1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers >
1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population
without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g.,
students and military personnel) only counted once.
The Maine , the castle , and the spires of the cathedral
ANGERS (French: ( listen )) is a city in western France, about 300
km (190 mi) southwest of
Paris . It is chef-lieu of the Maine-et-Loire
department and was, before the
French Revolution , the capital of the
Anjou . The inhabitants of both the city and the province
are called Angevins. The commune of
Angers proper, without the
metropolitan area, is the third most populous in northwestern France
Rennes and the 17th in France.
Angers is the historical capital of
Anjou and was for centuries an
important stronghold in northwestern France. It is the cradle of the
Plantagenet dynasty and was during the reign of René of
Anjou one of
the intellectual centers of
Angers developed at the
confluence of three rivers, the
Mayenne , the
Sarthe , and the Loir ,
all coming from the north and flowing south to the Loire . Their
confluence, just north of Angers, creates the Maine , a short but wide
river that flows into the Loire several kilometers south. The Angers
metropolitan area is a major economic center in western France,
particularly active in the industrial sector, horticulture, and
Angers proper covers 42.70 square kilometers (16.5 sq mi) and has a
population of 147,305 inhabitants, while around 394,700 live in its
metropolitan area. The
Angers Loire Métropole is made up of 30
communes covering 540 square kilometers (208 square miles) with
Angers enjoys a rich cultural life, made possible by its universities
and museums. The old medieval center is still dominated by the massive
château of the Plantagenêts , home of the
Apocalypse Tapestry , the
biggest medieval tapestry ensemble in the world.
Angers is also both
at the edge of the
Val de Loire , a
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site , and the
Touraine regional natural park .
* 1 Toponymy
* 1.1 Etymology
* 1.2 Nicknames
* 1.3 Heraldry
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Location
* 2.3 Climate
* 2.4 Urban morphology
* 2.5 Green areas
* 3 History
* 3.1 Prehistory and Antiquity
* 3.4 Classical period
* 3.6 Since 1800
* 4 Administration
* 5 Demographics
* 6 Economy
* 7 Health and education
* 8 Transport
* 9 Culture
* 9.1 Main sights
* 9.2 Museums
* 9.3 Entertainment and performing arts
* 9.4 Media
* 10 Sport
* 11 People from
* 12 Twin cities
* 13 See also
* 14 Notes
* 15 References
* 16 Further reading
* 17 External links
The town is called Andegavum
Angers on this 1657 engraving
The city is first mentioned by
Ptolemy around AD 150 in his Geography
. It was then known as JULIOMAGUS (Greek : Ιουλιομαγος,
Iouliomagos), a name by which it also appears in the Tabula
Peutingeriana . The name is a compound of the
Latin name Julius
(probably in reference to
Julius Caesar ) and the Celtic magos,
"market". Similar town dedications were common in
Roman Gaul , and
toponyms often kept a Gallic element. When the location needed to be
distinguished from other Juliomagi, it was known as JULIOMAGUS
ANDECAVORUM ("Juliomagus of the
Andecavi "), in reference to the
principal Gallic tribe in and around the city.
Around AD 400, the city came to be referred to as the CIVITAS
ANDECAVORUM ("tribal capital of the Andecavi"). This was a common
change in Gaul, also seen in the names of
Tours and Évreux
around this time. During the Middle Ages, the late Latin name
gradually developed into the modern one. It is successively mentioned
as ANDECAVA CIVITAS (6th century), ANDECAVIS (AD 769), ANDEGAVIS (861
x 882), ANGIEUS (in 1127) and ANGEUS (in 1205). The form ANGIERS
appeared during the 12th century and was later corrupted to "Angers".
The Latin Andecavum gave also
Anjou its name. This double formation
is quite common in
France and is also seen in
Bourges "> Coat of arms of
Angers Coat of arms under
The coat of arms of
Angers bears the French royal fleur de lys of the
Anjou (the first duke was the son of the king of France, Jean
II ); the key evokes the stronghold position of the city close to the
Breton border. An acrostic from the
Middle Ages calls it Antique clef
de France, which means "Ancient key to France":
* Antique clef de France, (antique key to France)
* Neteté de souffrance, (sharpness of displeasure)
* Garant contre ennemis, (protection against enemies)
* Etappe d'assurance, (step of assurance)
* Recours de secourance, (help of relief)
* Securité d'amis. (security for friends)
Napoleon I 's rule,
Angers was one of the "Bonnes villes" and
was therefore allowed to ask for a new coat of arms. The bees, symbol
First French Empire
First French Empire , then replaced the royal fleurs de lys.
Angers received the 1939–1945 War Cross and since then,
the decoration is sometimes placed between the two fleurs de lys.
Angers also had several mottos through its history:
* During Antiquity : Assiuis conciliis (or consiliis);
* From 1434 to 1480 (reign of René of
Anjou ): D'ardent désir;
* In 1499: Antique clef de France;
* Until June 1987: Angers, la qualité.
The confluence of the Maine and the Loire some 4 miles (6.4 km)
south west of
Angers in located at the geographical center of the Maine-et-Loire
department, on the road which connects
Paris to the
Atlantic ocean .
The city is situated just south of the confluence of the Loir ,
Sarthe which form together the river Maine . The Maine
Angers and heads south towards the Loire . The confluence of
the three rivers and the proximity of the Loire make up a natural
crossroads which favoured the foundation of the antique Juliomagus.
Angers is located 91 km (57 mi) from
Nantes , 124 km (77 mi) from
Rennes , 132 km (82 mi) from
Poitiers and 297 km (185 mi) from
It is also 118 km (73 mi) far from
Pornic , the closest sea resort,
situated on the
Atlantic ocean .
