Andhra Mahasabha (Telugu: ఆంధ్ర మహాసభ, IAST:
Āndhra mahāsabha) was a people's organisation in the erstwhile
Hyderabad state of India. Started under the name Andhra Janasangham
(Andhra People's Society) in 1921, the
Andhra Mahasabha spearheaded
people's awareness and people's movements among the Telugu-speaking
populace of the state and eventually joined hands with the Communist
India to launch the
2 The Fourth
Andhra Mahasabha At
3 The Later Conferences of Andhra Mahasabha
6 Further reading
There was an increase in political and cultural awareness among people
of Hyderabad State at the end of 19th century. As the culture and
language of the overwhelming majority of the people living in
Hyderabad State was sought to be suppressed by the State rulers, the
natural desire for education and cultural development, for protection
and development of their other tongue would become a basic doctrinal
plank of armed struggle against the Nizam's rule.
A triggering incident that led to the kindling of Telugu people's
Hyderabad state occurred on 12 November 1921, in the
Nizam State "social conference" when a Telugu lawyer, Mr. Allampalli
Venkata Rama Rao, spoke in Telugu on a resolution. Allampalli Venkata
Rama Rao was heckled and shouted at by those in attendance in the
audience, among whom were speakers who earlier spoke freely in
Urdu and Marathi. This event is thought to have mobilized the
sentiment of Telugu-language speakers and the perception of that
language's "true position" in Hyderabad State .
That night witnessed the creation of the "Andhra Jana Sangham" with
the stated intention of promoting Telugu language, literature, its
books and historical research, with eleven members led by Suravaram
Pratapareddy, Madapati Hanumantha Rao, Komarraju Venkata Lakshmana
Duvvuri Subbamma and others.
Within two years, fifty branches of the Andhra Jana Sangham were
established throughout the
Telangana region. By 1923, Madapati
Hanumantha Rao played a vital role in the central organisation of all
the branches into the "
Nizam Rashtra Andhra Jana Kendra Sangham".
Regular conferences were held during 1923, 1924, 1925 and 1928.
During the 1930 conference, the Andhra Jana Sangham changed its name
to the Andhra Mahasabha. The Andhra Mahasabha, formed in 1930, pushed
for the social and cultural development of the people of Telangana.
Its first conference was held in 1930 at Jogipet in Medak district
under the presidency of Suravaram Pratap Reddy. A women's conference
called the Andhra Mahila Sabha was held simultaneously with the Andhra
Maha Sabha under the presidency of Nadimpalli Sundaramma. Burgula
Ramakrishna Rao presided over the second conference held at
Devarakonda in 1931. The Nizam's government, deriving its "legitimacy"
Islamist bigotry and racist contempt for Telugu-speaking Hindus,
developed a hostile attitude towards the Mahasabha and imposed several
restrictions on it. As a consequence, the Mahasabha could not obtain
"permission" for three years until it held its third conference, at
Khammam, in 1934, under the presidency of Pulijala Venkata Ranga Rao.
Andhra Mahasabha At
The fourth Andhra Mahasabha, held at
was presided over by
Madapati Hanumantha Rao in 1935, while his wife
Manikyamba presided over the Andhra Mahila Sabha simultaneously at the
same place. The speakers started speaking in Telugu in this conference
giving up Urdu, Marathi and English. A primary form for the
Andhra Mahasabha was given in this conference. Many
important resolutions were passed in this conference.
1. Education system should be completely revised and the educational
institutions should be recognised.
2. Compulsory primary education should be implemented.
Mother-tongue Telugu should be the medium of instruction.
4. The legitimate rights of the people in Jagirs should be protected.
Child marriages should be discouraged.
6. Local-self Government should be introduced.
Untouchability should be eradicated and the untouchables should be
given due place in the society.
The leaders like Baddam Yella Reddy, Anabheri Prabhakar Rao,
Singireddy Bhoopathi Reddy and the social reformer Bhoomaiah vakil
(pleader) played important role in organising this conference.
Representatives from all the taluks of the district attended this
conference. From Jagtial Kasam Shivaraja Gupta, Jaisetty Lakshmirajam
Gupta and Siddamsetti Sangaiah etc. attended it. The branch of Andhra
Mahasabha was opened by Kasam Shivaraja Gupta at Jagtial. Raghunath
Kache, who attended this conference, established the Andhra Mahasabha
branch at Manthani. After the conference of Sircilla, a permanent
office of Andhra Maha Sabha was opened at Boiwada in Karimnagar.
Baddam Yella Reddy was elected as the District president of Mahasabha,
Anabheri Prabhakar Rao was elected as secretary. Damodar Rao of
Gundi-Ramadugu was put in charge of the office. The branches of Andhra
Maha Sabha were opened at Sircilla, Jagtial, Manthani, Peddapalli,
Metpalli, Koratla, Choppadandi, Sultanabad,
Huzurabad and several
other places in
The popular leaders like K.V.Ranga Reddy, J.V.Narasing Rao, Suravaram
Pratap Reddy, Raavi Narayana Reddy,
Baddam Yella Reddy etc.
participated in the
Sircilla conference on 6 September 1935. The
famous weight lifter Kodi Rama Krishna of Vijayawada is said to have
exhibited his feats in this conference.
