Andorra (/ænˈdɔːrə, -ˈdɒrə/ ( listen);
Catalan: [ənˈdorə], locally [anˈdɔra]), officially the
Andorra (Catalan: Principat d'Andorra), also called
Principality of the Valleys of Andorra (Catalan: Principat de
les Valls d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate on the
Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern Pyrenees, bordered by
France in the
Spain in the south. Created under a charter in
988,[clarification needed] the present principality was formed in
1278. It is known as a principality as it is a diarchy headed by two
Co-Princes: the Catholic
Bishop of Urgell
Bishop of Urgell in
Spain and the President
Andorra is the sixth-smallest nation in Europe, having an area of
468 km2 (181 sq mi) and a population of approximately 77,281.
Andorra is the 16th-smallest country in the world by land and
11th-smallest country by population. Its capital
Andorra la Vella
is the highest capital city in Europe, at an elevation of 1,023 metres
(3,356 feet) above sea level. The official language is Catalan,
although Spanish, Portuguese, and French are also commonly
Andorra's tourism services an estimated 10.2 million visitors
annually. It is not a member of the European Union, but the euro is
the official currency. It has been a member of the United Nations
since 1993. In 2013, the people of
Andorra had the highest life
expectancy in the world at 81 years, according to the Global Burden of
2.2 The Iberian and Roman Andorra
2.3 The Visigoths and Carolingians: the legend of Charlemagne
2.4 Medieval Age: The Paréages and the founding of the
2.5 16th to 18th centuries
2.6 19th century: the New Reform and the Andorran Question
2.7 20th century: Modernization of the country and the Constitutional
4 Law and criminal justice
5 Foreign relations, defence, and security
5.2 Police Corps
5.3 Fire brigade
6.2 Physical geography
9.1 Largest cities
10.2 University of Andorra
10.2.1 Virtual Studies Centre
13 Media and telecommunications
15.1 Major achievements
16 See also
18 External links
The origin of the word
Andorra is unknown, although several hypotheses
have been formulated. The oldest derivation of the word
from the Greek historian
Polybius (The Histories III, 35, 1) who
describes the Andosins, an Iberian Pre-Roman tribe, as historically
located in the valleys of
Andorra and facing the
Carthaginian army in
its passage through the
Pyrenees during the Punic Wars. The word
Andosini or Andosins (Ἀνδοσίνους) may derive from the
Basque handia whose meaning is "big" or "giant". The Andorran
toponymy shows evidence of
Basque language in the area. Another theory
suggests that the word
Andorra may derive from the old word Anorra
that contains the Basque word ur (water).
Another theory suggests that
Andorra may derive from
meaning "The forest" (الدرة). When the
Moors colonized the
Iberian Peninsula, the valleys of the
Pyrenees were covered by large
tracts of forest, and other regions and towns, also administered by
Muslims, received this designation.
Other theories suggest that the term derives from the
Navarro-Aragonese andurrial, which means "land covered with bushes" or
The folk etymology holds that
Charlemagne had named the region as a
reference to the
Biblical Canaanite valley of Endor or Andor (where
Midianites had been defeated), a name also bestowed by his heir
Louis le Debonnaire
Louis le Debonnaire after defeating the
Moors in the "wild
valleys of Hell".
Main article: History of Andorra
Roc de les Bruixes prehistorical sanctuary located in
Hannibal's route (in red) during the Second Punic War. The Iberian
tribes (in green) fought against the
Carthaginian army in the
La Balma de la Margineda found by archaeologists at Sant Julia de
Loria was the first temporal settlement in 9,500 BC as a passing place
between the two sides of the Pyrenees. The seasonal camp was perfectly
located for hunting and fishing by the groups of hunter-gatherers from
Ariege and Segre.
Neolithic Age the group of humans moved to the Valley of
Madriu (nowadays Natural Parc located in
UNESCO World Heritage Site) as a permanent camp in 6640 BC. The
population of the valley grew cereals, raised domestic livestock and
developed a commercial trade with people from the Segre and
Other archaeological deposits include the Tombs of
and Feixa del Moro (Sant Julia de Loria) both dated in 490–4300 BC
as an example of the Urn culture in Andorra. The model of
small settlements begin to evolved as a complex urbanism during the
Bronze Age. Metallurgical items of iron, ancient coins and relicaries
can be found in the ancient sanctuaries scattered around the country.
The sanctuary of Roc de les Bruixes (Stone of the Witches) is maybe
the most important archeological complex of this Age in Andorra,
located in the parish of Canillo, about the rituals of funerals,
ancient scripture and engraved stone murals.
The Iberian and Roman Andorra
The inhabitants of the valleys were traditionally associated with the
Iberians and historically located in
Andorra as the Iberian tribe
Andosins or Andosini (Ἀνδοσίνους) during the 7th and 2nd
centuries BC. Influenced by Aquitanias, Basque and Iberian languages
the locals developed some current toponyms. Early writings and
documents relating this group of people goes back to the second
century BC by the Greek writer
Polybius in his Histories during the
Some of the most significant remains of this era are the Castle of the
Roc d'Enclar (part of the early Marca Hispanica), l'Anxiu in Les
Escaldes and Roc de L'Oral in Encamp. The presence of Roman
influence is recorded from the 2nd century BC to the 5th century AD.
The places found with more Roman presence are in Camp Vermell (Red
Sant Julia de Loria
Sant Julia de Loria and in some places in
Encamp as well as
in the Roc d'Enclar. People continued trading, mainly with wine and
cereals, with the Roman cities of
Urgellet (nowaday La Seu d'Urgell)
and all across Segre through the Via Romana Strata Ceretana (also
known as Strata Confluetana). 
The Visigoths and Carolingians: the legend of Charlemagne
Charlemagne instructing his son Louis the Pious
After the fall of the
Andorra came under the influence of
the Visigoths, not remotely from the Kingdom of Toledo, but locally
from the Diocese of Urgell. The Visigoths remained in the valleys for
200 years, during which time Christianity spread. When the Muslim
Empire and its conquest of the
Iberian Peninsula replaced the ruling
Andorra was sheltered from these invaders by the
Tradition holds that Charles the Great (Charlemagne) granted a charter
to the Andorran people for contingent of five thousand soldiers under
the command of Marc Almugaver, in return for fighting against the
The six old parishes named by their patron saint as depicted in the
Acta de Consagració i Dotació de la Catedral de la Seu d'Urgell
Andorra remained part of the
Marca Hispanica of the Frankish Empire
being part of the territory the
Count of Urgell
Count of Urgell and eventually by the
bishop of the Diocese of Urgell. Also tradition holds that it was
guaranteed by the son of Charlemagne, Louis the Pious, writing the
Carta de Poblament or a local municipal charter circa 805.