Elevation varies 12 to 64 meters (39 to 210 ft) above sea level .
Angers is a hilly town, particularly marked by a rocky promontory
dominating the lower valley of
Anjou . This was the site of the
ancient city and still houses the town's castle , cathedral , and
At the north and south, where the river Maine arrives in and leaves
Angers, the landscape is formed by islands, ponds and floodplains
which are a haven for birds and a typical flora of the
Val de Loire .
The étang Saint-Nicolas and Lac de Maine , both artificial, are among
the biggest green areas of the city.
The commune of
Angers is bordered by ten other communes which form
various suburbs. These are, clockwise, Avrillé ,
Écouflant , Saint-Barthélemy-d\'
Trélazé , Les Ponts-de-Cé
Beaucouzé . 22 other
communes situated farther form with them the Communauté urbaine
Angers Loire Métropole . All these peripheral communes are situated
within 17 km (11 mi) from
Angers proper. Together, they have around
Angers has an oceanic climate , with moderate rain year-round.
Winters have scarce frosts and snowfalls, and summers are warm and
CLIMATE DATA FOR ANGERS (LOCATED IN BEAUCOUZé , 1981–2010)
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS
AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
Source #1: Meteo
Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity, snowy days 1961–1990)
Angers around 1850, with the river Maine at the middle, the
castle and the medieval town on the right bank and La Doutre and its
river port on the left bank
The oldest streets and buildings in
Angers are located on the
promontory where the castle stands. The urban structure there dates
back from the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries. A military presence
there has been attested since the 3rd century and some remains of an
antique city wall are still visible in the castle grounds This wall
was built to protect the city from the Germanic invasions of AD 275
port activity declined whereas new factories, such as Technicolor SA
in 1957, emerged. During the 1970s, the modernist approach on urban
extension was replaced by a more individualistic point of view and
more and more detached houses were built for the middle class . The
metropolitan area kept enlarging, commuting became general and new
shopping areas were constructed close to the former villages engulfed
by the city. Because of the floodplains that surround the city north
Angers can only grow significantly on an east-west axis.
The Tour des Anglais, a remain of the medieval city walls
Traditional slated roof
Half-timbered houses in rue de l'Oisellerie
View of La Doutre; the industrial port has become a marina
The Place du Ralliement
A department store on a 19th-century street
A council estate in La Roseraie
Gardens in the castle moat.
Being both at the edge of the
Val de Loire World Heritage site and on
the largest river confluence in France,
Angers has a high natural
potential, notably highlighted by the Saint-Aubin island, situated
north of the center and covering a tenth of the city total surface.
Protected, the island is formed of swamps and natural meadows.
The oldest green areas date back from the
Renaissance , when the
moats of the castle were transformed into pleasure and kitchen
gardens. Similar gardens were built by the aristocracy around their
hôtels particuliers and medicinal gardens were planted in hospices
cloisters. The Jardin des plantes, the first botanical garden , dates
back from the beginning of the 18th century. During the 19th century,
others were built, for example the Faculty of Pharmacy garden and the
Roseraie. The first recreational parks, for their part, were built
Second French Empire
Second French Empire . The étang Saint-Nicolas , made by a
sluice on a small river, the Brionneau, was protected as early as
The Jardin du Mail (Mall Garden), an esplanade situated outside the
ring boulevards, was built between 1820 and 1880 on the former Champs
de Mars (Fields of Mars, a place where the garrisons used to train and
parade). Another esplanade, the Mail
François Mitterrand , was built
in 1999 together with a garden inside the new Saint-Serge business
district. During the 1960s the old gravel pits around the Maine were
filled with water to form the Lac de Maine, which now hosts a marina.
In 2010, a large amusement park,
Terra Botanica , was inaugurated
close to Saint-Aubin island.
The Saint-Aubin island protected area
Planted quays around the river Maine
Jardin du Mail
Sunset on the Lac de Maine
Timeline of Angers
PREHISTORY AND ANTIQUITY
A model of a sword from the
Bronze Age discovered in the 2000s
in the Maine riverbed
The first sign of human presence in
Angers dates back to around
400,000 BC. Vestiges from the
Neolithic are more abundant and include
numerous polished stone axes. Burials from 4500 x 3500 BC were also
discovered in the actual castle grounds.
During the 5th century BC, the
Andecavi , a Celtic people, settled
north of the Loire . By the end of the
Age of Iron ,
Angers was a
relatively densely populated hillfort . The settlement's Roman name
Juliomagus might be more ancient but is not attested before the 3rd
century. The Roman town consisted of many villas and baths and had an
amphitheater as well as a
Mithraeum , a temple dedicated to
Successive Germanic invasions in AD 275 and 276 forced the
inhabitants to move to the highest point of their city and to build a
wall around a small area of around 9 hectares (22 acres).
The castle , seat of the
Angers received its first bishop in 372 during the election of Martin
Tours . The first abbey, Saint-Aubin, was built during the 7th
century to house the sarcophagus of Saint Albinius . Saint-Serge Abbey
was founded by the Merovingian kings
Clovis II and
Theuderic III a
century later. In 2008, ten Frankish sarcophagi from that period were
discovered where Saint-Morille church once stood during the tramway
From the 850s,
Angers suffered from its situation on the border with
Normandy . In September 851,
Charles the Bald
Charles the Bald and Erispoe
, a Breton chief, met in the town to sign the Treaty of
Angers , which
secured Breton independence and fixed the borders of
However, the situation remained dangerous for Angers, and Charles the
Bald created in 853 a wide buffer zone around
Touraine , Maine and
Sées , which was ruled by
Robert the Strong , a great-grandfather of
Hugh Capet .
