 1998 is a date that marked the shift from a West-dominated Christianity
Christianity
to one wherein the growing churches of the two-thirds world are predominant, but the gay bishop controversy in subsequent years led to the reassertion of Western dominance, this time of the liberal variety.

ECUMENICAL RELATIONS

For more details on the ongoing dialogue between Anglicanism and the wider Church, see Anglican
Anglican
Communion and ecumenism .

HISTORIC EPISCOPATE

The churches of the Anglican
Anglican
Communion have traditionally held that ordination in the historic episcopate is a core element in the validity of clerical ordinations. The Roman Catholic
Catholic
Church does not recognise most Anglican
Anglican
orders (see _ Apostolicae curae _). Some Eastern Orthodox Churches have issued statements to the effect that Anglican
Anglican
orders could be accepted, yet have still reordained former Anglican
Anglican
clergy; other Orthodox churches have rejected Anglican
Anglican
orders altogether. Orthodox bishop Kallistos Ware
Kallistos Ware
explains this apparent discrepancy as follows:

_ Anglican
Anglican
clergy who join the Orthodox Church are reordained; but if Anglicanism and Orthodoxy were to reach full unity in the faith, perhaps such reordination might not be found necessary. It should be added, however, that a number of individual Orthodox theologians hold that under no circumstances would it be possible to recognise the validity of Anglican
Anglican
Orders._

CONTROVERSIES

See also: Homosexuality and Anglicanism and Anglican
Anglican
realignment

One effect of the Communion's dispersed authority has been that conflict and controversy can arise over the effect divergent practices and doctrines in one part of the Communion have on others. Disputes that had been confined to the Church of England
England
could be dealt with legislatively in that realm, but as the Communion spread out into new nations and disparate cultures, such controversies multiplied and intensified. These controversies have generally been of two types: liturgical and social. Anglo-Catholicism

The first such controversy of note concerned that of the growing influence of the Catholic
Catholic
Revival manifested in the tractarian and so-called ritualism controversies of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This controversy produced the Free Church of England
England
and, in the United States
United States
and Canada, the Reformed Episcopal Church . Social changes

Later, rapid social change and the dissipation of British cultural hegemony over its former colonies contributed to disputes over the role of women, the parameters of marriage and divorce, and the practices of contraception and abortion . In the late 1970s, the Continuing Anglican
Anglican
movement produced a number of new church bodies in opposition to women's ordination, prayer book changes, and the new understandings concerning marriage.

SAME-SEX UNIONS AND LGBT CLERGY

More recently, disagreements over homosexuality have strained the unity of the Communion as well as its relationships with other Christian denominations, leading to another round of withdrawals from the Anglican
Anglican
Communion. Some churches were founded outside the Anglican
Anglican
Communion in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, largely in opposition to the ordination of openly homosexual bishops and other clergy and are usually referred to as belonging to the Anglican realignment movement, or else as "orthodox" Anglicans. These disagreements were especially noted when the Episcopal Church (US) consecrated an openly gay bishop in a same-sex relationship, Gene Robinson , in 2003; then, the debate re-ignited when the Church of England
England
agreed to allow clergy to enter into same-sex civil partnerships in 2005. The Church of Nigeria opposed the Episcopal Church's decision as well as the Church of England's approval for civil partnerships.

"The more liberal provinces that are open to changing Church doctrine on marriage in order to allow for same-sex unions include Brazil
Brazil
, Canada
Canada
, New Zealand
New Zealand
, Scotland
Scotland
, South India
South India
, South Africa
South Africa
, the US and Wales
Wales
". The Church of England
England
does not allow same-gender marriages or blessing rites, but does permit special prayer services for same-sex couples following a civil marriage or partnership. The Church of England
England
also permits clergy to enter into same-sex civil partnerships. The Church of Ireland
Church of Ireland
has no official position on civil unions, and one senior cleric has entered into a same-sex civil partnership. The Church of Ireland
Church of Ireland
recognised that it will "treat civil partners the same as spouses." The Anglican
Anglican
Church of Australia does not have an official position on homosexuality.

