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Anfa
Anfa
(Berber languages: Anfa
Anfa
(ⴰⵏⴼⴰ); Arabic: أنفا‎) was the ancient toponym for Casablanca
Casablanca
during the classical period. The city was founded by Berbers
Berbers
around the 10th century BC, with the Romans under Augustus
Augustus
later establishing the commercial port of "Anfus" in 15 BC. Anfus is now the name of a district in the oldest part of Casablanca, located in the Casablanca-Settat
Casablanca-Settat
region of Morocco. The district covers an area of 37.5 square kilometres (14.5 square miles), and as of 2004 had 492,787 inhabitants.[1]

Contents

1 Roman Anfa 2 Modern history 3 Subdivisions 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Roman Anfa[edit]

Roman coin of King Juba II
Juba II
similar to those found in the Anfa
Anfa
port

The area which is today Casablanca
Casablanca
was founded and settled by the Berbers
Berbers
by about the 10th century BC.[2] It was used as a port by the Phoenicians and later by the Romans.[3] Romans occupied the area in 15 BC and created a commercial port under Augustus,[4] directly connected to the Mogador island
Mogador island
in the Iles Purpuraires of southern Mauritania. From there they obtained a special dye, that colored the purple stripe in Imperial Roman Senatorial togas. The expedition of Juba II
Juba II
to discover the Canary islands
Canary islands
and Madeira
Madeira
probably departed from Anfa.

Anfa
Anfa
est une grande cité, edifiée par les Romans sur le rivage de la mer Oceane... (Leo Africanus: Anfa
Anfa
is a big city, built by the Romans on the ocean shore...) [1]

The Roman port, probably called Anfus, was part of a Berber client state of Rome until Emperor Augustus. When Rome annexed Ptolemy of Mauretania's kingdom, Anfa
Anfa
was incorporated into the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
by Caligula. But this was done only nominally because the Roman limes was a few dozen kilometers north of the port (the Roman military fortifications of Mauretania Tingitana
Mauretania Tingitana
were just a few kilometers south of the Roman colonia named Sala Colonia). However, Roman Anfa—connected mainly by commerce and by socio-cultural ties to Volubilis
Volubilis
(autonomous from Rome since 285 AD)—lasted until the 5th century, when Vandals
Vandals
conquered Roman northwestern Africa. A Roman wreck of the 2nd century, from which were salvaged 169 silver coins, shows that the Romans appreciated this useful port for commerce. There is even evidence of oil commerce with Roman Volubilis and Tingis
Tingis
in the 3rd century. Meanwhile, a large Berber tribe, the Berghouata, settled in the area between the rivers Bou Regreg to the north and Oum er-Rbia to the south of the Roman port.[5] Consequently, the independent Berber kingdom called Barghawata, in the area then named Anfa, arose around in 744 AD, and continued until it was conquered by the new Berber kingdom of the Almoravids in 1068 AD.

Abou El Kassem El Ziani refers to ancient Casablanca
Casablanca
as "Anfa" and stated that the Zenatiyins (Berber dynasty under Arab rule) were the first people that established Anfa
Anfa
in the period of their settlement in Tamassna.[6]

Leo Africanus
Leo Africanus
defined Anfa
Anfa
as a Roman city in his famous Della descrittione dell’Africa et delle cose notabili che ivi sono (Description of Africa), written in the 16th century. Modern history[edit] Actual Anfa
Anfa
was originally built and settled by the Berbers
Berbers
in the Middle Ages. Anfa
Anfa
is a Berber name which means "the top". The area became a small independent kingdom ruled by Barghawata
Barghawata
from 744 CE until it was conquered by the Almoravids in 1068. From the 14th century, under the Marinids, Anfa
Anfa
rose in importance as a port. In the early 15th century, the town became an independent state once again. It also became a safe harbour for pirates, which led to it being targeted by the Portuguese, who destroyed the town in 1468. It was used by the Portuguese, who called it Anafé, as a military fortress from 1515. Anfa
Anfa
is today to the west of central Casablanca, and was the name of one of the city's two airports before being closed in 2007. The region around Casablanca
Casablanca
is named Casa-Anfa. The neighborhood of Anfa
Anfa
is the most upper-class and westernized in the city. Subdivisions[edit] The district is divided into three arrondissements:

Anfa
Anfa
(أنفا) Maârif
Maârif
(المعاريف) Sidi Belyout
Sidi Belyout
(سيدي بليوط)

See also[edit]

Casablanca Timeline of Casablanca

References[edit]

^ "La Préfecture de Casablanca
Casablanca
(in French)". Casablanca.ma. Archived from the original on 26 March 2010. Retrieved 28 August 2010.  ^ Casablanca
Casablanca
- Jewish Virtual Library ^ LexicOrient ^ Roman Casablanca ^ Roman Anfa ^ Berber Casablanca
Casablanca
Archived July 19, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.