In 870, the
Angers where he settled until
a successful siege temporarily displaced him. He again took control of
the town in 873, before the
Carolingian Emperor ousted him. The
Hospice Saint-Jean, founded by Henry II
Fulk I of
Anjou , a
Carolingian descendant, was the first viscount of
Angers (before 898 until 929) and of
Tours (898–909), and count of
Nantes (909–919). Around 929, he took the title of count (earl) of
Angers and founded the first
Anjou dynasty, the House of Ingelger
Angers subsequently formed the capital of the
During the 12th century, after internal divisions in
Brittany , the
Nantes was annexed by
Anjou . Henry II
Plantagenêt kept it
for more than 30 years. At the same time, he also ruled the vast
Angevin Empire , which stretched from the
Ireland . The
Angers was then the seat of the Court and the dynasty. The
Empire disappeared in 1204–1205 when the King of France, Philip II ,
Anjou . Henceforth there were no more counts of
Anjou , as the French king had made
Anjou a dukedom.
Now a part of the Kingdom of
Angers became the "Key to the
Kingdom" (Clé du Royaume) facing still independent
Brittany . In
1228, during Louis IX 's minority,
Blanche of Castile decided to
fortify the city and to rebuild the castle. Later, during the 1350s
and 1360s, the schools of Law, Medicine and Theology, renowned in
Europe , were organized into a university. In 1373, Louis I of Naples
Anjou ordered the six tapestries illustrating the
Apocalypse of St
John known today as the
Apocalypse Tapestry .
René of Naples and
Anjou , nicknamed Good King René, and his
Jeanne de Laval
King René of
Anjou contributed to the economic revival in a city
that had been diminished by the
Black Death (1347–1350) and the
Hundred Years War
Hundred Years War (1337–1453). A man of great culture and
generosity, René transformed
Angers into a cultural and political
center and held court there. He transformed the castle moat into a
menagerie and built several gardens. He also founded in
Angers a new
Ordre du Croissant which was supposed to compete with the Order of the
Golden Fleece , created several years earlier.
In 1474, Louis XI of
France , in his attempt to conquer Anjou, came
Angers with his army, asking for the keys of the city. René, then
65 years old, did not want to lead a war against his nephew and
surrendered his domains without a fight. Thus,
Anjou ceased to be an
appanage and fell into the Royal domain. After his death, René was
buried in 1480 in Saint-Maurice cathedral . The Logis Barrault,
where the Edict of
Nantes was prepared
Angers became the seat of a bailiwick and the présidial of
a jurisdiction, a position the city kept until 1790. At the same time,
with the growth of
Protestantism in France, a Catholic was placed at
the head of the city and its castle while the bourgeoisie formed a
Catholic militia to protect
Angers from the
Huguenots . The bishop,
Gabriel Bouvery , organized on his side an "Angevin League".
When the news of the St. Bartholomew\'s Day massacre arrived in
Angers, a new massacre was organized in the city. The bodies of slain
Protestants were thrown in the
Mayenne . It is the aldermen who
stopped the slaughter.
In 1598, the Edict of
Nantes was prepared by Henri IV in Angers. From
6 March until 2 April,
Angers was de facto the capital of
the King tried all means to satisfy the Catholics of the city, for
example by laying the cornerstone of the new Couvent des Capucins.
In 1619, Louis XIII of
France gave the governance of
Anjou to his
mother, Marie de\' Medici . The Queen Mother settled in Angers, at the
Logis Barrault, with her chaplain,
Cardinal Richelieu .
At the premature death of Louis XIII in 1643, his son Louis XIV was
only an infant.
France was troubled at this time by several famines
and epidemics, and by political instability. In 1649, the people of
Angers revolted against rising taxes, the start of the
Fronde in Anjou
Fronde was a nationwide military conflict opposing some
aristocrats wanting more autonomy and the Royal forces loyal to Anne
of Austria as Queen Mother and Regent, and her prime minister,
Cardinal Mazarin . Royalist repression in
Angers was narrowly averted
Henri Arnauld , who interceded with the Queen Mother.
Arnauld, who would remain
Bishop of Angers until 1692, was to leave a
deep mark on the religious life of the city during the second half of
the 17th century.
Henri Chabot , Duke of Rohan and governor of
Anjou , decided
to back Louis of Condé , leader of the
Angers again became
rebellious and Louis XIV sent his army to seize it. The Duke of Rohan
immediately surrendered and thus again prevented the sack of the city.
One of the cahiers de doléances written in
Angers in 1789
The first months of the
French Revolution were relatively quiet in
Angers. In 1789, the city lost its ancient administrative positions,
replaced in 1790 by the department of Mayenne-et-Loire, soon renamed
Anjou , as a political entity, disappeared,
although the new department included most of its territory.
The War of
Vendée , a Royalist rebellion and counterrevolution led
Vendée , a department located at the southwest of
reached the Loire in March 1793. The Royalist army soon crossed the
river and progressed as far as Granville , in
Normandy , in November.
Pushed back, the Vendéens went back south and, to cross the Loire
again, had to attack Angers.
The city was defended by 4,000 Republican soldiers, whereas the
Royalists were at least 20,000, but weakened by successive fights and
Siege of Angers occurred on 3 and 4 December 1793. The
Royalists' bad tactics, as well as the strength of
Angers city wall
and castle, caused their loss. They consequently went back north for a
Le Mans , before crossing the Loire at
Ancenis on 16
In 1794, fierce repression was conducted in the whole region against
the Royalists. In Angers, 290 prisoners were shot and 1020 died of
illness in jail. The city also welcomed many refugees, mostly
Republicans living in Royalist rural areas. Between 19 and 31 May
1793, between 650 and 1000 Republican families sought asylum in
The Pont de Segré, a truss railroad bridge built on the Maine
during the second half of the 19th century
During the 19th century, the city was deeply influenced by the urban
Paris . The city traditionally had a somewhat
sombre appearance from the quantity of local slate used in
construction but many quarters were gradually destroyed, redeveloped,
or rebuilt on the Parisian model. The city wall, which formed a
square around the old city core, was demolished around 1850 and
replaced by wide boulevards. New districts of the city were also
opened up on the opposite bank of the river.
