HOME
The Info List - Andorra



--- Advertisement ---


(i)

ANDORRA (/ænˈdɔːrə/ (_ listen ); Catalan: , locally ), officially the PRINCIPALITY OF ANDORRA (Catalan : Principat d'Andorra_), also called the PRINCIPALITY OF THE VALLEYS OF ANDORRA (Catalan: _Principat de les Valls d'Andorra_), is a sovereign landlocked microstate in Southwestern Europe
Europe
, located in the eastern Pyrenees
Pyrenees
mountains and bordered by Spain
Spain
and France
France
. Created under a charter in 988, the present principality was formed in 1278. It is known as a principality as it is a diarchy headed by two Co-Princes – the Catholic Bishop of Urgell in Spain, and the President of France
France
.

Andorra
Andorra
is the sixth-smallest nation in Europe
Europe
, having an area of 468 km2 (181 sq mi) and a population of approximately 85,000. Andorra is the 16th-smallest country in the world by land and 11th-smallest country by population. Its capital Andorra la Vella is the highest capital city in Europe, at an elevation of 1,023 metres (3,356 feet) above sea level . The official language is Catalan , although Spanish, Portuguese, and French are also commonly spoken.

Andorra\'s tourism services an estimated 10.2 million visitors annually. It is not a member of the European Union
European Union
, but the euro is the official currency. It has been a member of the United Nations since 1993. In 2013, the people of Andorra
Andorra
had the highest life expectancy in the world at 81 years, according to _ The Lancet _.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Prehistory * 2.2 The Iberian and Roman Andorra
Andorra
* 2.3 The Visigoths and Carolingians: the legend of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
* 2.4 Medieval Age: The Paréages and the founding of the Co- Principality
Principality
* 2.5 16th to 18th centuries * 2.6 19th century: the New Reform and the Andorran Question * 2.7 20th century

* 3 Politics * 4 Law and criminal justice

* 5 Foreign relations, defence, and security

* 5.1 Military

* 5.2 Police Corps

* 5.2.1 GIPA

* 5.3 Fire brigade

* 6 Geography

* 6.1 Parishes * 6.2 Physical geography * 6.3 Climate

* 7 Economy

* 8 Demographics

* 8.1 Population * 8.2 Languages * 8.3 Religion

* 9 Statistics

* 9.1 Largest cities

* 10 Education

* 10.1 Schools

* 10.2 University of Andorra
Andorra

* 10.2.1 Virtual Studies Centre

* 11 Healthcare * 12 Transport * 13 Media and telecommunications * 14 Culture

* 15 Sports

* 15.1 Major achievements

* 16 See also * 17 References * 18 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The origin of the word _Andorra_ is unknown, although several hypotheses have been formulated. The oldest derivation of the word _Andorra_ is from the Greek historian Polybius
Polybius
(_The Histories _ III, 35, 1) who describes the _Andosins_, an Iberian Pre-Roman tribe , as historically located in the valleys of Andorra
Andorra
and facing the Carthaginian army in its passage through the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
during the Punic Wars . The word _Andosini_ or _Andosins_ (Ἀνδοσίνους) may derive from the Basque _handia_ whose meaning is "big" or "giant". The Andorran toponymy shows evidence of Basque language in the area. Another theory suggests that the word _Andorra_ may derive from the old word _Anorra_ that contains the Basque word _ur_ (water).

Another theory suggests that _Andorra_ may derive from Arabic _al-durra_, meaning "The forest" (الدرة). When the Moors colonized the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
, the valleys of the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
were covered by large tracts of forest, and other regions and towns, also administered by Muslims, received this designation.

Other theories suggest that the term derives from the Navarro-Aragonese _andurrial_, which means "land covered with bushes" or "scrubland".

The folk etymology holds that Charlemagne
Charlemagne
had named the region as a reference to the Biblical
Biblical
Canaanite valley of _Endor _ or _Andor _ (where the Midianites had been defeated), a name also bestowed by his heir and son Louis le Debonnaire after defeating the Moors
Moors
in the "wild valleys of Hell".

HISTORY

Main article: History of Andorra

PREHISTORY

_ Roc de les Bruixes_ prehistorical sanctuary located in Canillo (detail). Hannibal 's route (in red) during the Second Punic War . The Iberian tribes (in green) fought against the Carthaginian army in the Pyrenees.

_La Balma de la Margineda _ found by archaeologists at Sant Julia de Loria were the first temporal settled in 10,000 BC as a passing place between the two sides of the Pyrenees. The seasonal camp was perfectly located for hunting and fishing by the groups of hunter-gatherers from Ariege and Segre
Segre
.

During the Neolithic Age
Neolithic Age
the group of humans moved to the Valley of Madriu (nowaday Natural Parc located in Escaldes-Engordany declared UNESCO World Heritage Site ) as a permanent camp in 6640 BC. The population of the valley grew cereals, raised domestic livestock and developed a commercial trade with people from the Segre
Segre
and Occitania .

Other archaeological deposits include the _Tombs of Segudet _ (Ordino ) and _Feixa del Moro_ (Sant Julia de Loria) both dated in 4900–4300 BC as an example of the Urn culture in Andorra. The model of small settlements begin to evolved as a complex urbanism during the Bronze Age . Metallurgical items of iron, ancient coins and relicaries can be found in the ancient sanctuaries scattered around the country.

The sanctuary of _Roc de les Bruixes_ (Stone of the Witches) is maybe the most important archeological complex of this Age in Andorra, located in the parish of Canillo , about the rituals of funerals, ancient scripture and engraved stone murals .

THE IBERIAN AND ROMAN ANDORRA

The inhabitants of the valleys were traditionally associated with the Iberians and historically located in Andorra
Andorra
as the Iberian tribe _Andosins_ or _Andosini_ (Ἀνδοσίνους) during the VII and II centuries BC. Influenced by Aquitanias , Basque and Iberian languages the locals developed some current toponyms. Early writings and documents relating this group of people goes back to the second century BC by the Greek writer Polybius
Polybius
in his _Histories_ during the Punic Wars .

Some of the most significant remains of this era are the Castle of the _Roc d'Enclar_ (part of the early Marca Hispanica
Marca Hispanica
), _l'Anxiu_ in Les Escaldes and _Roc de L'Oral_ in Encamp . It is known the presence of Roman influence from the II century BC to the V century AD. The places found with more Roman presence are in _Camp Vermell_ (Red Field) in Sant Julia de Loria and in some places in Encamp as well as in the _Roc d'Enclar_. People continued trading, mainly with wine and cereals, with the Roman cities of Urgellet (nowaday La Seu d\'Urgell ) and all across Segre
Segre
through the _Via Romana Strata Ceretana_ (also known as _Strata Confluetana_).

THE VISIGOTHS AND CAROLINGIANS: THE LEGEND OF CHARLEMAGNE

Charlemagne
Charlemagne
instructing his son Louis the Pious

After the fall of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
Andorra
Andorra
was under the influence of the Visigoths , not directly from the Kingdom of Toledo by distance, but more particular from the Diocese of Urgell . The Visigoths remained during 200 years in the valleys, a period in which Christianization takes place within the country. The fall of the Visigoths came from the Muslim Empire and its conquest of the Iberian Peninsula. Andorra
Andorra
remained away from these invasions by the Franks .

