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(i) (i)

The ancient YEMENI alphabet ( Old South Arabian
Old South Arabian
ms3nd; modern Arabic : المُسنَد‎‎ musnad) branched from the Proto-Sinaitic script in about the 9th century BC
9th century BC
. It was used for writing the Old South Arabian languages of the Sabaic , Qatabanic , Hadramautic , Minaean , Himyaritic , and Ge\'ez in Dʿmt
Dʿmt
. The earliest inscriptions in the alphabet date to the 9th century BC
9th century BC
in the Northern Red Sea Region
Northern Red Sea Region
, Eritrea
Eritrea
. There are no vowels, instead using the mater lectionis to mark them.

Its mature form was reached around 500 BC , and its use continued until the 6th century , including Ancient North Arabian inscriptions in variants of the alphabet, when it was displaced by the Arabic alphabet . In Ethiopia and Eritrea
Eritrea
it evolved later into the Ge\'ez script , which, with added symbols throughout the centuries, has been used to write Amharic
Amharic
, Tigrinya and Tigre , as well as other languages (including various Semitic , Cushitic , and Nilo-Saharan languages ).

CONTENTS

* 1 Sign inventory * 2 Zabūr script * 3 Properties * 4 Unicode
Unicode
* 5 Gallery of some inscriptions * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 External links

SIGN INVENTORY

, written with Musnad letters, from left to right on the upper line and from right to left on the bottom one. Notice how the letters are mirrored.

(EPIGRAPHIC) OLD YEMENI ALPHABET

Character Transcription IPA 𐩠 H 𐩡 L 𐩢 ḥ 𐩣 M 𐩤 Q 𐩥 W 𐩦 S2 𐩧 R 𐩨 B 𐩩 T 𐩪 S1 𐩫 K 𐩬 N 𐩭 ḫ 𐩯 S3 𐩰 F 𐩱 A 𐩲 ʿ 𐩳 ḍ 𐩴 G 𐩵 D 𐩶 ġ 𐩷 ṭ 𐩸 Z 𐩹 ḏ 𐩺 Y 𐩻 ṯ 𐩮 ṣ 𐩼 ẓ

Other transcriptions ś ,š

š,s

s,ś

BY SHAPE

Character Transcription IPA R

ʿ

W

Q

Y

H

A

S1

K

ġ

B

N

G

L

M

S2

S3

T

F

Z

D

Circle Y Π Vertical Diagonal Box

ZABūR SCRIPT

Zabūr is the name of the cursive form of the South Arabian script that was used by the ancient Yemenis ( Sabaeans
Sabaeans
) in addition to their monumental script, or musnad (see, e.g., Ryckmans, J., Müller, W. W., and ‛Abdallah, Yu., Textes du Yémen Antique inscrits sur bois. Louvain-la-Neuve
Louvain-la-Neuve
, Belgium, 1994 (Publications de l'Institut Orientaliste de Louvain, 43)).

The cursive zabūr script—also known as "South Arabian minuscules " —was used by the ancient Yemenis to inscribe everyday documents on wooden sticks in addition to the rock-cut monumental musnad letters displayed above. As yet only about one thousand such texts have been discovered, of which perhaps some 26 have been published; this is partly due to the difficulty of reading the minuscule script. South Arabian inscription addressed to the Sabaean "national" god Almaqah

History of the alphabet
History of the alphabet
-------------------------

Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE

* Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCE

* Demotic 7 c. BCE

* Meroitic 3 c. BCE

* Proto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCE

* Ugaritic 15 c. BCE

* Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCE

* Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE

* Phoenician 12 c. BCE

* Paleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCE

* Samaritan 6 c. BCE

* Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCE

* Tifinagh
Tifinagh

* Paleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE

* Aramaic 8 c. BCE

* Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
4 c. BCE

* Brāhmī 4 c. BCE

* Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see)

* E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE

* Hangul
Hangul
(core letters only) 1443

* Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CE

* Canadian syllabics 1840

* Hebrew 3 c. BCE

* Pahlavi 3 c. BCE

* Avestan 4 c. CE

* Palmyrene 2 c. BCE

* Syriac 2 c. BCE

* Nabataean 2 c. BCE

* Arabic 4 c. CE

* N\'Ko 1949 CE

* Sogdian 2 c. BCE

* Orkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CE

* Old Hungarian c. 650 CE

* Old Uyghur

* Mongolian 1204 CE

* Mandaic 2 c. CE

* Greek 8 c. BCE

* Etruscan 8 c. BCE

* Latin 7 c. BCE

* Cherokee (syllabary; letter forms only) c. 1820 CE

* Runic 2 c. CE * Ogham
Ogham
(origin uncertain) 4 c. CE

* Coptic 3 c. CE * Gothic 3 c. CE * Armenian 405 CE * Georgian (origin uncertain) c. 430 CE * Glagolitic 862 CE