In 988, Borrell II, Count of Urgell, gave the Andorran valleys to the
Diocese of Urgell
Diocese of Urgell in exchange for land in Cerdanya. Since then the
Bishop of Urgell, based in Seu d'Urgell, has been Co-prince of
The first document that mentions
Andorra as a territory is the Acta de
Consagració i Dotació de la Catedral de la Seu d'Urgell (Deed of
Consecration and Endowment of the Cathedral of La Seu d'Urgell). The
old document dated from 839 depicts the six old parishes of the
Andorran valleys and therefore the administrative division of the
Medieval Age: The Paréages and the founding of the
Sant Joan de Caselles
Sant Joan de Caselles church, dating from the 11th century, part of
the Andorran Romanesque heritage
Andorra did not have any type of military protection and
the Bishop of Urgell, who knew that the
Count of Urgell
Count of Urgell wanted to
reclaim the Andorran valleys, asked the
Lord of Caboet for help
and protection. In 1095 the
Lord of Caboet and the Bishop of Urgell
signed under oath a declaration of their co-sovereignty over Andorra.
Arnalda, daughter of Arnau of Caboet, married the Viscount of
Castellbò and both became Viscounts of Castellbò and Cerdanya. Years
later their daughter, Ermessenda, married Roger Bernat II, the
French Count of Foix. They became Roger Bernat II and Ermessenda I,
Counts of Foix, Viscounts of Castellbò and Cerdanya, and
Andorra (shared with the Bishop of Urgell).
In the 13th century, a military dispute arose between the Bishop of
Urgell and the
Count of Foix
Count of Foix as aftermath of the Cathar Crusade. The
conflict was resolved in 1278 with the mediation of the king of
Aragon, Pere II between the Bishop and the Count, by the signing of
the first paréage which provided that Andorra's sovereignty be shared
between the count of Foix (whose title would ultimately transfer
to the French head of state) and the Bishop of Urgell, in Catalonia.
This gave the principality its territory and political
Monument commemorating in 1978 the 700th anniversary of the Paréages,
Casa de la Vall
Casa de la Vall in the capital city of
Apse fresco of Sant Miquel d'Engolasters church, painted by Mestre de
Santa Coloma during the 12th century
A second paréage was signed in 1288 after a dispute when the Count of
Foix ordered the construction of a castle in Roc d'Enclar.
The document was ratified by the noble notary Jaume Orig of Puigcerdà
and the construction of military structures in the country was
In 1364 the political organization of the country named the figure of
the syndic (now spokesman and president of the parliament) as
representative of the Andorrans to their co-princes making possible
the creation of local departments (comuns, quarts and veïnats). After
being ratified by the Bishop Francesc Tovia and the Count Jean I, the
Consell de la Terra or Consell General de les Valls (General Council
of the Valleys) was founded in 1419, the second oldest parliament in
Europe. The syndic Andreu d'Alàs and the General Council organized
the creation of the Justice Courts (La Cort de Justicia) in 1433 with
the Co-Princes and the collection of taxes like foc i lloc (literally
fire and site, a national tax active since then).
Although we can find remains of ecclesiastical works dating before the
9th century (Sant Vicenç d'Enclar or Església de Santa Coloma),
Andorra developed exquisite Romanesque Art during the 9th through 14th
centuries, as much in the construction of churches, bridges, religious
murals and statues of the
Virgin and Child
Virgin and Child (being the most important
the Our Lady of Meritxell). Nowadays, the Romanesque buildings
that form part of Andorra's cultural heritage stand out in a
remarkable way, with an emphasis on Església de Sant Esteve, Sant
Joan de Caselles, Església de Sant Miquel d'Engolasters, Sant Martí
de la Cortinada and the medieval bridges of Margineda and Escalls
among many others.
While the Catalan
Pyrenees were embryonic of the
Catalan language at
the end of the 11th century
Andorra was influenced by the appearance
of that language where it was adopted by proximity and influence even
decades before it was expanded by the rest of the Kingdom of
The local population based its economy during the Middle Ages in the
livestock and agriculture, as well as in furs and weavers. Later, at
the end of the 11th century, the first foundries of iron began to
appear in Northern Parishes like Ordino, much appreciated by the
master artisans who developed the art of the forges, an important
economic activity in the country from the 15th century.
16th to 18th centuries
Main hall of Tribunal de Corts (High Court of Justice) inside Casa de
la Vall, the central Judiciary Court of Andorra
In 1601 the Tribunal de Corts (High Court of Justice) was created as a
Huguenot rebellions from France, Inquisition courts coming
Spain and indigenous witchcraft experienced in the country due to
Reformation and Counter-Reformation. With the
passage of time, the co-title to
Andorra passed to the kings of
Navarre. After Henry of Navarre became King Henry IV of France, he
issued an edict in 1607, that established the head of the French state
Bishop of Urgell
Bishop of Urgell as Co-Princes of Andorra. During 1617
communal councils form the sometent (popular militia or army) to deal
with the rise of bandolerisme (brigandage) and the Consell de la Terra
was defined and structured in terms of its composition, organization
and competences current today .
Andorra continues with the same economic system that it had during the
12th-14th centuries with a large production of metallurgy (fargues, a
system similar to Farga catalana) and with the introduction of tobacco
circa 1692 and import trade. The fair of
Andorra la Vella
Andorra la Vella was ratified
by the co-princes in 1371 and 1448 being the most important annual
national festival commercially ever since.
Manor house of Rossell family in Ordino, Casa Rossell, built in 1611.
The family owned in 1619 also the largest ironwork forges in Andorra
as Farga Rossell and Farga del Serrat.
The country had a unique and experienced guild of weavers, Confraria
de Paraires i Teixidors, located in
Escaldes-Engordany founded in 1604
taking advantage of the thermal waters of the area. By the time the
country constitutes the social system of prohoms (wealthy society) and
casalers (rest of the population with smaller economic acquisition),
deriving to the tradition of pubilla and hereu.
Three centuries after its foundation the Consell de la Terra locates
its headquarters and the Tribunal de Corts in
Casa de la Vall
Casa de la Vall in 1702.
The manor house built in 1580 served as a noble fortress of the
Busquets family. Inside the parliament was placed the Closet of the
six keys (Armari de les sis claus) representative of each Andorran
parish and where the
Andorran constitution and other documents and
laws were kept later on.
Guerra dels Segadors
Guerra dels Segadors and Guerra de Sucesión Española
conflicts, the Andorran people (although with the statement neutral
country) supported the
Catalans who saw their rights reduced in 1716.
The reaction was the promotion of Catalan writings in Andorra, with
cultural works such as the
Book of Privileges (Llibre de Privilegis de
1674), Manual Digest (1748) by Antoni Fiter i Rossell or the Polità
andorrà (1763) by Antoni Puig.
19th century: the New Reform and the Andorran Question
Portrait of Guillem d'Areny-Plandolit, nobleman and politician who
promoted the New Reform in 1866.
After the French Revolution, in 1809, Napoleon I reestablished the
Co-Principate and deleted the French medieval tithe. However, in
First French Empire
First French Empire annexed
Catalonia during the
Peninsular War (Guerra del francés). They divided it into four
Andorra being made part of the district of
Puigcerdà (département of Sègre). In 1814 a royal decree
reestablished the independence and economy of Andorra.
During this period, Andorra's late medieval institutions and rural
culture remained largely unchanged. In 1866 the syndic Guillem
d'Areny-Plandolit led the reformist group in a Council General of 24
members, elected by suffrage limited to heads of families, replaced
the aristocratic oligarchy that previously ruled the state. The
New Reform (Nova Reforma or Pla de Reforma) began after being ratified
by both Co-Princes and established the basis of the constitution and
symbols (such as the tricolor flag) of Andorra. A new service economy
arose as a demand of the inhabitants of the valleys and began to build
infrastructures such as hotels, spa resorts, roads and telegraph
Illustration of a scene from the streets of
Canillo during the
Revolution of 1881.