Tradition holds that _Charles the Great_ ( Charlemagne
Charlemagne
) granted a charter to the Andorran people, under the command of _Marc Almugaver_ and an army of five thousand soldiers, in return for fighting against the Moors
Moors
near Porté-Puymorens ( Cerdanya
Cerdanya
). _ The six old parishes named by their patron saint as depicted in the Acta de Consagració i Dotació de la Catedral de la Seu d'Urgell_ (839)

Andorra
Andorra
remained part of the Marca Hispanica
Marca Hispanica
of the Frankish Empire being overlordship of the territory the Count of Urgell and eventually by the bishop of the Diocese of Urgell. Also tradition holds that it was guaranteed by the son of Charlemagne, Louis the Pious , writing the _Carta de Poblament_ or a local municipal charter circa 805.

In 988, Borrell II , Count of Urgell, gave the Andorran valleys to the Diocese of Urgell in exchange for land in Cerdanya. Since then the Bishop of Urgell, based in Seu d'Urgell, has been Co-prince of Andorra.

The first document that mentions _Andorra_ as a territory is the _Acta de Consagració i Dotació de la Catedral de la Seu d'Urgell_ (Deed of Consecration and Endowment of the Cathedral of La Seu d'Urgell). The old document dated from 839 depicts the six old parishes of the Andorran valleys and therefore the administrative division of the country.

MEDIEVAL AGE: THE PARéAGES AND THE FOUNDING OF THE CO-PRINCIPALITY

Sant Joan de Caselles
Sant Joan de Caselles
church, dating from the 11th century, part of the Andorran Romanesque heritage

Before 1095, Andorra
Andorra
did not have any type of military protection and the Bishop of Urgell, who knew that the Count of Urgell wanted to reclaim the Andorran valleys, asked the Lord of Caboet for help and protection. In 1095 the Lord of Caboet and the Bishop of Urgell signed under oath a declaration of their co-sovereignty over Andorra. Arnalda, daughter of Arnau of Caboet, married the Viscount of Castellbò and both became Viscounts of Castellbò and Cerdanya. Years later their daughter, Ermessenda, married Roger Bernat II , the French Count of Foix . They became Roger Bernat II and Ermessenda I, Counts of Foix, Viscounts of Castellbò and Cerdanya, and co-sovereigns of Andorra
Andorra
(shared with the Bishop of Urgell).

In the 13th century, a military dispute arose between the Bishop of Urgell and the Count of Foix as aftermath of the Cathar Crusade . The conflict was resolved in 1278 with the mediation of the king of Aragon , Pere II between the Bishop and the Count, by the signing of the first paréage which provided that Andorra's sovereignty be shared between the count of Foix (whose title would ultimately transfer to the French head of state) and the Bishop of Urgell, in Catalonia
Catalonia
. This gave the principality its territory and political form. _ Monument commemorating in 1978 the 700th anniversary of the Paréages, located outside Casa de la Vall
Casa de la Vall
in the capital city of Andorra
Andorra
la Vella Apse fresco of Sant Miquel d\'Engolasters church painted by Mestre de Santa Coloma_ during the 12th century.

A second paréage was signed in 1288 after a dispute when the Count of Foix ordered the construction of a castle in _Roc d'Enclar_. The document was ratified by the noble notary Jaume Orig of Puigcerdà and the construction of military structures in the country was prohibited.

In 1364 the political organization of the country named the figure of the syndic (now spokesman and president of the parliament) as representative of the Andorrans to their co-princes making possible the creation of local departments (_comuns_, _quarts_ and _veïnats_). After being ratified by the Bishop Francesc Tovia and the Count Jean I , the _Consell de la Terra_ or Consell General de les Valls (General Council of the Valleys) was founded in 1419, the second oldest parliament in Europe. The syndic Andreu d'Alàs and the General Council organized the creation of the Justice Courts (_La Cort de Justicia_) in 1433 with the Co-Princes and the collection of taxes like _foc i lloc_ (literally _fire and site_, a national tax active since then).

Although we can find remains of ecclesiastical works dating before the 9th century (_Sant Vicenç d'Enclar_ or Església de Santa Coloma ), Andorra
Andorra
developed an exquisite Romanesque Art during the 9th and 14th centuries, as much in the construction of churches, bridges, religious murals and statues of the Virgin and Child
Virgin and Child
(being the most important the Our Lady of Meritxell ). Nowadays, the Romanesque buildings that form part of Andorra\'s cultural heritage stand out in a remarkable way, with an emphasis on Església de Sant Esteve , Sant Joan de Caselles , Església de Sant Miquel d\'Engolasters , Sant Martí de la Cortinada and the medieval bridges of Margineda and Escalls among many others.

While the Catalan Pyrenees
Pyrenees
were embryonic of the Catalan language at the end of the 11th century Andorra
Andorra
was influenced by the appearance of that language where it was adopted by proximity and influence even decades before it was expanded by the rest of the Kingdom of Aragon.

The local population based its economy during the Middle Ages in the livestock and agriculture, as well as in furs and weavers. Later, at the end of the 11th century, the first foundries of iron began to appear in Northern Parishes like Ordino , much appreciated by the master artisans who developed the art of the forges, an important economic activity in the country from the 15th century.

16TH TO 18TH CENTURIES

_ Main hall of Tribunal de Corts_ (High Court of Justice) inside Casa de la Vall
Casa de la Vall
, the central Judiciary Court of Andorra
Andorra

In 1601 the Tribunal de Corts (High Court of Justice) was created as a result of Huguenot rebellions from France, Inquisition courts coming from Spain
Spain
and indigenous witchcraft experienced in the country due to the Reformation and Counter- Reformation . With the passage of time, the co-title to Andorra
Andorra
passed to the kings of Navarre . After Henry of Navarre became King Henry IV of France
France
, he issued an edict in 1607, that established the head of the French state and the Bishop of Urgell as Co-Princes of Andorra . During 1617 communal councils form the _sometent_ (popular militia or army) to deal with the rise of _bandolerisme_ (brigandage ) and the Consell de la Terra was defined and structured in terms of its composition, organization and competences current today .

Andorra
Andorra
continues with the same economic system that it had during the 12th-14th centuries with a large production of metallurgy (_fargues_, a system similar to _Farga catalana_) and with the introduction of tobacco circa 1692 and import trade. The fair of Andorra la Vella was ratified by the co-princes in 1371 and 1448 being the most important annual national festival commercially ever since. _ Manor house
Manor house
of Rossell family in Ordino , Casa Rossell _, built in 1611. The family owned in 1619 also the largest ironwork forges in Andorra
Andorra
as _Farga Rossell_ and _Farga del Serrat_.

The country had a unique and experienced guild of weavers, _Confraria de Paraires i Teixidors_, located in Escaldes-Engordany founded in 1604 taking advantage of the thermal waters of the area. By the time the country constitutes the social system of _prohoms_ (wealthy society) and _casalers_ (rest of the population with smaller economic acquisition), deriving to the tradition of _pubilla _ and _hereu_ .

