The version history of the Android mobile operating system
began with the public release of the Android beta
on November 5, 2007. The first commercial version, Android 1.0, was released on September 23, 2008. Android is continually developed by Google
and the Open Handset Alliance
(OHA), and it has seen several updates
to its base operating system since the initial release.
The development of Android started in 2003 by Android, Inc., which was purchased by Google in 2005. There were at least two internal releases of the software inside Google and the OHA before the beta version was released. The beta
was released on November 5, 2007, while the software development kit
(SDK) was released on November 12, 2007. Several public beta versions of the SDK were released.
These releases were done through software emulation as physical devices did not exist to test the operating system.
The first public release of Android 1.0 occurred with the release of the T-Mobile G1 (aka HTC Dream) in October 2008. Android 1.0 and 1.1 were not released under specific code name
s. The code names "Astro Boy" and "Bender" were tagged internally on some of the early pre-1.0 milestone builds and were never used as the actual code names of the 1.0 and 1.1 releases of the OS.
The project manager, Ryan Gibson, conceived using a confectionery-themed naming scheme for public releases, starting with Android 1.5 Cupcake. Google announced in August 2019 they were ending the confectionery theming scheme to use numerical ordering for future versions. The first release under the numerical order format was Android 10
, which was released September 2019.
In 2017, Google announced that Google Play
would begin to require apps to target a recent Android version. Initially the minimum requirement was Android 8, released in the second half of 2017, for which support would be required for new apps by August 2018, and for updates to existing apps by November 2018. This pattern has continued in subsequent years.
The following tables show the release dates and key features of all Android operating system updates to date, listed chronologically by their official application programming interface
Android 1.5 Cupcake
Android 1.6 Donut
Android 2.0 Eclair
Android 2.0.1 Eclair
Android 2.1 Eclair
Android 2.2 Froyo
Android 2.3 Gingerbread
Android 2.3.3 Gingerbread
Android 3.0 Honeycomb
Android 3.1 Honeycomb
Android 3.2 Honeycomb
Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich
Android 4.0.3 Ice Cream Sandwich
Android 4.1 Jelly Bean
Android 4.2 Jelly Bean
Android 4.3 Jelly Bean
Android 4.4 KitKat
Android 4.4W KitKat, with wearable extensions
Android 5.0 Lollipop
Android 5.1 Lollipop
Android 6.0 Marshmallow
Android 7.0 Nougat
Android 7.1 Nougat
Android 8.0 Oreo
Android 8.1.0 Oreo
Android 9 Pie
The main hardware platform for Android is the ARM architecture
architectures; formerly also ARMv5), with x86
architectures also officially supported in later versions of Android, but MIPS support has since been deprecated and support was removed in NDK r17.
project used to provide support for the x86 and MIPS architectures ahead of the official support.
In 2012, Android devices with Intel
processors began to appear, including phones and tablets. While gaining support for 64-bit platforms, Android was first made to run on 64-bit x86 and then on ARM64
. Since Android 5.0 Lollipop, 64-bit variants of all platforms are supported in addition to the 32-bit variants.
Requirements for the minimum amount of RAM
for devices running Android 7.1 depend on screen size and density and type of CPU, ranging from 816MB–1.8GB for 64-bit and 512MB–1.3GB for 32-bit meaning in practice 1GB for the most common type of display (while minimum for Android watch is 416MB). The recommendation for Android 4.4 is to have at least 512 MB of RAM, while for "low RAM" devices 340 MB is the required minimum amount that does not include memory dedicated to various hardware components such as the baseband processor
Android 4.4 requires a 32-bit ARMv7
architecture processor (latter two through unofficial ports),
together with an OpenGL ES
2.0 compatible graphics processing unit
Android supports OpenGL ES 1.1, 2.0, 3.0, 3.2 and since Android 7.0 Vulkan
(and version 1.1 available for some devices). Some applications may explicitly require a certain version of the OpenGL ES, and suitable GPU hardware is required to run such applications.
In 2021 Android was ported to RISC-V
. In 2021 Qualcomm said it will support more updates.
Android used to require an autofocus
camera, which was relaxed to a fixed-focus
* iOS version history
* Windows Phone version history
* Wear OS
originally called Android Wear
* BlackBerry 10 version history
* Symbian version history
* Google Fuchsia
Android Open Source Project website
Category:Google operating systems
Category:Lists of operating systems
Category:Mobile operating systems
Category:Software version histories
Category:Tablet operating systems