The authorities of the Co-Princes (veguer) banned casinos and betting
houses throughout the country by establishing an economic conflict
with the demand of the Andorran people. The conflict led to the
so-called Revolution of 1881 or Troubles of Andorra, when
revolutionaries assaulted the house of the syndic during 8 December
1880 and established the Provisional Revolutionary Council led by Joan
Pla i Calvo and Pere Baró i Mas, who granted the construction of
casinos and spas to foreign companies. During 7 and 9 June 1881,
the loyalists of
Encamp reconquered the parishes of Ordino
Massana by establishing contact with the revolutionary forces in
Escaldes-Engordany. After a day of combat finally the Treaty of
the Bridge of Escalls was signed the 10 of June.
The Council was replaced and new elections were held. But the economic
situation worsened, as society was divided over the Qüestió
Andorra (the Andorran Question in relation to the Eastern
Question). The struggles continued between pro-bishops, pro-French
and nationalists who derived the troubles of
Canillo in 1882 and
Andorra participated in the cultural movement of the Catalan
Renaixença. Between 1882 and 1887 the first academic schools were
formed where trilingualism coexists with the knowledge of the official
language, Catalan. Some romantic authors from both
France and Spain
reported the awakening of the national consciousness of the country.
Jacint Verdaguer lived in
Ordino during the 1880s where he wrote and
share works related to the
Renaixença with Joaquim de Riba, writer
and photographer. Fromental Halévy, for his part, had already
premiered in 1848 the opera Le Val d'Andorre of great success in
Europe, where the national consciousness of the valleys during the
Peninsular War was exposed in the romantic work.
20th century: Modernization of the country and the Constitutional
Boris Skossyreff, briefly self-proclaimed "King of Andorra" in 1934.
Andorra declared war on
Imperial Germany during World War I, but did
not take part directly in the fighting. It is known that some
Andorrans volunteered to take part in the conflict as part of the
French Legions. It remained in an official state of belligerency
until 1958 as it was not included in the Treaty of Versailles.
Andorra following social unrest which
occurred before elections due the Revolution of 1933 and the FHASA
strikes (Vagues de FHASA); the revolt led by Joves Andorrans (a labour
union group related to the Spanish CNT and FAI) called for political
reforms, the universal suffrage vote of all Andorrans and acted in
defense of the rights of local and foreign workers during the
construction of FHASA's hydroelectric power station in Encamp. The
5th April 1933 Joves Andorrans took the Andorran Parlamient under
their custody in rebellion to their requests. These actions were
preceded by the arrival of Colonel René-Jules Baulard with 50
gendarmes and the mobilization of 200 local militias or sometent led
by the Síndic Francesc Cairat.
On 12 July 1934, adventurer
Boris Skossyreff issued a proclamation in
Urgell, declaring himself "Boris I, King of Andorra", simultaneously
declaring war on the Bishop of Urgell. He was arrested by the Spanish
authorities on 20 July and ultimately expelled from Spain. From 1936
until 1940, a French military detachment was garrisoned in
secure the principality against disruption from the Spanish Civil War
and Francoist Spain. Francoist troops reached the Andorran border in
the later stages of the war. During World War II,
neutral and was an important smuggling route between Vichy
Given its relative isolation,
Andorra has existed outside the
mainstream of European history, with few ties to countries other than
Spain and Portugal. In recent times, however, its thriving
tourist industry along with developments in transport and
communications have removed the country from its isolation. Since 1976
the country sees the need to reform Andorran institutions due to the
anachronisms in the field of sovereignty, human rights and the balance
of powers as well as the need to adapt legislation to modern demands.
In 1982 a first separation of powers took place when instituting the
Govern d'Andorra, under the name of Executive Board (Consell
Executiu), chaired by the first prime minister
Òscar Ribas Reig with
the approval of the Co-Princes. In 1989 the
Principality signed an
agreement with the
European Economic Community
European Economic Community to regularize trade
Its political system was modernized in 1993 after the Andorran
constitutional referendum, when the constitution was drafted by the
Co-Princes and the General Council and approved on 14 March by
74.2% of voters, with a 76% turnout. The first elections under the
new constitution were held later in the year. The same year
Andorra became a member of the
United Nations and the Council of
Main article: Politics of Andorra
Main article: Co-princes of Andorra
Joan Enric Vives i Sicília
– current Catalan episcopal Co-
Prince of Andorra
Prince of Andorra since 12 May
– current French Co-
Prince of Andorra
Prince of Andorra since 14 May 2017
Andorra is a parliamentary co-principality with the President of
France and the Catholic
Bishop of Urgell
Bishop of Urgell (Catalonia, Spain) as
Co-Princes. This peculiarity makes the President of France, in his
capacity as Prince of Andorra, an elected reigning monarch, although
he is not elected by a popular vote of the Andorran people. The
Andorra take place in a framework of a parliamentary
representative democracy, whereby the Head of Government is the chief
executive, and of a pluriform multi-party system.
The current Head of Government is
Antoni Martí of the Democrats for
Executive power is exercised by the government.
Legislative power is vested in both government and parliament.
The Parliament of
Andorra is known as the General Council. The General
Council consists of between 28 and 42 Councillors. The Councillors
serve for four-year terms, and elections are held between the 30th and
40th days following the dissolution of the previous Council.
Casa de la Vall, Historical and Ceremonial Andorran Parliament.
The New Parliament of Andorra, General Council headquarter since 2011,
next to Casa de la Vall.
The centre of government in
Andorra la Vella.
Half are elected in equal numbers by each of the seven administrative
parishes, and the other half of the Councillors are elected in a
single national constituency. Fifteen days after the election, the
Councillors hold their inauguration. During this session, the Syndic
General, who is the head of the General Council, and the Subsyndic
General, his assistant, are elected. Eight days later, the Council
convenes once more. During this session the Head of Government is
chosen from among the Councillors.
Candidates can be proposed by a minimum of one-fifth of the
Councillors. The Council then elects the candidate with the absolute
majority of votes to be Head of Government. The
Syndic General then
notifies the Co-Princes, who in turn appoint the elected candidate as
the Head of Government of Andorra. The General Council is also
responsible for proposing and passing laws. Bills may be presented to
the Council as Private Members' Bills by three of the local Parish
Councils jointly or by at least one tenth of the citizens of Andorra.
The Council also approves the annual budget of the principality. The
government must submit the proposed budget for parliamentary approval
at least two months before the previous budget expires. If the budget
is not approved by the first day of the next year, the previous budget
is extended until a new one is approved. Once any bill is approved,
Syndic General is responsible for presenting it to the Co-Princes
so that they may sign and enact it.