In 1849, the Angers-
Saumur railway was built; it was extended to
Nantes two years later. When completed, the line connected
Atlantic coast .
In 1850, a catastrophic failure of the Basse-Chaîne suspension
bridge caused the deaths of over 200 soldiers. The disaster inhibited
the construction of suspension bridges in
France for two decades. The
accident was mainly caused by soldiers' lilting march which created
resonance in the bridge structure.
In 1875, a "free faculty" was created. It was soon assimilated to the
medieval Angevin University (Universitas Andegavensis), which had been
dissolved during the
French Revolution . The new faculty was
canonically erected as the Catholic
University of Angers
University of Angers (Université
Angers ) by
Pope Pius IX in 1879. However, in 1890, a
law prohibited private institutions of higher education from calling
themselves "universities". The institution was then renamed the "Free
Faculty of Angers" (Faculté libre d'Angers), although it kept its
original name on an informal basis. At the beginning of the 20th
century, two higher education establishments, specializing in
agriculture and commercial sciences, were opened. The fountain in
Jardin du Mail, built for the 1900 Exposition Universelle in
During the first half of the 20th century, several
Art Nouveau and
Art Deco buildings were constructed, such as the Nouvelles Galeries,
the Hotel des Postes, Hotel Continental, the Alcazar and the Maison
In September 1939, when
Poland was invaded by Germany, the Polish
government-in-exile settled in Angers. It left the city on 12 June
1940, after the invasion of
France by the
Angers fell to
the Nazis during the same month. The Germans made it the seat of a
regional Kommandantur. In 1941, a first Resistance movement, called
Honneur et Patrie, was created in Angers. 60 Resistants were shot at
the Belle-Beille range in 1942 and a German bunker factory employed
6000 people in 1943. In July 1942, 853 Jews were arrested and sent to
On the night of 28 May 1944, the first Allied bombing occurred over
the Saint-Laud quarter. 243 people died and many others were wounded.
Successive attacks on 29 and 30 May destroyed the train station and
its surroundings which were reconstructed in the 1950s.
General Patton and his 5th
infantry division arrived in
Anjou on 5 August. To seize Angers, they
decided to enter the city by its eastern side to surprise the Nazis.
On 9 August, they crossed the Maine and started the fight. Helped by
French Forces of the Interior , they progressively moved
forward to the city center. The fight was nevertheless difficult and
Angers was liberated the day after, at around 5 p.m.
After the end of the war, the city experienced quick development and
demographic growth. In 1971, a decision was made to reestablish a
public university, and the Université catholique d'
Angers was split
between the Université catholique de l\'Ouest (private) and the
Angers continues to have two different
Until the 1980s,
Angers experienced several massive urban development
plans, such as the construction of the Lac de Maine, and several vast
council estates and shopping malls, as well as the construction of a
highway which crossed the city through its center, a project that
forced the destruction of many old buildings and destroyed the
original quays on the Maine. Later, other urban plans were drawn up,
with a new emphasis on nature and heritage protection, as well as on
social mixing. During the 1990s, the redevelopment of the Saint-Serge
quarter, located just north of the historical center, produced a new
business center, gardens and university buildings. View of
Angers and the Maine river
The court of appeal in the Jardin du Mail
Angers received its communal charter from Louis XI of
February 1475, but free elections for the mayor and aldermen were not
guaranteed before 1484, following a decision by Charles VIII . Since
then, 75 successive mayors have governed Angers.
Angers was until the
Second World War
Second World War mainly governed by centrist and
republican mayors. Since 1977, all the successive mayors have been
members of the Socialist Party , whereas the
has always been governed by moderate right-wing parties. Following
Jean-Claude Antonini 's resignation in 2012, the current mayor is
Frédéric Béatse .
Angers is divided into eight cantons ; most of them include parts of
Angers plus some surrounding communes. These cantons are not
administrative entities and only serve to elect the members of the
department council. The
INSEE , the French institute for statistics,
divides the commune of
Angers into twelve sectors. Depending on their
social and economic issues, some of them can have priority for
financial assistance and urban regeneration. In Angers, five are
considered as priority sectors, three as sensitive urban areas, and
one as an urban free zone.
Being the chef-lieu of
Angers is the seat of a
prefecture . It is also the seat of an Court of Appeal and of several
regional or local institutes, concerning for example, customs,
education or science.
Angers also has several other courts of justice
as well as a prison .
Angers had 147,305 inhabitants, 0.3% less than ten years
before. It is the 18th most populated commune in France, having
reached its maximum population in 2006, with 152,337 inhabitants.
Censuses have been conducted since 1793.
In 2009, the urban area, which encompasses
Angers plus nine
surrounding communes (188.6 square kilometers (72.8 square miles) in
total), had 215,132 inhabitants. The metropolitan area included in
2009 133 communes, 394,710 inhabitants and 2,353.8 square kilometers
(908.8 square miles). The
Angers Loire Métropole , an economic and
political association of communes, includes 30 communes and around
The population of
Angers is relatively young, with 48% of the
population being younger than 30 and the proportion of residents over
60 years old (18.9%) being lower than both the national (22.1%) and
departmental (21.4%) rates. This is partially explained by the
presence of two universities, 21.3% of the population being pupils and
students in 2009.
