Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845) was an American
soldier and statesman who served as the seventh president of the
United States from 1829 to 1837. Before being elected to the
presidency, Jackson gained fame as a general in the United States Army
and served in both houses of Congress. As president, Jackson sought to
advance the rights of the "common man" against a "corrupt
aristocracy" and to preserve the Union.
Born in the colonial Carolinas to a Scotch-Irish family in the decade
before the American Revolutionary War, Jackson became a frontier
lawyer and married Rachel Donelson Robards. He served briefly in the
U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate representing
Tennessee. After resigning, he served as a justice on the Tennessee
Supreme Court from 1798 until 1804. Jackson purchased a property later
known as the Hermitage, and became a wealthy, slaveowning planter. In
1801, he was appointed colonel of the
Tennessee militia and was
elected its commander the following year. He led troops during the
Creek War of 1813–1814, winning the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. The
Treaty of Fort Jackson
Treaty of Fort Jackson required the Creek surrender of vast
lands in present-day
Alabama and Georgia. In the concurrent war
ongoing against the British, Jackson's victory in 1815 at the Battle
New Orleans made him a national hero. Jackson then led U.S. forces
in the First
Seminole War, which caused the annexation of
Spain. Jackson briefly served as Florida's first territorial governor
before returning to the Senate. He ran for president in 1824, winning
a plurality of the popular and electoral vote. As no candidate won an
electoral majority, the House of Representatives elected John Quincy
Adams in a contingent election. In reaction to the alleged "corrupt
bargain" between Adams and
Henry Clay and the ambitious agenda of
President Adams, Jackson's supporters founded the Democratic Party.
Jackson ran again in 1828, defeating Adams in a landslide. Jackson
faced the threat of secession by
South Carolina over what opponents
called the "Tariff of Abominations." The crisis was defused when the
tariff was amended, and Jackson threatened the use of military force
South Carolina attempted to secede. In Congress,
Henry Clay led the
effort to reauthorize the Second Bank of the United States. Jackson,
regarding the Bank as a corrupt institution, vetoed the renewal of its
charter. After a lengthy struggle, Jackson and his allies thoroughly
dismantled the Bank. In 1835, Jackson became the only president to
completely pay off the national debt, fulfilling a longtime goal. His
presidency marked the beginning of the ascendancy of the party "spoils
system" in American politics. In 1830, Jackson signed the Indian
Removal Act, which forcibly relocated most members of the Native
American tribes in the South to Indian Territory. The relocation
process dispossessed the Indians and resulted in widespread death and
disease. Jackson opposed the abolitionist movement, which grew
stronger in his second term. In foreign affairs, Jackson's
administration concluded a "most favored nation" treaty with Great
Britain, settled claims of damages against France from the Napoleonic
Wars, and recognized the Republic of Texas. In January 1835, he
survived the first assassination attempt on a president.
In his retirement, Jackson remained active in Democratic Party
politics, supporting the presidencies of
Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren and James K.
Polk. Though fearful of its effects on the slavery debate, Jackson
advocated the annexation of Texas, which was accomplished shortly
before his death. Jackson was widely revered in the United States as
an advocate for democracy and the common man, but his reputation has
declined since the civil rights movement, largely due to his role in
Indian removal and support for slavery. Surveys of historians and
scholars have ranked Jackson favorably among United States presidents.
1 Early life and education
2 Revolutionary War service
3 Early career
3.1 Legal career and marriage
3.2 Land speculation and early public career
4 Planting career and controversy
5 Military career
5.1 War of 1812
5.1.1 Creek campaign and treaty
5.1.2 Battle of New Orleans
5.1.3 Enforced martial law in New Orleans
6 Presidential aspirations
6.1 Election of 1824
6.2 Election of 1828 and death of Rachel Jackson
7 Presidency 1829–1837
7.3 Petticoat affair
Indian removal policy
7.5 Reforms, rotation of offices, and spoils system
7.6 Nullification crisis
7.7 Foreign affairs
7.8 Bank veto and election of 1832
7.9 Removal of deposits and censure
7.10 Attack and assassination attempt
7.11 Anti-slavery tracts
7.12 U.S. Exploring Expedition
7.13 Panic of 1837
7.14 Administration and cabinet
7.15 Judicial appointments
7.16 States admitted to the Union
8 Later life and death
9 Personal life
9.3 Physical appearance
9.4 Religious faith
10.1 Historical reputation
10.2 Portrayal on banknotes and stamps
10.4 Popular culture depictions
11 See also
13.2 Specialized studies
13.4 Primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Early life and education
Andrew Jackson was born on March 15, 1767, in the
Waxhaws region of
the Carolinas. His parents were Scots-Irish colonists Andrew and
Elizabeth Hutchinson Jackson, Presbyterians who had emigrated from
Northern Ireland two years earlier. Jackson's father
was born in Carrickfergus, County Antrim, in current-day Northern
Ireland, around 1738. Jackson's parents lived in the village of
Boneybefore, also in County Antrim. His paternal family line
originated in Killingswold Grove, Yorkshire, England.
When they immigrated to North America in 1765, Jackson's parents
probably landed in Philadelphia. Most likely they traveled overland
Appalachian Mountains to the Scots-Irish community in the
Waxhaws, straddling the border between North and South Carolina.
They brought two children from Ireland, Hugh (born 1763) and Robert
(born 1764). Jackson's father died in a logging accident while
clearing land in February 1767 at the age of 29, three weeks before
his son Andrew was born. Jackson, his mother, and his brothers lived
with Jackson's aunt and uncle in the
Waxhaws region, and Jackson
received schooling from two nearby priests.
Jackson's exact birthplace is unclear because of a lack of knowledge
of his mother's actions immediately following her husband's
funeral. The area was so remote that the border between North and
South Carolina had not been officially surveyed. In 1824 Jackson
wrote a letter saying that he was born on the plantation of his uncle
James Crawford in Lancaster County, South Carolina. Jackson may
have claimed to be a South Carolinian because the state was
considering nullification of the Tariff of 1824, which he opposed. In
the mid-1850s, second-hand evidence indicated that he might have been
born at a different uncle's home in North Carolina.
Revolutionary War service
Young Jackson Refusing to Clean Major Coffin's Boots (1876 lithograph)
During the Revolutionary War, Jackson's eldest brother, Hugh, died
from heat exhaustion after the
Battle of Stono Ferry
Battle of Stono Ferry on June 20,
1779. Anti-British sentiment intensified following the brutal
Waxhaws Massacre on May 29, 1780. Jackson's mother encouraged him and
his elder brother Robert to attend the local militia drills. Soon,
they began to help the militia as couriers. They served under
William Richardson Davie
William Richardson Davie at the
Battle of Hanging Rock
Battle of Hanging Rock on
August 6. Andrew and Robert were captured by the British in
1781 while staying at the home of the Crawford family. When Andrew
refused to clean the boots of a British officer, the officer slashed
at the youth with a sword, leaving him with scars on his left hand and
head, as well as an intense hatred for the British. Robert also
refused to do as commanded and was struck with the sword. The two
brothers were held as prisoners, contracted smallpox, and nearly
starved to death in captivity.
Later that year, their mother Elizabeth secured the brothers' release.
She then began to walk both boys back to their home in the Waxhaws, a
distance of some 40 miles (64 km). Both were in very poor health.
Robert, who was far worse, rode on the only horse that they had, while
Andrew walked behind them. In the final two hours of the journey, a
torrential downpour began which worsened the effects of the smallpox.
Within two days of arriving back home, Robert was dead and Andrew in
mortal danger. After nursing Andrew back to health, Elizabeth
volunteered to nurse American prisoners of war on board two British
ships in the Charleston harbor, where there had been an outbreak of
cholera. In November, she died from the disease and was buried in an
unmarked grave. Andrew became an orphan at age 14. He blamed the
British personally for the loss of his brothers and mother.
Legal career and marriage
After the Revolutionary War, Jackson received a sporadic education in
a local Waxhaw school. On bad terms with much of his extended
family, he boarded with several different people. In 1781, he
worked for a time as a saddle-maker, and eventually taught school. He
apparently prospered in neither profession. In 1784, he left the
Waxhaws region for Salisbury, North Carolina, where he studied law
under attorney Spruce Macay. With the help of various lawyers, he
was able to learn enough to qualify for the bar. In September 1787,
Jackson was admitted to the
North Carolina bar. Shortly
thereafter, a friend helped Jackson get appointed to a vacant
prosecutor position in the Western District of North Carolina, which
would later become the state of Tennessee. During his travel west,
Jackson bought his first slave and in 1788, having been offended by
fellow lawyer Waightstill Avery, fought his first duel. The duel ended
with both men firing into the air, having made a secret agreement to
do so before the engagement.
Jackson moved to the small frontier town of Nashville in 1788, where
he lived as a boarder with Rachel Stockly Donelson, the widow of John
Donelson. Here Jackson became acquainted with their daughter, Rachel
Donelson Robards. At the time, the younger Rachel was in an unhappy
marriage with Captain Lewis Robards; he was subject to fits of jealous
rage. The two were separated in 1790. According to Jackson, he
married Rachel after hearing that Robards had obtained a divorce. Her
divorce had not been made final, making Rachel's marriage to Jackson
bigamous and therefore invalid. After the divorce was officially
completed, Rachel and Jackson remarried in 1794. To complicate
matters further, evidence shows that Rachel had been living with
Jackson and referred to herself as Mrs. Jackson before the petition
for divorce was ever made. It was not uncommon on the frontier for
relationships to be formed and dissolved unofficially, as long as they
were recognized by the community.
Land speculation and early public career
In 1794, Jackson formed a partnership with fellow lawyer John Overton,
dealing in claims for land reserved by treaty for the
Chickasaw. Like many of their contemporaries, they dealt in such
claims although the land was in Indian country. Most of the
transactions involved grants made under the 'land grab' act of 1783
that briefly opened Indian lands west of the Appalachians within North
Carolina to claim by that state's residents. He was one of the three
original investors who founded Memphis, Tennessee, in 1819.
After moving to Nashville, Jackson became a protege of William Blount,
a friend of the Donelsons and one of the most powerful men in the
territory. Jackson became attorney general in 1791, and he won
election as a delegate to the
Tennessee constitutional convention in
Tennessee achieved statehood that year, he was elected
its only U.S. Representative. He was a member of the
Democratic-Republican Party, the dominant party in Tennessee.
Jackson soon became associated with the more radical, pro-French and
anti-British wing. He strongly opposed the
Jay Treaty and criticized
George Washington for allegedly removing Republicans from public
office. Jackson joined several other Republican congressmen in voting
against a resolution of thanks for Washington, a vote that would later
haunt him when he sought the presidency. In 1797, the state
legislature elected him as U.S. Senator. Jackson seldom participated
in debate and found the job dissatisfying. He pronounced himself
"disgusted with the administration" of President
John Adams and
resigned the following year without explanation. Upon returning
home, with strong support from western Tennessee, he was elected to
serve as a judge of the
Tennessee Supreme Court at an annual
salary of $600. Jackson's service as a judge is generally viewed
as a success and earned him a reputation for honesty and good decision
making. Jackson resigned the judgeship in 1804. His official
reason for resigning was ill health. He had been suffering financially
from poor land ventures, and so it is also possible that he wanted to
return full-time to his business interests.
After arriving in Tennessee, Jackson won the appointment of judge
advocate of the
Tennessee militia. In 1802, while serving on the
Tennessee Supreme Court, he declared his candidacy for major general,
or commander, of the
Tennessee militia, a position voted on by the
officers. At that time, most free men were members of the militia. The
organizations, intended to be called up in case of conflict with
Europeans or Indians, resembled large social clubs. Jackson saw it as
a way to advance his stature. With strong support from western
Tennessee, he tied with
John Sevier with seventeen votes. Sevier was a
popular Revolutionary War veteran and former governor, the recognized
leader of politics in eastern Tennessee. On February 5, Governor
Archibald Roane broke the tie in Jackson's favor. Jackson had also
presented Roane with evidence of land fraud against Sevier.
Subsequently, in 1803, when Sevier announced his intention to regain
the governorship, Roane released the evidence. Sevier insulted Jackson
in public, and the two nearly fought a duel over the matter. Despite
the charges leveled against Sevier, he defeated Roane, and continued
to serve as governor until 1809.
Planting career and controversy
Notice of reward offered by Jackson for return of an enslaved man
In addition to his legal and political career, Jackson prospered as
planter, slave owner, and merchant. He built a home and the first
general store in Gallatin, Tennessee, in 1803. The next year, he
acquired the Hermitage, a 640-acre (259 ha) plantation in
Davidson County, near Nashville. He later added 360 acres
(146 ha) to the plantation, which eventually totaled 1,050 acres
(425 ha). The primary crop was cotton, grown by slaves—Jackson
began with nine, owned as many as 44 by 1820, and later up to 150,
placing him among the planter elite. Jackson also co-owned with his
Andrew Jackson Jr. the Halcyon plantation in Coahoma County,
Mississippi, which housed 51 slaves at the time of his death.
Throughout his lifetime Jackson may have owned as many as 300
Men, women, and child slaves were owned by Jackson on three sections
of the Hermitage plantation. Slaves lived in extended family units of
between five and ten persons and were quartered in 20 square feet
(1.9 m2) cabins made either of brick or logs. The size and
quality of the Hermitage slave quarters exceeded the standards of his
times. To help slaves acquire food, Jackson supplied them with guns,
knives, and fishing equipment. At times he paid his slaves with monies
and coins to trade in local markets. The Hermitage plantation was a
profit-making enterprise. Jackson permitted slaves to be whipped to
increase productivity or if he believed his slaves' offenses were
severe enough. At various times he posted advertisements for
fugitive slaves who had escaped from his plantation. In one
advertisement placed in the
Tennessee Gazette in October 1804, Jackson
offered “ten dollars extra, for every hundred lashes any person will
give him, to the amount of three hundred.”
The controversy surrounding his marriage to Rachel remained a sore
point for Jackson, who deeply resented attacks on his wife's honor. By
May 1806, Charles Dickinson, who, like Jackson, raced horses, had
published an attack on Jackson in the local newspaper, and it resulted
in a written challenge from Jackson to a duel. Since Dickinson was
considered an expert shot, Jackson determined it would be best to let
Dickinson turn and fire first, hoping that his aim might be spoiled in
his quickness; Jackson would wait and take careful aim at Dickinson.
Dickinson did fire first, hitting Jackson in the chest. The bullet
that struck Jackson was so close to his heart that it could not be
removed. Under the rules of dueling, Dickinson had to remain still as
Jackson took aim and shot and killed him. Jackson's behavior in the
duel outraged men in Tennessee, who called it a brutal, cold-blooded
killing and saddled Jackson with a reputation as a violent, vengeful
man. He became a social outcast.
After the Sevier affair and the duel, Jackson was looking for a way to
salvage his reputation. He chose to align himself with former Vice
President Aaron Burr, who after leaving office in 1805 went on a tour
of the western United States. Burr was extremely well received by
the people of Tennessee, and stayed for five days at the
Hermitage. Burr's true intentions are not known with certainty. He
seems to have been planning a military operation to conquer Spanish
Florida and drive the Spanish from Texas. To many westerners like
Jackson, the promise seemed enticing. Western American settlers
had long held bitter feelings towards the Spanish due to territorial
disputes and the persistent failure of the Spanish to keep Indians
living on their lands from raiding American settlements. On
October 4, 1806, Jackson addressed the
Tennessee militia, declaring
that the men should be "at a moment's warning ready to march." On
the same day, he wrote to James Winchester, proclaiming that the
United States "can conquer not only the Floridas [At that time there
was an East
Florida and a West Florida.], but all Spanish North
America." He continued:
I have a hope (Should their be a call) that at least, two thousand
Volunteers can be lead into the field at a short notice—That number
commanded by firm officers and men of enterprise—I think could look
into Santafee and Maxico—give freedom and commerce to those
provinces and establish peace, and a permanent barier against the
inroads and attacks of forreign powers on our interior—which will be
the case so long as
Spain holds that large country on our borders.