Three centuries after its foundation the Consell de la Terra locates its headquarters and the Tribunal de Corts in Casa de la Vall
Casa de la Vall
in 1702. The manor house built in 1580 served as a noble fortress of the Busquets family. Inside the parliament was placed the _Closet of the six keys_ (_Armari de les sis claus_) representative of each Andorran parish and where the Andorran constitution and other documents and laws were kept later on.

In both Guerra dels Segadors and Guerra de Sucesión Española conflicts, the Andorran people (although with the statement neutral country) supported the Catalans who saw their rights reduced in 1716 . The reaction was the promotion of Catalan writings in Andorra, with cultural works such as the _ Book
Book
of Privileges_ (_Llibre de Privilegis de 1674_), _Manual Digest_ (1748) by Antoni Fiter i Rossell or the _Polità andorrà_ (1763) by Antoni Puig.

19TH CENTURY: THE NEW REFORM AND THE ANDORRAN QUESTION

_ Portrait of Guillem d\'Areny-Plandolit , nobleman and politician who promoted the New Reform_ in 1866

After the French Revolution Napoleon I reestablished in 1809 the Co-Principate and deleted the French medieval tithe. Although in 1812–13, the First French Empire
First French Empire
annexed Catalonia
Catalonia
during the Peninsular War (_Guerra del francés_) and divided it in four départements , with Andorra
Andorra
being made part of the district of Puigcerdà (département of Sègre ). In 1814 a royal decree reestablished the independence and economy of Andorra.

Andorra
Andorra
retained its late medieval institutions and rural culture largely unchanged during this period. In 1866 the syndic Guillem d\'Areny-Plandolit lead the _reformist_ group in a Council General of 24 members, elected by suffrage limited to heads of families, replaced the aristocratic oligarchy that previously ruled the state. The New Reform (_Nova Reforma_ or _Pla de Reforma_) began after being ratified by both Co-Princes and established the basis of the constitution and symbols (such as the tricolor flag ) of Andorra. A new service economy arise as a demand of the inhabitants of the valleys and began to build infrastructures such as hotels, spa resorts, roads and telegraph lines. _ Illustration of a scene from the streets of Canillo during the Revolution of 1881_.

The authorities of the Co-Princes (_veguer_) banned casinos and betting houses throughout the country by establishing an economic conflict with the demand of the Andorran people. The conflict led to the so-called _Revolution of 1881_ or _Troubles of Andorra_, when revolutionaries assaulted the house of the syndic during 8 December 1880 and established the _Provisional Revolutionary Council_ led by Joan Pla i Calvo and Pere Baró i Mas, who granted the construction of casinos and spas to foreign companies. During 7 and 9 June 1881, the loyalists of Canillo and Encamp reconquered the parishes of Ordino and Massana by establishing contact with the revolutionary forces in Escaldes-Engordany . After a day of combat finally the Treaty of the Bridge of Escalls was signed the 10 of June. The Council was replaced and new elections were made but the economic situation worsened with a divided society: the _Qüestió d'Andorra_ (the _Andorran Question_ in relation to the Eastern Question ). The struggles continued between pro-bishops, pro-French and nationalists who derived the troubles of Canillo in 1882 and 1885.

Andorra
Andorra
participated in the cultural movement of the Catalan Renaixença . Between 1882 and 1887 the first academic schools were formed where trilingualism coexists with the knowledge of the official language, Catalan. Some romantic authors from both France
France
and Spain reported the awakening of the national consciousness of the country. Jacint Verdaguer lived in Ordino during the 1880s where he wrote and share works related to the Renaixença with Joaquim de Riba , writer and photographer. Fromental Halévy , for his part, had already premiered in 1848 the opera _Le Val d\'Andorre _ of great success in Europe, where the national consciousness of the valleys during the Peninsular War was exposed in the romantic work.

20TH CENTURY

Boris Skossyreff , briefly self-proclaimed "King of Andorra" in 1934

Andorra
Andorra
declared war on Imperial Germany during World War I, but did not actually take part in the fighting. It remained in an official state of belligerency until 1958 as it was not included in the Treaty of Versailles .

In 1933, France
France
occupied Andorra
Andorra
following social unrest which occurred before elections. On 12 July 1934, adventurer Boris Skossyreff issued a proclamation in Urgell, declaring himself "Boris I, King of Andorra", simultaneously declaring war on the Bishop of Urgell. He was arrested by the Spanish authorities on 20 July and ultimately expelled from Spain
Spain
. From 1936 until 1940, a French military detachment was garrisoned in Andorra
Andorra
to secure the principality against disruption from the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
and Francoist Spain
Spain
. Francoist troops reached the Andorran border in the later stages of the war. During World War II, Andorra
Andorra
remained neutral and was an important smuggling route between Vichy France
France
and Spain
Spain
.

Given its relative isolation, Andorra
Andorra
has existed outside the mainstream of European history, with few ties to countries other than France
France
, Spain
Spain
and Portugal
Portugal
. In recent times, however, its thriving tourist industry along with developments in transport and communications have removed the country from its isolation. Its political system was modernised in 1993, when it became a member of the United Nations
United Nations
and the Council of Europe
Europe
.

POLITICS

Main article: Politics of Andorra JOAN ENRIC VIVES I SICíLIA – current episcopal Co- Prince of Andorra since 12 May 2003 EMMANUEL MACRON – current French Co- Prince of Andorra since 14 May 2017

Andorra
Andorra
is a parliamentary co-principality with the President of France
France
and the Catholic Bishop of Urgell ( Catalonia
Catalonia
, Spain
Spain
) as Co-Princes . This peculiarity makes the President of France, in his capacity as Prince of Andorra , an elected reigning monarch, although he is not elected by a popular vote of the Andorran people. The politics of Andorra
Andorra
take place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democracy , whereby the Head of Government is the chief executive , and of a pluriform multi-party system.

The current Head of Government is Antoni Martí of the Democrats for Andorra
Andorra
(DA). Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both government and parliament.

The Parliament of Andorra
Andorra
is known as the General Council. The General Council consists of between 28 and 42 Councillors. The Councillors serve for four-year terms, and elections are held between the 30th and 40th days following the dissolution of the previous Council.

Half are elected in equal numbers by each of the seven administrative parishes, and the other half of the Councillors are elected in a single national constituency. Fifteen days after the election, the Councillors hold their inauguration. During this session, the Syndic General, who is the head of the General Council, and the Subsyndic General, his assistant, are elected. Eight days later, the Council convenes once more. During this session the Head of Government is chosen from among the Councillors. Casa de la Vall, Andorran Parliament

Candidates can be proposed by a minimum of one-fifth of the Councillors. The Council then elects the candidate with the absolute majority of votes to be Head of Government. The Syndic General then notifies the Co-Princes, who in turn appoint the elected candidate as the Head of Government of Andorra. The General Council is also responsible for proposing and passing laws. Bills may be presented to the Council as Private Members' Bills by three of the local Parish Councils jointly or by at least one tenth of the citizens of Andorra.

The Council also approves the annual budget of the principality. The government must submit the proposed budget for parliamentary approval at least two months before the previous budget expires. If the budget is not approved by the first day of the next year, the previous budget is extended until a new one is approved. Once any bill is approved, the Syndic General is responsible for presenting it to the Co-Princes so that they may sign and enact it.

