The OLYMPIC GAMES (
Ancient Greek : Ὀλύμπια Olympia,
"the Olympics" also
Ancient Greek : Ὀλυμπιάς Olympias
"the Olympiad") were a series of athletic competitions among
representatives of city-states and one of the
Panhellenic Games of
Ancient Greece . They were held in honor of
Zeus , and the Greeks gave
them a mythological origin . The first Olympics is traditionally dated
to 776 BC. They continued to be celebrated when Greece came under
Roman rule , until the emperor
Theodosius I suppressed them in 393 AD
as part of the campaign to impose Christianity as the State religion
of Rome . The games were held every four years, or olympiad , which
became a unit of time in historical chronologies.
During the celebration of the games, an
Olympic Truce was enacted so
that athletes could travel from their cities to the games in safety.
The prizes for the victors were olive leaf wreaths or crowns. The
games became a political tool used by city-states to assert dominance
over their rivals. Politicians would announce political alliances at
the games, and in times of war, priests would offer sacrifices to the
gods for victory. The games were also used to help spread Hellenistic
culture throughout the Mediterranean. The Olympics also featured
religious celebrations. The statue of
Zeus at Olympia was counted as
one of the seven wonders of the ancient world . Sculptors and poets
would congregate each olympiad to display their works of art to
The ancient Olympics had fewer events than the modern games, and only
freeborn Greek men were allowed to participate, although there were
victorious women chariot owners. As long as they met the entrance
criteria, athletes from any Greek city-state and kingdom were allowed
to participate, although the
Hellanodikai , the officials in charge,
Alexander I of Macedon to participate in the games only
after he had proven his Greek ancestry. The games were always held
at Olympia rather than moving between different locations as is the
practice with the modern
Olympic Games . Victors at the Olympics were
honored, and their feats chronicled for future generations.
* 1 Origins
* 2 History
* 3 Culture
* 4 Politics
* 5 Events
* 5.1 Running
* 5.2 Combat
* 5.3 Pentathlon
* 6 Equestrian
* 7 Famous athletes
* 8 Olympic festivals in other places
* 9 See also
* 10 Notes
* 11 References
* 12 External links
An artist's impression of ancient Olympia
To the Greeks, it was important to root the
Olympic Games in
mythology. During the time of the ancient games their origins were
attributed to the gods, and competing legends persisted as to who
actually was responsible for the genesis of the games. These origin
traditions have become nearly impossible to untangle, yet a chronology
and patterns have arisen that help people understand the story behind
The earliest myths regarding the origin of the games are recounted by
the Greek historian, Pausanias . According to the story, the dactyl
Heracles (not to be confused with the son of
Zeus and the Roman god
Hercules ) and four of his brothers, Paeonaeus ,
Idas , raced at Olympia to entertain the newborn Zeus. He crowned the
victor with an olive tree wreath (which thus became a peace symbol),
which also explains the four year interval, bringing the games around
every fifth year (counting inclusively). The other Olympian gods (so
named because they lived permanently on
Mount Olympus ) would also
engage in wrestling, jumping and running contests.
Another myth of the origin of the games is the story of
Pelops , a
local Olympian hero. The story of
Pelops begins with
Oenomaus , the
Pisa, Greece , who had a beautiful daughter named
According to an oracle, the king would be killed by her husband.
Therefore, he decreed that any young man who wanted to marry his
daughter was required to drive away with her in his chariot, and
Oenomaus would follow in another chariot, and spear the suitor if he
caught up with them. Now, the king's chariot horses were a present
from the god
Poseidon and were therefore supernaturally fast. Pelops
was a very handsome young man and the king's daughter fell in love
with him. Before the race, she persuaded her father's charioteer
Myrtilus to replace the bronze axle pins of the king's chariot with
wax ones. Naturally, during the race the wax melted and the king fell
from his chariot and was killed. At the same time the king's palace
was struck by lightning and reduced to ashes, save for one wooden
pillar that was revered in the
Altis for centuries, and stood near
what was to be the site of the temple of
Pelops was proclaimed
the winner and married Hippodamia. After his victory,
chariot races as thanksgiving to the gods and as funeral games in
honor of King Oenomaus, in order to be purified of his death. It was
from this funeral race held at Olympia that the beginnings of the
Olympic Games were inspired.