If the Head of Government is not satisfied with the Council, he may
request that the Co-Princes dissolve the Council and order new
elections. In turn, the Councillors have the power to remove the Head
of Government from office. After a motion of censure is approved by at
least one-fifth of the Councillors, the Council will vote and if it
receives the absolute majority of votes, the Head of Government is
Law and criminal justice
Main article: Law of Andorra
The judiciary is composed of the Magistrates Court, the Criminal Law
Court, the High Court of Andorra, and the Constitutional Court. The
High Court of Justice is composed of five judges: one appointed by the
Head of Government, one each by the Co-Princes, one by the Syndic
General, and one by the Judges and Magistrates. It is presided over by
the member appointed by the
Syndic General and the judges hold office
for six-year terms.
The Magistrates and Judges are appointed by the High Court, as is the
President of the Criminal Law Court. The High Court also appoints
members of the Office of the Attorney General. The Constitutional
Court is responsible for interpreting the Constitution and reviewing
all appeals of unconstitutionality against laws and treaties. It is
composed of four judges, one appointed by each of the Co-Princes and
two by the General Council. They serve eight-year terms. The Court is
presided over by one of the Judges on a two-year rotation so that each
judge at one point will preside over the Court.
Foreign relations, defence, and security
Main article: Foreign relations of Andorra
The embassy of
Andorra in Brussels
Andorra does not have its own armed forces, although there is a
small ceremonial army. Responsibility for defending the nation rests
France and Spain. However, in case of emergencies
or natural disasters, the Sometent (an alarm) is called and all
able-bodied men between 21 and 60 of Andorran nationality must
serve. This is why all Andorrans, and especially the head of
each house (usually the eldest able-bodied man of a house) should, by
law, keep a rifle, even though the law also states that the police
will offer a firearm in case of need.
Andorra is a full member of
United Nations (UN), the Organization for Security and
Europe (OSCE), and has a special agreement with the
European Union (EU).
Andorra has a small army, which has historically been raised or
reconstituted at various dates, but has never in modern times amounted
to a standing army. The basic principle of Andorran defence is that
all able-bodied men are available to fight if called upon by the
sounding of the Sometent. Being a landlocked country,
Andorra has no
Prior to World War I,
Andorra maintained an armed force of about 600
part-time militiamen. This body was not liable for service outside the
principality and was commanded by two officials (viguiers) appointed
France and the Bishop of Urgell.
Despite not being involved in any fighting during the First World War,
Andorra was technically the longest combatant, as the country was left
out of the Versailles Peace Conference, technically remaining at war
Germany from its original declaration of war in 1914 until 24
September 1958 when
Andorra officially declared peace with
In the modern era, the army has consisted of a very small body of
volunteers willing to undertake ceremonial duties. Uniforms were
handed down from generation to generation within families and
The army's role in internal security was largely taken over by the
formation of the
Police Corps of Andorra
Police Corps of Andorra in 1931. Brief civil disorder
associated with the elections of 1933 led to assistance being sought
from the French National Gendarmerie, with a detachment resident in
Andorra for two months under the command of René-Jules Baulard.
The Andorran Army was reformed in the following year, with eleven
soldiers appointed to supervisory roles. The force consisted of
six Corporals, one for each parish (although there are currently seven
parishes, there were only six until 1978), plus four junior staff
officers to co-ordinate action, and a commander with the rank of
major. It was the responsibility of the six corporals, each in his own
parish, to be able to raise a fighting force from among the
able-bodied men of the parish.
Today a small, twelve-man ceremonial unit remains the only permanent
section of the Andorran Army, but all able-bodied men remain
technically available for military service, with a requirement
for each family to have access to a firearm. The army has not fought
for more than 700 years, and its main responsibility is to present the
Andorra at official ceremonial functions. According
to Marc Forné Molné, Andorra's military budget is strictly from
voluntary donations, and the availability of full-time
The myth that all members of the Andorran Army are ranked as officers
is popularly maintained in many works of reference. In
reality, all those serving in the permanent ceremonial reserve hold
ranks as officers, or non-commissioned officers, because the other
ranks are considered to be the rest of the able-bodied male
population, who may still be called upon by the Sometent to serve,
although such a call has not been made in modern times.
Main article: Police Corps of Andorra
Andorra maintains a small but modern and well-equipped internal police
force, with around 240 police officers supported by civilian
assistants. The principal services supplied by the corps are uniformed
community policing, criminal detection, border control, and traffic
policing. There are also small specialist units including police dogs,
mountain rescue, and a bomb disposal team.
The Grup d'Intervenció Policia d'
Andorra (GIPA) is a small special
forces unit trained in counter-terrorism, and hostage recovery tasks.
Although it is the closest in style to an active military force, it is
part of the Police Corps, and not the army. As terrorist and hostage
situations are a rare threat to the country, the GIPA is commonly
assigned to prisoner escort duties, and at other times to routine
The Andorran Fire Brigade, with headquarters at Santa Coloma, operates
from four modern fire stations, and has a staff of around 120
firefighters. The service is equipped with 16 heavy appliances (fire
tenders, turntable ladders, and specialist four-wheel drive vehicles),
four light support vehicles (cars and vans) and four ambulances.
Historically, the families of the six ancient parishes of Andorra
maintained local arrangements to assist each other in fighting fires.
The first fire pump purchased by the government was acquired in 1943.
Serious fires which lasted for two days in December 1959 led to calls
for a permanent fire service, and the Andorran Fire Brigade was formed
on 21 April 1961.
The fire service maintains full-time cover with five fire crews on
duty at any time: two at the brigade's headquarters in Santa Coloma,
and one crew at each of the other three fire stations.
Andorra with its seven parishes labelled.
Topographic map of Andorra.
Geography of Andorra
Geography of Andorra and Geology of Andorra
Main article: Parishes of Andorra
Andorra consists of seven parishes:
Andorra la Vella
Sant Julià de Lòria
Due to its location in the eastern
Pyrenees mountain range, Andorra
consists predominantly of rugged mountains, the highest being the Coma
Pedrosa at 2,942 metres (9,652 ft), and the average elevation of
Andorra is 1,996 metres (6,549 ft). These are dissected by
three narrow valleys in a Y shape that combine into one as the main
Gran Valira river, leaves the country for
Andorra's lowest point of 840 m or 2,756 ft). Andorra's land
area is 468 km2 (181 sq mi).
Andorra belongs to the Atlantic European province
Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. According to the
WWF, the territory of
Andorra belongs to the ecoregion of Pyrenees
conifer and mixed forests.
Andorra has an alpine climate and continental climate. Its higher
elevation means there is, on average, more snow in winter, lower
humidity, and it is slightly cooler in summer.
Main article: Economy of Andorra
Exports in 2009
Scenery of Andorran mountains in Grand Valira ski resort, Soldeu.
Caldea thermal spa, Escaldes-Engordany, the biggest thermoludic center
in Southern Europe.
Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's tiny, well-to-do economy, accounts
for roughly 80% of GDP. An estimated 10.2 million tourists visit
annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its summer
and winter resorts.
One of the main sources of income in
Andorra is tourism from ski
resorts which total over 175 km (109 mi) of ski ground. The
sport brings in over 10 million visitors annually and an estimated 340
million euros per year, sustaining 2,000 direct and 10,000 indirect
jobs at present since 2007.