Source: Base Cassini from EHESS for figures until 1962
A bottle of
Cointreau , a liqueur produced in
Saint-Barthélemy-d'Anjou, near Angers, since 1849
The early prosperity of the town was largely due to the nearby
quarries of slate , whose abundant use for the roofs of
Angers led to
its sobriquet as the "Black City". In the mid-19th century, the
principal manufactures were goods for sailing ships (sailcloth and
rope ), linen and hose , sugar , leather , wax , and oil , as well as
agricultural products (mainly wheat , wine , and fruit ). By the time
First World War
First World War ,
Cointreau had developed the distillation of
liqueurs from the area's fruit to an industrial level. The work for
sailing ships was still carried on but steamships had greatly reduced
demand. Instead, local companies produced cables , wires , and thread
and increased production of footwear , umbrellas , and parasols . The
area's vineyards focused on sparkling wine and fruit was increasingly
preserved for sale elsewhere. The area had also developed a
small-scale textile industry and begun producing machines, as well as
commercial-scale production of hemp and flowers .
Angers provides 45.7% of the
positions. It is the 22nd-largest national job provider and the
3rd-largest one in northwestern
Rennes . Its
unemployment rate (9.9% in 2009) is close to the national rate. 21.4%
of the people working in
Angers have graduate or post-graduate
Cointreau continues to produce its orange triple-sec liqueur in
Anjou , but many of the other industries
have since vanished. Modern
Angers produces Scania trucks at Ecouflant
and computers by Bull ,
Packard Bell , and
NEC . It also supports
research labs investigating horticulture and biotechnology. Thanks to
its several higher education schools, laboratories, and various
Angers is the largest horticultural center in
as the home of the
Community Plant Variety Office ,
Angers is the hub
of the plant breeders\' rights system in the
European Community . For
Angers is the leading hydrangeas producer in Europe. The
local economy also relies on the presence of many administrative,
educational, and health institutions. There are also many small firms,
chiefly focused on the agricultural tradition of
Angers also serves as a regional financial center, with many banks and
insurance companies (including Afone ,
CNP Assurances , Crédit
agricole , Fiducial, and
Groupama ) maintaining their regional offices
Angers is an important convention center, with a present convention
trade of around €8,000,000. The new convention center slated for
2016 has been cancelled in 2013. The renovation of the previous
convention center and the addition of a 400 conference room at the
back by the garden should be finished in 2018. The Parc des
Expositions, where fairs are currently held, welcomes 600,000 visitors
and more than 300 events each year. With its 27,000 m2 (290,626 sq
ft), it is the biggest structure of its type in northwestern France.
HEALTH AND EDUCATION
The Faculty of Law and Economics
The Hôtel-Dieu, founded in the 12th century, is one of the oldest
hospitals in France. First located in the Hospice Saint-Jean, it moved
into new buildings in 1870; it became Centre Hospitalier Universitaire
(CHU) in 1966. It has 1,500 beds and around 5,500 people work there.
Two private hospitals and a regional center for re-education also
A center of learning,
Angers boasts two renowned universities and
several specialized institutions, altogether enrolling more than
26,000 students. The
Catholic University of the West (Université
Catholique de L'Ouest or UCO) is one of five Catholic universities in
France. UCO is best known for its International Center for the Study
of the French Language (Centre international d\'étude de la langue
française or CIDEF), which provides college students from around the
world with college-level course instruction in the French language,
and for its Institute for the Development of Consulting and Business
(Institut pour le developpement du conseil et de l'entreprise or IDCE
), an important business school which offers undergraduate and
graduate (MBA) degrees in International Business and Consulting. The
town is also home to a state university, the
University of Angers
University of Angers ,
best university in
France in 2015 for success rates. Arts et
Angers is also home to engineering graduate schools, such as the Arts
et Métiers ParisTech , top school in mechanical and industrial
engineering and the ESEO, an engineering school in electronics and
computer science. Its education and research institutes are the
driving force behind the city's science and technology industries.
Angers's other educational institutions include lycées, training
colleges and a school of fine art .
Another Angers's Business School is
ESSCA (Ecole Superieure des
Sciences Commerciales d'Angers). Formerly part of the UCO, the
school's Master's program is of a duration of five years. ESSCA
recruits students after the
In addition to French schools and universities, an American
university, St. Edward\'s University , has a new expanding campus in
St. Edward's University is a diverse, Catholic liberal arts
Austin, Texas . The university has a partnership with
UCO, and offers a variety of courses of undergraduate level and
A tram approaching "Les Gares" stop
Angers is situated on the crossroads of three highways, the A11 , to
Nantes , the A87 to
La Roche-sur-Yon and the A85 to Tours
Lyon . National roads connect the city with
Before the construction of bypasses during the 2000s, the A11 crossed
the city center, following the river Maine, and passed just below the
castle. Causing air pollution and noise and disfiguring the Maine
quays, the portions of the former highway which are still in place
should be redeveloped in the coming years.
Angers inaugurated the new Irigo tram system on 25 June 2011. The
tramway consists of one 12 km (7.46 mi) line with 25 stops. The line
runs from Avrillé-Ardenne in the north to Angers-Roseraie in the
south, passing by the center and the train station. Service is
provided by Keolis using 17
Alstom Citadis trams. The system uses
partial ground-level power supply , which avoids aerial wires and
preserves the historical character of the city center. A second line
is scheduled for 2018–2022. Besides the tram, Irigo also organizes
the bus network in
Angers consisting of 13 urban lines and 12 suburban
The bus station, situated outside the
Angers Saint-Laud train
station, is a hub for the departmental bus network (Anjoubus) and is
also served by international bus companies.