Pelops became a great king, a local hero,
and he gave his name to the
One other myth, this one occurring after the aforementioned myth, is
Pindar . He claims the festival at Olympia involved
Heracles , the son of Zeus. The story goes that after completing his
Heracles established an athletic festival to honor his
The games of previous millennia were discontinued and then revived by
Lycurgus of Sparta ,
Iphitos of Elis , and Cleisthenes of Pisa at the
behest of the
Oracle of Delphi who claimed that the people had strayed
from the gods, which had caused a plague and constant war. Restoration
of the games would end the plague, usher in a time of peace, and
signal a return to a more traditional lifestyle. The patterns that
emerge from these myths are that the Greeks believed the games had
their roots in religion, that athletic competition was tied to worship
of the gods, and the revival of the ancient games was intended to
bring peace, harmony and a return to the origins of Greek life.
Since these myths were documented by historians like Pausanias, who
lived during the reign of
Marcus Aurelius in the 160 AD, it is likely
that these stories are more fable than fact. It was often supposed
that the origins of many aspects of the Olympics date to funeral games
of the Mycenean period and later. Alternatively, the games were
thought to derive from some kind of vegetation magic or from
initiation ceremonies. The most recent theory traces the origins of
the games to large game hunting and related animal ceremonialism.
A Torch Race
The Olympic games were held to be one of the two central rituals in
Ancient Greece , the other being the much older religious festival,
Eleusinian Mysteries .
The games started in Olympia, Greece, in a sanctuary site for the
Greek deities near the towns of
Elis and Pisa (both in
Elis on the
Peloponnesos ). The first games began as an annual foot
race of young women in competition for the position of the priestess
for the goddess,
Hera , and a second race was instituted for a
consort for the priestess who would participate in the religious
traditions at the temple.
Heraea Games , the first recorded competition for women in the
Olympic Stadium, were held as early as the sixth century BC. It
originally consisted of foot races only, as did the competition for
males. Some texts, including Pausanias's
Description of Greece , c. AD
175, state that Hippodameia gathered a group known as the "Sixteen
Women" and made them administrators of the Heraea Games, out of
gratitude for her marriage to
Pelops . Other texts related to the Elis
and Pisa conflict indicate that the "
Sixteen Women " were peacemakers
from Pisa and
Elis and, because of their political competence, became
administrators of the Heraea. Being the consort of
Hera in Classical
Greek mythology ,
Zeus was the father of the deities in the pantheon
of that era. The Sanctuary of
Zeus in Olympia housed a 13-metre-high
(43 ft) statue in ivory and gold of
Zeus that had been sculpted by
Phidias circa 445 BC. This statue was one of the ancient Seven Wonders
of the World . By the time of the Classical Greek culture, in the
fifth and fourth centuries BC, the games were restricted to male
Ephorus , who lived in the fourth century BC, is one
potential candidate for establishing the use of Olympiads to count
years, although credit for codifying this particular epoch usually
falls to Hippias of Elis, to Eratosthenes, or even to Timaeus, whom
Eratosthenes may have imitated. The
Olympic Games were held at
four-year intervals, and later, the ancient historians' method of
counting the years even referred to these games, using the term
Olympiad for the period between two games. Previously, the local
dating systems of the Greek states were used (they continued to be
used by everyone except the historians), which led to confusion when
trying to determine dates. For example, Diodorus states that there was
a solar eclipse in the third year of the 113th Olympiad, which must be
the eclipse of 316 BC. This gives a date of (mid-summer) 765 BC for
the first year of the first Olympiad. Nevertheless, there is
disagreement among scholars as to when the games began. The
"Exedra" reserved for the judges at Olympia on the north embankment of
The only competition held then was, according to the later Greek
traveller Pausanias who wrote in 175 AD, the stadion race, a race over
about 190 metres (620 ft), measured after the feet of Hercules. The
word stadium is derived from this foot race.
The Greek tradition of athletic nudity (gymnos) was introduced in
720 BC, either by the Spartans or by the Megarian
Orsippus , and this
was adopted early in the Olympics as well.
Several groups fought over control of the sanctuary at Olympia, and
hence the games, for prestige and political advantage. Pausanias later
writes that in 668 BC, Pheidon of
Argos was commissioned by the town
of Pisa to capture the sanctuary from the town of Elis, which he did
and then personally controlled the games for that year. The next year,
Elis regained control.