The banking sector, with its tax haven status, also contributes
substantially to the economy (the financial and insurance sector
accounts for approximately 19% of GDP). The financial system
comprises five banking groups, one specialised credit entity, 8
investment undertaking management entities, 3 asset management
companies and 29 insurance companies, 14 of which are branches of
foreign insurance companies authorised to operate in the
Agricultural production is limited, only 2% of the land is arable, and
most food has to be imported. Some tobacco is grown locally. The
principal livestock activity is domestic sheep raising. Manufacturing
output consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. Andorra's
natural resources include hydroelectric power, mineral water, timber,
iron ore, and lead.
Andorra is not a member of the European Union, but enjoys a special
relationship with it, such as being treated as an EU member for trade
in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU member for
Andorra lacked a currency of its own and used
French franc and the
Spanish peseta in banking transactions
until 31 December 1999, when both currencies were replaced by the EU's
single currency, the euro. Coins and notes of both the franc and the
peseta remained legal tender in
Andorra until 31 December 2002.
Andorra negotiated to issue its own euro coins, beginning in 2014.
Andorra has traditionally had one of the world's lowest unemployment
rates. In 2009 it stood at 2.9%.
Andorra has long benefited from its status as a tax haven, with
revenues raised exclusively through import tariffs. However, during
European sovereign-debt crisis
European sovereign-debt crisis of the 21st century, its tourist
economy suffered a decline, partly caused by a drop in the prices of
goods in Spain, which undercut Andorran duty-free shopping. This led
to a growth in unemployment. On 1 January 2012, a business tax of 10%
was introduced, followed by a sales tax of 2% a year later, which
raised just over 14 million euros in its first quarter.
On 31 May 2013, it was announced that
Andorra intended to legislate
for the introduction of an income tax by the end of June, against a
background of increasing dissatisfaction with the existence of tax
havens among EU members. The announcement was made following a
meeting in Paris between the Head of Government
Antoni Marti and the
French President and Prince of Andorra, François Hollande. Hollande
welcomed the move as part of a process of
Andorra "bringing its
taxation in line with international standards".
The town of Encamp, Andorra, as seen from the Vall dels Cortals
Main article: Demographics of Andorra
Source: Departament d'Estadística d'Andorra
The population of
Andorra is estimated at 77,281 (2016). The
population has grown from 5,000 in 1900.
Two-thirds of residents lack Andorran nationality and do not have the
right to vote in communal elections. Moreover, they are not allowed to
be elected as prime minister or to own more than 33% of the
capital stock of a privately held company.
Main article: Languages of Andorra
The historic and official language is Catalan, a Romance language. The
Andorran government encourages the use of Catalan. It funds a
Commission for Catalan
Andorra (Catalan: la Comissió de
Toponímia d'Andorra), and provides free Catalan classes to assist
immigrants. Andorran television and radio stations use Catalan.
Because of immigration, historical links, and close geographic
proximity, Spanish, Portuguese and French are also commonly spoken.
Most Andorran residents can speak one or more of these, in addition to
Catalan. English is less commonly spoken among the general population,
though it is understood to varying degrees in the major tourist
Andorra is one of only four European countries (together with
France, Monaco, and Turkey) that have never signed the Council of
Europe Framework Convention on National Minorities.
According to the Observatori Social d'Andorra, the linguistic usage in
Andorra is as follows:
2005 3 PoliticaLinguistica.pdf
The population of
Andorra is predominantly (88.2%) Catholic.
Their patron saint is Our Lady of Meritxell. Though it is not an
official state religion, the constitution acknowledges a special
relationship with the Catholic Church, offering some special
privileges to that group[clarification needed]. Other Christian
denominations include the Anglican Church, the Unification Church, the
New Apostolic Church, and Jehovah's Witnesses. The small Muslim
community is primarily made up of North African immigrants. There
is a small community of Hindus and Bahá'ís, and roughly
100 Jews live in Andorra. (See History of the Jews in Andorra.)
Main article: List of cities in Andorra
Largest cities or towns in Andorra
Parishes of Andorra
Andorra la Vella
Andorra la Vella
Andorra la Vella
Sant Julià de Lòria
Sant Julià de Lòria
Sant Julià de Lòria
Andorra la Vella
El Pas de la Casa
Children between the ages of 6 and 16 are required by law to have
full-time education. Education up to secondary level is provided free
of charge by the government.
There are three systems of school, Andorran, French and Spanish, which
use then Catalan, French and Spanish languages respectively, as the
main language of instruction. Parents may choose which system their
children attend. All schools are built and maintained by Andorran
authorities, but teachers in the French and Spanish schools are paid
for the most part by
France and Spain. About 50% of Andorran children
attend the French primary schools, and the rest attend Spanish or
University of Andorra
Universitat d'Andorra (UdA) is the state public university and is
the only university in Andorra. It was established in 1997. The
university provides first-level degrees in nursing, computer science,
business administration, and educational sciences, in addition to
higher professional education courses. The only two graduate schools
Andorra are the Nursing School and the School of Computer Science,
the latter having a PhD programme.
Virtual Studies Centre
The geographical complexity of the country as well as the small number
of students prevents the University of
Andorra from developing a full
academic programme, and it serves principally as a centre for virtual
studies, connected to Spanish and French universities. The Virtual
Studies Centre (Centre d’Estudis Virtuals) at the University runs
approximately twenty different academic degrees at both undergraduate
and postgraduate levels in fields including tourism, law, Catalan
philology, humanities, psychology, political sciences, audiovisual
communication, telecommunications engineering, and East Asia studies.
The Centre also runs various postgraduate programmes and
continuing-education courses for professionals.
Andorra is provided to all employed persons and their
families by the government-run social security system, Caixa Andorrana
de Seguretat Social (CASS), which is funded by employer and employee
contributions in respect of salaries. The cost of healthcare is
covered by CASS at rates of 75% for out-patient expenses such as
medicines and hospital visits, 90% for hospitalisation, and 100% for
work-related accidents. The remainder of the costs may be covered by
private health insurance. Other residents and tourists require full
private health insurance.
The main hospital, Meritxell, is in Escaldes-Engordany. There are also
12 primary health care centres in various locations around the
Main article: Transport in Andorra
See also: Andorra–
La Seu d'Urgell
La Seu d'Urgell Airport
A train at
Latour-de-Carol (La Tor de Querol), one of the two stations
Andorra has no railways, although the line connecting
Latour-de-Carol and Toulouse, which in turn connects to France's TGVs
at Toulouse, runs within two kilometres (1.2 miles) of the Andorran
Until the 20th century,
Andorra had very limited transport links to
the outside world, and development of the country was affected by its
physical isolation. Even now, the nearest major airports at Toulouse
Barcelona are both three hours' drive from Andorra.
Andorra has a road network of 279 km (173 mi), of which
76 km (47 mi) is unpaved. The two main roads out of Andorra
la Vella are the CG-1 to the Spanish border, and the CG-2 to the
French border via the Envalira Tunnel near El Pas de la Casa. Bus
services cover all metropolitan areas and many rural communities, with
services on most major routes running half-hourly or more frequently
during peak travel times. There are frequent long-distance bus
Barcelona and Toulouse, plus a daily tour
from the former city. Bus services are mostly run by private
companies, but some local ones are operated by the government.