Jackson agreed to provide boats and other provisions for the
expedition. However, on November 10, he learned from a military
captain that Burr's plans apparently included seizure of New Orleans,
then part of the
Louisiana Territory of the United States, and
incorporating it, along with lands won from the Spanish, into a new
empire. He was further outraged when he learned from the same man of
the involvement of Brigadier General James Wilkinson, whom he deeply
disliked, in the plan. Jackson acted cautiously at first, but
wrote letters to public officials, including President Thomas
Jefferson, vaguely warning them about the scheme. In December,
Jefferson, a political opponent of Burr, issued a proclamation
declaring that a treasonous plot was underway in the West and calling
for the arrest of the perpetrators. Jackson, safe from arrest because
of his extensive paper trail, organized the militia. Burr was soon
captured, and the men were sent home. Jackson traveled to
Richmond, Virginia, to testify on Burr's behalf in trial. The defense
team decided against placing him on the witness stand, fearing his
remarks were too provocative. Burr was acquitted of treason, despite
Jefferson's efforts to have him convicted. Jackson endorsed James
Monroe for president in 1808 against James Madison. The latter was
part of the Jeffersonian wing of the Democratic-Republican Party.
War of 1812
Creek campaign and treaty
Main article: Creek War
Portrait by Ralph E. W. Earl, c. 1837
Leading up to 1812, the United States found itself increasingly drawn
into international conflict. Formal hostilities with
Spain or France
never materialized, but tensions with Britain increased for a number
of reasons. Among these was the desire of many Americans for more
land, particularly British Canada and Florida, the latter still
controlled by Spain, Britain's European ally. On June 18, 1812,
Congress officially declared war on the United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Ireland, beginning the War of 1812. Jackson responded
enthusiastically, sending a letter to Washington offering 2,500
volunteers. However, the men were not called up for many months.
Robert V. Remini
Robert V. Remini claims that Jackson saw the apparent
slight as payback by the Madison administration for his support of
Burr and Monroe. Meanwhile, the United States military repeatedly
suffered devastating defeats on the battlefield.
On January 10, 1813, Jackson led an army of 2,071 volunteers to
New Orleans to defend the region against British and Native American
attacks. He had been instructed to serve under General
Wilkinson, who commanded Federal forces in New Orleans. Lacking
adequate provisions, Wilkinson ordered Jackson to halt in Natchez,
then part of the Mississippi Territory, and await further orders.
Jackson reluctantly obeyed. The newly appointed Secretary of War,
John Armstrong Jr., sent a letter to Jackson dated February 6 ordering
him to dismiss his forces and to turn over his supplies to
Wilkinson. In reply to Armstrong on March 15, Jackson defended the
character and readiness of his men, and promised to turn over his
supplies. He also promised, instead of dismissing the troops without
provisions in Natchez, to march them back to Nashville. The march
was filled with agony. Many of the men had fallen ill. Jackson and his
officers turned over their horses to the sick. He paid for
provisions for the men out of his own pocket. The soldiers began
referring to their commander as "Hickory" because of his toughness,
and Jackson became known as "Old Hickory." The army arrived in
Nashville within about a month. Jackson's actions earned him the
widespread respect and praise of the people of Tennessee. Jackson
faced financial ruin, until his former aide-de-camp Thomas Benton
persuaded Secretary Armstrong to order the army to pay the expenses
Jackson had incurred. On June 14, Jackson served as a second in a
duel on behalf of his junior officer William Carroll against Jesse
Benton, the brother of Thomas. In September, Jackson and his top
cavalry officer, Brigadier General John Coffee, were involved in a
street brawl with the Benton brothers. Jackson was severely wounded by
Jesse with a gunshot to the shoulder.
On August 30, 1813, a group of
Muscogee (also known as Creek Indians)
called the Red Sticks, so named for the color of their war paint,
perpetrated the Fort Mims massacre. During the massacre, hundreds of
white American settlers and non-Red Stick Creeks were slaughtered. The
Red Sticks, led by chiefs Red Eagle and Peter McQueen, had broken away
from the rest of the Creek Confederacy, which wanted peace with the
United States. They were allied with Tecumseh, a
Shawnee chief who had
Tecumseh's War against the United States, and who was
fighting alongside the British. The resulting conflict became known as
the Creek War.
In the Treaty of Fort Jackson, the
Muscogee surrendered large parts of
Alabama and Georgia.
Jackson, with 2,500 men, was ordered to crush the hostile Indians. On
October 10, he set out on the expedition, his arm still in a sling
from fighting the Bentons. Jackson established
Fort Strother as a
supply base. On November 3, Coffee defeated a band of
Red Sticks at
the Battle of Tallushatchee. Coming to the relief of friendly
Creeks besieged by Red Sticks, Jackson won another decisive victory at
the Battle of Talladega. In the winter, Jackson, encamped at Fort
Strother, faced a severe shortage of troops due to the expiration of
enlistments and chronic desertions. He sent Coffee with the cavalry
(which abandoned him) back to
Tennessee to secure more enlistments.
Jackson decided to combine his force with that of the Georgia militia,
and marched to meet the Georgia troops. From January 22–24, 1814,
while on their way, the
Tennessee militia and allied
attacked by the
Red Sticks at the Battles of Emuckfaw and Enotachopo
Creek. Jackson's troops repelled the attackers, but outnumbered, were
forced to withdraw to Fort Strother. Jackson, now with over 2,000
troops, marched most of his army south to confront the
Red Sticks at a
fortress they had constructed at a bend in the Tallapoosa River. On
March 27, enjoying an advantage of more than 2 to 1, he engaged them
at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. An initial artillery barrage did
little damage to the well-constructed fort. A subsequent Infantry
charge, in addition to an assault by Coffee's cavalry and diversions
caused by the friendly Creeks, overwhelmed the Red Sticks.
The campaign ended three weeks later with Red Eagle's surrender,
Red Sticks such as McQueen fled to East Florida. On
June 8, Jackson accepted a commission as brigadier general in the
United States Army, and 10 days later became a major general, in
command of the Seventh Military Division. Subsequently, Jackson,
with Madison's approval, imposed the Treaty of Fort Jackson. The
treaty required the Muscogee, including those who had not joined the
Red Sticks, to surrender 23 million acres (8,093,713 ha) of land to
the United States. Most of the Creeks bitterly acquiesced.
Though in ill-health from dysentery, Jackson turned his attention to
defeating Spanish and British forces. Jackson accused the Spanish of
Red Sticks and of violating the terms of their neutrality
by allowing British soldiers into the Floridas. The first charge
was true, while the second ignored the fact that it was Jackson's
threats to invade
Florida which had caused them to seek British
protection. In the November 7 Battle of Pensacola, Jackson
defeated British and Spanish forces in a short skirmish. The Spanish
surrendered and the British fled. Weeks later, he learned that the
British were planning an attack on New Orleans, which sat on the mouth
Mississippi River and held immense strategic and commercial
value. Jackson abandoned Pensacola to the Spanish, placed a force in
Alabama to guard against a possible invasion there, and rushed
the rest of his force west to defend the city.
The Creeks coined their own name for Jackson, Jacksa Chula Harjo or
"Jackson, old and fierce."
Battle of New Orleans
Main article: Battle of New Orleans
The Battle of New Orleans. General
Andrew Jackson stands on the
parapet of his defenses as his troops repulse attacking Highlanders,
Edward Percy Moran
Edward Percy Moran in 1910.
After arriving in
New Orleans on December 1, 1814, Jackson
instituted martial law in the city, as he worried about the loyalty of
the city's Creole and Spanish inhabitants. At the same time, he formed
an alliance with Jean Lafitte's smugglers, and formed military units
consisting of African-Americans and Muscogees, in addition to
recruiting volunteers in the city. Jackson received some criticism for
paying white and non-white volunteers the same salary. These
forces, along with U.S. Army regulars and volunteers from surrounding
states, joined with Jackson's force in defending New Orleans. The
approaching British force, led by Admiral
Alexander Cochrane and later
General Edward Pakenham, consisted of over 10,000 soldiers, many of
whom had served in the Napoleonic Wars. Jackson only had about
5,000 men, most of whom were inexperienced and poorly trained.
Jackson at the Battle of New Orleans, painted by
Thomas Sully in 1845
from an earlier portrait he had completed from life in 1824
The British arrived on the east bank of the
Mississippi River on the
morning of December 23. That evening, Jackson attacked the British and
temporarily drove them back. On January 8, 1815, the British
launched a major frontal assault against Jackson's defenses. An
initial artillery barrage by the British did little damage to the
well-constructed American defenses. Once the morning fog had cleared,
the British launched a frontal assault, and their troops made easy
targets for the Americans protected by their parapets. Despite
managing to temporarily drive back the American right flank, the
overall attack ended in disaster. For the battle on January 8,
Jackson admitted to only 71 total casualties. Of these, 13 men were
killed, 39 wounded, and 19 missing or captured. The British admitted
2,037 casualties. Of these, 291 men were killed (including Pakenham),
1,262 wounded, and 484 missing or captured. After the battle, the
British retreated from the area, and open hostilities ended shortly
thereafter when word spread that the
Treaty of Ghent
Treaty of Ghent had been signed
in Europe that December. Coming in the waning days of the war,
Jackson's victory made him a national hero, as the country celebrated
the end of what many called the "Second American Revolution" against
the British. By a Congressional resolution on February 27, 1815,
Jackson was given the
Thanks of Congress and awarded a Congressional
Alexis de Tocqueville
Alexis de Tocqueville ("underwhelmed" by Jackson according to a 2001
commentator) later wrote in
Democracy in America
Democracy in America that Jackson "was
raised to the Presidency, and has been maintained there, solely by the
recollection of a victory which he gained, twenty years ago, under the
walls of New Orleans."
Enforced martial law in New Orleans
Jackson, still not knowing for certain of the treaty's signing,
refused to lift martial law in the city. In March 1815, after U.S.
District Court Judge Dominic A. Hall signed a writ of habeas corpus on
behalf of a Louisiana legislator whom Jackson had detained, Jackson
ordered Hall's arrest. State senator Louis Louaillier had written
an anonymous piece in the
New Orleans newspaper, challenging Jackson's
refusal to release the militia after the British ceded the field of
battle. Jackson did not relent his campaign of suppressing
dissent until after ordering the arrest of a Louisiana legislator, a
federal judge, and a lawyer, and after the intervention of State Judge
Joshua Lewis. Lewis was simultaneously serving under Jackson in the
militia, and also had signed a writ of habeas corpus against Jackson,
his commanding officer, seeking Judge Hall's release.
Civilian authorities in
New Orleans had reason to fear Jackson—he
summarily ordered the execution of six members of the militia who had
attempted to leave. Their deaths were not well publicized until the
Coffin Handbills were circulated during his 1828 presidential
Main article: First
Following the war, Jackson remained in command of Army forces on the
southern border of the U.S. He conducted official business from the
Hermitage. He signed treaties with the
Cherokee and Chickasaw
which gained for the United States large parts of
Kentucky. The treaty with the Chickasaw, finally agreed to later
in the year, is commonly known as the Jackson Purchase.
Trial of Robert Ambrister during the
Seminole War. Ambrister was one
of two British subjects executed by General Jackson. (1848)
Several Native American tribes, which became known as the Seminole,
straddled the border between the U.S. and Florida. The Seminole, in
alliance with escaped slaves, frequently raided Georgia settlements
before retreating back into Florida. These skirmishes continually
escalated, and the conflict is now known as the First Seminole
War. In 1816, Jackson led a detachment into
destroyed the Negro Fort, a community of escaped slaves and their
descendants. Jackson was ordered by President Monroe in December
1817 to lead a campaign in Georgia against the
Seminole and Creek
Indians. Jackson was also charged with preventing Spanish
becoming a refuge for runaway slaves, after
Spain promised freedom to
fugitive slaves. Critics later alleged that Jackson exceeded orders in
Florida actions. His orders from President Monroe were to
"terminate the conflict." Jackson believed the best way to do
this was to seize
Spain once and for all. Before
departing, Jackson wrote to Monroe, "Let it be signified to me through
any channel ... that the possession of the Floridas would be
desirable to the United States, and in sixty days it will be
Teracotta bust of General Jackson by William Rush, 1819
Florida on March 15, 1818, capturing Pensacola. He
Seminole and Spanish resistance in the region and captured two
British agents, Robert Ambrister and Alexander Arbuthnot, who had been
working with the Seminole. After a brief trial, Jackson executed both
of the men, causing a diplomatic incident with the British. Jackson's
actions polarized Monroe's cabinet, some of whom argued that Jackson
had gone against Monroe's orders and violated the Constitution, since
the United States had not declared war upon Spain. Yet Jackson was
defended by Secretary of State John Quincy Adams. Adams thought that
Jackson's conquest of
Florida would force
Spain to finally sell the
Spain did indeed sell
Florida to the United States in
Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819. A congressional investigation
exonerated Jackson, but Jackson was deeply angered by the criticism he
received, particularly from Speaker of the House Henry Clay. After the
ratification of the
Adams–Onís Treaty in 1821, Jackson briefly
served as the territorial Governor of
Florida before returning to
Election of 1824
Main article: United States presidential election, 1824
In the spring of 1822, Jackson suffered a physical breakdown. His body
had two bullets lodged in it, and he had grown exhausted from years of
hard military campaigning. He regularly coughed up blood, and his
entire body shook. Jackson feared that he was on the brink of death.
After several months of rest, he recovered. During his
convalescence, Jackson's thoughts increasingly turned to national
affairs. He obsessed over rampant corruption in the Monroe
administration and grew to detest the Second Bank of the United
States, blaming it for causing the
Panic of 1819 by contracting
Jackson in 1824, painted by Thomas Sully
Jackson turned down an offer to run for governor of his home state,
but accepted John Overton's plan to have the legislature nominate him
for president. On July 22, 1822, he was officially nominated by
Tennessee legislature. Jackson had come to dislike Secretary
of the Treasury William H. Crawford, who had been the most vocal
critic of Jackson in Monroe's cabinet, and he hoped to prevent
Tennessee's electoral votes from going to Crawford. Yet Jackson's
nomination garnered a welcoming response even outside of Tennessee, as
many Americans appreciated Jackson's attacks on banks. The Panic of
1819 had devastated the fortunes of many, and banks and politicians
seen as supportive of banks were particularly unpopular. With his
growing political viability, Jackson emerged as one of the five major
presidential candidates, along with Crawford, Adams, Clay, and
Secretary of War John C. Calhoun. During the Era of Good Feelings, the
Federalist Party had faded away, and all five presidential contenders
were members of the Democratic-Republican Party. Jackson's campaign
promoted him as a defender of the common people, as well as the one
candidate who could rise above sectional divisions. On the major
issues of the day, most prominently the tariff, Jackson expressed
centrist beliefs, and opponents accused him of obfuscating his
positions. At the forefront of Jackson's campaign was combatting
corruption. Jackson vowed to restore honesty in government and to
scale back its excesses.
In 1823, Jackson reluctantly allowed his name to be placed in
contention for one of Tennessee's U.S. Senate seats. The move was
independently orchestrated by his advisors
William Berkeley Lewis and
U.S. Senator John Eaton in order to defeat incumbent John Williams,
who openly opposed his presidential candidacy. The legislature
narrowly elected him. His return, after 24 years, 11 months,
3 days out of office, marks the second longest gap in service to the
chamber in history. Although Jackson was reluctant to serve once
more in the Senate, Eaton wrote to Rachel that Jackson as a senator
was "in harmony and good understanding with every body," including
Thomas Hart Benton, now a senator from Missouri, with whom Jackson had
fought in 1813. Meanwhile, Jackson himself did little active
campaigning for the presidency, as was customary. Eaton updated an
already-written biography of him in preparation for the campaign and,
along with others, wrote letters to newspapers praising Jackson's
record and past conduct.
Democratic-Republican presidential nominees had historically been
chosen by informal Congressional nominating caucuses, but this method
had become unpopular. In 1824, most of the Democratic-Republicans in
Congress boycotted the caucus. Those who attended backed Crawford for
Albert Gallatin for vice president. A Pennsylvania
convention nominated Jackson for president a month later, stating that
the irregular caucus ignored the "voice of the people" and was a "vain
hope that the American people might be thus deceived into a belief
that he [Crawford] was the regular democratic candidate."
Gallatin criticized Jackson as "an honest man and the idol of the
worshipers of military glory, but from incapacity, military habits,
and habitual disregard of laws and constitutional provisions,
altogether unfit for the office." After Jackson won the
Pennsylvania nomination, Calhoun dropped out of the presidential race
and successfully sought the vice presidency instead.
