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The version history of the Android mobile operating system began with the public release of the Android beta on November 5, 2007. The first commercial version, Android 1.0, was released on September 23, 2008. Android is continually developed by Google and the Open Handset Alliance (OHA), and it has seen several updates to its base operating system since the initial release.


Overview


The development of Android started in 2003 by Android, Inc., which was purchased by Google in 2005. There were at least two internal releases of the software inside Google and the OHA before the beta version was released. The beta was released on November 5, 2007, while the software development kit (SDK) was released on November 12, 2007. Several public beta versions of the SDK were released. These releases were done through software emulation as physical devices did not exist to test the operating system. The first public release of Android 1.0 occurred with the release of the T-Mobile G1 (aka HTC Dream) in October 2008. Android 1.0 and 1.1 were not released under specific code names. The code names "Astro Boy" and "Bender" were tagged internally on some of the early pre-1.0 milestone builds and were never used as the actual code names of the 1.0 and 1.1 releases of the OS. The project manager, Ryan Gibson, conceived using a confectionery-themed naming scheme for public releases, starting with Android 1.5 Cupcake. Google announced in August 2019 they were ending the confectionery theming scheme to use numerical ordering for future versions. The first release under the numerical order format was Android 10, which was released September 2019. In 2017, Google announced that Google Play would begin to require apps to target a recent Android version. Initially the minimum requirement was Android 8, released in the second half of 2017, for which support would be required for new apps by August 2018, and for updates to existing apps by November 2018. This pattern has continued in subsequent years.


Version history


The following tables show the release dates and key features of all Android operating system updates to date, listed chronologically by their official application programming interface (API) levels.


Android 1.0





Android 1.1





Android 1.5 Cupcake





Android 1.6 Donut





Android 2.0 Eclair





Android 2.0.1 Eclair





Android 2.1 Eclair





Android 2.2 Froyo





Android 2.3 Gingerbread





Android 2.3.3 Gingerbread





Android 3.0 Honeycomb





Android 3.1 Honeycomb





Android 3.2 Honeycomb





Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich





Android 4.0.3 Ice Cream Sandwich





Android 4.1 Jelly Bean





Android 4.2 Jelly Bean





Android 4.3 Jelly Bean





Android 4.4 KitKat





Android 4.4W KitKat, with wearable extensions





Android 5.0 Lollipop





Android 5.1 Lollipop





Android 6.0 Marshmallow





Android 7.0 Nougat





Android 7.1 Nougat





Android 8.0 Oreo





Android 8.1.0 Oreo





Android 9 Pie





Android 10





Android 11





Android 12





Hardware requirements


The main hardware platform for Android is the ARM architecture (ARMv7 and ARMv8-A architectures; formerly also ARMv5), with x86 and MIPS architectures also officially supported in later versions of Android, but MIPS support has since been deprecated and support was removed in NDK r17. Unofficial Android-x86 project used to provide support for the x86 and MIPS architectures ahead of the official support. In 2012, Android devices with Intel processors began to appear, including phones and tablets. While gaining support for 64-bit platforms, Android was first made to run on 64-bit x86 and then on ARM64. Since Android 5.0 Lollipop, 64-bit variants of all platforms are supported in addition to the 32-bit variants. Requirements for the minimum amount of RAM for devices running Android 7.1 depend on screen size and density and type of CPU, ranging from 816MB–1.8GB for 64-bit and 512MB–1.3GB for 32-bit meaning in practice 1GB for the most common type of display (while minimum for Android watch is 416MB). The recommendation for Android 4.4 is to have at least 512 MB of RAM, while for "low RAM" devices 340 MB is the required minimum amount that does not include memory dedicated to various hardware components such as the baseband processor. Android 4.4 requires a 32-bit ARMv7, MIPS or x86 architecture processor (latter two through unofficial ports), together with an OpenGL ES 2.0 compatible graphics processing unit (GPU). Android supports OpenGL ES 1.1, 2.0, 3.0, 3.2 and since Android 7.0 Vulkan (and version 1.1 available for some devices). Some applications may explicitly require a certain version of the OpenGL ES, and suitable GPU hardware is required to run such applications. In 2021 Android was ported to RISC-V. In 2021 Qualcomm said it will support more updates. Android used to require an autofocus camera, which was relaxed to a fixed-focus camera.


See also


* iOS version history * Windows Phone version history * * Wear OS originally called Android Wear * * * BlackBerry 10 version history * * * Symbian version history * Google Fuchsia


Explanatory notes





References





External links


*
Android Open Source Project website
{{Google Inc. Version history Category:Google operating systems Category:Lists of operating systems Category:Mobile operating systems Category:Software version histories Category:Smartphones Category:Tablet operating systems