Angers is on both the
Lyon railways. The
city has several train stations, all originally built in the 19th
century. Some are still in use; others are closed or reserved for
freight. The main station,
Angers Saint-Laud , is on a
TGV line and
has a direct
TGV service to
Paris (1 hour 30 minutes),
Lyon (3 hours
Strasbourg (4 hours 35 minutes), and
Lille (3 hours 25
minutes), as well as
Montpellier . Regional
trains go to
The nearest airport is
Angers - Loire Airport , which replaced in
1998 an older airport near the Saint-Aubin island. The airport is
located in the commune of
Marcé , 20 kilometers (12 miles) from
Angers and close to the A11 and the A85. It can receive 50,000
passengers per year.
The Maison d'Adam (Adam's House) was built around 1500
The Château d\'
Angers , built on a schist promontory, dominates the
river Maine and the old town. Its site has been occupied since
antiquity; the castle itself was built between 1230 and 1240 by Louis
France . The massive walls are about one kilometer long and
punctuated by 17 towers; they were built with horizontal slices of
tuff and schist , giving it strength and an original striped look.
During the 15th century, a chapel and the Châtelet were added in the
The Maison d'Adam ("Adam's House"), located behind the cathedral, is
an excellent example of the half-timbered houses which were built
Middle Ages . Many similar houses, although smaller, are
also visible along the streets around the castle. The city also
Renaissance and classical hôtels particuliers , the
most renowned being the Logis Pincé from the 16th century. The Maison
bleue ("Blue House"), built in 1927, is an
Art Deco masterpiece. The
former seat of the French Aviation Company (Compagnie française
d'Aviation) was built in 1938 and abandoned during the Second World
War . Totally refurbished in 2004, it is now a testimony to 1930s
The Saint-Maurice cathedral is a major landmark in the cityscape,
with its two spires culminating at 75 meters (246 ft). The
construction of the current building started during the 12th century
on the remains of an older sanctuary. The original structure,
romanesque , received gothic columns and vaults in the middle of the
12th century, giving birth to the Angevin gothic , a style that
quickly spread in Western
France and the Angevin possessions in Italy
. Sculptures and architectural details were added to the façade
during the 16th century. The twin spires were built in 1518 and 1523.
The neighbouring Palais du Tau, the former episcopal palace, dates
from the 12th century.
The skyline is also marked by the Tour Saint-Aubin. Completed in
1170, it was the bell-tower of an abbey closed during the French
Revolution and destroyed in 1810. Elaborately sculptured 11th and 12th
century arcades also survive in the courtyard of the Prefecture.
Another abbey, the Abbaye Toussaint, founded during the 13th century,
was also partially pulled down and only the church and parts of the
cloister are still visible. On the southern limits of the commune,
close to the Maine, stands the Couvent de la Baumette, founded during
the 15th century by René of
La Doutre, an old quarter located on the western bank of the Maine
and facing the castle, contains two major medieval sites, the former
Abbaye du Ronceray, built during the 11th and 12th century, and the
Hôpital Saint-Jean, founded by
Henry II of England
Henry II of England and used as the
city hospital until 1870.
The distinctive striped towers of the castle
The Châtelet in the castle
Façade of House of Croissant
The "Blue House"
Inside the cathedral
Palace of Tau
Tower of Saint-Aubin
Abbey of Ronceray
Abbey of Saint Nicholas (Mother-House of
Good Shepherd Sisters )
The bridges over Maine (view from the
The Musée des Beaux-Arts d\'
Angers , located in the Renaissance
Logis Barrault, displays a collection of paintings and sculptures
dating from the 14th century to today. It is particularly renowned for
its 18th-century paintings, including works by
Jean-Baptiste Greuze ,
Van Loo ,
Antoine Watteau ,
Jean-Honoré Fragonard , and Jean Siméon
Chardin . The museum also contains a graphic design studio, a gallery
devoted to the history of
Angers and a temporary exhibition gallery.
The institution has an antenna at the château in
Villevêque , a
village located several kilometers north of the city.
Inside the castle , a special gallery displays the Apocalypse
Tapestry , ordered by
Louis I of Naples at the end of the 14th
century. It is more than 140 meters (460 ft) long, the largest
medieval tapestry in the world. Inspired by manuscript miniatures ,
the successive scenes, designed by
Jean Bondol , illustrate the
Apocalypse of St John .
Located inside the old Hôpital Saint-Jean, the Musée Jean-Lurçat
et de la tapisserie contemporaine displays tapestries dating from the
19th and 20th centuries. The museum is dedicated to
Jean Lurçat , an
artist noted for his role in the revival of contemporary tapestry, and
notably exhibits his "Chant du Monde", a modern echo to the Apocalypse
Tapestry made after the bombing of
The Muséum d\'histoire naturelle d\'
Angers has been located in the
1521 Hôtel Demarie-Valentin since 1885. It exhibits a large
collection of mounted animals and fossils, divided in three
departments, one for zoology , one for botany and the last one for
paleontology and geology .
The Logis Pincé, constructed during the
Renaissance , is the home of
the museum of the same name. It displays Egyptian, Greek, Roman, and
Etruscan antiquities as well as Chinese and Japanese artifacts.