In the presidential election, Jackson won a plurality of the electoral
vote, taking several southern and western states as well as the
mid-Atlantic states of Pennsylvania and New Jersey. He was the only
candidate to win states outside of his regional base, as Adams
dominated New England, Clay took three western states, and Crawford
won Virginia and Georgia. Jackson won a plurality of the popular vote,
taking 42 percent, although not all states held a popular vote for the
presidency. He won 99 electoral votes, more than any other candidates,
but still short of 131, which he needed for a true majority. With no
candidate having won a majority of the electoral, the House of
Representatives held a contingent election under the terms of the
Twelfth Amendment. The amendment specifies that only the top three
electoral vote-winners are eligible to be elected by the House, so
Clay was eliminated from contention. Jackson believed that he was
likely to win this contingent election, as Crawford and Adams lacked
Jackson's national appeal, and Crawford had suffered a debilitating
stroke that made many doubt his physical fitness for the presidency.
Clay, who as Speaker of the House presided over the election, saw
Jackson as a dangerous demagogue who might topple the republic in
favor of his own leadership. He threw his support behind Adams, who
shared Clay's support for federally-funded internal improvements such
as roads and canals. With Clay's backing, Adams won the contingent
election on the first ballot. Furious supporters of Jackson accused
Clay and Adams of having reached a "corrupt bargain" after Adams
appointed Clay as his Secretary of State. "So you see," Jackson
growled, "the Judas of the West has closed the contract and receive
the thirty pieces of silver. [H]is end will be the same." After
the election, Jackson resigned his Senate seat and returned to
Election of 1828 and death of Rachel Jackson
United States presidential election, 1828
United States presidential election, 1828 and Andrew
Jackson presidential campaign, 1828
1828 election results
Almost immediately, opposition arose to the Adams presidency.
Jackson opposed Adams's plan to involve the U.S. in Panama's quest for
independence, writing, "The moment we engage in confederations, or
alliances with any nation, we may from that time date the down fall of
our republic." Adams also damaged his standing in his first annual
message to Congress, when he argued that Congress must not give the
world the impression "that we are palsied by the will of our
Jackson was nominated for president by the
Tennessee legislature in
October 1825, more than three years before the 1828 election. It was
the earliest such nomination in presidential history, and it attested
to the fact that Jackson's supporters began the 1828 campaign almost
as soon as the 1824 campaign ended. Adams's presidency floundered, as
his ambitious agenda faced defeat in a new era of mass politics.
Critics led by Jackson attacked Adams's policies as a dangerous
expansion of Federal power. Senator Martin Van Buren, who had been a
prominent supporter of Crawford in the 1824 election, emerged as one
of the strongest opponents of Adams's policies, and he settled on
Jackson as his preferred candidate in the 1828 election. Van Buren was
joined by Vice President Calhoun, who also opposed much of Adams's
agenda on states' rights grounds. Van Buren and other Jackson allies
established numerous pro-Jackson newspapers and clubs around the
country, while Jackson avoided campaigning but made himself available
to visitors at his Hermitage plantation. In the election, Jackson won
a commanding 56 percent of the popular vote and 68 percent of the
electoral vote. The election marked the definitive end of the
one-party Era of Good Feelings, as Jackson's supporters coalesced into
the Democratic Party and Adams's followers became known as the
National Republicans. In the large Scots-Irish community that was
especially numerous in the rural South and Southwest, Jackson was a
The campaign was very much a personal one. As was the custom at the
time, neither candidate personally campaigned, but their political
followers organized many campaign events. Both candidates were
rhetorically attacked in the press. Jackson was strongly attacked as a
slave trader, who bought and sold slaves and moved them about in
defiance of higher standards of slaveholder behavior. A series of
pamphlets known as the
Coffin Handbills were published to attack
Jackson, one of which revealed his order to execute soldiers at New
Orleans. Another accused him of engaging in cannibalism by
eating the bodies of American Indians killed in battle, while
still another labeled his mother a "common prostitute" and stated that
Jackson's father was a "mulatto man."
Rachel Jackson was also a frequent target of attacks, and was widely
accused of bigamy, a reference to the controversial situation of her
marriage with Jackson. Jackson's campaigners fired back by
claiming that while serving as Minister to Russia, Adams had procured
a young girl to serve as a prostitute for Emperor Alexander I. They
also stated that Adams had a billiard table in the
White House and
that he had charged the government for it.
Rachel had been under extreme stress during the election, and often
struggled while Jackson was away. She began experiencing significant
physical stress during the election season. Jackson described her
symptoms as "excruciating pain in the left shoulder, arm, and breast."
After struggling for three days, Rachel finally died of a heart attack
on December 22, 1828 three weeks after her husband's victory in the
election (which began on October 31 and ended on December 2) and 10
weeks before Jackson took office as president. A distraught Jackson
had to be pulled from her so the undertaker could prepare the
body. He felt that the accusations from Adams's supporters had
hastened her death and never forgave him. Rachel was buried at the
Hermitage on Christmas Eve. "May God Almighty forgive her murderers,"
Jackson swore at her funeral. "I never can."
Main article: Presidency of Andrew Jackson
President Andrew Jackson
New York: Ritchie & Co. (1860)
Main article: Jacksonian democracy
Jackson's name has been associated with
Jacksonian democracy or the
shift and expansion of democracy with the passing of some political
power from established elites to ordinary voters based in political
parties. "The Age of Jackson" shaped the national agenda and American
politics. Jackson's philosophy as president was similar to that
of Jefferson, advocating Republican values held by the Revolutionary
War generation. Jackson took a moral tone, with the belief that
agrarian sympathies, and a limited view of states rights and the
federal government, would produce less corruption. He feared that
monied and business interests would corrupt republican values. When
South Carolina opposed the tariff law, he took a strong line in favor
of nationalism and against secession.
Jackson believed in the ability of the people to "arrive at right
conclusions." They had the right not only to elect but to
"instruct their agents & representatives." Office holders
should either obey the popular will or resign. He rejected the
view of a powerful and independent Supreme Court with binding
decisions, arguing that "the Congress, the Executive, and the Court
must each or itself be guided by its own opinions of the
Constitution." Jackson thought that Supreme Court justices should
be made to stand for election, and believed in strict constructionism
as the best way to insure democratic rule. He called for term
limits on presidents and the abolition of the Electoral College.
Jackson "was far ahead of his times–and maybe even further than this
country can ever achieve."
Main article: First inauguration of Andrew Jackson
Jackson departed from the Hermitage on January 19 and arrived in
Washington on February 11. He then set about choosing his cabinet
members. Jackson chose Van Buren as expected for Secretary of
State, Eaton of
Tennessee as Secretary of War,
Samuel D. Ingham
Samuel D. Ingham of
Pennsylvania as Secretary of Treasury,
John Branch of North Carolina
as Secretary of Navy,
John M. Berrien
John M. Berrien of Georgia as Attorney General,
William T. Barry
William T. Barry of
Kentucky as Postmaster General. Jackson's
first choice of cabinet proved to be unsuccessful, full of bitter
partisanship and gossip. Jackson blamed Adams in part for what
was said about Rachel during the campaign, and refused to meet him
after arriving in Washington. Therefore, Adams chose not to attend the
On March 4, 1829,
Andrew Jackson became the first United States
president-elect to take the oath of office on the East Portico of the
U.S. Capitol. In his inaugural speech, Jackson promised to
respect the sovereign powers of states and the constitutional limits
of the presidency. He also promised to pursue "reform" by removing
power from "unfaithful or incompetent hands." At the conclusion of the
ceremony, Jackson invited the public to the White House, where his
supporters held a raucous party. Thousands of spectators overwhelmed
White House staff, and minor damage was caused to fixtures and
furnishings. Jackson's populism earned him the nickname "King
Main article: Petticoat affair
Jackson devoted a considerable amount of his presidential time during
his early years in office responding to what came to be known as the
"Petticoat affair" or "Eaton affair." Washington gossip
circulated among Jackson's cabinet members and their wives, including
Calhoun's wife Floride Calhoun, concerning Secretary of War Eaton and
his wife Peggy Eaton. Salacious rumors held that Peggy, as a barmaid
in her father's tavern, had been sexually promiscuous or had even been
a prostitute. Controversy also ensued because Peggy had married
soon after her previous husband's death, and it was alleged that she
and her husband had engaged in an adulterous affair while her previous
husband was still living. Petticoat politics emerged when the
wives of cabinet members, led by Mrs. Calhoun, refused to socialize
with the Eatons. Allowing a prostitute in the official family was
unthinkable—but Jackson refused to believe the rumors, telling his
Cabinet that "She is as chaste as a virgin!" Jackson believed
that the dishonorable people were the rumormongers, who in essence
questioned and dishonored Jackson himself by, in attempting to drive
the Eatons out, daring to tell him who he could and could not have in
his cabinet. Jackson was also reminded of the attacks that were made
against his wife. These memories increased his dedication to defending
Meanwhile, the cabinet wives insisted that the interests and honor of
all American women was at stake. They believed a responsible woman
should never accord a man sexual favors without the assurance that
went with marriage. A woman who broke that code was dishonorable and
Daniel Walker Howe notes that this was the
feminist spirit that in the next decade shaped the woman's rights
movement. Secretary of State Martin Van Buren, a widower, was already
forming a coalition against Calhoun. He could now see his main chance
to strike hard; he took the side of Jackson and Eaton.
In the spring of 1831, Jackson, at Van Buren's suggestion, demanded
the resignations of all the cabinet member except Barry. Van Buren
himself resigned to avoid the appearance of bias. In 1832, Jackson
nominated Van Buren to be Minister to Great Britain. Calhoun blocked
the nomination with a tie-breaking vote against it, claiming the
defeated nomination would "...kill [Van Buren], sir, kill dead. He
will never kick, sir, never kick." Van Buren continued to serve
as an important adviser to Jackson and was placed on the ticket for
vice president in the 1832 election, making him Jackson's
Petticoat affair led to the development of the
Kitchen Cabinet. The
Kitchen Cabinet emerged as an unofficial group of
advisors to the president. Its existence was partially rooted in
Jackson's difficulties with his official cabinet, even after the
Indian removal policy
Further information: Indian removal, Indian Removal Act, and Trail of
Indian Removal Act
Indian Removal Act and subsequent treaties resulted in the
forced removal of several Indian tribes from their traditional
territories, including the Trail of Tears.
Throughout his eight years in office, Jackson made about 70 treaties
with Native American tribes both in the South and the Northwest.
Jackson's presidency marked a new era in Indian-Anglo American
relations initiating a policy of Indian removal. Jackson himself
sometimes participated in the treaty negotiating process with various
Indian tribes, though other times he left the negotiations to his
subordinates. The southern tribes included the Choctaw, Creek,
Seminole and the Cherokee. The northwest tribes include the
Chippewa, Ottawa, and the Potawatomi.
Relations between Indians and Americans increasingly grew tense and
sometimes violent as a result of territorial conflicts. Previous
presidents had at times supported removal or attempts to "civilize"
the Indians, but generally let the problem play itself out with
minimal intervention. There had developed a growing popular and
political movement to deal with the issue, and out of this policy to
relocate certain Indian populations. Jackson, never known for
timidity, became an advocate for this relocation policy in what many
historians consider the most controversial aspect of his
In his First Annual Message to Congress, Jackson advocated land west
Mississippi River be set aside for Indian tribes. On May 26,
1830, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act, which Jackson signed
into law two days later. The Act authorized the president to negotiate
treaties to buy tribal lands in the east in exchange for lands farther
west, outside of existing state borders. The act specifically
pertained to the
Five Civilized Tribes
Five Civilized Tribes in the South, the conditions
being that they could either move west or stay and obey state
Portrait of Jackson by Earl, 1830
Jackson, Eaton, and General Coffee negotiated with the Chickasaw, who
quickly agreed to move. Jackson put Eaton and Coffee in charge of
negotiating with the Choctaw. Lacking Jackson's skills at negotiation,
they frequently bribed the chiefs in order to gain their submission.
The tactics worked, and the chiefs agreed to move. The removal of the
Choctaw took place in the winter of 1831 and 1832, and was wrought
with misery and suffering. The Seminole, despite the signing of
Treaty of Payne's Landing
Treaty of Payne's Landing in 1832, refused to move. In
December 1835, this dispute began the Second
Seminole War. The war
lasted over six years, finally ending in 1842. Members of the
Creek Nation had signed the
Treaty of Cusseta
Treaty of Cusseta in 1832, allowing the
Creek to either sell or retain their land. Conflict later erupted
between the Creek who remained and the white settlers, leading to a
second Creek War. A common complaint amongst the tribes was that
the men who had signed the treaties did not represent the whole
The state of Georgia became involved in a contentious dispute with the
Cherokee, culminating in the 1832 Supreme Court decision in Worcester
v. Georgia. Chief Justice John Marshall, writing for the court, ruled
that Georgia could not forbid whites from entering tribal lands, as it
had attempted to do with two missionaries supposedly stirring up
resistance amongst the tribespeople. Jackson is frequently
attributed the following response: "
John Marshall has made his
decision, now let him enforce it." The quote, apparently indicating
Jackson's dismissive view of the courts, was attributed to Jackson by
Horace Greeley, who cited as his source Representative George N.
Briggs. Remini argues that Jackson did not say it because, while it
"certainly sounds like Jackson...[t]here was nothing for him to
enforce." This is because a writ of habeas corpus had never been
issued for the missionaries. The Court also did not ask federal
marshals to carry out the decision, as had become standard.
A group of Cherokees led by
John Ridge negotiated the Treaty of New
Echota. Ridge was not a widely recognized leader of the Cherokee, and
this document was rejected by some as illegitimate. Another
faction, led by John Ross, unsuccessfully petitioned to protest the
proposed removal. The
Cherokee largely considered themselves
independent, and not subject to the laws of the United States or
Georgia. The treaty was enforced by Jackson's successor, Van
Buren. Subsequently, as many as 4,000 out of 18,000 Cherokees died on
the "Trail of Tears" in 1838. More than 45,000 American Indians
were relocated to the West during Jackson's administration, though a
few Cherokees walked back afterwards or migrated to the high Smoky
Black Hawk War
Black Hawk War took place during Jackson's
presidency in 1832 after a group of Indians crossed into U.S.
Reforms, rotation of offices, and spoils system
Further information: Spoils system
In an effort to purge the government of corruption, Jackson launched
presidential investigations into all executive Cabinet offices and
departments. He believed appointees should be hired on merit and
withdrew many candidates he believed were lax in their handling of
monies. He asked Congress to reform embezzlement laws, reduce
fraudulent applications for federal pensions, revenue laws to prevent
evasion of custom duties, and laws to improve government accounting.
Jackson's Postmaster General Barry resigned after a Congressional
investigation into the postal service revealed mismanagement of mail
services, collusion and favoritism in awarding lucrative contracts, as
well as failure to audit accounts and supervise contract performances.
Jackson replaced Barry with Treasury Auditor and prominent Kitchen
Cabinet member Amos Kendall, who went on to implement much needed
reforms in the Post Office Department.
BEP engraved portrait of Jackson as president
Jackson repeatedly called for the abolition of the Electoral College
by constitutional amendment in his annual messages to Congress as
president. In his third annual message to Congress, he
expressed the view "I have heretofore recommended amendments of the
Federal Constitution giving the election of President and
Vice-President to the people and limiting the service of the former to
a single term. So important do I consider these changes in our
fundamental law that I can not, in accordance with my sense of duty,
omit to press them upon the consideration of a new Congress."
Although he was unable to implement this goal, Jackson's time in
office did see a variety of other reforms. He supported an act in July
1836 that enabled widows of Revolutionary War soldiers who met certain
criteria to receive their husband's pensions. In 1836, Jackson
established the ten-hour day in national shipyards.
Jackson enforced the Tenure of Office Act, signed by President Monroe
in 1820, that limited appointed office tenure and authorized the
president to remove and appoint political party associates. Jackson
believed that a rotation in office was actually a democratic reform
preventing father-to-son succession of office and made civil service
responsible to the popular will. Jackson declared that rotation
of appointments in political office was "a leading principle in the
republican creed". Jackson noted, "In a country where offices are
created solely for the benefit of the people no one man has any more
intrinsic right to official station than another." Jackson
believed that rotating political appointments would prevent the
development of a corrupt bureaucracy. The number of federal office
holders removed by Jackson were exaggerated by his opponents; Jackson
only rotated about 20% of federal office holders during his first
term, some for dereliction of duty rather than political
purposes. Jackson, nonetheless, used his presidential power to
award loyal Democrats by granting them federal office appointments.