The conservative Anglican
Anglican
churches, encouraging the realignment movement, are more concentrated in the Global South. For example, the Anglican
Anglican
Church of Kenya
Kenya
, the Church of Nigeria, and Church of Uganda have opposed homosexuality. GAFCON, or a fellowship of conservative Anglican
Anglican
churches, has appointed 'missionary bishops' in response to the disagreements with the perceived liberalisation in the Anglican churches in North America and Europe.

Such debates about social theology and ethics, have occurred at the same time as debates on prayer book revision and the acceptable grounds for achieving full communion with non- Anglican
Anglican
churches.

SEE ALSO

* Anglicanism portal

* Affirming Catholicism * Anglican
Anglican
ministry * Anglicans Online * Anglo-Catholicism * Church Mission Society * Church\'s Ministry Among Jewish People * Flag of the Anglican
Anglican
Communion * Liberal Anglo-Catholicism * Reform (Anglican) * List of the largest Protestant
Protestant
bodies

NOTES

* ^ The Chair of St Augustine is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury
Canterbury
in his role as head of the Anglican
Anglican
Communion. Archbishops of Canterbury
Canterbury
are enthroned twice: firstly as diocesan ordinary (and Metropolitan and Primate of the Church of England) in the archbishop's throne, by the Archdeacon of Canterbury
Canterbury
; and secondly as leader of the worldwide church in the Chair of St Augustine by the senior (by length of service) Archbishop of the Anglican
Anglican
Communion. The stone chair is therefore of symbolic significance throughout Anglicanism. * ^ Efforts to grow and develop the church in lands outside of the British Isles began with the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (1698) and the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (1701) but received a significant boost from the Church Mission Society (1799). * ^ The Church Missionary Society, originally called the Society for Missions to Africa and the East, was founded in 1799... Though later in date than the S.P.C.K. and the S.P.G. it became the first effective organ of the C. of E. for missions to the heathen... Its theology has been consistently Evangelical.