Located in the Abbaye Toussaint, the Galerie
David d'Angers gathers
sculptures, reliefs, and medallions by David d\'
Angers , a
19th-century sculptor born in the city. The gallery also owns the
preparatory works for the Panthéon of
Angers also enjoys a Maison de l'Architecture, which organizes
various exhibitions and workshops, as well as several temporary
exhibition galleries distributed in the city center. Outside the
commune limits are also an aviation museum and a museum of
The Musée des Beaux-Arts
Les Génies des Arts by
François Boucher , at the Musée des
Italian drawing, 17th century, at the Musée des Beaux-Arts
ENTERTAINMENT AND PERFORMING ARTS
The Grand Théâtre
The Grand Théâtre, dominating the Place du Ralliement, was first
built in 1791, but destroyed by a fire in 1853. The existing building
was completed in 1871 and its auditorium contains six stalls and four
balconies, totaling 730 seats. The Théâtre du Quai, inaugurated in
2007, has two auditoriums; one contains 980 seats and several
balconies, and the other, more flexible, can welcome 400 seated or 960
standing spectators. The Grand Théâtre and the Théâtre du Quai are
the venues of three institutions, Angers-
Nantes Opéra , an opera
company also based in
Nantes , the Contemporary Dance National Center
(CNDC), inaugurated by
Alwin Nikolais in 1978, and the Nouveau
The Orchestre National des
Pays de la Loire
Pays de la Loire , shared with
usually performs at the Congress Center, built in 1983, with a
capacity of 1,240 seats. Other concert halls include the Chabada, the
Amphitéa and the former Ursuline chapel. Local theater companies
perform at Théâtre Chanzy, Théâtre du Champ de Bataille, Théâtre
de la Comédie or at the Centre Jean Vilar. Each September, the city
organizes a street performance festival, called the Accroche-Cœurs.
The Chabada, a popular concert hall, is the cradle of the Angevin
contemporary scene and several groups and performers were discovered
Les Thugs , a punk band formed in 1983, being the first ones.
The local scene also includes the alternative rock group
La Ruda , the
power pop band
Pony Pony Run Run , the world music band Lo\'Jo and
Titi Robin , a performer influenced by Gypsy and
Arabic music .
The Premiers Plans festival, dedicated to European first films and
meant to help new directors meet their audience, is conducted every
year and lasts one week. The films are screened in three small
cinemas, while two big generalist multiplexes also exist in Angers.
Angers had a local TV channel
Angers 7 which went bankrupt in 2010
and was replaced 3 years later by
Angers Télé. The national French
France 3 , however, still presents local news in its programs.
Several national radio stations, such as Virgin Radio , NRJ and
Chérie FM maintain local antennas in Angers. The city is also the
home of two local stations, Radio Campus and Radio G!. Ouest-France
and Le Courrier de l\'Ouest are the two local newspapers, the last one
having its headquarters in Angers. The city and
Métropole also edit their news bulletins.
Angers has many sport teams playing at top levels.
Angers SCO is
Angers's football team . The club was created in 1919 and returned to
Ligue 1 (French top league) in 2015 after 21 years. Les Ducs d\'Angers
is Angers's ice hockey team. The club plays in the Magnus League
Anjou BC is Angers's basketball team , playing in
second division. Vaillante
Angers is Angers's table tennis team
playing in top division Pro A since the 2000-2001 season.
acts as home to the
Angers Aviron Nautique, a rowing club which
actively competes in regattas across France.
Jean-Bouin Stadium is the main sports venue which can hold 18,000
people. The city also has a variety of sports halls, tennis courts,
swimming pools, shooting and archery stands, a velodrome, a rowing
center, an ice rink and a fencing hall. The Lac de Maine Stadium
hosted the athletics championships in
France in July 2009.
PEOPLE FROM ANGERS
List of people born in
Zacharie Astruc (1835–1907), artist
Jean Bodin (1529–1596), philosopher and jurist, author of Six
Livres de la République
* Francis Le Jau (1665–1717), Anglican missionary to West Indies
South Carolina , worked for the humane treatment of slaves.
Michel Eugène Chevreul (1786–1889), chemist
* Joseph Louis Proust (1754–1826), chemist responsible for
"Proust\'s law "
* Pierre-Jean David d\'
Angers (1788–1856), sculptor
Germanicus Mirault (1796–1879), surgeon
Prosper Ménière (1799–1862), physician
* Adolphe and Édouard-Jean Cointreau, creators of the "
François-Joseph Grille (1792–1853), librarian
Fernande Grudet (1923–2015), brothel-keeper
René Bazin (1853–1932), writer and educator
Fernand Charron (1866–1921), one of the first cars constructors
Octave Mirbeau dedicated to Charron La 628-E8, 1907)
Jean Durtal (1905–1999), female poet and novelist
Hervé Bazin (1911–1996), writer
Henri Dutilleux (1916–2013), composer
Joseph Wresinski (born 1917), humanitarian activist
André Bazin (1918–1958), critic of the
French New Wave
Jacques Bompaire (1924–2009), Hellenist
Jacques Loussier (born 1934), composer and jazz pianist
Valerie Trierweiler (born 1965), political journalist and domestic
François Hollande , the 24th President of the French
Eriq Ebouaney (Born 1967), actor
Caroline Giron-Panel (born 1979), historian and musicologist
Nicolas Mahut (born 1982), tennis player
Juliana Mialoundama (born 1993), basketball player
This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please
help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources .
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2015) (Learn
how and when to remove this template message )
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in
Angers is twinned with:
North Holland ,
* Wigan ,
Greater Manchester , England,
United Kingdom (1988)
* Austin ,
Texas , US (2011)
* Omer ,
Pays de la Loire
Pays de la Loire
* ^ "Population municipale, données légales de population en
vigueur à partir du 1er janvier 2011". INSEE.
* ^ "Étude comparative des villes européennes" (PDF).
* ^ "City data on "L\'Internaute"".
* ^ A B
Albert Dauzat ;
Charles Rostaing (1979). Dictionnaire
étymologique des noms de lieu en France. Paris: Librairie
Guénégaud. p. 18b. ISBN 2-85023-076-6 .