If the Head of Government is not satisfied with the Council, he may request that the Co-Princes dissolve the Council and order new elections. In turn, the Councillors have the power to remove the Head of Government from office. After a motion of censure is approved by at least one-fifth of the Councillors, the Council will vote and if it receives the absolute majority of votes, the Head of Government is removed.

LAW AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE

The judiciary is composed of the Magistrates Court, the Criminal Law Court, the High Court of Andorra, and the Constitutional Court. The High Court of Justice is composed of five judges: one appointed by the Head of Government, one each by the Co-Princes, one by the Syndic General, and one by the Judges and Magistrates. It is presided over by the member appointed by the Syndic General and the judges hold office for six-year terms.

The Magistrates and Judges are appointed by the High Court, as is the President of the Criminal Law Court. The High Court also appoints members of the Office of the Attorney General. The Constitutional Court is responsible for interpreting the Constitution and reviewing all appeals of unconstitutionality against laws and treaties. It is composed of four judges, one appointed by each of the Co-Princes and two by the General Council. They serve eight-year terms. The Court is presided over by one of the Judges on a two-year rotation so that each judge at one point will preside over the Court.

FOREIGN RELATIONS, DEFENCE, AND SECURITY

Main article: Foreign relations of Andorra The embassy of Andorra
Andorra
in Brussels
Brussels

Andorra
Andorra
does not have its own armed forces, although there is a small ceremonial army. Responsibility for defending the nation rests primarily with France
France
and Spain
Spain
. However, in case of emergencies or natural disasters, the _Sometent_ (an alarm) is called and all able-bodied men between 21 and 60 of Andorran nationality must serve. This is why all Andorrans, and especially the head of each house (usually the eldest able-bodied man of a house) should, by law, keep a rifle, even though the law also states that the police will offer a firearm in case of need. Andorra
Andorra
is a full member of the United Nations (UN), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and has a special agreement with the European Union
European Union
(EU).

MILITARY

Andorra
Andorra
has a small army, which has historically been raised or reconstituted at various dates, but has never in modern times amounted to a standing army. The basic principle of Andorran defence is that all able-bodied men are available to fight if called upon by the sounding of the _Sometent_. Being a landlocked country , Andorra
Andorra
has no navy .

Prior to World War I
World War I
Andorra
Andorra
maintained an armed force of about 600 part-time militiamen. This body was not liable for service outside the principality and was commanded by two officials (_viguiers_) appointed by France
France
and the Bishop of Urgell.

Despite not being involved in any fighting during the First World War , Andorra
Andorra
was technically the longest combatant, as the country was left out of the Versailles Peace Conference , technically remaining at war with Germany
Germany
from its original declaration of war in 1914 until 24 September 1958 when Andorra
Andorra
officially declared peace with Germany.

In the modern era, the army has consisted of a very small body of volunteers willing to undertake ceremonial duties. Uniforms were handed down from generation to generation within families and communities.

The army's role in internal security was largely taken over by the formation of the Police Corps of Andorra in 1931. Brief civil disorder associated with the elections of 1933 led to assistance being sought from the French National Gendarmerie , with a detachment resident in Andorra
Andorra
for two months under the command of René-Jules Baulard. The Andorran Army was reformed in the following year, with eleven soldiers appointed to supervisory roles. The force consisted of six Corporals , one for each parish (although there are currently seven parishes, there were only six until 1978), plus four junior staff officers to co-ordinate action, and a commander with the rank of major. It was the responsibility of the six corporals, each in his own parish, to be able to raise a fighting force from among the able-bodied men of the parish.

Today a small, twelve-man ceremonial unit remains the only permanent section of the Andorran Army, but all able-bodied men remain technically available for military service, with a requirement for each family to have access to a firearm. The army has not fought for more than 700 years, and its main responsibility is to present the flag of Andorra
Andorra
at official ceremonial functions. According to Marc Forné Molné , Andorra's military budget is strictly from voluntary donations, and the availability of full-time volunteers.

The myth that all members of the Andorran Army are ranked as officers is popularly maintained in many works of reference. In reality, all those serving in the permanent ceremonial reserve hold ranks as officers , or non-commissioned officers , because the other ranks are considered to be the rest of the able-bodied male population, who may still be called upon by the _Sometent_ to serve, although such a call has not been made in modern times.

POLICE CORPS

Main article: Police Corps of Andorra

Andorra
Andorra
maintains a small but modern and well-equipped internal police force, with around 240 police officers supported by civilian assistants. The principal services supplied by the corps are uniformed community policing, criminal detection, border control, and traffic policing. There are also small specialist units including police dogs, mountain rescue, and a bomb disposal team.

GIPA

The _Grup d'Intervenció Policia d'Andorra_ (GIPA) is a small special forces unit trained in counter-terrorism , and hostage recovery tasks. Although it is the closest in style to an active military force, it is part of the Police Corps , and not the army . As terrorist and hostage situations are a rare threat to the nation, the GIPA is commonly assigned to prisoner escort duties, and at other times to routine policing.

FIRE BRIGADE

The _Andorran Fire Brigade_, with headquarters at Santa Coloma , operates from four modern fire stations, and has a staff of around 120 firefighters. The service is equipped with 16 heavy appliances (fire tenders, turntable ladders, and specialist four-wheel drive vehicles), four light support vehicles (cars and vans) and four ambulances.

Historically, the families of the six ancient parishes of Andorra maintained local arrangements to assist each other in fighting fires. The first fire pump purchased by the government was acquired in 1943. Serious fires which lasted for two days in December 1959 led to calls for a permanent fire service, and the _Andorran Fire Brigade_ was formed on 21 April 1961.

The fire service maintains full-time cover with five fire crews on duty at any time – two at the brigade's headquarters in Santa Coloma, and one crew at each of the other three fire stations.

GEOGRAPHY

Map of Andorra
Andorra
with its seven parishes labelled Main articles: Geography of Andorra and Geology of Andorra

PARISHES

Main article: Parishes of Andorra

Andorra
Andorra
consists of seven parishes:

* Andorra la Vella * Canillo * Encamp * Escaldes-Engordany * La Massana * Ordino * Sant Julià de Lòria

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

Scenery of Andorran mountains Topographic map of Andorra
Andorra

Due to its location in the eastern Pyrenees
Pyrenees
mountain range, Andorra consists predominantly of rugged mountains, the highest being the Coma Pedrosa at 2,942 metres (9,652 ft), and the average elevation of Andorra
Andorra
is 1,996 metres (6,549 ft). These are dissected by three narrow valleys in a Y shape that combine into one as the main stream, the Gran Valira river, leaves the country for Spain
Spain
(at Andorra's lowest point of 840 m or 2,756 ft). Andorra's land area is 468 km2 (181 sq mi).

Phytogeographically , Andorra
Andorra
belongs to the Atlantic European province of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom . According to the WWF , the territory of Andorra
Andorra
belongs to the ecoregion of Pyrenees
Pyrenees
conifer and mixed forests.

CLIMATE

Andorra
Andorra
has an alpine climate and continental climate . Its higher elevation means there is, on average, more snow in winter, lower humidity, and it is slightly cooler in summer.