Olympic Games were part of the
Panhellenic Games , four separate
games held at two- or four-year intervals, but arranged so that there
was at least one set of games every year. The
Olympic Games were more
important and more prestigious than the Pythian , Nemean , and
Isthmian Games .
The games were in decline for many years but continued past 385 AD,
by which time flooding and earthquakes had damaged the buildings and
invasions by barbarians had reached Olympia. In 394 Theodosius I
banned all pagan festivals, but archeological evidence indicates that
some games were still held.
Discobolus " is a copy of a Greek statue c. 5th century BC.
It represents an ancient Olympic discus thrower
The ancient Olympics were as much a religious festival as an athletic
event. The games were held in honor of the Greek god
Zeus , and on the
middle day of the games, 100 oxen would be sacrificed to him. Over
time Olympia, site of the games, became a central spot for the worship
of the head of the Greek pantheon and a temple, built by the Greek
architect Libon was erected on the mountaintop. The temple was one of
the largest Doric temples in Greece. The sculptor
Pheidias created a
statue of the god made of gold and ivory. It stood 42 feet (13 m)
tall. It was placed on a throne in the temple. The statue became one
of the seven wonders of the ancient world . As the historian Strabo
"... the glory of the temple persisted ... on account both of the
festal assembly and of the Olympian Games, in which the prize was a
crown and which were regarded as sacred, the greatest games in the
world. The temple was adorned by its numerous offerings, which were
dedicated there from all parts of Greece."
Artistic expression was a major part of the games. Sculptors, poets,
painters and other artisans would come to the games to display their
works in what became an artistic competition. Sculptors created works
Diskobolos or Discus Thrower. Their aim was to highlight
natural human movement and the shape of muscles and the body. Poets
would be commissioned to write poems in praise of the Olympic victors.
Such victory songs or epinicians, were passed on from generation to
generation and many of them have lasted far longer than any other
honor made for the same purpose.
Baron Pierre de Coubertin
Baron Pierre de Coubertin , one of
the founders of the modern
Olympic Games , wanted to fully imitate the
ancient Olympics in every way. Included in his vision was an artistic
competition modeled on the ancient Olympics and held every four years,
during the celebration of the Olympic Games. His desire came to
fruition at the Olympics held in
Athens in 1896 .
Athens , one of the leading city-states of the
Power in ancient Greece became centered around the city-state in the
8th century BC. The city-state was a population center organized into
a self-contained political entity. These city-states often lived in
close proximity to each other, which created competition for limited
resources. Though conflict between the city-states was ubiquitous, it
was also in their self-interest to engage in trade, military alliances
and cultural interaction. The city-states had a dichotomous
relationship with each other: On one hand, they relied on their
neighbors for political and military alliances, while on the other
they competed fiercely with those same neighbors for vital resources.
Olympic Games were established in this political context and
served as a venue for representatives of the city-states to peacefully
compete against each other.
In the first 200 years of the games' existence, they only had
regional religious importance. Only Greeks in proximity to the
mountain competed in these early games. This is evidenced by the
dominance of Peloponnesian athletes in the victors' rolls. The spread
of Greek colonies in the 5th and 6th centuries BC is repeatedly linked
to successful Olympic athletes. For example, Pausanias recounts that
Cyrene was founded c. 630 BC by settlers from Thera with Spartan
support. The support
Sparta gave was primarily the loan of three-time
Olympic champion Chionis. The appeal of settling with an Olympic
champion helped to populate the colonies and maintain cultural and
political ties with the city-states near Olympia. Thus, Hellenic
culture and the games spread while the primacy of Olympia persisted.
The games faced a serious challenge during the
Peloponnesian War ,
which primarily pitted
Athens against Sparta, but, in reality, touched
nearly every Hellenic city-state. The Olympics were used during this
time to announce alliances and offer sacrifices to the gods for
During the Olympic Games, a truce, or ekecheiria was observed. Three
runners, known as spondophoroi were sent from
Elis to the participant
cities at each set of games to announce the beginning of the truce.
During this period, armies were forbidden from entering Olympia and
legal disputes and the use of the death penalty were forbidden. The
truce was primarily designed to allow athletes and visitors to travel
safely to the games and was, for the most part, observed. Thucydides
wrote of a situation when the Spartans were forbidden from attending
the games, and the violators of the truce were fined 2,000 minae for
assaulting the city of
Lepreum during the period of the ekecheiria.