* Cyrillic c. 940 CE

* Old Permic 1372 CE

Thaana
Thaana
18 c. CE (derived from Brahmi numerals
Brahmi numerals
)

* v * t * e

PROPERTIES

* It is usually written from right to left but can also be written from left to right. When written from left to right the characters are flipped horizontally (see the photo). * The spacing or separation between words is done with a vertical bar mark (). * Letters in words are not connected together. * It does not implement any diacritical marks (dots, etc.), differing in this respect from the modern Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
.

UNICODE

Main article: Old South Arabian
Old South Arabian
( Unicode
Unicode
block)

The South Arabian alphabet
South Arabian alphabet
was added to the Unicode
Unicode
Standard in October, 2009 with the release of version 5.2.

The Unicode
Unicode
block, called Old South Arabian, is U+10A60–U+10A7F.

Note that U+10A7D OLD SOUTH ARABIAN NUMBER ONE (𐩽) represents both the numeral one and a word divider.

OLD SOUTH ARABIAN Official Unicode
Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+10A6x 𐩠 𐩡 𐩢 𐩣 𐩤 𐩥 𐩦 𐩧 𐩨 𐩩 𐩪 𐩫 𐩬 𐩭 𐩮 𐩯

U+10A7x 𐩰 𐩱 𐩲 𐩳 𐩴 𐩵 𐩶 𐩷 𐩸 𐩹 𐩺 𐩻 𐩼 𐩽 𐩾 𐩿

NOTES 1.^ As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0

GALLERY OF SOME INSCRIPTIONS

* Photos from National Museum of Yemen :

* * * * * * * * * * *

* Photos from Yemen Military Museum :

* * *

SEE ALSO

* Eduard Glaser
Eduard Glaser
* Carl Rathjens

NOTES

* ^ A B Daniels, Peter T.; Bright, William, eds. (1996). The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press, Inc. pp. 89, 98, 569–570. ISBN 978-0195079937 . * ^ A B Gragg, Gene (2004). " Ge'ez
Ge'ez
(Aksum)". In Woodard, Roger D. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages. Cambridge University Press. p. 431. ISBN 0-521-56256-2 . * ^ Fattovich, Rodolfo, "Akkälä Guzay" in Uhlig, Siegbert, ed. Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: A-C. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz KG, 2003, p. 169. * ^ Ibn Durayd, Ta‘līq min amāli ibn durayd, ed. al-Sanūsī, Muṣṭafā, Kuwait 1984, p. 227 (Arabic). The author purports that a poet from the Kinda tribe in Yemen who settled in Dūmat al-Ǧandal during the advent of Islam told of how another member of the Yemenite Kinda tribe who lived in that town taught the Arabic script
Arabic script
to the Banū Qurayš in Mecca, and that their use of the Arabic script
Arabic script
for writing eventually took the place of musnad, or what was then the Sabaean script of the kingdom of Ḥimyar: "You have exchanged the musnad of the sons of Ḥimyar / which the kings of Ḥimyar were wont to write down in books." * ^ Stein 2005. * ^ Maktari, Sutlan; Mansour, Kamal. "N3395: Proposal to encode Old South Arabian script" (PDF). Retrieved 2 August 2014.

REFERENCES

* Stein, Peter (2005). "The Ancient South Arabian Minuscule Inscriptions on Wood: A New Genre of Pre-Islamic Epigraphy". Jaarbericht van het Vooraziatisch-Egyptisch Genootschap "Ex Oriente Lux". 39: 181–199. * Stein, Peter (2010). Die altsüdarabischen Minuskelinschriften auf Holzstäbchen aus der Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek in München. * Beeston, A.F.L. (1962). "Arabian Sibilants". Journal of Semitic Studies. 7 (2): 222–233. doi :10.1093/jss/7.2.222 . * Francaviglia Romeo, Vincenzo (2012). Il trono della regina di Saba, Artemide, Roma. pp. 149–155. .

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Ancient scripts on South Arabian * SI * Omniglot\'s entry on South Arabian

* v * t * e

Types of writing systems

OVERVIEW

* History of writing
History of writing
* Grapheme
Grapheme

LISTS

* Writing systems

* undeciphered * inventors * constructed

*

.