Ptolemy , Geography, II, 8, 8.
Charles Rostaing (1945). Presses universitaires de France, ed.
Les noms de lieux. Paris. p. 59. ISBN 2-13-038660-1 .
* ^ Charles Rostaing, Op. cit., p. 47
* ^ Charles Rostaing, Op. cit., p. 46–47.
* ^ Ernest Nègre, Toponymie générale de la
France (Read online)
* ^ A B C D E F EB (1878) .
* ^ City official website Archived 25 November 2008 at the Wayback
* ^ Jacques Maillard (2000). éd. Ville d'Angers, ed. Angers, XXe
siecle. Angers. p. 125. ISBN 2-85575-070-9 .
* ^ "Laissez-vous conter Angers". vpah.culture.
* ^ Distinctions accordés aux emblèmes et devises, City website
* ^ City website
* ^ Elevations, Institut geographique national
* ^ "Données climatiques de la station de Beaucouzé" (in French).
Meteo France. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
* ^ "Climat Pays de la Loire" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved
January 9, 2016.
* ^ "Normes et records 1961–1990: Angers-
Beaucouzé (49) -
altitude 50m" (in French). Infoclimat. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
* ^ Fasti Ecclesiae Gallicanae
* ^ Archives 49 : il était une fois l\'Anjou.
* ^ Angers, le château, Inventaire général des monuments et
richesses artistiques de la France, 1991
* ^ Historique du château d'Angers, Inventaire général du
* ^ "Rives Nouvelles". www.angers.fr. Archived from the original on
22 June 2012.
* ^ City website
* ^ Michel Dillange. Op. cit, p 59–60
* ^ Le duché de Bretagne et la politique
Plantagenêt aux XII et
XIII siecles, Judith Everard. », in Marin Aurell and Noël-Yves
Tonnerre éditeurs. Plantagenêts et Capétiens, confrontations et
héritages, Poitiers. Brepols, 2006, Turnhout. Collection Histoires de
famille. La parenté au Moyen Âge, p. 202
* ^ Histoire de René d'Anjou, Louis François Villeneuve-Bargemont
tome II (1446–1476) Editions J. J. Blaise,
Paris : 1825
* ^ Pierre Miquel, Op. cit., p. 286
* ^ Jacques Hussenet (dir.), « Détruisez la
Vendée ! », p.
* ^ Guy-Marie Lenne, Les Réfugiés de la guerre de Vendée, p.
* ^ Base de connaissance Art et Histoire
* ^ Lesplantagenets.fr
* ^ A B Conseil general de
Maine-et-Loire (ed.). "L\'
Anjou dans la
seconde guerre mondiale".
* ^ City website (ed.). "Août 1944.
Angers est libérée".
INSEE (ed.). "Commune d\'
INSEE (ed.). "Unité urbaine 2010 d\'
INSEE (ed.). "Aire urbaine 2010 d\'
Angers Loire Métropole data Archived 17 July 2011 at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ BANATIC, Périmètre des EPCI à fiscalité propre. Accessed
* ^ A B C
INSEE (ed.). "
Angers (49007 - Commune) - Évolution et
structure de la population" (PDF).
* ^ "Des villages de Cassini aux communes d\'aujourd\'hui". École
des hautes études en sciences sociales.
* ^ "Évolution et structure de la population (de 1968 à 2007)"
* ^ "Recensement de la population au 1er janvier 2006". Insee.
* ^ "Recensement de la population au 1er janvier 2009". Insee.
* ^ EB (1911) .
* ^ Website of the école Supérieure d\'Agriculture d\'Angers.
* ^ "CHU info". chu-angers.fr.
* ^ Les chiffres clés 2008 on the hospital website
* ^ "Teaching, research and industry". Angers.fr. 18 November 2009.
Retrieved 15 September 2011.
* ^ "Irigo.fr : site officiel des transports en commun de
l\'agglomération d\'Angers". bustram.irigo.fr (in French). Retrieved
* ^ "
Angers tram opens". Railway Gazette. 29 June 2011.
* ^ Eglise Saint Aubin
* ^ Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607–1896.
Chicago: Marquis Who's Who. 1963.
* ^ "Città Gemellate" . Comune di Pisa. Retrieved 16 December
* ^ "British towns twinned with French towns". Archant Community
Media. Retrieved 2013-07-11.
* ^ "
Austin, Texas & Angers, France". Sister Cities International.
* Baynes, T.S., ed. (1878), "Angers",
Encyclopædia Britannica , 2
(9th ed.), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 29
* Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911), "Angers",
Encyclopædia Britannica , 2
(11th ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 8–9
See also: Bibliography of the history of
Célestin Port (1989). Dictionnaire historique, géographique et
Maine-et-Loire et de l'ancienne province d'
French). Angers: H. Siraudeau et Cie. ISBN 978-2-85672-008-0 .
* Tancrède Abraham (1876).
Angers et ses environs. Album de
gravures à l'eau-forte (in French). Château-Gontier: J.-B. Bezier.
* Daniel Schweitz (2006). Châteaux et forteresses du Moyen Âge en
Val de Loire, Touraine, Anjou, Berry, Orléanais, Vendômois, Marche
bretonne (in French). Tours: CLD. ISBN 978-2-85443-490-3 .
* Jean-François Bodin (1823). Recherches historiques sur l'
Angers et le Bas-Anjou, Volume 2 (in French). Degouy.
ISBN 978-2-85443-490-3 .
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for ANGERS .
Wikimedia Commons has media related to ANGERS .
* Official website
Angers Tourist Office
* "A Visit to the
Slate Quarries of Angers," France, article from
the Scientific American – Supplement No. 974, Munn