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ANCUS MARCIUS (c. 677–617 BC ; reigned 642–617 BC) was the legendary fourth king of Rome
Rome
. He was the son of Marcius (whose father, also named Marcius, had been a close friend of Numa Pompilius), who may be identified with Numa Marcius , and Pompilia (daughter of Numa Pompilius
Numa Pompilius
). According to Festus , Marcius had the surname of Ancus from his crooked arm. Upon the death of the previous king, Tullus Hostilius , the Roman Senate
Roman Senate
appointed an interrex , who in turn called a session of the assembly of the people who elected the new king.

Ancus Marcius
Ancus Marcius
was believed by the Romans to have been the namesake of the Marcii , a Plebeian family.

O: diademed head of Ancus Marcius, lituus behind R: equestrian statue on 5 arches of aqueduct ( Aqua Marcia )

PHILIPPVS A-Q-V-A-(MAR)

Silver
Silver
denarius struck by Lucius Marcius Philippus in Rome
Rome
56 BC.

CONTENTS

* 1 First acts as King * 2 War * 3 Successor * 4 References

FIRST ACTS AS KING

According to Livy
Livy
, his first act as king was to order the Pontifex Maximus to copy the text concerning the performance of public ceremonies of religion from the commentaries of Numa Pompilius
Numa Pompilius
to be displayed to the public, so that the rites of religion should no longer be neglected or improperly performed.

WAR

He waged war successfully against the Latins , and a number of them were settled on the Aventine Hill
Aventine Hill
. According to Livy
Livy
the war was commenced by the Latins who anticipated Ancus would follow the pious pursuit of peace adopted by his grandfather, Numa Pompilius
Numa Pompilius
. The Latins initially made an incursion on Roman lands. When a Roman embassy sought restitution for the damage, the Latins gave a contemptuous reply. Ancus accordingly declared war on the Latins. The declaration is notable since, according to Livy, it was the first time that the Romans had declared war by means of the rites of the fetials .

Ancus Marcius
Ancus Marcius
marched from Rome
Rome
with a newly levied army and took the Latin town of Politorium (situated near the town of Lanuvium ) by storm. Its residents were removed to settle on the Aventine Hill
Aventine Hill
in Rome
Rome
as new citizens, following the Roman traditions from wars with the Sabines
Sabines
and Albans . When the other Latins subsequently occupied the empty town of Politorium, Ancus took the town again and demolished it. The Latin villages of Tellenae and Ficana were also sacked and demolished.

The war then focused on the Latin town of Medullia . The town had a strong garrison and was well fortified. Several engagements took place outside the town and the Romans were eventually victorious. Ancus returned to Rome
Rome
with much booty. More Latins were brought to Rome
Rome
as citizens and were settled at the foot of the Aventine near the Palatine Hill
Palatine Hill
, by the temple of Murcia . Ancus Marcius
Ancus Marcius
incorporated the Janiculum
Janiculum
into the city, fortifying it with a wall and connecting it with the city by a wooden bridge across the Tiber
Tiber
, the Pons Sublicius . On the land side of the city he constructed the Fossa Quiritium , a ditch fortification. He also built Rome's first prison, the Mamertine prison .

He extended Roman territory to the sea, founding the port of Ostia , establishing salt-works around the port, and taking the Silva Maesia, an area of coastal forest north of the Tiber
Tiber
, from the Veientes . He expanded the temple of Jupiter Feretrius to reflect these territorial successes. According to a reconstruction of the Fasti Triumphales , Ancus Marcius
Ancus Marcius
celebrated at least one triumph, over the Sabines
Sabines
and Veientes.

SUCCESSOR

Ancus Marcius
Ancus Marcius
was succeeded by Lucius Tarquinius Priscus
Lucius Tarquinius Priscus
who would later be executed by the sons of Ancus Marcius. Patrician Marcius Rex -family is descended from Ancus Marcius
Ancus Marcius
and remained prominent during the republic and empire.

REFERENCES

* ^ A B "Ancus Marcius" in The New Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Inc. , 15th edn., 1992, Vol. 1, p. 379. * ^ Plutach\'s Parallel Lives vol. 1 p. 379 * ^ E. Peruzzi Le origini di Roma I. La famiglia Firenze 1970 p. 142 ff. * ^ A B C D Livy
Livy
, Ab Urbe Condita , 1:32 * ^ Niebuhr, The History of Rome, Volume 1, p. 301 * ^ A B C D Livy
Livy
, Ab Urbe Condita , 1:33 * ^ A B One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Ancus Marcius". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 953. * ^ Livy
Livy
, Ab Urbe Condita

LEGENDARY TITLES

Preceded by Tullus Hostilius KING OF ROME 642–617 BC Succeeded by Lucius Tarquinius Priscus
Lucius Tarquinius Priscus

* v * t * e

Kings of Rome
Rome

* Romulus
Romulus
(753–717 BC) * Numa Pompilius
Numa Pompilius
(717–673 BC) * Tullus Hostilius (673–642 BC) * Ancus Marcius
Ancus Marcius
(642–617 BC) * Lucius Tarquinius Priscus
Lucius Tarquinius Priscus
(616–579 BC) * Servius Tullius
Servius Tullius
(578–535 BC) * Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (535–510 BC/509 BC)

* v * t * e

Ancient Roman religion and mythology

DEITIES

* Apollo
Apollo
* Bellona * Bona Dea * Castor and Pollux
Castor and Pollux
* Ceres * Cupid
Cupid
* Diana * Dīs Pater * Fauna * Faunus * Flora * Genius * Hercules * Janus
Janus
* Juno * Jupiter * Lares
Lares
* Liber * Libertas
Libertas
* Lucina * Mars * Mercury * Minerva
Minerva
* Orcus
Orcus
* Neptune * Penates * Pluto * Pomona * Priapus * Proserpina
Proserpina
* Quirinus
Quirinus
* Saturn * Silvanus * Sol * Venus * Vesta * Vulcan

ABSTRACT DEITIES

* Abundantia
Abundantia
* Aequitas * Concordia * Fides * Fortuna
Fortuna
* Pietas
Pietas
* Roma * Salus * Securitas * Spes * Victoria * Terra

LEGENDARY FIGURES

* Aeneas
Aeneas
* Rhea Silvia * Romulus
Romulus
and Remus * Numa Pompilius
Numa Pompilius
* Tullus Hostilius * Servius Tullius
Servius Tullius
* Ancus Marcius * Lucius Tarquinius Priscus
Lucius Tarquinius Priscus
* Lucius Tarquinius Superbus

TEXTS

* Vergil

* Aeneid
Aeneid

* Ovid
Ovid

* Metamorphoses
Metamorphoses
* Fasti

* Propertius

* Apuleius
Apuleius

* The Golden Ass

* Varro

CONCEPTS AND PRACTICES

* Religion in ancient Rome
Rome
* Festivals * Interpretatio graeca
Interpretatio graeca
* Imperial cult * Temples

SEE ALSO

* Glossary of ancient Roman religion * Greek mythology
Greek mythology
* Myth and ritual * Classical mythology
Classical mythology
* Conversion to Christianity * Decline of Greco-Roman polytheism

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 73583488 * GND : 118847422

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