There are no airports for fixed-wing aircraft within Andorra's borders
but there are, however, heliports in La
Massana (Camí Heliport),
Escaldes-Engordany with commercial helicopter
services and an airport located in the neighbouring Spanish
comarca of Alt Urgell, 12 kilometres (7.5 miles) south of the
Andorran-Spanish border. Since July 2015, Andorra–La Seu
d'Urgell Airport has operated commercial flights to Madrid and Palma
de Mallorca, and is the main hub for
Air Andorra and
Nearby airports located in
France provide access to
international flights for the principality. The nearest airports are
France (156 kilometres or 97 miles from Andorra) and
Spain (160 kilometres or 99 miles from Andorra). The largest
nearby airports are at Toulouse,
France (165 kilometres or 103 miles
from Andorra) and Barcelona,
Spain (215 kilometres or 134 miles from
Andorra). There are hourly bus services from both
Toulouse airports to Andorra.
The nearest railway station is
L'Hospitalet-près-l'Andorre 10 km
(6 mi) east of
Andorra which is on the 1,435 mm
(4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)-gauge line from Latour-de-Carol
(25 km or 16 mi) southeast of Andorra, to
Toulouse and on to
Paris by the French high-speed trains. This line is operated by the
Latour-de-Carol has a scenic 1,000 mm
(3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) metre gauge trainline to
Villefranche-de-Conflent, as well as the SNCF's 1,435 mm gauge
line connecting to Perpignan, and the RENFE's 1,668 mm
(5 ft 5 21⁄32 in) -gauge line to
Barcelona. There are also direct Intercités de Nuit trains
L'Hospitalet-près-l'Andorre and Paris on certain dates.
Media and telecommunications
Main article: Telecommunications in Andorra
This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to
reflect recent events or newly available information. (November 2015)
In Andorra, mobile and fixed telephone and internet services are
operated exclusively by the Andorran national telecommunications
company, SOM, also known as
Andorra Telecom (STA). The same company
also manages the technical infrastructure for national broadcasting of
digital television and radio.
By the end of 2010, it was planned that every home in the country
would have fibre-to-the-home for internet access at a minimum speed of
100 Mbit/s, and the availability was complete in June 2012.
There is only one Andorran television station, Ràdio i Televisió
Andorra (RTVA). Radio Nacional d’
Andorra operates two radio
Radio Andorra and
Andorra Música. There are three national
newspapers, Diari d'Andorra, El Periòdic d'Andorra, and Bondia as
well as several local newspapers. There is also an amateur radio
society. Additional TV and radio stations from
Spain and France
are available via digital terrestrial television and IPTV.
Main article: Culture of Andorra
See also: Music of Andorra
Andorran flag on balcony, Ordino
The official and historic language is Catalan. Thus the culture is
Catalan, with its own specificity.
Andorra is home to folk dances like the contrapàs and marratxa, which
Sant Julià de Lòria
Sant Julià de Lòria especially. Andorran folk music has
similarities to the music of its neighbours, but is especially Catalan
in character, especially in the presence of dances such as the
sardana. Other Andorran folk dances include contrapàs in
Vella and Saint Anne's dance in Escaldes-Engordany. Andorra's national
Our Lady of Meritxell
Our Lady of Meritxell Day, 8 September. American folk
artist Malvina Reynolds, intrigued by its defence budget of $4.90,
wrote a song "Andorra".
Pete Seeger added verses, and sang "Andorra"
on his 1962 album The Bitter and the Sweet.
Andorra is famous for the practice of Winter Sports. Popular sports
Andorra include football, rugby union, basketball and roller
In roller hockey
Andorra usually plays in CERH
Euro Cup and in FIRS
Roller Hockey World Cup. In 2011,
Andorra was the host country to the
2011 European League Final Eight.
Estadi Comunal d'
Andorra la Vella
The country is represented in association football by the Andorra
national football team. However, the team has had little success
internationally because of Andorra's small population. Football
is governed in
Andorra by the
Andorran Football Federation
Andorran Football Federation - founded
in 1994, it organizes the national competitions of association
football (Primera Divisió,
Copa Constitució and Supercopa) and
Andorra was admitted to
FIFA in the same year, 1996.
FC Andorra, a club based in
Andorra la Vella
Andorra la Vella founded in 1942, compete
in the Spanish football league system.
Rugby is a traditional sport in Andorra, mainly influenced by the
popularity in southern France. The
Andorra national rugby union team,
nicknamed "Els Isards", has impressed on the international stage in
rugby union and rugby sevens.
VPC Andorra XV
VPC Andorra XV is a rugby team
Andorra la Vella
Andorra la Vella actually playing in the French championship.
Basketball popularity has increased in the country since the 1990s,
when the Andorran team
BC Andorra played in the top league of Spain
(Liga ACB). After 18 years the club returned to the top league in
Other sports practised in
Andorra include cycling, volleyball, judo,
Australian Rules football, handball, swimming, gymnastics, tennis and
motorsports. In 2012,
Andorra raised its first national cricket team
and played a home match against the Dutch Fellowship of Fairly Odd
Cricket Club, the first match played in the history of Andorra
at an altitude of 1,300 metres (4,300 ft).
Andorra first participated at the
Olympic Games in 1976. The country
has also appeared in every Winter
Olympic Games since 1976. Andorra
competes in the Games of the Small States of
Europe being twice the
host country in 1991 and 2005.
As part of the Catalan cultural ambit,
Andorra is home to a team of
castellers, or Catalan human tower builders. The Castellers
d'Andorra (ca), based in the town of Santa Coloma d'Andorra, are
recognized by the Coordinadora de Colles Castelleres de Catalunya, the
governing body of castells.
Ariadna Tudel Cuberes and
Sophie Dusautoir Bertrand earned the bronze
medal in the women's team competition at the 2009 European
Championship of Ski Mountaineering.
Joan Verdu Sanchez earned a bronze
medal in Alpine Skiing at the 2012 Winter Youth Olympics. In 2015,
Marc Oliveras earned a silver medal in Alpine Skiing at the 2015
Winter Universiade, while Carmina Pallas earned a silver and a bronze
medal in the same competition.
Catalan-speaking countries portal
Index of Andorra-related articles
Outline of Andorra
Bibliography of Andorra
^ a b c d e "CIA World Factbook entry: Andorra". Cia.gov. Retrieved 26
^ a b c "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org
(custom data acquired via website).
United Nations Department of
Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10
^ "HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2016 – Statistical annex". United
Nations. 2016. Retrieved 25 March 2017.
^ Funk and Wagnalls Encyclopedia, 1993
^ Malankar, Nikhil (2017-04-18). "Andorra: 10 Unusual Facts About The
Tiny European Principality". Tell Me Nothing. Retrieved
^ "Maps, Weather, and Airports for
Andorra la Vella, Andorra".
Fallingrain.com. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
^ "Background Note: Andorra". State.gov. Retrieved 2015-05-14.
^ a b "HOTELERIA I TURISME". Archived from the original on 12
September 2017. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
United Nations Member States". Un.org. Retrieved 2015-05-14.
^ GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators. (10 January
2015). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and
cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a
systematic analysis for the
Global Burden of Disease Study 2013".
Lancet. 385 (9963): 117–71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2.