Jackson's approach incorporated patriotism for country as
qualification for holding office. Having appointed a soldier who had
lost his leg fighting on the battlefield to postmaster, Jackson
stated, "[i]f he lost his leg fighting for his country, that is ...
enough for me."
Jackson's theory regarding rotation of office generated what would
later be called the spoils system. The political realities of
Washington sometimes Jackson to make partisan appointments despite his
personal reservations. Historians believe Jackson's presidency
marked the beginning of an era of decline in public ethics.
Supervision of bureaus and departments whose operations were outside
of Washington (such as the New York Customs House; the Postal Service;
the Departments of Navy and War; and the Bureau of Indian Affairs,
whose budget had increased enormously in the previous two decades)
proved to be difficult. Remini claims that because "friendship,
politics, and geography constituted the President's total criteria for
appointments, most of his appointments were predictably
Main article: Nullification Crisis
In 1828, Congress had approved the "Tariff of Abominations", which set
the tariff at an historically high rate. Southern planters, who sold
their cotton on the world market, strongly opposed this tariff, which
they saw as favoring northern interests. The South now had to pay more
for goods it did not produce locally; and other countries would have
more difficulty affording southern cotton. The issue came to a head
during Jackson's presidency, resulting in the Nullification Crisis, in
South Carolina threatened disunion.
South Carolina Exposition and Protest of 1828, secretly written by
Calhoun, asserted that their state had the right to
"nullify"—declare void—the tariff legislation of 1828. Although
Jackson sympathized with the South in the tariff debate, he also
vigorously supported a strong union, with effective powers for the
central government. Jackson attempted to face down Calhoun over the
issue, which developed into a bitter rivalry between the two men. One
incident came at the April 13, 1830, Jefferson Day dinner, involving
Robert Hayne began by toasting to "The Union of
the States, and the Sovereignty of the States." Jackson then rose, and
in a booming voice added "Our federal Union: It must be
preserved!" – a clear challenge to Calhoun. Calhoun clarified
his position by responding "The Union: Next to our Liberty, the most
In May 1830, Jackson discovered that Calhoun had asked President
Monroe to censure then-General Jackson for his invasion of Spanish
Florida in 1818 while Calhoun was serving as Secretary of War.
Calhoun's and Jackson's relationship deteriorated further. By February
1831, the break between Calhoun and Jackson was final. Responding to
inaccurate press reports about the feud, Calhoun had published letters
between him and Jackson detailing the conflict in the United States
Telegraph. Jackson and Calhoun began an angry correspondence which
lasted until Jackson stopped it in July. The Telegraph, edited by
Duff Green, had previously supported Jackson. After it took the side
of Calhoun, Jackson needed a new organ for the administration. He
enlisted the help of longtime supporter Francis Preston Blair, who in
November 1830 established a newspaper known as the Washington Globe,
which from then on served as the primary mouthpiece of the Democratic
Jackson supported a revision to tariff rates known as the Tariff of
1832. It was designed to placate the nullifiers by lowering tariff
rates. Written by Treasury Secretary Louis McLane, the bill lowered
duties from 45% to 27%. In May, Representative John Quincy Adams
introduced a slightly revised version of the bill, which Jackson
accepted. It passed Congress on July 9 and was signed by the President
on July 14. The bill ultimately failed to satisfy extremists on either
side. On November 24, the
South Carolina legislature officially
nullified both the
Tariff of 1832 and the Tariff of 1828. In
response, Jackson sent U.S. Navy warships to Charleston harbor, and
threatened to hang any man who worked to support nullification or
secession. On December 28, 1832, with less than two months
remaining in his term, Calhoun resigned as vice president to become a
U.S. Senator for South Carolina. This was part of a strategy
whereby Calhoun, with less than three months remaining on his vice
presidential term, would replace
Robert Y. Hayne
Robert Y. Hayne in the Senate, who
would then become governor. Hayne had often struggled to defend
nullification on the floor of the Senate, especially against fierce
criticism from Senator
Daniel Webster of Massachusetts.
In December 1832, Jackson issued a resounding proclamation against the
"nullifiers," stating that he considered "the power to annul a law of
the United States, assumed by one State, incompatible with the
existence of the Union, contradicted expressly by the letter of the
Constitution, unauthorized by its spirit, inconsistent with every
principle on which it was founded, and destructive of the great object
for which it was formed." South Carolina, the President declared,
stood on "the brink of insurrection and treason", and he appealed to
the people of the state to reassert their allegiance to that Union for
which their ancestors had fought. Jackson also denied the right of
secession: "The Constitution ... forms a government not a
league ... To say that any State may at pleasure secede from the
Union is to say that the United States are not a nation." Jackson
tended to personalize the controversy, frequently characterizing
nullification as a conspiracy between disappointed and bitter men
whose ambitions had been thwarted.
Jackson asked Congress to pass a "Force Bill" explicitly authorizing
the use of military force to enforce the tariff. It was introduced by
Felix Grundy of Tennessee, and was quickly attacked by Calhoun
as "military despotism." At the same time, Calhoun and Clay began
to work on a new compromise tariff. A bill sponsored by the
administration had been introduced by Representative Gulian C.
Verplanck of New York, but it lowered rates more sharply than Clay and
other protectionists desired. Clay managed to get Calhoun to agree to
a bill with higher rates in exchange for Clay's opposition to
Jackson's military threats and, perhaps, with the hope that he could
win some Southern votes in his next bid for the presidency. The
Compromise Tariff passed on March 1, 1833. The
Force Bill passed
the same day. Calhoun, Clay, and several others marched out of the
chamber in opposition, with the only dissenting vote coming from John
Tyler of Virginia. The new tariff was opposed by Webster, who
argued that it essentially surrendered to South Carolina's
demands. Jackson, despite his anger over the scrapping of the
Verplanck bill and the new alliance between Clay and Calhoun, saw it
as an efficient way to end the crisis. He signed both bills on March
2, starting with the Force Bill. The
South Carolina Convention
then met and rescinded its nullification ordinance, but in a final
show of defiance, nullified the Force Bill. On May 1, Jackson
wrote, "the tariff was only the pretext, and disunion and southern
confederacy the real object. The next pretext will be the negro, or
William C. Rives, Jackson's Minister to France, successfully
negotiated a reparations treaty with France in 1831.
Addressing the subject of foreign affairs in his First Annual Address
to Congress, Jackson declared it to be his "settled purpose to ask
nothing that is not clearly right and to submit to nothing that is
When Jackson took office, spoliation claims, or compensation demands
for the capture of American ships and sailors, dating from the
Napoleonic era, caused strained relations between the U.S. and French
French Navy had captured and sent American ships to
Spanish ports while holding their crews captive forcing them to labor
without any charges or judicial rules. According to Secretary of State
Martin Van Buren, relations between the U.S. and France were
"hopeless." Jackson's Minister to France, William C. Rives,
through diplomacy was able to convince the French government to sign a
reparations treaty on July 4, 1831, that would award the U.S. ₣
25,000,000 ($5,000,000) in damages. The French government became
delinquent in payment due to internal financial and political
difficulties. The French king
Louis Philippe I
Louis Philippe I and his ministers
blamed the French Chamber of Deputies. By 1834, the non-payment of
reparations by the French government drew Jackson's ire and he became
impatient. In his December 1834 State of the Union address, Jackson
sternly reprimanded the French government for non-payment, stating the
federal government was "wholly disappointed" by the French, and
demanded Congress authorize trade reprisals against France.
Feeling insulted by Jackson's words, the French people began
pressuring their government not to pay the indemnity until Jackson had
apologized for his remarks. In his December 1835 State of the
Union Address, Jackson refused to apologize, stating he had a good
opinion of the French people and his intentions were peaceful. Jackson
described in lengthy and minute detail the history of events
surrounding the treaty and his belief that the French government was
purposely stalling payment. The French accepted Jackson's statements
as sincere and in February 1836, reparations were paid.
In addition to France, the Jackson administration successfully settled
spoliation claims with Denmark, Portugal, and Spain. Jackson's state
department was active and successful at making trade agreements with
Russia, Spain, Turkey, Great Britain, and Siam. Under the treaty of
Great Britain, American trade was reopened in the West Indies. The
trade agreement with
Siam was America's first treaty between the
United States and an Asiatic country. As a result, American exports
increased 75% while imports increased 250%.
Jackson's attempt to purchase
Texas from Mexico for $5,000,000 failed.
The chargé d'affaires in Mexico, Colonel Anthony Butler, suggested
that the U.S. take
Texas over militarily, but Jackson refused. Butler
was later replaced toward the end of Jackson's presidency. In 1835,
Texas Revolution began when pro-slavery American settlers in Texas
fought the Mexican government for Texan independence. By May 1836,
they had routed the Mexican military, establishing an independent
Republic of Texas. The new
Texas government legalized slavery and
demanded recognition from President Jackson and annexation into the
United States. Jackson was hesitant in recognizing Texas, unconvinced
that the new republic could maintain independence from Mexico, and not
wanting to make
Texas an anti-slavery issue during the 1836 election.
The strategy worked; the Democratic Party and national loyalties were
held intact, and Van Buren was elected president. Jackson formally
recognized the Republic of Texas, nominating Alcée Louis la Branche
as chargé d'affaires on the last full day of his presidency, March 3,
Jackson failed in his efforts to open trade with China and Japan and
was unsuccessful at thwarting Great Britain's presence and power in
Bank veto and election of 1832
Main articles: Bank War; Banking in the Jacksonian Era; and United
States presidential election, 1832
1832 election results
1833 Democratic cartoon shows Jackson destroying the "Devil's Bank"
The 1832 presidential election demonstrated the rapid development and
organization of political parties during this time period. The
Democratic Party's first national convention, held in Baltimore,
nominated Jackson's choice for vice president, Van Buren. The National
Republican Party, who had held their first convention in Baltimore
earlier in December 1831, nominated Henry Clay, now a senator from
Kentucky, and John Sergeant of Pennsylvania. The Anti-Masonic
Party emerged by capitalizing on opposition to Freemasonry, which
existed primarily in New England, after the disappearance and possible
murder of William Morgan. The party, which had earlier held its
convention also in Baltimore in September 1831, nominated William Wirt
of Maryland and
Amos Ellmaker of Pennsylvania. Clay was, like Jackson,
a Mason, and so some anti-Jacksonians who would have supported the
National Republican Party supported Wirt instead.
In 1816, the
Second Bank of the United States
Second Bank of the United States was chartered by
James Madison to restore the United States economy
devastated by the War of 1812. Monroe had appointed Nicholas
Biddle as the Bank's executive. Jackson believed that the Bank
was a fundamentally corrupt monopoly. Its stock was mostly held by
foreigners, he insisted, and it exerted an unfair amount of control
over the political system. Jackson used the issue to promote his
democratic values, believing the Bank was being run exclusively for
the wealthy. Jackson stated the Bank made "the rich richer and the
potent more powerful." He accused it of making loans with the
intent of influencing elections. In his address to Congress in
1830, Jackson called for a substitute for the Bank that would have no
private stockholders and no ability to lend or purchase land. Its only
power would be to issue bills of exchange. The address touched
off fiery debate in the Senate. Thomas Hart Benton, now a strong
supporter of the President despite the brawl years earlier, gave a
speech strongly denouncing the Bank and calling for open debate on its
recharter. Webster led a motion to narrowly defeat the resolution.
Shortly afterward, the Globe announced that Jackson would stand for
Despite his misgivings about the Bank, he supported a plan proposed in
late-1831 by his moderately pro-Bank Treasury Secretary Louis McLane,
who was secretly working with Biddle, to recharter a reformed version
of the Bank in a way that would free up funds which would in turn be
used to strengthen the military or pay off the nation's debt. This
would be done, in part, through the sale of government stock in the
Bank. Over the objections of Attorney General Roger B. Taney, an
irreconcilable opponent of the Bank, he allowed McLane to publish a
Treasury Report which essentially recommended rechartering the
Clay hoped to make the Bank an issue in the election, so as to accuse
Jackson of going beyond his powers if he vetoed a recharter bill. He
and Webster urged Biddle to immediately apply for recharter rather
than wait to reach a compromise with the administration. Biddle
received advice to the contrary from moderate Democrats such as McLane
and William Lewis, who argued that Biddle should wait because Jackson
would likely veto the recharter bill. On January 6, 1832 Biddle
submitted to Congress a renewal of the Bank's charter without any of
the proposed reforms. The submission came four years before the
original 20-year charter was to end. Biddle's recharter bill passed
the Senate on June 11 and the House on July 3, 1832. Jackson
determined to veto it. Many moderate Democrats, including McLane, were
appalled by the perceived arrogance of the bill and supported his
decision. When Van Buren met Jackson on July 4, Jackson declared, "The
Bank, Mr. Van Buren, is trying to kill me. But I will kill it."
Jackson officially vetoed the bill on July 10. The veto message was
crafted primarily by Taney, Kendall, and Jackson's nephew and advisor
Andrew Jackson Donelson. It attacked the Bank as an agent of
inequality that supported only the wealthy. The veto was
considered "one of the strongest and most controversial" presidential
statements and "a brilliant political manifesto." The
National Republican Party immediately made Jackson's veto of the Bank
a political issue. Jackson's political opponents castigated the
veto as "the very slang of the leveller and demagogue," claiming
Jackson was using class warfare to gain support from the common
At Biddle's direction, the Bank poured thousands of dollars into a
campaign to defeat Jackson, seemingly confirming Jackson's view that
it interfered in the political process. On July 21, Clay said
privately, "The campaign is over, and I think we have won the
victory." Jackson successfully portrayed his veto as a defense of
the common man against governmental tyranny. Clay proved to be no
match to Jackson's ability to resonate with the people and the
Democratic Party's strong political networks. Democratic newspapers,
parades, barbecues, and rallies increased Jackson's popularity.
Jackson himself made numerous public appearances on his return trip
Tennessee to Washington, D.C. Jackson won the election by a
landslide, receiving 54 percent of the popular vote and 219 electoral
votes. Clay received 37 percent of the popular vote and 49 electoral
votes. Wirt received only eight percent of the popular vote and seven
electoral votes while the
Anti-Masonic Party eventually declined.
Jackson believed the solid victory was a popular mandate for his veto
of the Bank's recharter and his continued warfare on the Bank's
control over the national economy.
Removal of deposits and censure
In 1833, Jackson attempted to begin removing federal deposits from the
bank, whose money-lending functions were taken over by the legions of
local and state banks that materialized across America, thus
drastically increasing credit and speculation. Jackson's moves
were greatly controversial. He removed McLane from the Treasury
Department, having him serve instead as Secretary of State, replacing
Edward Livingston. He replaced McLane with William J. Duane. In
September, he fired Duane for refusing to remove the deposits.
Signalling his intent to continue battling the Bank, he replaced Duane
with Taney. Under Taney, the deposits began to be removed.
They were placed in a variety of state banks which were friendly to
the administration's policies, known to critics as pet banks.
Biddle responded by stockpiling the Bank's reserves and contracting
credit, thus causing interest rates to rise and bringing about a
financial panic. Intended to force Jackson into a compromise, the move
backfired, increasing anti-Bank sentiment.
In 1834, those who opposed Jackson's expansion of executive power
united and formed the Whig Party, calling Jackson "King Andrew I," and
named their party after the English Whigs who opposed eighteenth
century British monarchy. A movement emerged among Whigs in the
Senate to censure Jackson. The censure was a political maneuver
spearheaded by Clay, which served only to perpetuate the animosity
between him and Jackson. Jackson called Clay "reckless and as
full of fury as a drunken man in a brothel." On March 28, the
Senate voted to censure Jackson 26–20. It also rejected Taney
as Treasury Secretary. The House however, led by Ways and Means
Committee chairman James K. Polk, declared on April 4 that the Bank
"ought not to be rechartered" and that the depositions "ought not to
be restored." It also voted to continue to allow pet banks to be
places of deposit and voted even more overwhelmingly to investigate
whether the Bank had deliberately instigated the panic. Jackson called
the passage of these resolutions a "glorious triumph." It essentially
sealed the Bank's demise. The Democrats later suffered a
temporary setback. Polk ran for Speaker of the House to replace Andrew
Stevenson. After southerners discovered his connection to Van Buren,
he was defeated by fellow-Tennessean John Bell, a Democrat-turned-Whig
who opposed Jackson's removal policy.