ECONOMY

Main article: Economy of Andorra
Economy of Andorra
Exports in 2009

Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's tiny, well-to-do economy, accounts for roughly 80% of GDP. An estimated 10.2 million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its summer and winter resorts.

One of the main sources of income in Andorra
Andorra
is tourism from ski resorts which total over 175 km (109 mi) of ski ground. The sport brings in over 7 million visitors and an estimated 340 million euros per year, sustaining 2,000 direct and 10,000 indirect jobs at present.

The banking sector, with its tax haven status, also contributes substantially to the economy (the financial and insurance sector accounts for approximately 19% of GDP ). The financial system comprises five banking groups, one specialised credit entity, 8 investment undertaking management entities, 3 asset management companies and 29 insurance companies, 14 of which are branches of foreign insurance companies authorised to operate in the principality.

Agricultural production is limited—only 2% of the land is arable—and most food has to be imported. Some tobacco is grown locally. The principal livestock activity is domestic sheep raising. Manufacturing output consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. Andorra's natural resources include hydroelectric power, mineral water, timber, iron ore, and lead.

Andorra
Andorra
is not a member of the European Union, but enjoys a special relationship with it, such as being treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU member for agricultural products. Andorra
Andorra
lacked a currency of its own and used both the French franc and the Spanish peseta in banking transactions until 31 December 1999, when both currencies were replaced by the EU's single currency, the euro. Coins and notes of both the franc and the peseta remained legal tender in Andorra
Andorra
until 31 December 2002. Andorra
Andorra
negotiated to issue its own euro coins, beginning in 2014.

Andorra
Andorra
has traditionally had one of the world's lowest unemployment rates. In 2009 it stood at 2.9%.

Andorra
Andorra
has long benefited from its status as a tax haven, with revenues raised exclusively through import tariffs. However, during the European sovereign-debt crisis of the 21st century, its tourist economy suffered a decline, partly caused by a drop in the prices of goods in Spain
Spain
, which undercut Andorran duty-free shopping . This led to a growth in unemployment. On 1 January 2012, a business tax of 10% was introduced, followed by a sales tax of 2% a year later, which raised just over 14 million euros in its first quarter. On 31 May 2013, it was announced that Andorra
Andorra
intended to legislate for the introduction of an income tax by the end of June, against a background of increasing dissatisfaction with the existence of tax havens among EU members. The announcement was made following a meeting in Paris between the Head of Government Antoni Marti and the French President and Prince of Andorra, François Hollande . Hollande welcomed the move as part of a process of Andorra
Andorra
"bringing its taxation in line with international standards".

DEMOGRAPHICS

The town of Encamp, Andorra, as seen from the Vall dels Cortals Main article: Demographics of Andorra

POPULATION

The population of Andorra
Andorra
is estimated at 85,458 (2014). The population has grown from 5,000 in 1900.

Two-thirds of residents lack Andorran nationality and do not have the right to vote in communal elections. Moreover, they are not allowed to be elected as president or to own more than 33% of the capital stock of a privately held company.

LANGUAGES

Main article: Languages of Andorra

The historic and official language is Catalan , a Romance language
Romance language
. The Andorran government encourages the use of Catalan. It funds a Commission for Catalan Toponymy in Andorra
Andorra
(Catalan: _la Comissió de Toponímia d'Andorra_), and provides free Catalan classes to assist immigrants. Andorran television and radio stations use Catalan.

Because of immigration, historical links, and close geographic proximity, Spanish , Portuguese and French are also commonly spoken. Most Andorran residents can speak one or more of these, in addition to Catalan. English is less commonly spoken among the general population, though it is understood to varying degrees in the major tourist resorts. Andorra
Andorra
is one of only four European countries (together with France, Monaco, and Turkey) that have never signed the Council of Europe
Europe
Framework Convention on National Minorities .

According to the _Observatori Social d'Andorra_, the linguistic usage in Andorra
Andorra
is as follows:

MOTHER TONGUE %

Catalan 38.8%

Spanish 35.4%

Portuguese 15%

French 5.4%

Others 5.5%

2005 3 PoliticaLinguistica.pdf

RELIGION

The population of Andorra
Andorra
is predominantly (88.2%) Catholic. Their patron saint is Our Lady of Meritxell . Though it is not an official state religion, the constitution acknowledges a special relationship with the Catholic Church, offering some special privileges to that group. Other Christian denominations include the Anglican Church
Anglican Church
, the Unification Church , the New Apostolic Church
New Apostolic Church
, and Jehovah\'s Witnesses . The small Muslim community is primarily made up of North African immigrants. There is a small community of Hindus and Bahá\'ís and roughly 100 Jews live in Andorra. (See History of the Jews in Andorra
Andorra
.)

STATISTICS

LARGEST CITIES

Main article: List of cities in Andorra
List of cities in Andorra

* v * t * e

Largest cities or towns in Andorra CityPopulation.de

RANK NAME PARISHES OF ANDORRA POP.

Andorra la Vella 1 Andorra la Vella Andorra la Vella 22,256

Encamp

Sant Julià de Lòria

2 Escaldes-Engordany Escaldes-Engordany 14,395

3 Encamp Encamp 13,521

4 Sant Julià de Lòria Sant Julià de Lòria 7,518

5 La Massana La Massana 4,987

6 Santa Coloma Andorra la Vella 2,937

7 Ordino Ordino 2,780

8 El Pas de la Casa Encamp 2,613

9 Canillo Canillo 2,025

10 Arinsal La Massana 1,555

EDUCATION

SCHOOLS

Children between the ages of 6 and 16 are required by law to have full-time education. Education up to secondary level is provided free of charge by the government.

There are three systems of school—Andorran, French, and Spanish—which use Catalan, French, and Spanish, respectively, as the main language of instruction. Parents may choose which system their children attend. All schools are built and maintained by Andorran authorities, but teachers in the French and Spanish schools are paid for the most part by France
France
and Spain
Spain
. About 50% of Andorran children attend the French primary schools, and the rest attend Spanish or Andorran schools.

UNIVERSITY OF ANDORRA

The Universitat d\' Andorra
Andorra
(UdA) is the state public university and is the only university in Andorra. It was established in 1997. The university provides first-level degrees in nursing, computer science, business administration, and educational sciences, in addition to higher professional education courses. The only two graduate schools in Andorra
Andorra
are the Nursing School and the School of Computer Science, the latter having a PhD programme.

Virtual Studies Centre

The geographical complexity of the country as well as the small number of students prevents the University of Andorra
Andorra
from developing a full academic programme, and it serves principally as a centre for virtual studies, connected to Spanish and French universities. The Virtual Studies Centre (_Centre d’Estudis Virtuals_) at the University runs approximately twenty different academic degrees at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels in fields including tourism, law, Catalan philology, humanities, psychology, political sciences, audiovisual communication, telecommunications engineering, and East Asia studies. The Centre also runs various postgraduate programmes and continuing-education courses for professionals.

HEALTHCARE

Healthcare in Andorra
Andorra
is provided to all employed persons and their families by the government-run social security system, _Caixa Andorrana de Seguretat Social _ (CASS), which is funded by employer and employee contributions in respect of salaries. The cost of healthcare is covered by CASS at rates of 75% for out-patient expenses such as medicines and hospital visits, 90% for hospitalisation, and 100% for work-related accidents. The remainder of the costs may be covered by private health insurance. Other residents and tourists require full private health insurance.