REFERENCES

CITATIONS

* ^ "St Francis of Assisi Episcopal Church History". 20 July 2012. * ^ Avis 1998 , pp. 417–419. * ^ The Anglican
Anglican
Communion official website - "Provincial Registry" * ^ Kurian, George Thomas & Lamport, Mark A., Encyclopedia of Christian Education, Volume 3, page 50, Rowman & Littlefield, 2015, ISBN 0810884933 * ^ _The Book of Common Prayer
Book of Common Prayer
of the Episcopal Church_, Seabury Press, 1979, p. 877 * ^ " Anglican
Anglican
Communion". _www.archbishopofcanterbury.org_. Retrieved 4 October 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ " Anglican
Anglican
international bodies". _www.archbishopofcanterbury.org_. Retrieved 4 October 2015. * ^ "Archbishop of Canterbury: address to General Synod on the Anglican
Anglican
Communion". ACNS. 7 July 2006. Archived from the original on 2006-07-14. * ^ Polynesia, Anglican
Anglican
Church in Aotearoa, New Zealand
New Zealand
and. "About / Home - Anglican
Anglican
Church in Aotearoa, New Zealand
New Zealand
and Polynesia". _www.anglican.org.nz_. Retrieved 2016-05-03. * ^ " Anglican
Anglican
Church of Australia
Australia
— World Council of Churches". _www.oikoumene.org_. Retrieved 2016-05-03. * ^ " Church of Bangladesh — World Council of Churches". _www.oikoumene.org_. Retrieved 2016-06-14. * ^ "Episcopal Anglican
Anglican
Church of Brazil
Brazil
— World Council of Churches". _www.oikoumene.org_. Retrieved 2016-05-03. * ^ " Anglican
Anglican
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Church of Canada_. Retrieved 2016-05-03. * ^ "Church of the Province of Central Africa
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* ^ "A History of Global Anglicanism - Cambridge University Press". _www.cambridge.org_. Retrieved 2016-05-03. * ^ "Church Society - Issues - Anglican
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Communion - How Big?". _churchsociety.org_. Retrieved 2016-05-03. * ^ "Church Society - Issues - Anglican
Anglican
Communion - How Big?". _churchsociety.org_. Retrieved 2016-05-03. * ^ " Anglican
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Church of Korea — World Council of Churches". _www.oikoumene.org_. Retrieved 2016-05-03. * ^ "Church of Melanesia — World Council of Churches". _www.oikoumene.org_. Retrieved 2016-06-14. * ^ "Anglicanos mexicanos rechazan unirse a la Iglesia católica". _www.cronica.com.mx_. Retrieved 2016-05-03. * ^ " Church of the Province of Myanmar — World Council of Churches". _www.oikoumene.org_. Retrieved 2016-06-14. * ^ " Anglican
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Heritage With Emphasis on The Church of Nigeria ( Anglican
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Communion)". _anglican-nig.org_. Church of Nigeria. August 15, 2013. Retrieved May 3, 2016. * ^ " Church of North India — World Council of Churches". _www.oikoumene.org_. Retrieved 2016-05-03. * ^ " Church of Pakistan — World Council of Churches". _www.oikoumene.org_. Retrieved 2016-06-14. * ^ "Episcopal Church in the Philippines". _archived.oikoumene.org_. Retrieved 2016-06-14. * ^ "Province of the Anglican
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Communion today traces its origins to CMS work. * ^ Melton 2005 , p. 28. * ^ Cross 1957 , p. 305. * ^ Jenkins, Philip (2002). _The Next Christendom_ (1st ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 202–203. Retrieved 2 February 2015. * ^ Miller, Duane Alexander (March 2014). "The Bricolage of Global Anglicanism". _ Anglican
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BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Avis, Paul (1998). "What is 'Anglicanism'?". In Booty, John E.; Sykes, Stephen ; Knight, Jonathan. _The Study of Anglicanism_. London: SPCK / Fortress Press. pp. 417–419. ISBN 978-1-4514-1118-8 . * Chapman, Mark (2006). _Anglicanism: A Very Short Introduction_. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-157819-9 . * Cross, F. L., ed. (1957). _The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church_. London: Oxford University Press. * McKinnon, Andrew M.; Trzebiatowska, Marta; Brittain, Christopher Craig (2011). "Bourdieu, Capital, and Conflict in a Religious Field: The Case of the ‘Homosexuality’ Conflict in the Anglican Communion". _Journal of Contemporary Religion_. 26 (3): 355–370. ISSN 1353-7903 . doi :10.1080/13537903.2011.616033  _. * Brittain, C. C.; McKinnon, A. (2011). "Homosexuality and the Construction of " Anglican
Anglican
Orthodoxy": The Symbolic Politics of the Anglican
Anglican
Communion". Sociology of Religion_. 72 (3): 351–373. ISSN 1069-4404 . doi :10.1093/socrel/srq088 . * Melton, J. Gordon, ed. (2005). _Encyclopedia of Protestantism_. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8160-6983-5 . * Pickering, W. S. F. (2008). _Anglo-Catholicism: A Study in Religious Ambiguity_. James Clarke Company. ISBN 978-0-227-67988-3 . * Ward, Kevin (2006). _A History of Global Anglicanism_. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-00866-2 . * Whipple, H. B.; Gilbert, M. N.; Nichols, Harry P.; Wright, John; Faude, John J.; Ten Broeck, Wm. P. (1896). _Unity and the Lambeth declaration: lectures under the auspices of the Minnesota church club, 1896_. Milwaukee: TheYoung Churchman.

FURTHER READING

* D'Arcy, Charles Frederick; Jayne, Francis John; Paige Cox, W.L. (1923). _ Anglican
Anglican
Essays: A Collective Review of the Principles and Special
Special
Opportunities of the Anglican
Anglican
Communion as Catholic
Catholic
and Reformed : with Extracts from the Pastorals of the Late Bishop Jayne _. Macmillan. * Fahlbusch, Erwin; Bromiley, Geoffrey William, eds. (1999). _The Encyclopedia of Christianity_. Vol. 1. Eerdmans. pp. 57–59. ISBN 978-90-04-11316-9 . * Wild, John. _What is the Anglican
Anglican
Communion?,_ in series, _The Advent Papers_. Cincinnati, Ohio: Forward Movement Publications, . _Note_.: Expresses the "Anglo-Catholic" viewpoint. * Hebert, A.G. _The Form of the Church_. London: Faber and Faber, 1944.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Official website * Anglicans Online *

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