PMC 4340604 . PMID 25530442.
^ Diccionari d'Història de Catalunya; ed. 62; Barcelona; 1998;
ISBN 84-297-3521-6; p. 42; entrada "Andorra"
^ Font Rius, José María (1985). Estudis sobre els drets i
institucions locals en la Catalunya medieval. Edicions Universitat
Barcelona. p. 743. ISBN 8475281745.
^ Gaston, L. L. (1912). Andorra, the Hidden Republic: Its Origin and
Institutions, and the Record of a Journey Thither. New York, USA:
McBridge, Nast & Co. p. 9.
^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved
^ Freedman, Paul (1999). Images of the Medieval Peasant. CA, USA:
Stanford University Press. p. 189. ISBN 9780804733731.
La Margineda - El Camí". 21 April 2014. Archived from the original
on 15 October 2014.
^ a b Guillamet Antoni 2009, p. 32, 33.
^ a b c d e f g Armengol Aleix 2009, p. 44 a 92.
^ Guillamet Antoni 2009, p. 34, 35, 38, 39.
^ "Mapes Vius - Linguamon. Casa de les Llengües". 22 May 2010.
Archived from the original on 22 May 2010.
^ Guillamet Antoni 2009, p. 43.
^ a b Guillamet Antoni 2009, p. 37, 36.
^ a b Guillamet Antoni 2009, p. 44, 45, 46, 47.
^ Guillamet Antoni 2009, p. 52, 53.
^ a b c d Armengol Aleix 2009.
^ "El pas de Carlemany - Turisme
Andorra la Vella".
turisme.andorralavella.ad. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
^ Vidal, Jaume. "
Andorra mira els arxius". Elpuntavui.cat. Retrieved 3
^ "La formació d'Andorra". Gran Enciclopèdia Catalana. Enciclopèdia
Catalana. (in Catalan) English version
^ a b c "Elements de la història del Principat d'Andorra" (in
Catalan). Archived from the original on 9 February 2010.
^ a b c d Armengol Aleix 2009, p. 96 a 146.
^ "Ermessenda de Castellbò". Gran Enciclopèdia Catalana.
Enciclopèdia Catalana. (in Catalan) English version
^ a b Guillamet Anton 2009.
^ a b Jordi Planellas 2013.
^ "Absis d'Engolasters - Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya".
www.museunacional.cat. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
^ Guillamet Anton 2009, p. 60, 61.
^ Guillamet Antoni 2009, p. 78, 79, 80, 81, 88, 89.
^ Guillamet Antoni 2009, p. 48, 49,.
^ Garcia 2011.
^ Armengol Aleix 2009, p. 150 a 194.
^ "HISTÒRIA DE LA LLENGUA CATALANA" (PDF). Racocatala.cat. Retrieved
^ Anne Doustaly-Dunyach 2011.
^ a b Llop Rovira 1998, p. 44, 45, 47, 48, 50.
^ Guillamet Anton 2009, p. 108, 109.
^ a b Armengol Aleix 2009, p. 238, 239.
^ Jordi Planellas 2013, p. 42.
^ Llop Rovira 1998, p. 53, 54, 56.
^ Llop Rovira 1998, p. 14.
^ Llop Rovira 1998, p. 15.
^ Guillamet Anton 2009, p. 134.
^ "390.000 euros per rehabilitar l'exterior i obrir els jardins de la
Casa Rossell - BonDia Diari digital d'Andorra". 9 August 2016.
Archived from the original on 9 August 2016. CS1 maint: BOT:
original-url status unknown (link)
^ Llop Rovira 1998, p. 20, 21.
^ Guillamet Antoni 2009, p. 106, 107.
^ Guillamet Anton 2009, p. 105, 106, 107, 140, 141.
^ Armengol Aleix 2009, p. 263 a 270.
^ Llop Rovira 1998, p. 60.
^ Guillamet Antoni 2009, p. 82.
^ a b c Armengol Aleix 2009, p. 229.
^ Llop Rovira 1998, p. 49 a 52, i 57, 58.
^ Armengol Aleix 2009, p. 172.
^ Guillamet Anton 2009, p. 172.
^ Armengol Aleix 2009, p. 342, 343.
^ a b Page 966, Volume 1, Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
^ Armengol Aleix 2009, p. 192, 193.
^ Guillamet Anton 2009, p. 191, 192, 193.
^ Armengol Aleix 2009, p. 345 a 347.
^ Segalàs 2012, p. 93 a 95.
^ "Saqueo de
Canillo por las fuerzas del gobierno revolucionario tras
el sitio de la aldea". Wdl.org. 12 March 1881. Retrieved 3 August
^ Armengol Aleix 2009, p. 198, 199, 203.
^ Peruga Guerrero 1998, p. 59, 60, 63.
^ Ministeri d'Educació, Joventut i Esports 1996, p. 58, 59, 60,
61, 62, 63, 64, 65.
^ Armengol Aleix 2009, p. 194, 195.
^ Guillamet Anton 2009, p. 194, 195.
^ Armengol Aleix 2009, p. 348 a 350.
^ Segalàs 2012, p. 95.
^ Peruga Guerrero 1998, p. 64, 65, 66, 67, 68.
^ Ministeri d'Educació, Joventut i Esports 1996, p. 67 a 70.
^ Guillamet Anton 2009, p. 198, 199, 202, 203.
^ Armengol Aleix 2009, p. 352, 353.
^ Peruga Guerrero 1998, p. 78, 79, 80, 81.
^ Ministeri d'Educació, Joventut i Esports 1996, p. 74.
^ Armengol Aleix 2009, p. 354, 355, 356, 357.
^ Àrea de Recerca Històrica del Govern d'
Andorra 2006, p. 33.
^ Segalàs 2012.
Andorra Difusió. "
Andorra va declarar la guerra a Alemanya
el 1914? -
Andorra Difusió". andorradifusio.ad.
^ a b "
World War I
World War I Ends in Andorra". New York Times. 25 September
1958. p. 66.
^ "Rebellion in
Andorra 1933 – International Club of Andorra".
^ "1933: la República que quasi va ser".
^ "PressReader.com - Connecting People Through News".
^ "Quan vam treure l'escopeta".
Andorra tria el primer cap de govern de la seva història".
^ "EUR-Lex - 21990A1231(02) - EN - EUR-Lex". eur-lex.europa.eu.
^ a b Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data
handbook, p160 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
^ Nohlen & Stöver, p162
^ "Documento BOE-A-1993-16868". BOE.es. 30 June 1993. Retrieved 26
^ "El Sometent Tourism". Turisme.andorralavella.ad. 17 May 2011.
Retrieved 26 August 2012.
^ a b "Decret veguers Sometent, del 23 d'octubre de 1984" (PDF).
Retrieved 26 August 2012.
^ Reich, Herb (2012). Lies They Teach in School: Exposing the Myths
Behind 250 Commonly Believed Fallacies. New York: Skyhorse Publishing,
Inc. p. 52. ISBN 9781620873458.
^ Ben Cahoon. "Andorra". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 26 August
^ "Andorra's 'ARMY' – Eleven Permanent Troops!". The Times. 5
January 1934. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
^ "Andorra". State.gov. 20 April 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
^ "Bop14073" (PDF). Retrieved 26 August 2012.