The main hospital, Meritxell, is in Escaldes-Engordany . There are also 12 primary health care centres in various locations around the principality.

TRANSPORT

Main article: Transport in Andorra See also: Andorra–La Seu d\'Urgell Airport _ A train at Latour-de-Carol (La Tor de Querol_), one of the two stations serving Andorra. Andorra
Andorra
has no railways, although the line connecting Latour-de-Carol and Toulouse
Toulouse
, which in turn connects to France's TGVs at Toulouse, runs within two kilometres (1.2 miles) of the Andorran border.

Until the 20th century, Andorra
Andorra
had very limited transport links to the outside world, and development of the country was affected by its physical isolation. Even now, the nearest major airports at Toulouse and Barcelona
Barcelona
are both three hours' drive from Andorra.

Andorra
Andorra
has a road network of 279 km (173 mi), of which 76 km (47 mi) is unpaved. The two main roads out of Andorra la Vella are the CG-1 to the Spanish border, and the CG-2 to the French border via the Envalira Tunnel near El Pas de la Casa . Bus services cover all metropolitan areas and many rural communities, with services on most major routes running half-hourly or more frequently during peak travel times. There are frequent long-distance bus services from Andorra
Andorra
to Barcelona
Barcelona
and Toulouse
Toulouse
, plus a daily tour from the former city. Bus services are mostly run by private companies, but some local ones are operated by the government.

There are no airports for fixed-wing aircraft within Andorra's borders but there are, however, heliports in La Massana (Camí Heliport), Arinsal and Escaldes-Engordany with commercial helicopter services and an airport located in the neighbouring Spanish comarca of Alt Urgell , 12 kilometres (7.5 miles) south of the Andorran-Spanish border. Since July 2015, Andorra–La Seu d\'Urgell Airport has operated commercial flights to Madrid and Palma de Mallorca , and is the main hub for Air Andorra and Andorra Airlines .

Nearby airports located in Spain
Spain
and France
France
provide access to international flights for the principality. The nearest airports are at Perpignan
Perpignan
, France
France
(156 kilometres or 97 miles from Andorra) and Lleida , Spain
Spain
(160 kilometres or 99 miles from Andorra). The largest nearby airports are at Toulouse
Toulouse
, France
France
(165 kilometres or 103 miles from Andorra) and Barcelona
Barcelona
, Spain
Spain
(215 kilometres or 134 miles from Andorra). There are hourly bus services from both Barcelona
Barcelona
and Toulouse
Toulouse
airports to Andorra.

The nearest railway station is L\'Hospitalet-près-l\'Andorre 10 km (6 mi) east of Andorra
Andorra
which is on the 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)-gauge line from Latour-de-Carol (25 km or 16 mi) southeast of Andorra, to Toulouse
Toulouse
and on to Paris by the French high-speed trains . This line is operated by the SNCF
SNCF
. Latour-de-Carol has a scenic 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) metre gauge trainline to Villefranche-de-Conflent , as well as the SNCF's 1,435 mm gauge line connecting to Perpignan
Perpignan
, and the RENFE\'s 1,668 mm (5 ft 5 21⁄32 in) -gauge line to Barcelona
Barcelona
. There are also direct Intercités de Nuit trains between L'Hospitalet-près-l'Andorre and Paris on certain dates.

MEDIA AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS

Main article: Telecommunications in Andorra See also: Andorra Telecom

_ This section needs to be UPDATED. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (November 2015)_

In Andorra, mobile and fixed telephone and internet services are operated exclusively by the Andorran national telecommunications company, SOM, also known as Andorra Telecom (STA). The same company also manages the technical infrastructure for national broadcasting of digital television and radio.

By the end of 2010, it was planned that every home in the country would have fibre-to-the-home for internet access at a minimum speed of 100 Mbit/s, and the availability was complete in June 2012.

There is only one Andorran television station, _Ràdio i Televisió d\' Andorra
Andorra
_ (RTVA). _Radio Nacional d’Andorra_ operates two radio stations, _ Radio Andorra _ and _ Andorra
Andorra
Música_. There are three national newspapers, _Diari d\' Andorra
Andorra
_, _El Periòdic d\' Andorra
Andorra
_, and _Bondia _ as well as several local newspapers. There is also an amateur radio society. Additional TV and radio stations from Spain and France
France
are available via digital terrestrial television and IPTV.

CULTURE

Main article: Culture of Andorra See also: Music of Andorra Andorran flag on balcony, Ordino

The official and historic language is Catalan. Thus the culture is Catalan, with its own specificity.

Andorra
Andorra
is home to folk dances like the contrapàs and marratxa, which survive in Sant Julià de Lòria especially. Andorran folk music has similarities to the music of its neighbours, but is especially Catalan in character, especially in the presence of dances such as the sardana . Other Andorran folk dances include contrapàs in Andorra
Andorra
la Vella and Saint Anne's dance in Escaldes-Engordany. Andorra's national holiday is Our Lady of Meritxell Day, 8 September. American folk artist Malvina Reynolds , intrigued by its defence budget of $4.90, wrote a song "Andorra". Pete Seeger added verses, and sang "Andorra" on his 1962 album _The Bitter and the Sweet_.

SPORTS

Andorra
Andorra
is famous for the practice of Winter Sports . Popular sports played in Andorra
Andorra
include football , rugby union , basketball and roller hockey .

In roller hockey Andorra
Andorra
usually plays in CERH Euro
Euro
Cup and in FIRS Roller Hockey World Cup . In 2011, Andorra
Andorra
was the host country to the 2011 European League Final Eight . Estadi Comunal d\' Andorra
Andorra
la Vella

The country is represented in association football by the Andorra national football team . However, the team has had little success internationally because of Andorra's small population. Football is ruled in Andorra
Andorra
by the Andorran Football Federation founded in 1994, it organizes the national competitions of association football ( Primera Divisió , Copa Constitució and Supercopa ) and futsal . FC Andorra
Andorra
, a club based in Andorra la Vella founded in 1942, compete in the Spanish football league system .

Rugby is a traditional sport in Andorra, mainly influenced by the popularity in southern France. The Andorra national rugby union team , nicknamed "_Els Isards_", has impressed on the international stage in rugby union and rugby sevens . VPC Andorra XV is a rugby team based in Andorra la Vella actually playing in the French championship.

Basketball
Basketball
popularity has increased in the country since the 1990s, when the Andorran team BC Andorra
BC Andorra
played in the top league of Spain ( Liga ACB ). After 18 years the club returned to the top league in 2014.

Other sports practised in Andorra
Andorra
include cycling , volleyball, judo , Australian Rules football , handball , swimming, gymnastics, tennis and motorsports . In 2012, Andorra
Andorra
raised its first national cricket team and played a home match against the Dutch Fellowship of Fairly Odd Places Cricket
Cricket
Club, the first match played in the history of Andorra
Andorra
at an altitude of 1,300 metres (4,300 ft).

Andorra
Andorra
first participated at the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
in 1976. The country has also appeared in every Winter Olympic Games
Olympic Games
since 1976. Andorra competes in the Games of the Small States of Europe
Europe
being twice the host country in 1991 and 2005 .