The offices of
Andhra Mahasabha opened in the district carried on a
campaign against Vetti Chakiri or forced labour, compulsory levy
system of paddy and the exploitation of the masses by the privileged
class like landlords, Jagirdars and Deshmukhs. The Volunteers of the
Mahasabha helped the weavers in getting the cotton thread supplied by
the Government on ration cards. They worked for the fair distribution
of the cotton thread without allowing scope for black marketing.
The Later Conferences of Andhra Mahasabha
The fifth conference of
Andhra Mahasabha was held at
Shadnagar in 1936 under the presidency of Konda Venkata Ranga Reddy.
The sixth conference held at Nizamabad in 1937 was presided over by
Mandamula Narsinga Rao. When the Seventh conference was presided over
by Mandamula Ramachandar Rao at Malkapur, young men like Raavi Narayan
Reddy from Nalgonda, Kaloji Narayan Rao from
Warangal and Polkampalli
Venkatrama Rao from
Karimnagar attended it. The delegates were divided
into two distinct groups namely moderates and leftists. The eighth
conference held at Chilkuru near Huzurnagar in
Nalgonda district in
1941 was presided over by the
Communist leader Raavi Narayana Reddy.
The problems of women and the agricultural tenants were mainly
discussed in this conference. The Ninth
Andhra Mahasabha conference
held in 1942 at Dharmavaram in
Warangal district was presided over by
Madiraju Rama Koteswara Rao. In 1943 the Tenth conference was held in
Hyderabad. Konda Venkata Ranga Reddy belonging to moderates group
having defeated the leftist leader
Baddam Yella Reddy of Karimnagar
district became the president of this conference. In the eleventh
conference held at Bhuvanagiri in 1944 the communists dominated and
Raavi Narayan Reddy became the president. This Andhra
Mahasabha attended by ten thousand people came under the control of
communists. The communist leader Chandra Rajeshwar Rao addressed this
eleventh session. This led to a split in the Mahasabha. Moderates like
Konda Venkata Ranga Reddy and others formed a separate association
called the Nationalist
Andhra Mahasabha which held two sessions in
1945 and 1946. The last session of the Nationalist Andhra Mahasabha
held at Kandi Village in
Medak district in 1946 was presided over by
Jamalapuram Keshava Rao. However the Nationalist Andhra Mahasabha
ultimately merged itself into the Hyderabad State congress.
Andhra Mahasabha held its twelfth session at Khammam
in 1946 under the presidency of Raavi Narayan Reddy. More than forty
thousand people attended this conference. On 3 December 1946 the
communist party was banned and naturally the activities of Andhra
Mahasabha came to a close.
The last Nizam,
Mir Osman Ali Khan
Mir Osman Ali Khan was very notorious for the
strengthening of feudalism in the Hyderabad state. The feudal lords,
nobles and other government officials, known as Razakars exploited the
poor peasants and workers of their wealth, property, land and many
times raped their ladies. Common people had no way other than
depending on the landlords' mercy for basic needs like food, shelter
and clothing. This situation made the people very angry. Many
communist leaders of the region inspired by the Russian Revolution
have decided to overthrow the Nizam's rule.
Madapati Hanumantha Rao started Andhra MahaSabha. It was in 1928
Andhra Mahasabha was organised under the leadership of Sri
Madapati Hanumantha Rao and others. Its first conference was held in
Jogipeta in 1930 under the chairmanship of Suravaram Pratapa Reddy. In
conferences, it used to pass resolutions demanding certain reforms in
the administrative structure, for more schools, for certain
concessions for the landed gentry, for certain civil liberties, but
did not try to mobilise the people and launch struggles against the
oppressors or against the Nizam's Government. But it became in those
wretched and tremendously oppressive conditions in Hyderabad state, a
forum, a focal point for the rising democratic aspirations of the
people. (written by Sri
Puchalapalli Sundaraiah in his book 'Telangana
People's struggles and its lessons')
Communist Party of
India organised a peasant led armed rebellion
against the cruel rule of
Nizam landlords under the banner of Andhra
Mahasabha. Few among the well-known individuals at the forefront of
the movement were great leaders like Pendyala Satyanarayana Rao,
Kaloji Narayana Rao, Pendyala Raghava Rao, Anabheri Prabhakar Rao,
Puchalapalli Sundaraiah, Chandra Rajeswara Rao, Raavi Narayana Reddy,
Urdu poet Makhdoom Mohiuddin, Hassan Nasir, Bhimreddy Narasimha
Reddy, Mallu Venkata Narasimha Reddy, Mallu Swarajyam, Arutla
Ramchandra Reddy and his wife Arutla Kamala bai. The rebellion is
historically famous as the
Telangana Rebellion and ended in October
Comrades Association played an influential role in the guiding the
"The National Movement in Telangana". Modern History of Karimnagar.
scribd.com. Retrieved 2014-09-12.
Benichou, Lucien D. (2000), From Autocracy to Integration: Political
Developments in Hyderabad State, 1938-1948, Orient Blackswan,