^ "History of the
Principality of Andorra". Andorramania.com. 11
December 1997. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
^ "Andorra". Un.org. 25 September 2003. Retrieved 26 August
^ "Andorra". State.gov. 2013-09-13. Retrieved 2015-05-14.
Andorra Politics, government, and taxation, Information about
Politics, government, and taxation in Andorra".
Nationsencyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2015-05-14.
^ Carles Iglesias Carril. "Andorran Police Service website".
Policia.ad. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
^ Carles Iglesias Carril. "Cos de Policia – Estructura
organitzativa". Policia.ad. Retrieved 2015-05-14.
^ "Vehicle details with extensive photo gallery here". Bombers.ad.
Archived from the original on 22 July 2012. Retrieved 26 August
^ "Fire Brigade history here (in Catalan)". Bombers.ad. Archived from
the original on August 1, 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
^ "Andorran Fire Service site". Bombers.ad. 17 August 2012. Retrieved
26 August 2012.
^ Atlas of
Andorra (1991), Andorran Government. OCLC 801960401.
Andorra - Valsen Fiduciaries".
^ a b "
Andorra and its financial system 2013" (PDF). Aba.ad. Archived
from the original (PDF) on 14 December 2015. Retrieved 14 May
^ "List of Banks in Andorra". Thebanks.eu. Retrieved 2015-05-14.
^ "CIA World Factbook: Andorra". Retrieved 5 June 2013.
Andorra gets a taste of taxation". The guardian. 27 December 2011.
Retrieved 30 March 2013.
Andorra Unveils First Indirect Tax Revenue Figures". Tax News. 9
Andorra to introduce income tax for first time". BBC News. 2 June
^ "Andorre aligne progressivement sa fiscalité sur les standards
internationaux (Elysée)". Notre Temps. 31 May 2011. Archived from the
original on 16 June 2013.
^ "Departament d'Estadística". www.estadistica.ad.
^ "Andorra" (PDF). U.S. Department of State. Retrieved
^ "El Parlamento andorrano facilita a los hijos de los residentes la
adquisición de la nacionalidad Edición impresa EL PAÍS".
Elpais.com. Retrieved 2015-05-14.
^ "Un examen para ser andorrano Edición impresa EL PAÍS".
Elpais.com. 1985-10-27. Retrieved 2015-05-14.
^ "La Constitución de
Andorra seguirá limitando los derechos del 70%
de la población Edición impresa EL PAÍS". Elpais.com.
1992-05-09. Retrieved 2015-05-14.
^ "Andorra, sólo inmigrantes sanos Edición impresa EL PAÍS".
Elpais.com. 2006-07-14. Retrieved 2015-05-14.
^ "Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities
(FCNM) : National Minorities, ''Council of Europe'', 14 September
2010". Coe.int. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities
Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities CETS
No. 157". Conventions.coe.int. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
^ "Observatori de l'Institut d'Estudis Andorrans" (in Catalan).
Archived from the original on 17 July 2007. Retrieved 5 June
^ PEW 2011. Pewforum.org (2011-12-19). Retrieved on 2015-12-30.
Andorra facts". Encyclopedia.com. Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved
November 22, 2016.
^ "Andorra". International – Regions – Southern Europe. The
Association of Religion Data Archives. 2005. Retrieved 4 July
^ "Andorra: population, capital, cities, GDP, map, flag, currency,
languages, ...". Wolfram Alpha. Online. Wolfram – Alpha (curated
data). 13 March 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-03-08.
^ "US Dept of State information". State.gov. 8 November 2005.
Retrieved 9 August 2013.
^ Travailler en Andorre (May 2006), Govern d'Andorra, Servei
d'Ocupació, p.30. (in French)
^ "List of specialties with coverage by CASS at the Hospital Nostra
Senyora de Meritxell (2009)". Online.cass.ad. Retrieved 26 August
^ "Agència de Mobilitat, Govern d'Andorra". Mobilitat.ad. Archived
from the original on 2013-03-17.
^ "Inici – Heliand – Helicopters a Andorra". Heliand. Retrieved
^  Archived 15 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Public and regional airport of Andorra-la Seu d'Urgell".
^ "Sncf Map" (in German). Bueker.net. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
^ "Google map". Maplandia.com. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
^ "How to travel by train from London to Andorra".
^ SOM Newsletter, March 2009.
^ Unió de Radioaficionats Andorra. Ura.ad. Retrieved on 2015-12-30.
FIFA Rankings – Andorra". Fifa.com. Retrieved 26 August
^  Archived 22 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
BC Andorra quiere volver a la Liga más bella". MARCA.com.
^ "El River
Andorra regresa a la ACB 18 años después Baloncesto
EL MUNDO". Elmundo.es. 2014-03-22. Retrieved 2015-05-14.
^ "Netherlands Based FFOP CC Beats
Andorra National Team". Cricket
World. 3 September 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
The Wikibook Wikijunior:Countries A-Z has a page on the topic of:
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Find more aboutAndorraat's sister projects
Definitions from Wiktionary
Media from Wikimedia Commons
News from Wikinews
Quotations from Wikiquote
Texts from Wikisource
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Travel guide from Wikivoyage
Learning resources from Wikiversity
Data from Wikidata
Govern d'Andorra – Official governmental site (in Catalan)
"Andorra". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
Portals to the World from the
United States Library of Congress
Andorra from UCB Libraries GovPubs
Andorra at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Andorra from the BBC News
Andorra – Guía, turismo y de viajes
History of Andorra: Primary Documents from EuroDocs
A New Path for
Andorra – slideshow by The New York Times
Geographic data related to
Andorra at OpenStreetMap
Wikimedia Atlas of Andorra
Cities and villages
Army and security
Police Corps of Andorra
Heads of government
Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe
Bosnia and Herzegovina
States with limited
autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark
Akrotiri and Dhekelia2
Sovereign Base Areas
British Overseas Territory
Isle of Man
Special areas of
autonomous region subject to the Åland Convention of 1921
unincorporated area subject to the
country of the
United Kingdom subject to the British-Irish Agreement
1 Oceanic islands within the vicinity of
Europe are usually grouped
with the continent even though they are not situated on its
2 Some countries completely outside the conventional geographical
Europe are commonly associated with the continent due to
List of current sovereign monarchs
List of current constituent monarchs
United Arab Emirates
Papua New Guinea
Antigua and Barbuda
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Council of Europe
Committee of Ministers
Court of Human Rights
Commissioner for Human Rights
Commission for the Efficiency of Justice
Commission against Racism and Intolerance
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Sovereign Military Order of Malta
Saar (assoc. 1950–1956)
1 Provisionally referred to by the Council of
Europe as "the
former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia"; see Macedonia naming dispute.
Central African Republic
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
St. Pierre and Miquelon
São Tomé and Príncipe
Bosnia and Herzegovina
United Arab Emirates
1 Associate member.
2 Provisionally referred to by the Francophonie as the "former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia"; see Macedonia naming dispute.
Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique
Agence universitaire de la Francophonie
UN French Language Day
International Francophonie Day
Jeux de la Francophonie
Prix des cinq continents de la francophonie