As part of the Catalan cultural ambit, Andorra
Andorra
is home to a team of castellers , or Catalan human tower builders. The Castellers d\'Andorra, based in the town of Santa Coloma d\' Andorra
Andorra
, are recognized by the Coordinadora de Colles Castelleres de Catalunya, the governing body of castells.

MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS

Ariadna Tudel Cuberes and Sophie Dusautoir Bertrand earned the bronze medal in the women's team competition at the 2009 European Championship of Ski Mountaineering . Joan Verdu Sanchez earned a bronze medal in Alpine Skiing at the 2012 Winter Youth Olympics . In 2015, Marc Oliveras earned a silver medal in Alpine Skiing at the 2015 Winter Universiade , while Carmina Pallas earned a silver and a bronze medal in the same competition.

SEE ALSO

* Andorra
Andorra
portal * Catalan-speaking countries portal

* Book: Andorra
Andorra

* Index of Andorra-related articles * Outline of Andorra * Bibliography of Andorra

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ "CIA World Factbook entry: Andorra". Cia.gov. Retrieved 26 August 2012. * ^ http://data.un.org/CountryProfile.aspx?crName=Andorra * ^ * ^ "HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2016 – Statistical annex". United Nations. 2016. Retrieved 25 March 2017. * ^ Funk and Wagnalls Encyclopedia, 1993 * ^ Malankar, Nikhil (2017-04-18). "Andorra: 10 Unusual Facts About The Tiny European Principality". _Tell Me Nothing_. Retrieved 2017-06-13. * ^ "Maps, Weather, and Airports for Andorra
Andorra
la Vella, Andorra". Fallingrain.com. Retrieved 26 August 2012. * ^ "Background Note: Andorra". State.gov. Retrieved 2015-05-14. * ^ _A_ _B_ "HOTELERIA I TURISME". Retrieved 14 May 2015. * ^ " United Nations
United Nations
Member States". Un.org. Retrieved 2015-05-14. * ^ GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators. (10 January 2015). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013." . _Lancet (London, England)_. 385 (9963): 117–71. PMC 4340604  _. PMID 25530442 . doi :10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2 . * ^ Diccionari d'Història de Catalunya_; ed. 62; Barcelona; 1998; ISBN 84-297-3521-6 ; p. 42; entrada "Andorra" * ^ Font Rius, José María (1985). _Estudis sobre els drets i institucions locals en la Catalunya medieval_. Edicions Universitat Barcelona. p. 743. ISBN 8475281745 . * ^ Gaston, L. L. (1912). _Andorra, the Hidden Republic: Its Origin and Institutions, and the Record of a Journey Thither_. New York, USA: McBridge, Nast & Co. p. 9. * ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 2015-05-14. * ^ Freedman, Paul (1999). _Images of the Medieval Peasant_. CA, USA: Stanford University Press. p. 189. ISBN 9780804733731 . * ^ * ^ _A_ _B_ Guillamet Antoni 2009 , p. 32, 33. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ Armengol Aleix 2009 , p. 44 a 92. * ^ Guillamet Antoni 2009 , p. 34, 35, 38, 39. * ^ * ^ Guillamet Antoni 2009 , p. 43. * ^ _A_ _B_ Guillamet Antoni 2009 , p. 37, 36. * ^ _A_ _B_ Guillamet Antoni 2009 , p. 44, 45, 46, 47. * ^ Guillamet Antoni 2009 , p. 52, 53. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Armengol Aleix 2009 . * ^ "El pas de Carlemany - Turisme Andorra
Andorra
la Vella". _turisme.andorralavella.ad_. Retrieved 3 August 2017. * ^ Vidal, Jaume. " Andorra
Andorra
mira els arxius". _Elpuntavui.cat_. Retrieved 3 August 2017. * ^ "La formació d\'Andorra". _ Gran Enciclopèdia Catalana _. Enciclopèdia Catalana. (in Catalan) _English version_ * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Elements de la història del Principat d\'Andorra" (in Catalan). Archived from the original on 9 February 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Armengol Aleix 2009 , p. 96 a 146. * ^ "Ermessenda de Castellbò". _ Gran Enciclopèdia Catalana _. Enciclopèdia Catalana. (in Catalan) _English version_ * ^ _A_ _B_ Guillamet Anton 2009 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Jordi Planellas 2013 . * ^ "Absis d\'Engolasters - Museu Nacional d\'Art de Catalunya". _www.museunacional.cat_. Retrieved 3 August 2017. * ^ Guillamet Anton 2009 , p. 60, 61. * ^ Guillamet Antoni 2009 , p. 78, 79, 80, 81, 88, 89. * ^ Guillamet Antoni 2009 , p. 48, 49,. * ^ Garcia 2011 . * ^ Armengol Aleix 2009 , p. 150 a 194. * ^ "HISTÒRIA DE LA LLENGUA CATALANA" (PDF). _Racocatala.cat_. Retrieved 2017-08-03. * ^ Anne Doustaly-Dunyach 2011 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Llop Rovira 1998 , p. 44, 45, 47, 48, 50. * ^ Guillamet Anton 2009 , p. 108, 109. * ^ _A_ _B_ Armengol Aleix 2009 , p. 238, 239. * ^ Jordi Planellas 2013 , p. 42. * ^ Llop Rovira 1998 , p. 53, 54, 56. * ^ Llop Rovira 1998 , p. 14. * ^ Llop Rovira 1998 , p. 15. * ^ Guillamet Anton 2009 , p. 134. * ^ * ^ Llop Rovira 1998 , p. 20, 21. * ^ Guillamet Antoni 2009 , p. 106, 107. * ^ Guillamet Anton 2009 , p. 105, 106, 107, 140, 141. * ^ Armengol Aleix 2009 , p. 263 a 270. * ^ Llop Rovira 1998 , p. 60. * ^ Guillamet Antoni 2009 , p. 82. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Armengol Aleix 2009 , p. 229. * ^ Llop Rovira 1998 , p. 49 a 52, i 57, 58. * ^ Armengol Aleix 2009 , p. 172. * ^ Guillamet Anton 2009 , p. 172. * ^ Armengol Aleix 2009 , p. 342, 343. * ^ _A_ _B_ Page 966, Volume 1, Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
, Eleventh Edition 1910–1911 * ^ Armengol Aleix 2009 , p. 192, 193. * ^ Guillamet Anton 2009 , p. 191, 192, 193. * ^ Armengol Aleix 2009 , p. 345 a 347. * ^ Segalàs 2012 , p. 93 a 95. * ^ "Saqueo de Canillo por las fuerzas del gobierno revolucionario tras el sitio de la aldea". _Wdl.org_. 12 March 1881. Retrieved 3 August 2017. * ^ Armengol Aleix 2009 , p. 198, 199, 203. * ^ Peruga Guerrero 1998 , p. 59, 60, 63. * ^ Ministeri d\'Educació, Joventut i Esports 1996 , p. 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65. * ^ Armengol Aleix 2009 , p. 194, 195. * ^ Guillamet Anton 2009 , p. 194, 195. * ^ Armengol Aleix 2009 , p. 348 a 350. * ^ Segalàs 2012 , p. 95. * ^ Peruga Guerrero 1998 , p. 64, 65, 66, 67, 68. * ^ Ministeri d\'Educació, Joventut i Esports 1996 , p. 67 a 70. * ^ Guillamet Anton 2009 , p. 198, 199, 202, 203. * ^ Armengol Aleix 2009 , p. 352, 353. * ^ Peruga Guerrero 1998 , p. 78, 79, 80, 81. * ^ Ministeri d\'Educació, Joventut i Esports 1996 , p. 74. * ^ Armengol Aleix 2009 , p. 354, 355, 356, 357. * ^ Àrea de Recerca Històrica del Govern d\' Andorra
Andorra
2006 , p. 33. * ^ Segalàs 2012 . * ^ _A_ _B_ " World War I
World War I
Ends in Andorra". _New York Times_. 25 September 1958. p. 66. * ^ "Documento BOE-A-1993-16868". BOE.es. 30 June 1993. Retrieved 26 August 2012. * ^ "El Sometent Tourism". Turisme.andorralavella.ad. 17 May 2011. Retrieved 26 August 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Decret veguers Sometent, del 23 d\'octubre de 1984" (PDF). Retrieved 26 August 2012. * ^ Reich, Herb (2012). _Lies They Teach in School: Exposing the Myths Behind 250 Commonly Believed Fallacies_. New York: Skyhorse Publishing, Inc. p. 52. ISBN 9781620873458 . * ^ Ben Cahoon. "Andorra". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 26 August 2012. * ^ "Andorra\'s \'ARMY\' – Eleven Permanent Troops!". _The Times_. 5 January 1934. Retrieved 26 August 2012. * ^ "Andorra". State.gov. 20 April 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2012. * ^ "Bop14073" (PDF). Retrieved 26 August 2012. * ^ "History of the Principality
Principality
of Andorra". Andorramania.com. 11 December 1997. Retrieved 26 August 2012. * ^ "Andorra". Un.org. 25 September 2003. Retrieved 26 August 2012.