External links[edit]

A 1572 map of Anfa, after an unidentified Portuguese original.

v t e

Casablanca

Subdivisions

Aïn Chock Aïn Chock Aïn Sebaâ
Aïn Sebaâ
Hay Mohammadi Aïn Sebaâ Hay Mohammadi Roches Noires Anfa Anfa Maârif Sidi Belyout Ben M'Sick Ben M'Sick Sbata Sidi Bernoussi Sidi Bernoussi Sidi Moumen Al Fida
Al Fida
- Mers Sultan Al Fida Mechouar (municipality) Mers Sultan Hay Hassani Hay Hassani Moulay Rachid Moulay Rachid Sidi Othmane

History and archaeology

Timeline Ahl al Oughlam Casablanca
Casablanca
Conference 2003 Casablanca
Casablanca
bombings 2007 Casablanca
Casablanca
bombings

Economy

Economy of Casablanca Casablanca
Casablanca
Stock Exchange MADEX index MASI index Morocco
Morocco
Mall Casablanca
Casablanca
Technopark

Transport

Al Bidaoui
Al Bidaoui
(suburban railways) Port
Port
of Casablanca Mohammed V International Airport Casablanca
Casablanca
Tit Mellil Airport Casablanca- Anfa
Anfa
Airport Nouasseur Air Base Casablanca
Casablanca
metro Casablanca
Casablanca
Tramway Casa- Port
Port
railway station Casa-Voyageurs railway station Oasis railway station

Roads and streets

Casablanca–Agadir expressway Casablanca–Marrakesh expressway Casablanca–Rabat expressway Boulevard Mohamed V Boulevard Mohamed-Zerktouni Boulevard Moulay Youssef

Education

Colleges and universities

List of universities, colleges and schools Académie internationale Mohammed VI de l'aviation civile École Hassania des Travaux Publics ISCAE

Primary and secondary schools

Casablanca
Casablanca
American School Collège-Lycée Léon l'Africain École internationale de Casablanca École Normale Hébraïque Groupe Scolaire La Résidence Lycée Maïmonide Lycée Lyautey George Washington Academy Instituto Español Juan Ramón Jiménez Scuola "Enrico Mattei" École Belge de Casablanca

Sports

Clubs Raja Club Athletic Wydad Athletic Club Racing de Casablanca Rachad Bernoussi TAS de Casablanca Majd Al Madina Competitions Grand Prix Hassan II Sports venues Stade Mohamed V Salle Mohammed V Stade Père-Jégo Royal Golf Anfa

Landmarks

Places of worship Casablanca
Casablanca
Cathedral Hassan II Mosque Temple Beth-El Skyscrapers and hotels Casablanca
Casablanca
Twin Center Anfa
Anfa
Hotel Club Val D Anfa Hotel Farah Hotel Kenzi Tower Hyatt Regency Casablanca Novotel Casablanca
Casablanca
City Center Royal Mansour Casablanca Sheraton Casablanca
Casablanca
Hotel & Towers Museums Museum of Moroccan Judaism Parks and cemeteries Jardin de la Préfécture Ben Msik Parc de Jeux Yasmina Jewish cemetery of Casablanca Ben M'Sik European Cemetery Hospitals Hôpital Mohamed V Hôpital Ben Msik

People

See Category:People from Casablanca

v t e

Romano-Berber cities in Roman North Africa

Morocco

Anfa Iulia Constantia Zilil Iulia Valentia Banasa Iulia Campestris Babba Lixus 2 Mogador Sala 1 Tamuda
Tamuda
1 Thamusida Tingi Volubilis
Volubilis
1

Algeria

Aquae Calidae Albulae Altava Auzia Calama Caesarea Cartennas Castellum Dimmidi Castellum Tingitanum Castra Nova Cirta Civitas Popthensis Collo Cohors Breucorum Cuicul
Cuicul
1 Diana Veteranorum Gemellae Gunugus Hippo Regius Icosium
Icosium
1 Igilgili Iomnium Lamasba Lambaesis Madauros Mascula Mesarfelta Milevum Numerus Syrorum Oppidum Novum Parthenia Pomaria Portus Divinus Portus Magnus Quiza Xenitana Rapidum Rusazu Rusguniae Rusucurru Saldae Setifis Siga Thagaste Thamugadi
Thamugadi
1 Theveste Thibilis Thubursicum Tiddis Tingartia Tipasa
Tipasa
1 Tubusuctu Tubunae Unica Colonia Uzinaza Vescera Zaraï Zuccabar

Tunisia

Althiburos Bulla Regia Capsa Carthago 1 Cillium Dougga
Dougga
1 Gightis Hadrumetum
Hadrumetum
1 Hippo Diarrhytus Kelibia Leptis Parva Mactaris Pheradi Majus Pupput Rucuma Ruspae Scillium Sicca Simitthus Sufetula Tacapae Taparura Sufes Thabraca Thanae Thapsus Thuburbo Majus Thuburnica Thysdrus Turris Tamalleni Utica Uthina Vaga Zama Regia

Libya

Cydamus
Cydamus
1 Gerisa Leptis Magna
Leptis Magna
1 Oea Sabratha
Sabratha
1

Spain

Septem Rusadir

Kingdoms and Provinces

Mauretania Mauretania
Mauretania
Tingitana Mauretania
Mauretania
Caesariensis Numidia Roman Africa Creta et Cyrenaica Roman Egypt Diocese of Africa Zeugitana Byzacena Vandal Kingdom Praetorian prefecture of Africa Exarchate of Africa

Related articles

North Africa during Antiquity African Romance Limes
Limes
Tripolitanus Christianity in Roman Africa

1 UNESCO World Heritag

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