The national economy following the withdrawal of the remaining funds
from the Bank was booming and the federal government through duty
revenues and sale of public lands was able to pay all bills. On
January 1, 1835, Jackson paid off the entire national debt, the only
time in U.S. history that has been accomplished. The
objective had been reached in part through Jackson's reforms aimed at
eliminating the misuse of funds and through his vetoes of legislation
had he deemed extravagant. In December 1835, Polk defeated Bell
in a rematch and was elected Speaker. Finally, on January 16,
1837, when the Jacksonians had a majority in the Senate, the censure
was expunged after years of effort by Jackson supporters. The
expunction movement was led ironically by Benton.
In 1836, in response to increased land speculation, Jackson issued the
Specie Circular, an executive order that required buyers of government
lands to pay in "specie" (gold or silver coins). The result was high
demand for specie, which many banks could not meet in exchange for
their notes, contributing to the Panic of 1837. The White House
Van Buren biography notes, "Basically the trouble was the 19th-century
cyclical economy of "boom and bust," which was following its regular
pattern, but Jackson's financial measures contributed to the crash.
His destruction of the
Second Bank of the United States
Second Bank of the United States had removed
restrictions upon the inflationary practices of some state banks; wild
speculation in lands, based on easy bank credit, had swept the West.
To end this speculation, Jackson in 1836 had issued a Specie
Attack and assassination attempt
Richard Lawrence's attempt on Jackson's life, as depicted in an 1835
The first recorded physical attack on a U.S. president was directed at
Jackson. He had ordered the dismissal of Robert B. Randolph from the
navy for embezzlement. On May 6, 1833, Jackson sailed on USS Cygnet to
Fredericksburg, Virginia, where he was to lay the cornerstone on a
monument near the grave of Mary Ball Washington, George Washington's
mother. During a stopover near Alexandria, Randolph appeared and
struck the President. He fled the scene chased by several members of
Jackson's party, including the writer Washington Irving. Jackson
declined to press charges.
On January 30, 1835, what is believed to be the first attempt to kill
a sitting president of the United States occurred just outside the
United States Capitol. When Jackson was leaving through the East
Portico after the funeral of
South Carolina Representative Warren R.
Davis, Richard Lawrence, an unemployed house painter from England,
aimed a pistol at Jackson, which misfired. Lawrence then pulled out a
second pistol, which also misfired. Historians believe the humid
weather contributed to the double misfiring. Jackson, infuriated,
attacked Lawrence with his cane. Others present, including
Davy Crockett, restrained and disarmed Lawrence.
Lawrence offered a variety of explanations for the shooting. He blamed
Jackson for the loss of his job. He claimed that with the President
dead, "money would be more plenty," (a reference to Jackson's struggle
with the Bank of the United States) and that he "could not rise until
the President fell." Finally, Lawrence told his interrogators that he
was a deposed English king—specifically, Richard III, dead since
1485—and that Jackson was his clerk. He was deemed insane and
Afterwards, the pistols were tested and retested. Each time they
performed perfectly. Many believed that Jackson had been protected by
the same Providence that they believed also protected their young
nation. The incident became a part of Jacksonian mythos. Jackson
initially suspected that a number of his political enemies might have
orchestrated the attempt on his life. His suspicions were never
During the summer of 1835, Northern abolitionists began sending
anti-slavery tracts through the postal system into the South.
Pro-slavery Southerners demanded that the postal service ban
distribution of the materials, which were deemed "incendiary," and
some began to riot. Jackson wanted sectional peace, and desired to
placate Southerners ahead of the 1836 election. He fiercely
disliked the abolitionists, whom he believed were, by instituting
sectional jealousies, attempting to destroy the Union. Jackson
also did not want to condone open insurrection. He supported the
solution of Postmaster General Amos Kendall, which gave Southern
postmasters discretionary powers to either send or detain the
anti-slavery tracts. That December, Jackson called on Congress to
prohibit the circulation through the South of "incendiary publications
intended to instigate the slaves to insurrection."
U.S. Exploring Expedition
USS Porpoise, a brig ship laid down in 1835 and launched in May
1836; used in the U.S. Exploring Expedition
Jackson initially opposed any federal exploratory scientific
expeditions during his first term in office. The last scientific
federally funded expeditions took place from 1817 to 1823, led by
Stephen H. Harriman on the Red River of the North. Jackson's
predecessor, President Adams, attempted to launch a scientific oceanic
exploration in 1828, but Congress was unwilling to fund the effort.
When Jackson assumed office in 1829 he pocketed Adams' expedition
plans. Eventually, wanting to establish his presidential legacy,
similar to Jefferson and the Lewis and Clark Expedition, Jackson
sponsored scientific exploration during his second term. On May 18,
1836, Jackson signed a law creating and funding the oceanic United
States Exploring Expedition. Jackson put Secretary of the Navy Mahlon
Dickerson in charge, to assemble suitable ships, officers, and
scientific staff for the expedition; with a planned launch before
Jackson's term of office expired. Dickerson proved unfit for the task,
preparations stalled and the expedition was not launched until 1838,
during the presidency of Van Buren. One brig ship,
USS Porpoise, later used in the expedition; having been
commissioned by Secretary Dickerson in May 1836, circumnavigated the
world and explored and mapped the Southern Ocean, confirming the
existence of the
Panic of 1837
Main article: Panic of 1837
A New York newspaper blamed the
Panic of 1837
Panic of 1837 on Andrew Jackson,
depicted in spectacles and top hat.
In spite of economic success following Jackson's vetoes and war
against the Bank, reckless speculation in land and railroads
eventually caused the [Panic of 1837. Contributing factors
included Jackson's veto of the Second National Bank renewal charter in
1832 and subsequent transfer of federal monies to state banks in 1833
that caused western banks to relax their lending standards. Two other
Jacksonian acts in 1836 contributed to the Panic of 1837: the Specie
Circular, which mandated western lands only be purchased by money
backed by gold and silver, and the Deposit and Distribution Act, which
transferred federal monies from eastern to western state banks and in
turn led to a speculation frenzy by banks. Jackson's Specie Circular,
albeit designed to reduce speculation and stabilize the economy, left
many investors unable to afford to pay loans in gold and silver. The
same year there was a downturn in Great Britain's economy that stopped
investment in the United States. As a result, the U.S. economy went
into a depression, banks became insolvent, the national debt
(previously paid off) increased, business failures rose, cotton prices
dropped, and unemployment dramatically increased. The depression
that followed lasted for four years until 1841 when the economy began
Administration and cabinet
The Jackson Cabinet
John C. Calhoun
Martin Van Buren
Secretary of State
Martin Van Buren
Secretary of Treasury
Samuel D. Ingham
William J. Duane
Roger B. Taney
Secretary of War
John H. Eaton
John M. Berrien
Roger B. Taney
Benjamin Franklin Butler
William T. Barry
Secretary of the Navy
Main article: List of federal judges appointed by Andrew Jackson
Jackson appointed six Justices to the Supreme Court. Most were
undistinguished. His first appointee, John McLean, had been nominated
in Barry's place after Barry had agreed to become postmaster
general. McLean "turned Whig and forever schemed to win" the
presidency. His next two appointees–Henry Baldwin and James Moore
Wayne–disagreed with Jackson on some points but were poorly regarded
even by Jackson's enemies. In reward for his services, Jackson
nominated Taney to the Court to fill a vacancy in January 1835, but
the nomination failed to win Senate approval. Chief Justice
Marshall died in 1835, leaving two vacancies on the court. Jackson
nominated Taney for Chief Justice and
Philip Pendleton Barbour
Philip Pendleton Barbour for
Associate Justice. Both were confirmed by the new Senate. Taney
served as Chief Justice until 1864, presiding over a court that upheld
many of the precedents set by the Marshall Court. He was
generally regarded as a good and respectable judge, but his opinion in
Dred Scott v. Sandford
Dred Scott v. Sandford largely overshadows his career. On the
last full day of his presidency, Jackson nominated John Catron, who
States admitted to the Union
Two new states were admitted into the Union during Jackson's
Arkansas (June 15, 1836) and
Michigan (January 26,
1837). Both states increased Democratic power in Congress and
helped Van Buren win the presidency in 1836. This was in keeping with
the tradition that new states would support the party which had done
the most to admit them.
Later life and death
Photographic copy of an 1845 daguerreotype
In 1837, after serving two terms as president, Jackson was replaced by
his chosen successor
Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren and retired to the Hermitage. He
immediately began putting it in order as it had been poorly managed in
his absence by his adopted son, Andrew Jr. Although he suffered ill
health, Jackson remained highly influential in both national and state
politics. He was a firm advocate of the federal union of the
states and rejected any talk of secession, insisting, "I will die with
the Union." Blamed for causing the Panic of 1837, he was
unpopular in his early retirement. Jackson continued to denounce the
"perfidy and treachery" of banks and urged his successor, Van Buren,
to repudiate the
Specie Circular as president.
As a solution to the panic, he supported an Independent Treasury
system, which was designed to hold the money balances of the
government in the form of gold or silver and would be restricted from
printing paper money so as to prevent further inflation. A
coalition of conservative Democrats and Whigs opposed the bill, and it
was not passed until 1840. During the delay, no effective remedy had
been implemented for the depression. Van Buren grew deeply unpopular.
A unified Whig Party nominated popular war hero William Henry Harrison
and former Jacksonian
John Tyler in the 1840 presidential election.
The Whigs' campaign style in many ways mimicked that of the Democrats
when Jackson ran. They depicted Van Buren as an aristocrat who did not
care for the concerns of ordinary Americans, while glorifying
Harrison's military record and portraying him as a man of the people.
Jackson campaigned heavily for Van Buren in Tennessee. He favored
the nomination of Polk for vice president at the 1840 Democratic
National Convention over controversial incumbent Richard Mentor
Johnson. No nominee was chosen, and the party chose to leave the
decision up to individual state electors.
Harrison won the election, and the Whigs captured majorities in both
houses of Congress. "The democracy of the United States has been
shamefully beaten", Jackson wrote to Van Buren. "but I trust, not
conquered." Harrison died only a month into his term, and was
replaced by Tyler. Jackson was encouraged because Tyler had a strong
independent streak and was not bound by party lines. Sure enough,
Tyler quickly incurred the wrath of the Whigs in 1841 when he vetoed
two Whig-sponsored bills to establish a new national bank, bringing
satisfaction to Jackson and other Democrats. After the second
veto, Tyler's entire cabinet, with the exception of Daniel Webster,
Jackson strongly favored the annexation of Texas, a feat he had been
unable to accomplish during his own presidency. While Jackson still
feared that annexation would stir up anti-slavery sentiment, his
belief that the British would use
Texas as a base to threaten the
United States overrode his other concerns. He also insisted that
Texas was part of the
Louisiana Purchase and therefore rightfully
belonged to the United States. At the request of Senator Robert
J. Walker of Mississippi, acting on behalf of the Tyler
administration, which also supported annexation, Jackson wrote several
Texas President Sam Houston, urging him to wait for the
Senate to approve annexation and lecturing him on how much being a
part of the United States would benefit Texas. Initially prior to
the 1844 election, Jackson again supported Van Buren for president and
Polk for vice president. A treaty of annexation was signed by Tyler on
April 12, 1844, and submitted to the Senate. When a letter from
Calhoun to British Ambassador
Richard Pakenham linking annexation to
slavery was made public, anti-annexation sentiment exploded in the
North and the bill failed to be ratified. Van Buren decided to write
the "Hamlet letter", opposing annexation. This effectively
extinguished any support that Van Buren might previously have enjoyed
in the South. The Whig nominee, Henry Clay, also opposed
annexation, and Jackson recognized the need for the Democrats to
nominate a candidate who supported it and could therefore gain the
support of the South. If the plan failed, Jackson warned,
not join the Union and would potentially fall victim to a Mexican
invasion supported by the British.
Jackson met with Polk, Robert Armstrong, and
Andrew Jackson Donelson
in his study. He then pointed directly at a startled Polk, telling him
that, as a man from the southwest and a supporter of annexation, he
would be the perfect candidate. Polk called the scheme "utterly
abortive," but agreed to go along with it. At the 1844 Democratic
National Convention, Polk emerged as the party's nominee after Van
Buren failed to win the required two-thirds majority of delegates.
George M. Dallas
George M. Dallas was selected for vice president. Jackson convinced
Tyler to drop his plans of running for re-election as an independent
by promising, as Tyler requested, to welcome the president and his
allies back into the Democratic Party and by instructing Blair to stop
criticizing the president. Polk won the election, defeating
Clay. A bill of annexation was passed by Congress in February and
signed by Tyler on March 1.
Jackson died at his plantation on June 8, 1845, at the age of 78, of
chronic dropsy and heart failure. According to a newspaper
account from the Boon Lick Times, "[he] fainted whilst being removed
from his chair to the bed ... but he subsequently revived ... Gen.
Jackson died at the Hermitage at 6 o'clock P.M. on Sunday the 8th
instant. ... When the messenger finally came, the old soldier, patriot
and Christian was looking out for his approach. He is gone, but his
memory lives, and will continue to live." In his will, Jackson
left his entire estate to his adopted son,
Andrew Jackson Jr., except
for specifically enumerated items that were left to various friends
and other family members.
Jackson had three adopted sons: Theodore, an Indian about whom little
Andrew Jackson Jr., the son of Rachel's brother Severn
Donelson, and Lyncoya, a Creek Indian orphan adopted by Jackson after
the Battle of Tallushatchee. Lyncoya died of tuberculosis on July 1,
1828, at the age of sixteen.
The Jacksons also acted as guardians for eight other children. John
Samuel Donelson, Daniel Smith Donelson, and
Andrew Jackson Donelson
were the sons of Rachel's brother Samuel Donelson, who died in 1804.
Andrew Jackson Hutchings was Rachel's orphaned grand nephew. Caroline
Butler, Eliza Butler, Edward Butler, and Anthony Butler were the
orphaned children of Edward Butler, a family friend. They came to live
with the Jacksons after the death of their father.
The widower Jackson invited Rachel's niece
Emily Donelson to serve as
hostess at the White House. Emily was married to Andrew Jackson
Donelson, who acted as Jackson's private secretary and in 1856 ran for
vice president on the American Party ticket. The relationship between
the President and Emily became strained during the Petticoat affair,
and the two became estranged for over a year. They eventually
reconciled and she resumed her duties as
White House hostess. Sarah
Yorke Jackson, the wife of
Andrew Jackson Jr., became co-hostess of
White House in 1834. It was the only time in history when two
women simultaneously acted as unofficial First Lady. Sarah took over
all hostess duties after Emily died from tuberculosis in 1836. Jackson
Rip Raps as a retreat.
Tennessee Gentleman, portrait of Jackson, c. 1831, from the collection
of The Hermitage
Jackson's quick temper was notorious. Biographer
H. W. Brands
H. W. Brands notes
that his opponents were terrified of his temper: "Observers likened
him to a volcano, and only the most intrepid or recklessly curious
cared to see it erupt. ... His close associates all had stories
of his blood-curdling oaths, his summoning of the Almighty to loose
His wrath upon some miscreant, typically followed by his own vow to
hang the villain or blow him to perdition. Given his record—in
duels, brawls, mutiny trials, and summary hearings—listeners had to
take his vows seriously."
On the last day of the presidency, Jackson admitted that he had but
two regrets, that he "had been unable to shoot
Henry Clay or to hang
John C. Calhoun." On his deathbed, he was once again quoted as
regretting that he had not hanged Calhoun for treason. "My country
would have sustained me in the act, and his fate would have been a
warning to traitors in all time to come," he said. Remini
expresses the opinion that Jackson was typically in control of his
temper, and that he used his anger, along with his fearsome
reputation, as a tool to get what he wanted.
Jackson was a lean figure, standing at 6 feet 1 inch
(1.85 m) tall, and weighing between 130 and 140 pounds (59 and
64 kg) on average. Jackson also had an unruly shock of red hair,
which had completely grayed by the time he became president at age 61.
He had penetrating deep blue eyes. Jackson was one of the more sickly
presidents, suffering from chronic headaches, abdominal pains, and a
hacking cough. Much of his trouble was caused by a musket ball in his
lung that was never removed, that often brought up blood and sometimes
made his whole body shake.
In 1838, Jackson became an official member of the First Presbyterian
Church in Nashville. Both his mother and his wife had been devout
Presbyterians all their lives, but Jackson himself had postponed
officially entering the church in order to avoid accusations that he
was joining only for political reasons.