* ^ "Andorra". State.gov. 2013-09-13. Retrieved 2015-05-14. * ^ " Andorra
Andorra
Politics, government, and taxation, Information about Politics, government, and taxation in Andorra". Nationsencyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2015-05-14. * ^ Carles Iglesias Carril. "Andorran Police Service website". Policia.ad. Retrieved 26 August 2012. * ^ Carles Iglesias Carril. "Cos de Policia – Estructura organitzativa". Policia.ad. Retrieved 2015-05-14. * ^ "Vehicle details with extensive photo gallery here". Bombers.ad. Archived from the original on 22 July 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2012. * ^ "Fire Brigade history here (in Catalan)". Bombers.ad. Archived from the original on August 1, 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2012. * ^ "Andorran Fire Service site". Bombers.ad. 17 August 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2012. * ^ Atlas of Andorra
Andorra
(1991), Andorran Government. OCLC
OCLC
801960401 . (in Catalan) * ^ _A_ _B_ " Andorra
Andorra
and its financial system 2013" (PDF). Aba.ad. Retrieved 14 May 2015. * ^ "List of Banks in Andorra". Thebanks.eu. Retrieved 2015-05-14. * ^ "CIA World Factbook: Andorra". Retrieved 5 June 2013. * ^ " Andorra
Andorra
gets a taste of taxation". _The guardian_. 27 December 2011. Retrieved 30 March 2013. * ^ " Andorra
Andorra
Unveils First Indirect Tax Revenue Figures". _Tax News_. 9 May 2013. * ^ " Andorra
Andorra
to introduce income tax for first time". _BBC News_. 2 June 2013. * ^ "Andorre aligne progressivement sa fiscalité sur les standards internationaux (Elysée)". _Notre Temps_. 31 May 2011. * ^ "El Parlamento andorrano facilita a los hijos de los residentes la adquisición de la nacionalidad Edición impresa EL PAÍS". Elpais.com. Retrieved 2015-05-14. * ^ "Un examen para ser andorrano Edición impresa EL PAÍS". Elpais.com. 1985-10-27. Retrieved 2015-05-14. * ^ "La Constitución de Andorra
Andorra
seguirá limitando los derechos del 70% de la población Edición impresa EL PAÍS". Elpais.com. 1992-05-09. Retrieved 2015-05-14. * ^ "Andorra, sólo inmigrantes sanos Edición impresa EL PAÍS". Elpais.com. 2006-07-14. Retrieved 2015-05-14. * ^ "Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (FCNM) : National Minorities, \'\'Council of Europe\'\', 14 September 2010". Coe.int. Retrieved 26 August 2012. * ^ "Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities CETS No. 157". Conventions.coe.int. Retrieved 25 November 2012. * ^ "Observatori de l\'Institut d\'Estudis Andorrans" (in Catalan). Archived from the original on 17 July 2007. Retrieved 5 June 2013. * ^ PEW 2011. Pewforum.org (2011-12-19). Retrieved on 2015-12-30. * ^ " Andorra
Andorra
facts". _Encyclopedia.com_. Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved November 22, 2016. * ^ "Andorra". _International – Regions – Southern Europe_. The Association of Religion Data Archives. 2005. Retrieved 4 July 2009. * ^ "Andorra: population, capital, cities, GDP, map, flag, currency, languages, ...". _ Wolfram Alpha _. Online. Wolfram – Alpha (curated data). 13 March 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-03-08. * ^ "US Dept of State information". State.gov. 8 November 2005. Retrieved 9 August 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ _Travailler en Andorre_ (May 2006), _Govern d'Andorra, Servei d'Ocupació, p.30._ (in French) * ^ _A_ _B_ "List of specialties with coverage by CASS at the _Hospital Nostra Senyora de Meritxell_ (2009)". Online.cass.ad. Retrieved 26 August 2012. * ^ "Agència de Mobilitat, Govern d\'Andorra". Mobilitat.ad. Archived from the original on 2013-03-17. * ^ "Inici – Heliand – Helicopters a Andorra". Heliand. Retrieved 2015-05-14. * ^ Archived 15 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "Public and regional airport of Andorra-la Seu d’Urgell". * ^ "Sncf Map" (in German). Bueker.net. Retrieved 26 August 2012. * ^ "Google map". Maplandia.com. Retrieved 26 August 2012. * ^ "How to travel by train from London to Andorra". * ^ SOM Newsletter, March 2009. * ^ Unió de Radioaficionats Andorra. Ura.ad. Retrieved on 2015-12-30. * ^ "FIFA Rankings – Andorra". Fifa.com. Retrieved 26 August 2012. * ^ Archived 22 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "El BC Andorra
BC Andorra
quiere volver a la Liga más bella". MARCA.com. Retrieved 2015-05-14. * ^ "El River Andorra
Andorra
regresa a la ACB 18 años después Baloncesto EL MUNDO". Elmundo.es. 2014-03-22. Retrieved 2015-05-14. * ^ "Netherlands Based FFOP CC Beats Andorra
Andorra
National Team". _ Cricket
Cricket
World_. 3 September 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2012.

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ The Wikibook Wikijunior:Countries A-Z_ has a page on the topic of: _ANDORRA _

_ Wikisource has original text related to this article: ANDORRA PORTAL

Find more

.