Jackson was a Freemason, initiated at Harmony Lodge No. 1 in
Tennessee; he also participated in chartering several other lodges in
Tennessee. He was the only U.S. president to have served as Grand
Master of a state's Grand Lodge until
Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman in 1945. His
Masonic apron is on display in the
Tennessee State Museum. An obelisk
and bronze Masonic plaque decorate his tomb at the
Equestrian statue of Gen. Jackson, Jackson County Courthouse, Kansas
City, Missouri, commissioned by Judge Harry S. Truman
Jackson remains one of the most studied and controversial figures in
American history. Historian
Charles Grier Sellers says, "Andrew
Jackson's masterful personality was enough by itself to make him one
of the most controversial figures ever to stride across the American
stage." There has never been universal agreement on Jackson's legacy,
for "his opponents have ever been his most bitter enemies, and his
friends almost his worshippers." He was always a fierce partisan,
with many friends and many enemies. He has been lauded as the champion
of the common man, while criticized for his treatment of Indians and
for other matters.
James Parton was the first man after Jackson's
death to write a full biography of him. Trying to sum up the
contradictions in his subject, he wrote:
Andrew Jackson, I am given to understand, was a patriot and a traitor.
He was one of the greatest generals, and wholly ignorant of the art of
war. A brilliant writer, elegant, eloquent, without being able to
compose a correct sentence or spell words of four syllables. The first
of statesmen, he never devised, he never framed, a measure. He was the
most candid of men, and was capable of the most profound
dissimulation. A most law-defying law-obeying citizen. A stickler for
discipline, he never hesitated to disobey his superior. A democratic
autocrat. An urbane savage. An atrocious saint.
Jackson was criticized by his contemporary
Alexis de Tocqueville
Alexis de Tocqueville in
Democracy in America
Democracy in America for flattering the dominant ideas of his time,
including the mistrust over the federal power, for sometimes enforcing
his view by force and disrespect towards the institutions and the law:
Far from wishing to extend the Federal power, the President belongs to
the party which is desirous of limiting that power to the clear and
precise letter of the Constitution, and which never puts a
construction upon that act favorable to the government of the Union;
far from standing forth as the champion of centralization, General
Jackson is the agent of the state jealousies; and he was placed in his
lofty station by the passions that are most opposed to the central
government. It is by perpetually flattering these passions that he
maintains his station and his popularity. General Jackson is the slave
of the majority: he yields to its wishes, its propensities, and its
demands—say, rather, anticipates and forestalls them. ... General
Jackson stoops to gain the favor of the majority; but when he feels
that his popularity is secure, he overthrows all obstacles in the
pursuit of the objects which the community approves or of those which
it does not regard with jealousy. Supported by a power that his
predecessors never had, he tramples on his personal enemies, whenever
they cross his path, with a facility without example; he takes upon
himself the responsibility of measures that no one before him would
have ventured to attempt. He even treats the national representatives
with a disdain approaching to insult; he puts his veto on the laws of
Congress and frequently neglects even to reply to that powerful body.
He is a favorite who sometimes treats his master roughly.
— Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, 1835, Volume I,
In the 20th century, Jackson was written about by many admirers.
Arthur M. Schlesinger's Age of Jackson (1945) depicts Jackson as a man
of the people battling inequality and upper-class tyranny. From
the 1970s to the 1980s, Robert Remini published a three-volume
biography of Jackson followed by an abridged one-volume study. Remini
paints a generally favorable portrait of Jackson. He contends
Jacksonian democracy "stretches the concept of democracy about as
far as it can go and still remain workable. ... As such it has
inspired much of the dynamic and dramatic events of the nineteenth and
twentieth centuries in American history—Populism, Progressivism, the
New and Fair Deals, and the programs of the
New Frontier and Great
Society." To Remini, Jackson serves as "the embodiment of the new
American ... This new man was no longer British. He no longer
wore the queue and silk pants. He wore trousers, and he had stopped
speaking with a British accent." Other 20th-century writers such
Richard Hofstadter and
Bray Hammond depict Jackson as an advocate
of the sort of laissez-faire capitalism that benefits the rich and
oppresses the poor.
Jackson's initiatives to deal with the conflicts between Indians and
American settlers has been a source of controversy. Starting mainly
around 1970, Jackson came under sharp attack from historians on this
Howard Zinn called him "the most aggressive enemy of the
Indians in early American history" and "exterminator of
Indians." In 1969,
Francis Paul Prucha argued that Jackson's
removal of the "Five Civilized Tribes" from the extremely hostile
white environment in the Old South to Oklahoma probably saved their
very existence. Similarly, Remini claims that, if not for
Jackson's policies, the Southern tribes would have been totally wiped
out, just like other tribes-namely, the Yamasee, Mahican, and
Narragansett–which did not move.
Brands observes that Jackson's reputation declined after the mid-20th
century as his actions towards Indians and African Americans received
new attention. After the civil rights movement, Brand writes, "his
unrepentant ownership of slaves marked him as one to be censured
rather than praised." Further, "By the turn of the present [21st]
century, it was scarcely an exaggeration to say that the one thing
American schoolchildren learned about Jackson was that he was the
author of the Trail of Tears." Jackson was often hailed during his
lifetime as the "second George Washington," because, while Washington
had fought for independence, Jackson confirmed it at
New Orleans and
made the United States a great world power. Over time, while the
Revolution has maintained a reasonably strong presence in the public
conscience, memory of the War of 1812, including the Battle of New
Orleans, has sharply declined. Brands argues that this is because once
America had become a military power, "it was easy to think that
America had been destined for this role from the beginning."
Still, Jackson's performance in office has generally been ranked in
the top half in public opinion polling. His position in C-SPAN's poll
dropped from 13th in 2009 to 18th in 2017.
Jackson has long been honored, along with Thomas Jefferson, in the
Jefferson–Jackson Day fundraising dinners. Each year, the dinner has
been held by state Democratic Party organizations to honor the two men
whom the party regards as its founders. However, due to the fact that
both Jefferson and Jackson were slave owners, as well as Jackson's
Indian removal policies, many state party organizations have renamed
Portrayal on banknotes and stamps
Jackson portrait on obverse $20 bill
Jackson has appeared on U.S. banknotes as far back as 1869, and
extending into the 21st century. His image has appeared on the $5,
$10, $20 and $10,000 note. Most recently, his image has appeared on
the U.S. $20 Federal reserve note beginning in 1928. In 2016,
Jack Lew announced his goal that by 2020 an image
Harriet Tubman would replace Jackson's depiction on the front side
of the $20 banknote, and that an image of Jackson would be placed on
the reverse side, though the final decision will be made by his
Jackson has appeared on several postage stamps. He first appeared on
an 1863 two-cent stamp, which is commonly referred to by collectors as
the Black Jack due to the large portraiture of Jackson on its face
printed in pitch black. During the American Civil War the
Confederate government also issued two Confederate postage stamps
bearing Jackson's portrait, one a 2-cent red stamp and the other a
2-cent green stamp, both issued in 1863.
Main article: List of memorials to Andrew Jackson
The tomb of Andrew and
Rachel Jackson located at The Hermitage
Numerous counties and cities are named after him, including the city
of Jacksonville in
Florida and North Carolina; the cities of Jackson
in Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee; Jackson
County in Florida, Illinois, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio,
and Oregon; and Jackson Parish in Louisiana.
Memorials to Jackson include a set of four identical equestrian
statues by the sculptor Clark Mills: in Lafayette Square, Washington,
D.C.; in Jackson Square, New Orleans; in Nashville on the grounds of
Tennessee State Capitol; and in Jacksonville, Florida. Other
equestrian statues of Jackson have been erected elsewhere, as in the
State Capitol grounds in Raleigh, North Carolina. That statue
controversially identifies him as one of the "presidents North
Carolina gave the nation," and he is featured alongside James Polk and
Andrew Johnson, both U.S. presidents born in North Carolina.
There is a bust of
Andrew Jackson in
Plaza Ferdinand VII
Plaza Ferdinand VII in Pensacola,
Florida, where he became the first governor of the
in 1821. There is also a 1928 bronze sculpture of Andrew Jackson
Belle Kinney Scholz
Belle Kinney Scholz and
Leopold Scholz in the U.S. Capitol Building
as part of the National Statuary Hall Collection.
Popular culture depictions
Jackson and his wife Rachel were the main subjects of a 1951
historical novel by Irving Stone, The President's Lady, which told the
story of their lives up until Rachel's death. The novel was the basis
for the 1953 film of the same name starring
Charlton Heston as Jackson
Susan Hayward as Rachel.
Jackson has been a supporting character in a number of historical
films and television productions.
Lionel Barrymore played Jackson in
The Gorgeous Hussy
The Gorgeous Hussy (1936), a fictionalized biography of Peggy Eaton
starring Joan Crawford. The Buccaneer (1938), depicting the
Battle of New Orleans, included Hugh Sothern as Jackson, and was
remade in 1958 with Heston again playing Jackson. Basil Ruysdael
played Jackson in Walt Disney's 1955
Davy Crockett TV miniseries.
Wesley Addy appeared as Jackson in some episodes of the 1976 PBS
miniseries The Adams Chronicles.
Jackson is the protagonist of the comedic historic rock musical Bloody
Andrew Jackson (2008) with music and lyrics by Michael Friedman
and book by Alex Timbers.
Book: Presidents of the United States (1789–1860)
United States Army
United States Army portal
List of United States Presidents on currency
U.S. presidents on U.S. postage stamps
^ Brands 2005, p. 473.
^ Meacham 2008, p. 219.
^ Brands 2005, pp. 11–15.
Andrew Jackson Cottage and US Rangers Centre". Northern Ireland
Tourist Board. Archived from the original on October 25, 2007.
Retrieved April 11, 2017.
^ Gullan 2004, pp. xii; 308.
^ Jackson 1985, p. 9.
^ Booraem 2001, p. 9.
^ Nowlan 2012, p. 257.
^ Wilentz 2005, pp. 14–16.
^ a b Remini 1977, p. 5.
^ a b Collings, Jeffrey (March 7, 2011). "Old fight lingers over Old
Hickory's roots". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on
January 27, 2017. Retrieved June 29, 2017.
^ Parton 1860a, pp. 54–57.
^ Remini 1977, p. 15.
^ a b Remini 1977, pp. 15–17.
^ a b "Andrew Jackson". Biography.com. Archived from the original on
June 27, 2017. Retrieved April 23, 2017.
^ Remini 1977, p. 21.
^ Kendall 1843, pp. 52–53.
^ Kendall 1843, pp. 58–59.
^ Remini 1977, p. 23.
^ Remini 1977, pp. 24–25.
^ a b Paletta & Worth 1988.
^ a b Case, Steven (2009). "Andrew Jackson". State Library of North
Carolina. Archived from the original on June 18, 2017. Retrieved July
^ Meacham 2008, p. 15.
^ Snelling 1831, p. 8.
^ a b Wilentz 2005, pp. 18–19.
^ Kennedy & Ullman 2003, pp. 99–101.
^ Remini 1977, pp. 17–25.
^ Meacham 2008, pp. 22–23.
^ Remini 1977, p. 62.
^ Durham 1990, pp. 218–219.
^ a b Semmer, Blythe. "Jackson Purchase,
Tennessee Encyclopedia of
History and Culture".
Tennessee Historical Society. Archived from the
original on August 7, 2016. Retrieved April 12, 2017.
^ Wilentz 2005, p. 19.
^ Remini 1977, pp. 92–94.
^ Remini 1977, pp. 110–112.
^ a b "Andrew Jackson". Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress.
Archived from the original on December 18, 2013. Retrieved April 13,
^ Remini 1977, p. 113.
^ Remini 1977, p. 114.
^ Remini 1977, p. 131.
^ Wilentz 2005, pp. 21–22.
^ Remini 1977, pp. 15–16; 119.
^ Remini 1977, p. 119.
^ Remini 1977, pp. 119–124.
^ Cumfer 2007, p. 140.
^ Cheathem 2011, pp. 326–338.
^ Remini (2000), p. 51, cites 1820 census; mentions later figures up
to 150 without noting a source.
^ a b "Andrew Jackson's Enslaved Laborers". The Hermitage. Archived
from the original on September 12, 2014. Retrieved April 13,
^ Brown, DeNeen L. "Hunting down runaway slaves: The cruel ads of
Andrew Jackson and ‘the master class’", The Washington Post, 1 May
2017. Retrieved on 22 March 2018.
^ Brands 2005, pp. 139–143.
^ Remini 1977, p. 146.
^ Parton 1860a, pp. 309–310.
^ Remini 1977, pp. 145–147.
^ Remini 1977, pp. 147–148.
^ Remini 1977, pp. 47–48.
^ Brands 2005, p. 120.
Andrew Jackson to James Winchester, October 4, 1806". Jackson
Papers, LOC. Retrieved June 25, 2017.
^ Snelling 1831, pp. 29–31.
^ Remini 1977, pp. 150–151.
^ Remini 1977, pp. 151–158.
^ Remini 1977, p. 158.
^ Remini 1977, pp. 165–169.
^ "An Act Declaring War Between the United Kingdom of Great Britain
and Ireland and the Dependencies Thereof and the United States of
America and Their Territories". Yale Law School: Lillian Goldman Law
Library. June 18, 1812. Archived from the original on December 6,
2016. Retrieved July 11, 2017.
^ Remini 1977, p. 169.
^ Remini 1977, p. 170.
^ Remini 1977, p. 173.
^ "General orders .... Andrew Jackson. Major-General 2d Division,
Tennessee. November 24, 1812". Jackson Papers, LOC. Retrieved June 27,
^ a b Wilentz 2005, pp. 23–25.
^ Jackson, Andrew. "Journal of trip down the Mississippi River,
January 1813 to March 1813". Jackson Papers, LOC. Retrieved July 3,
^ Remini 1977, pp. 174–175.
^ "John Armstrong to Andrew Jackson, February 6, 1813". Jackson
Papers, LOC. Retrieved July 1, 2017.
Andrew Jackson to John Armstrong, March 15, 1813". Jackson Papers,
LOC. Retrieved July 1, 2017.
^ Remini 1977, p. 179.
^ Brands 2005, p. 186.
^ Remini 1977, p. 180.
^ Remini 1977, pp. 179–180.
^ Addresses on the Presentation of the Sword of Gen.
Andrew Jackson to
the Congress of the United States, Washington: Beverley Tucker, 1855,
^ Remini 1977, pp. 180–186.
^ Meacham 2008, pp. 29–30.
^ Remini 1977, pp. 192–193.
^ Wilentz 2005, pp. 25–28.
^ Adams 1986, pp. 791–793.
^ Remini 1977, pp. 213–216.
^ a b Wilentz 2005, pp. 27–28.
^ Remini 1977, p. 222.
^ Brands 2005, p. 236.
^ Remini 1977, p. 240.
^ Adams 1986, pp. 228–229.
^ Remini 1977, p. 241.
^ Remini 1977, pp. 241–245.
^ Jahoda 1975, p. 6.
^ Remini 1977, p. 247.
^ a b Wilentz 2005, pp. 29–30.
^ Remini 1977, p. 254.
^ Remini 1977, p. 274.
^ Snelling 1831, pp. 73–76.
^ Snelling 1831, pp. 81–85.
^ Remini 1977, p. 285.
^ Wilentz 2005, pp. 29–33.
^ Leeden 2001, pp. 32–33.
^ Martin 1829, pp. 387–495.
^ Warshauer 2006, p. 32.
^ Eaton, Fernin F. "For Whom the Drone Tolls or What if Andrew Jackson
had Drones at the Battle of New Orleans, A Bit of Bicentennial
Mischief". Academia. Archived from the original on July 17, 2017.
Retrieved March 13, 2014.
^ a b "Some account of some of the bloody deeds of General Jackson".
Library of Congress. 1828. Archived from the original on January 16,
2014. Retrieved January 15, 2014.
^ Wilentz 2005, p. 36.
^ Remini 1977, pp. 332–340.
^ Wilentz 2005, pp. 36–37.
^ Brands 2005, pp. 325–327.
^ Remini 1977, p. 118.
^ Ogg 1919, p. 66.
^ Wilentz 2005, pp. 37–40.
^ a b Remini 1981, pp. 1–3.
^ Remini 1981, pp. 12–15.
^ Wilentz 2005, p. 41.
^ Remini 1981, p. 49.
^ Wilentz 2005, pp. 41–45.
^ Remini 1981, pp. 50–54.
^ Brands 2005, pp. 376–377.
^ Ostermeier, Eric (December 4, 2013). "Bob Smith and the 12-Year
Itch". Smart Politics. Archived from the original on January 29,
^ Meacham 2008, p. 38.
^ Remini 1981, pp. 74–78.
^ Rutland 1995, pp. 48–49.
^ Adams 1879, p. 599.
^ a b c d "John C. Calhoun, 7th Vice President (1825–1832)". United
States Senate. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved
May 7, 2016.
^ Wilentz 2005, pp. 45–48.
^ Remini 1981, p. 98.
^ Wilentz 2005, p. 49.
^ Remini 1981, p. 102.
^ Remini 1981, pp. 108–110.
^ Wilentz 2005, pp. 49–54.
^ Byrne, Coleman & King 2008, p. 837.
^ Cheathem, Mark (2014). "Frontiersman or Southern Gentleman?
Newspaper Coverage of
Andrew Jackson during the 1828 Presidential
Campaign". The Readex Report. 9 (3). Archived from the original on
January 12, 2015.
^ "The Tsunami of Slime Circa 1828". New York News & Politics. New
York Media LLC. Archived from the original on March 23, 2016.
Retrieved June 1, 2017.
^ Taliaferro, John (1828). "Supplemental account of some of the bloody
deeds of General Jackson, being a supplement to the "Coffin
handbill"". Library of Congress. Archived from the original on June
28, 2017. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
^ Remini 1981, p. 134.
^ First Lady Biography:
Rachel Jackson Archived March 11, 2010, at the
Wayback Machine. National First Ladies Library. Web. Retrieved
February 15, 2016.
^ McNamara, Robert. "The Election of 1828 Was Marked By Dirty
Tactics". About Education. ThoughtCo. Archived from the original on
January 1, 2017. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
^ Brands 2005, p. 405.
^ Boller 2004, p. 46.
^ Latner 2002, p. 101.
^ a b Latner 2002, p. 104.
^ Wilentz 2005, pp. 63–65.
^ Remini 1984, p. 338.
^ Remini 1984, p. 339.
^ Remini 1984, pp. 338–440.
^ Remini 1984, p. 342.
^ a b "Andrew Jackson's Third Annual Message to Congress". The
American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on March 11,
2008. Retrieved March 14, 2008.
^ Remini 1984, p. 343.
^ Remini 1981, pp. 157–158.
^ Latner 2002, p. 105.
^ Remini 1977, pp. 172–173.
^ "Inaugurals of Presidents of the United States: Some Precedents and
Notable Events". Library of Congress. Archived from the original on
July 1, 2016. Retrieved April 18, 2017.
^ Wilentz 2005, pp. 55–56.
^ Latner 2002, p. 107.
^ a b Meacham 2008, p. 115.
^ Marszalek 2000, p. 84.
^ Bates 2015, p. 315.
^ Howe 2007, pp. 337–339.
^ a b c d Latner 2002, p. 108.
^ Meacham 2008, pp. 171–175.
^ a b Latner 2002, p. 109.
^ a b c Latner 2002, p. 110.
^ Rutland 1995, pp. 199–200.
^ Remini 1981, p. 269.
^ Remini 1981, p. 271.
^ Remini 1981, pp. 272–273.
^ Remini 1984, p. 304.
Muscogee Creek are forced out of Alabama". Native Voices.
U.S. National Library of Medicine. Archived from the original on
December 14, 2017. Retrieved December 13, 2017.
^ a b Remini 1984, pp. 303–304.
^ Remini 1988, p. 216.
^ Remini 1981, pp. 276–277.
^ Berutti 1992, pp. 305–306.
^ "Historical Documents – The
Indian Removal Act
Indian Removal Act of 1830".
Historicaldocuments.com. Archived from the original on October 19,
2008. Retrieved November 1, 2008.
^ "Indian Removal". Judgment Day. PBS. Archived from the original on
April 18, 2010. Retrieved September 6, 2010.
^ Garrison 2002, p. 34.
^ Remini 1984, pp. 302–303.
^ "Eastern Band of
Cherokee Indians – History". VisitCherokeenc.com.
Archived from the original on December 28, 2010. Retrieved September
^ Remini 1984, pp. 278–279.
^ Ellis 1974, pp. 65–66.
^ Ellis 1974, p. 67.
^ a b c "Andrew Jackson's First Annual Message to Congress". The
American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on February
26, 2008. Retrieved March 14, 2008.
^ "Andrew Jackson's Second Annual Message to Congress". The American
Presidency Project. Archived from the original on March 11, 2008.
Retrieved March 14, 2008.
^ Lewis 2012, pp. 193–194.
^ Nevins, Commanger & Morris 1992, p. 168.
^ a b Ellis 1974, p. 61.
^ Brands 2005, p. 418.
^ Ellis 1974, pp. 61–62.
^ Sabato & O'Connor 2002, p. 293.
^ Howe 2007, pp. 328–334.
^ Ellis 1974, p. 65.
^ a b Remini 1984, p. 268.
^ Wilentz 2005, pp. 63–64.
^ Ogg 1919, p. 164.
^ Remini 1981, pp. 291–299.
^ Remini 1981, pp. 358–360.
South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification, November 24, 1832". The
Avalon Project. Archived from the original on August 19, 2016.
Retrieved August 22, 2016.
^ Howe 2007, pp. 405–406.
^ Niven 1988, p. 192.
^ "President Jackson's Proclamation Regarding Nullification, December
10, 1832". The Avalon Project. Archived from the original on August
24, 2006. Retrieved August 10, 2006.
^ Remini 1981, pp. 14–15.
^ Meacham 2008, pp. 239–240.
^ Remini 1981, p. 38.
^ a b c Meacham 2008, p. 247.
^ Niven 1988, p. 197.
^ Remini 1981, p. 40.
^ Remini 1981, p. 42.
^ Latner 2002, pp. 119–120.
^ Cunningham, Hugo S. (1999). "Gold and Silver Standards France".
Archived from the original on August 18, 2014. Retrieved August 28,
^ Latner 2002, p. 119.
^ Remini 1984, p. 284.
^ a b c d Latner 2002, p. 120.
^ Meacham 2008, p. 218.
^ Meacham 2008, p. 420.
^ a b Latner 2002, pp. 112–113.
^ Latner 2002, p. 111.
^ a b c d Latner 2002, p. 112.
^ Meacham 2008, p. 53.
^ Remini 1981, p. 302.
^ Remini 1981, pp. 303–304.
^ Remini 1981, pp. 337–340.
^ Meacham 2008, p. 201.
^ Remini 1981, p. 343.
^ Remini 1981, pp. 363–366.
^ Remini 1981, pp. 366–369.
^ Remini 1981, p. 369.
^ Wilentz 2005, pp. 369–370.
^ Remini 1981, p. 376.
^ Meacham 2008, p. 215.
^ Latner 2002, p. 113.
^ Meacham 2008, p. 220.
^ Ellis 1974, p. 63.
^ a b Bogart 1907, pp. 219–221.
^ Remini 1984, pp. 57–58; 171.
^ Wilentz 2006, p. 395.
^ Brands 2005, p. 500.
^ Hill, Andrew T. (February 5, 2015). "The Second Bank of the United
States (1816–1841)". Federal Reserve History. Archived from the
original on July 11, 2017. Retrieved July 8, 2017.
^ Wilentz 2006, pp. 396–400.
^ Ellis 1974, p. 62.
^ a b Brands, H. W. (March 21, 2006). "Be Sure Before You Censure".
The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 29, 2014.
Retrieved February 21, 2014.
^ Brands 2005, p. 502.
^ "Senate Censures President". United States Senate. Archived from the
original on December 14, 2013. Retrieved February 21, 2014.
^ Remini 1984, pp. 170–172.
^ Remini 1984, pp. 165–167.
^ Remini 1984, pp. 173–174.
^ a b Smith, Robert (April 15, 2011). "When the U.S. paid off the
entire national debt (and why it didn't last)". Planet Money. NPR.
Retrieved January 15, 2014.
^ "Our History". Bureau of the Public Debt. November 18, 2013.
Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. Retrieved February 21,
^ Remini 1984, pp. 218–219.
^ Remini 1984, p. 279.
^ "Expunged Senate censure motion against President Andrew Jackson,
January 16, 1837".
Andrew Jackson – National Archives and Records
Administration, Records of the U.S. Senate. The U.S. National Archives
and Records Administration. Archived from the original on November 3,
2014. Retrieved February 21, 2014.
^ Rorabaugh, Critchlow & Baker 2004, p. 210.
^ Friedel, Frank; Sidey, Hugh (2006). "Our Presidents – The White
White House Historical Association. Archived from the original
on April 17, 2017. Retrieved April 20, 2017.
^ Grinspan, Jon. "Trying to Assassinate Andrew Jackson". American
Heritage Project. Archived from the original on October 24, 2008.
Retrieved November 11, 2008.
^ Glass, Andrew (January 30, 2008). "Jackson escapes assassination
attempt Jan. 30, 1835". POLITICO. Archived from the original on April
7, 2017. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
^ Bates 2015, p. 513.
^ Remini 1984, p. 229.
^ Remini 1984, pp. 229–230.
^ Latner 2002, p. 117.
^ a b Remini 1984, pp. 258–263.
^ Brands 2005, p. 554.
^ Remini 1984, p. 261.
^ a b Mills 2003, p. 705.
^ "USS Porpoise (1836–1854)". U.S. Navy. 2014. Archived from the
original on October 2, 2013. Retrieved November 27, 2014. CS1
maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
^ a b Olson 2002, p. 190.
^ "Historical Debt Outstanding – Annual 1791–1849". Public Debt
Reports. Treasury Direct. Archived from the original on October 30,
2007. Retrieved November 25, 2007. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url
status unknown (link)
^ Summers, Robert S. "Andrew Jackson". POTUS: Presidents of the United
States. Archived from the original on June 6, 2017. Retrieved May 31,
^ Jacobson, John Gregory (2004). "Jackson's judges: Six appointments
who shaped a nation (Abstract)". University of Nebraska – Lincoln.
Archived from the original on March 30, 2016. Retrieved July 18,
^ a b Remini 1984, p. 266.
^ Remini 1984, pp. 266–268.
^ Schwartz 1993, pp. 73–74.
^ Brown, DeNeen L. (August 18, 2017). "Removing a slavery defender's
Roger B. Taney
Roger B. Taney wrote one of Supreme Court's worst rulings".
The Washington Post. Archived from the original on January 10, 2018.
Retrieved December 29, 2017.
^ "Timeline of the Justices: John Catron". The Supreme Court
Historical Society. Archived from the original on January 30, 2006.
Retrieved October 25, 2017.
Arkansas Became a State: June 15, 1836". The Library of Congress.
Archived from the original on December 9, 2016. Retrieved July 4,
Michigan Became a State: January 26, 1837". The Library of
Congress. Archived from the original on January 10, 2017. Retrieved
July 4, 2017.
^ Remini 1984, pp. 375–376.
^ a b Latner 2002, p. 121.
^ Curtis 1976, p. 145.
^ Lansford & Woods 2008, p. 1046.
^ Remini 1984, pp. 462–470.
^ Remini 1984, pp. 463–464.
^ Remini 1984, p. 470.
^ Remini 1984, pp. 472–473.
^ Remini 1984, pp. 475–476.
^ "New-York tribune., September 18, 1841". The Library of Congress.
Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ a b Wilentz 2005, pp. 161–163.
^ Remini 1984, p. 492.
^ Remini 1984, p. 493.
^ Remini 1984, pp. 496–500.
Andrew Jackson to Francis Preston Blair, May 7, 1844". Jackson
Papers, LOC. Archived from the original on December 16, 2017.
Retrieved December 15, 2017.
^ Remini 1984, p. 501.
^ Remini 1984, pp. 502–505.
^ Remini 1984, pp. 510–511.
^ Marx, Rudolph. "The Health Of The President: Andrew Jackson".
healthguidance.org. Archived from the original on December 22, 2017.
Retrieved December 18, 2017.
^ "Death of Gen. Jackson". Boon's Lick Times. Fayette, Missouri.
Archived by the Library of Congress. June 21, 1845. Archived from the
original on March 26, 2014. Retrieved March 25, 2014.
^ Remini 1984, pp. 483–484.
^ Brands 2005, p. 198.
^ Remini 1977, p. 194.
^ The Papers of Andrew Jackson: 1821–1824 ed. Sam B. Smith, (1996) p
^ Meacham 2008, pp. 109; 315.
^ Brands 2005, p. 297.
^ Borneman 2008, p. 36.
^ Parton 1860b, p. 447.
^ Remini 1977, p. 7.
^ Wilentz 2005, p. 160.
^ Remini 1984, p. 444.
^ Jackson, Andrew. "
Tennessee History". tennesseehistory.com. Archived
from the original on May 16, 2012. Retrieved July 29, 2012.
^ McKeown, Trevor W. "A few famous Freemasons". Grand Lodge of British
Columbia and Yukon. Archived from the original on September 12, 2015.
Retrieved September 14, 2015.
^ "Masonic Presidents, Andrew Jackson". The Grand Lodge of Free and
Accepted Masons of Pennsylvania. Archived from the original on August
25, 2012. Retrieved July 28, 2012.
^ Sellers 1958, p. 615.
^ Sellers 1958, pp. 615–634.
^ Parton 1860a, p. vii.
^ a b Wilentz 2005, p. 3.
^ a b Langer, Emily (April 4, 2013). "Robert V. Remini, biographer of
Andrew Jackson and historian of the U.S. House of Representatives,
dies at 91". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on
October 4, 2017. Retrieved September 29, 2017.
^ Remini 1988, p. 307.
^ Zinn 1980, p. 127.
^ Zinn 1980, p. 130.
^ Prucha 1969, pp. 527–539.
^ Remini 1984, p. 574.
^ Brands, H.W. (2017-03-11). "
Andrew Jackson at 250: President's
legacy isn't pretty, but neither is history". The Tennessean.
Retrieved May 9, 2017.
^ Wegmann, Philip (February 17, 2017). "After Trump, Jackson drops on
historian's list of best presidents". The Washington Examiner.
Archived from the original on December 31, 2017. Retrieved December
^ Hutzell, Rick (February 8, 2016). "Democrats Bounce Jefferson and
Jackson from Annual Dinner". The Anne Arundel Capital-Gazette.
Archived from the original on January 14, 2017. Retrieved May 13,
^ Southall, Ashley (August 5, 2015). "Jefferson-Jackson Dinner Will Be
Renamed". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 5,
2017. Retrieved May 13, 2017.
^ "U.S. Currency FAQs". U.S. Bureau of Engraving and Printing.
Archived from the original on May 5, 2015. Retrieved December 28,
^ Zeitz, Josh (April 20, 2016). "Tubman replacing Jackson on the $20,
Hamilton spared". Politico. Archived from the original on May 4, 2016.
Retrieved November 28, 2017.
^ "2-cent Jackson issue of 1863". Smithsonian National Postal Museum.
Archived from the original on July 23, 2011. Retrieved December 18,
^ Kaufmann, Patricia (May 9, 2006). "2-cent Green Andrew Jackson".
Smithsonian National Postal Museum. Archived from the original on
March 29, 2012. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
^ Gannett 1905, p. 167.
^ Goode, James M. (2010). "Four Salutes to the Nation: The Equestrian
Statues of General Andrew Jackson".
White House Historical
Association. Archived from the original on June 2, 2017. Retrieved May
^ "Tours of the State Capital: Statues and Monuments on Union Square".
North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources. Archived from the
original on November 18, 2016. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
Plaza Ferdinand VII
Plaza Ferdinand VII Pensacola, Florida ". National Park
Service. Archived from the original on April 28, 2017. Retrieved June
^ "Andrew Jackson". Architect of the Capitol. Retrieved March 2,
^ "Tribute to Jackson and His Wife". The New York Times. May 22, 1953.
Archived from the original on March 8, 2016. Retrieved May 31,
^ Krebs, Albin (August 28, 1989). "Irving Stone, Author of 'Lust for
Life,' Dies at 86". The New York Times. Archived from the original on
September 4, 2016. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
^ Nugent, Frank S. (September 5, 1936). "Democratic Unconvention in
'The Gorgeous Hussy', at the Capitol – 'A Son Comes Home', at the
Rialto". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 7,
2016. Retrieved July 6, 2017.
^ "The Buccaneer". historyonfilm.com. Archived from the original on
March 30, 2014. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
^ McGee, Scott. "The Buccaneer (1959)". Turner Classic Movies.
Archived from the original on August 17, 2016. Retrieved July 7,
^ "Overview for Basil Ruysdael". Turner Classic Movies. Archived from
the original on September 26, 2016. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
Wesley Addy Biography (1913–1996)". filmreference.com. Archived
from the original on June 29, 2017. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
^ "Bloody Bloody Andrew Jackson". stageagent.com. Archived from the
original on June 25, 2016. Retrieved July 6, 2017.
Booraem, Hendrik (2001). Young Hickory: The Making of Andrew Jackson.
Lanham, MD: Taylor Trade Publishing. ISBN 0-8783-3263-4. ;
344 pages; coverage to age 21
Brands, H. W. (2005). Andrew Jackson: His Life and Times. New York:
Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. ISBN 1-4000-3072-2.
Kendall, Amos (1843). Life of Andrew Jackson: Private, Military, and
Civil. New York: Harper & Brothers. OCLC 6738380.
Latner, Richard B. (2002). "Andrew Jackson". In Graff, Henry. The
Presidents: A Reference History (3 ed.). New York, NY: Charles
Scribner's Sons. pp. 106–127. ISBN 978-0-684-31226-2.
Meacham, Jon (2008). American Lion:
Andrew Jackson in the White House.
New York: Random House Publishing Group.
Parton, James (1860a). Life of Andrew Jackson, Volume 1. New York:
Mason Brothers. OCLC 3897681.
Parton, James (1860b). Life of Andrew Jackson, Volume 3. New York:
Mason Brothers. OCLC 3897681.
Remini, Robert V. (1977).
Andrew Jackson and the Course of American
Empire, 1767–1821. New York: Harper & Row Publishers, Inc.
Remini, Robert V. (1981).
Andrew Jackson and the Course of American
Freedom, 1822–1832. New York: Harper & Row Publishers, Inc.
Remini, Robert V. (1984).
Andrew Jackson and the Course of American
Democracy, 1833–1845. New York: Harper & Row Publishers, Inc.
Remini, Robert V. (1988). The Life of Andrew Jackson. New York: Harper
& Row Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-0618-0788-5. Abridgment
of Remini's 3-volume biography.
Snelling, William Joseph (1831). A Brief and Impartial History of the
Life and Actions of Andrew Jackson. Boston: Stimpson & Clapp.
Wilentz, Sean (2005). Andrew Jackson. New York: Henry Holt and
Company. ISBN 0-8050-6925-9.
Adams, Henry (1986) . History of the United States of America
During the Administrations of James Madison. New York: Library
Classics of the United States. ISBN 0-9404-5035-6.
Adams, Henry (1879). The Life of Albert Gallatin. Philadelphia: J. B.
Lippincott & Co. OCLC 320500098.
Bates, Christopher G. (2015). The Early Republic and Antebellum
America: An Encyclopedia of Social, Political, Cultural, and Economic
History. New York: Routledge. ISBN 9781317457404.
Berutti, Ronald A. (1992). "The
Cherokee Cases: The Fight to Save the
Supreme Court and the
Cherokee Indians". American Indian Law Review.
17 (1): 291–308. doi:10.2307/20068726. JSTOR 20068726.
Bogart, Ernest Ludlow (1907). "The Economic History of the United
States". 21 (3). ISSN 0022-3808.
Boller, Paul F. Jr. (2004). Presidential Campaigns: From George
Washington to George W. Bush. New York: Oxford University Press.
Borneman, Walter R. (2008). Polk: The Man Who Transformed the
Presidency and America. New York: Random House.
Byrne, James Patrick; Coleman, Philip; King, Jason Francis (2008).
Ireland and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History : a
Multidisciplinary Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
Cheathem, Mark R. (April 1, 2011). "Andrew Jackson, Slavery, and
Historians". History Compass. 9 (4): 326.
doi:10.1111/j.1478-0542.2011.00763.x. ISSN 1478-0542.
Cumfer, Cynthia (2007). Separate peoples, one land: The minds of
Cherokees, Blacks, and Whites on the
Tennessee frontier. Chapel Hill,
NC: University of
North Carolina Press.
Durham, Walter T. (1990). Before Tennessee: the Southwest Territory,
1790–1796: a narrative history of the Territory of the United States
South of the River Ohio. Piney Flats, TN: Rocky Mount Historical
Association. ISBN 0-9678-3071-0.
Ellis, Richard E. (1974). Woodward, C. Vann, ed. Responses of the
Presidents to Charges of Misconduct. New York: Delacorte Press.
pp. 61–68. ISBN 0-440-05923-2.
Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United
States. Washington, D.C.: Myron E. Sharpe, Inc. OCLC 37302804.
Archived from the original on May 4, 2016.
Garrison, Tim Allen (2002). The Legal Ideology of Removal: The
Southern Judiciary and the Sovereignty of Native American Nations.
Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.
Gullan, Harold I. (2004). First fathers: the men who inspired our
Presidents. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Howe, Daniel Walker (2007). What Hath God Wrought: the Transformation
of America, 1815–1848. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press.
Jackson, Elmer Martin (1985). Keeping the lamp of remembrance lighted:
a genealogical narrative with pictures and charts about the Jacksons
and their allied families. Hagerstown, MD: Hagerstown Bookbinding and
Printing Co. ASIN B0006EMC6A.
Jahoda, Gloria (1975). The Trail of Tears: The Story of the American
Indian Removals 1813–1855. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Kennedy, Kathleen; Ullman, Sharon Rena (2003). Sexual Borderlands:
Constructing an American Sexual Past. Columbus, OH: Ohio State
University Press. ISBN 978-0-8142-0927-1. Archived from the
original on April 7, 2015.
Lansford, Tom; Woods, Thomas E., eds. (2008). Exploring American
History: From Colonial Times to 1877. 10. New York: Marshall
Cavendish. p. 1046. ISBN 978-0-7614-7758-7.
Leeden, Michael A. (2001). Tocqueville on American Character. New
York: Macmillan. ISBN 0-3122-5231-5. Retrieved January 15,
Lewis, J. D. (2012). NC Patriots 1775–1783: Their Own Words. 1 –
The NC Continental Line. Little River, SC: J.D. Lewis.
pp. 193–94. ISBN 978-1-4675-4808-3.
Marszalek, John F. (2000) . The Petticoat Affair: Manners,
Mutiny, and Sex in Andrew Jackson's White House. Baton Rouge, LA: LSU
Press. ISBN 0-8071-2634-9.
Martin, François-Xavier (1829). The History of Louisiana, from the
Earliest Period, Vol. 2. New Orleans, LA: A.T. Penniman & Co.
Mills, William J. (2003). Exploring Polar Frontiers: A Historical
Encyclopedia. 1. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, Inc.
Nevins, Allan; Commanger, Henry Steele; Morris, Jeffrey (1992) .
A Pocket History of the United States. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Niven, John (1988).
John C. Calhoun
John C. Calhoun and the Price of Union: A
Biography. Baton Rouge, LA: LSU Press.
Nowlan, Robert A. (2012). The American Presidents, Washington to
Tyler. Jefferson, NC: McFarland Publishing.
Ogg, Frederic Austin (1919). The Reign of Andrew Jackson; Vol. 20,
Chronicles of America Series. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Olson, James Stuart (2002). Robert L. Shadle, ed. Encyclopedia of the
Industrial Revolution in America. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Paletta, Lu Ann; Worth, Fred L. (1988). The World Almanac of
Presidential Facts. New York, NY: World Almanac Books.
Prucha, Francis Paul (1969). "Andrew Jackson's Indian policy: a
reassessment". Journal of American History. 56 (3): 527–539.
doi:10.2307/1904204. Archived from the original on March 3,
2016. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
Rorabaugh, W.J.; Critchlow, Donald T.; Baker, Paula C. (2004).
America's Promise: A Concise History of the United States. Lanham, MD:
Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-7425-1189-8.
Rutland, Robert Allen (1995). The Democrats: From Jefferson to
Clinton. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press.
Sabato, Larry; O'Connor, Karen (2002). American Government: Continuity
and Change. New York: Pearson Longman.
Schwartz, Bernard (1993). A History of the Supreme Court. New York:
Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195-09387-2.
Warshauer, Matthew (2006).
Andrew Jackson and the Politics of Martial
Law. Knoxville, TN: University of
Wilentz, Sean (2006). The Rise of American Democracy: Jefferson to
Lincoln. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
Zinn, Howard (1980). "7: As Long As Grass Grows or Water Runs". A
People's History of the United States. Abingdon-on-Thames, UK:
Routledge Taylor and Francis Group. ISBN 978-0060-83865-2.
Curtis, James C. (1976).
Andrew Jackson and the Search for
Vindication. Boston: Little, Brown and Co.
Sellers, Charles Grier Jr. (1958). "
Andrew Jackson versus the
Historians". Mississippi Valley Historical Review. 44 (4).
Jackson, Andrew (1926–1935). Bassett, John Spencer; Jameson, J.
Franklin, eds. The Correspondence of Andrew Jackson. 5. Washington,
D.C.: Carnegie Institute of Washington. OCLC 970877018. CS1
maint: Date format (link) 7 volumes total.
Jackson, Andrew (1926–1935). Smith, Sam B.; Owlsey, Harriet
Chappell; Feller, Dan; Moser, Harold D., eds. The Correspondence of
Andrew Jackson. Knoxville, TN: University of
OCLC 5029597. CS1 maint: Date format (link) (9 vols. 1980 to
Richardson, James D., ed. (1897). Compilation of the Messages and
Papers of the Presidents. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of National
Literature and Art. OCLC 980191506. Reprints his major
messages and reports.
Library of Congress. "
Andrew Jackson Papers", a digital archive that
provides direct access to the manuscript images of many of the Jackson
Main article: Bibliography of Andrew Jackson
Find more aboutAndrew Jacksonat's sister projects
Media from Wikimedia Commons
Quotations from Wikiquote
Texts from Wikisource
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Learning resources from Wikiversity
White House biography
United States Congress. "
Andrew Jackson (id: J000005)". Biographical
Directory of the United States Congress.
Andrew Jackson at Project Gutenberg
Works by or about
Andrew Jackson at Internet Archive
Andrew Jackson: A Resource Guide at the Library of Congress
Andrew Jackson (1767–1845) at the Miller Center of Public Affairs,
University of Virginia
The Papers of
Andrew Jackson at the Avalon Project
The Hermitage, home of President Andrew Jackson
"Life Portrait of Andrew Jackson", from C-SPAN's American Presidents:
Life Portraits, April 26, 1999
"The 1828 Campaign of
Andrew Jackson and the Growth of Party
Politics", lesson plan at the National Endowment for the Humanities
Offices and distinctions
U.S. House of Representatives
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Tennessee's at-large congressional district
William C. C. Claiborne
United States Senator (Class 1) from Tennessee
Served alongside: Joseph Anderson
United States Senator (Class 2) from Tennessee
Served alongside: John Eaton
Hugh Lawson White
Chair of the Senate Military Affairs Committee
William Henry Harrison
Baby of the Senate
Oldest living President of the United States
John Quincy Adams
José María Coppinger
as Governor of Spanish East Florida
Governor of Florida
William Pope Duval
John Quincy Adams
7th President of the United States
Martin Van Buren
Party political offices
Democratic-Republican nominee for President of the United States¹
Served alongside: John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, William H. Crawford
New political party
Democratic nominee for President of the United States
Martin Van Buren
Notes and references
Democratic-Republican Party split in the 1824 election,
fielding four separate candidates.
Articles related to Andrew Jackson
Presidents of the United States (list)
George Washington (1789–1797)
John Adams (1797–1801)
Thomas Jefferson (1801–1809)
James Madison (1809–1817)
James Monroe (1817–1825)
John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams (1825–1829)
Andrew Jackson (1829–1837)
Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren (1837–1841)
William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison (1841)
John Tyler (1841–1845)
James K. Polk
James K. Polk (1845–1849)
Zachary Taylor (1849–1850)
Millard Fillmore (1850–1853)
Franklin Pierce (1853–1857)
James Buchanan (1857–1861)
Abraham Lincoln (1861–1865)
Andrew Johnson (1865–1869)
Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant (1869–1877)
Rutherford B. Hayes
Rutherford B. Hayes (1877–1881)
James A. Garfield
James A. Garfield (1881)
Chester A. Arthur
Chester A. Arthur (1881–1885)
Grover Cleveland (1885–1889)
Benjamin Harrison (1889–1893)
Grover Cleveland (1893–1897)
William McKinley (1897–1901)
Theodore Roosevelt (1901–1909)
William H. Taft (1909–1913)
Woodrow Wilson (1913–1921)
Warren G. Harding
Warren G. Harding (1921–1923)
Calvin Coolidge (1923–1929)
Herbert Hoover (1929–1933)
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933–1945)
Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman (1945–1953)
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953–1961)
John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy (1961–1963)
Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson (1963–1969)
Richard Nixon (1969–1974)
Gerald Ford (1974–1977)
Jimmy Carter (1977–1981)
Ronald Reagan (1981–1989)
George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush (1989–1993)
Bill Clinton (1993–2001)
George W. Bush
George W. Bush (2001–2009)
Barack Obama (2009–2017)
Donald Trump (2017–present)
F. D. Roosevelt
L. B. Johnson
G. H. W. Bush
G. W. Bush
United States Democratic Party
of the DNC
Van Buren/R. Johnson
Douglas/H. Johnson (Breckinridge/Lane, SD)
W. Bryan/Stevenson I
J. Davis/C. Bryan
B. Clinton/Gore (twice)
District of Columbia
1868 (New York)
1876 (Saint Louis)
1888 (Saint Louis)
1900 (Kansas City)
1904 (Saint Louis)
1916 (Saint Louis)
1920 (San Francisco)
1924 (New York)
1960 (Los Angeles)
1964 (Atlantic City)
1972 (Miami Beach)
1976 (New York)
1980 (New York)
1984 (San Francisco)
1992 (New York)
2000 (Los Angeles)
Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee
Democratic Governors Association
Democratic Legislative Campaign Committee
Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee
National Conference of Democratic Mayors
College Democrats of America
National Federation of Democratic Women
Stonewall Young Democrats
Young Democrats of America
High School Democrats of America
2005 chairmanship election
2017 chairmanship election
United States Senators from Tennessee
Chairmen of the
United States Senate
United States Senate Committee on Armed Services
Military Affairs Committee
Naval Affairs Committee
Armed Services Committee
Governors of Florida
State (since 1845)
Cabinet of President
Andrew Jackson (1829–37)
Secretary of State
Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren (1829–31)
Edward Livingston (1831–33)
Louis McLane (1833–34)
John Forsyth (1834–37)
Secretary of the Treasury
Samuel D. Ingham
Samuel D. Ingham (1829–31)
Louis McLane (1831–33)
William J. Duane
William J. Duane (1833)
Roger B. Taney
Roger B. Taney (1833–34)
Levi Woodbury (1834–37)
Secretary of War
John H. Eaton (1829–31)
Lewis Cass (1831–36)
John M. Berrien
John M. Berrien (1829–31)
Roger B. Taney
Roger B. Taney (1831–33)
Benjamin F. Butler (1833–37)
William T. Barry
William T. Barry (1829–35)
Amos Kendall (1835–37)
Secretary of the Navy
John Branch (1829–31)
Levi Woodbury (1831–34)
Mahlon Dickerson (1834–37)
Hall of Fame for Great Americans
John Quincy Adams
Susan B. Anthony
John James Audubon
Henry Ward Beecher
Alexander Graham Bell
William Cullen Bryant
George Washington Carver
William Ellery Channing
James Fenimore Cooper
James Buchanan Eads
Thomas Alva Edison
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Josiah W. Gibbs
William C. Gorgas
Ulysses S. Grant
Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr.
Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.
Thomas J. Jackson
John Paul Jones
Robert E. Lee
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
James Russell Lowell
Matthew Fontaine Maury
Albert A. Michelson
Samuel F. B. Morse
William T. G. Morton
John Lothrop Motley
Alice Freeman Palmer
Edgar Allan Poe
Franklin D. Roosevelt
John Philip Sousa
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Henry David Thoreau
Booker T. Washington
James McNeill Whistler
John Greenleaf Whittier
Frances E. Willard
War of 1812
Francis Scott Key
"The Bold Canadian"
"The Hunters of Kentucky"
"The Star-Spangled Banner"
Opposition in United States
War of 1812
War of 1812 Bicentennial
ISNI: 0000 0001 2103 3774
BNF: cb12035654v (data)
US Congress: J000