The Spartans disputed the fine and claimed that the truce had not yet
While a martial truce was observed by all participating city-states,
no such reprieve from conflict existed in the political arena. The
Olympic Games evolved the most influential athletic and cultural stage
in ancient Greece, and arguably in the ancient world. As such the
games became a vehicle for city-states to promote themselves. The
result was political intrigue and controversy. For example, Pausanias
, a Greek historian, explains the situation of the athlete Sotades,
"Sotades at the ninety-ninth Festival was victorious in the long race
and proclaimed a Cretan, as in fact he was. But at the next Festival
he made himself an Ephesian, being bribed to do so by the Ephesian
people. For this act he was banished by the Cretans."
Three runners featured on an Attic black-figured Panathenaic
332-333 BC, British Museum.
EVENTS AT THE OLYMPICS
Long distance race (Dolichos )
Pentathlon , Wrestling
Boxing (pygmachia )
Four horse chariot race (tethrippon )
Horse race (keles),
Boys stade and wrestling
Hoplite race (hoplitodromos )
Mule-cart race (apene )
Two horse chariot race (synoris )
Competition for heralds and trumpeters
Tethrippon for horse over one year
Chariot for horse over one year
Race for horses older than one year
Pankration for boys
Apparently starting with just a single foot race, the program
gradually increased to twenty-three contests, although no more than
twenty featured at any one Olympiad. Participation in most events was
limited to male athletes except for women who were allowed to take
part by entering horses in the equestrian events. Youth events are
recorded as starting in 632 BC. Our knowledge of how the events were
performed primarily derives from the paintings of athletes found on
many on vases, particularly those of the Archaic and Classical
A section of the stone starting line at Olympia, which has a
groove for each foot
The only event recorded at the first thirteen games was the stade , a
straight-line sprint of just over 192 metres. The diaulos (lit.
"double pipe"), or two-stade race, is recorded as being introduced at
Olympiad in 724 BC. It is thought that competitors ran in
lanes marked out with lime or gypsum for the length of a stade then
turned around separate posts (kampteres), before returning to the
Xenophanes wrote that "Victory by speed of foot is
honored above all."
A third foot race, the dolichos ("long race"), was introduced in the
next Olympiad. Accounts of the race's distance differ, it seems to
have been from twenty to twenty-four laps of the track, around 7.5 km
to 9 km, although it may have been lengths rather laps and thus half
The last running event added to the Olympic program was the
hoplitodromos , or "
Hoplite race", introduced in 520 BC and
traditionally run as the last race of the games. Competitors ran
either a single or double diaulos (approximately 400 or 800 metres) in
full military armour. The hoplitodromos was based on a war tactic of
soldiers running in full armor to surprise the enemy.
Pankration scene: the pankriatiast on the right tries to gouge
his opponent's eye; the umpire is about to strike him for this foul.
Detail from an Attic red-figure kylix c.490-480 BC,
Wrestling (pale ) is recorded as being introduced at the 18th
Olympiad. Three throws were necessary for win. A throw was counted if
the body, hip, back or shoulder (and possibly knee) touched the
ground. If both competitors fell nothing was counted. Unlike its
Greco-Roman wrestling , it is likely that tripping
Boxing (pygmachia ) was first listed in 688 BC, the boys event sixty
years later. The laws of boxing were ascribed to the first Olympic
Onomastus of Smyrna . It appears body-blows were either not
permitted or not practised. The Spartans, who claimed to have
invented boxing, quickly abandoned it and did not take part in boxing
competitions. At first the boxers wore himantes (sing. himas), long
leather strips which were wrapped around their hands.
The pankration was introduced in the 33rd
Olympiad (648 BC). Boys'
pankration became an Olympic event in 200 BC, in the 145th Olympiad.
As well as techniques from boxing and wrestling, athletes used kicks,
locks, and chokes on the ground. Although the only prohibitions were
against biting and gouging, the pankration was regarded as less
dangerous than boxing.
One of the most popular events,
Pindar wrote eight odes praising
victors of the pankration. A famous event in the sport was the
posthumous victory of
Arrhichion of Phigaleia who "expired at the very
moment when his opponent acknowledged himself beaten."
Ancient Olympic pentathlon
The pentathlon was a combined competition in five events: running,
long jump, discus throw, javelin throw and wrestling. The pentathlon
is said to have first appeared at 18th
Olympiad in 708 BC. The
competition was held on single day, but it is not known how the
victor was decided, or in what order the events occurred, except
that it finished with the wrestling.
THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it .
Equestrian events, otherwise known as horse racing, were the most
prestigious competitions in the games, due to only the wealthy being
able to afford the maintenance and transportation of horses. These
races consisted of different events: the four-horse chariot, the
two-horse chariot, and the horse with rider who was hand picked by the
owner. The four-horse chariot was the first equestrian event,
introduced in 680 BC. How this worked, were, two of the horses were
harnessed under a
Yoke in the middle, and the two outer horses were
attached with a rope. The two-horse chariot was later introduced at
Olympia at 408 BC. The horse with rider competition on the other
hand, was introduced in 648 BC. In this race, Greeks didn't use
saddles or stirrups , so they required good grip and balance.
In 67 AD, the Roman Emperor
Nero competed in the chariot race at
Nero was thrown from his chariot and was not able to finish
the race, but
Nero was declared the winner on the basis that Nero
would have won if he finished the race.
List of ancient Olympic victors
List of ancient Olympic victors Ancient list of
Olympic victors of the 75th to the 78th, and from the 81st to the 83rd
Olympiads (480–468 BC, 456–448 BC).
Sparta (owner of a four-horse chariot) (first woman to
be listed as an Olympic victor)
* Diagoras of
Rhodes (boxing 79th Olympiad, 464 BC) and his sons
Akusilaos and Damagetos (boxing and pankration )
* Leonidas of
Rhodes (running: stadion, diaulos and
hoplitodromos)(His record of 12 individual olympic titans was broken
in 2016 by
Michael Phelps who received his 13th original title. )
* From Croton :
Astylos of Croton (running: stadion, diaulos and hoplitodromos)
Milo of Croton (wrestling)
* Timasitheos of Croton (wrestling)
* From other cities/kingdoms:
* Koroibos of
Elis (stadion, the very first Olympic champion)
Megara (running: diaulos)
Theagenes of Thasos (boxer, pankratiast and runner)
Alexander I of Macedon (running: stadion)
Tiberius (steerer of a four-horse chariot)
Nero (steerer of a ten-horse chariot)
Varastades , Prince and future King of Armenia , last known
Ancient Olympic victor (boxing) during the 291st
Olympic Games in the
OLYMPIC FESTIVALS IN OTHER PLACES
Ancient Greek Olympic festivals
Athletic festivals under the name of "Olympic games", named in
imitation of the original festival at Olympia, were established over
time in various places all over the Greek world. Some of these are
only known to us by inscriptions and coins; but others, as the Olympic
Antioch , obtained great celebrity. After these Olympic
festivals had been established in several places, the great Olympic
festival itself was sometimes designated in inscriptions by the
addition of Pisa .
List of ancient olympic victors
List of ancient olympic victors
Olympic Games ceremony
Archaeological Museum of Olympia
Archaeological Museum of Olympia
Ludi , the Roman games influenced by Greek traditions
New Testament athletic metaphors
* ^ "Ὀλύμπια the Olympic games, in honour of Olympian
* ^ "15-04-16 Χαιρετισμός των Υπουργών
Ν.Φίλη και Α.Μπαλτά για την Παγκόσμια
Ημέρα Μνημείων και Τοποθεσιών". Greek
ministry of Education Research and Religious affairs.
Πανελλήνια συμμετοχή είχαν: τα
Ολύμπια, που διεξάγονταν κάθε τέσσερα
χρόνια στην Αρχαία Ολυμπία προς τιμήν
* ^ Francis Edward Jackson VALPY (1832). Second Greek Delectus; or,
new Analecta Minora ... With English notes, and a copious Greek and
English lexicon, etc. p. 1.
* ^ A B Grieksch leesboek voor eerstbeginnenden: ingerigt ten
dienste der Hollandsche jeugd. H.C.A. Thieme. 1811. p. 248.
* ^ A B Henry Cary (1843). A Lexicon to Herodotus, Greek and
English, Adapted to the Text of Grisford and Bachr. J. Vincent and. p.
* ^ A B Fridericus Gulielmus Sturz (1818). Etymologicum graciae
linguae Gudianum et alia grammaticorum scripta e codicibus
manuscriptis nunc primum edita Accedunt notae ad Aymologicion magnum
ineditae E. H. Barkeri, Innr. Bekkeri, Lud. Kulencampii, Amad.
Peyronialiorumque. Weigel. p. 371.
* ^ "Ο᾿λυμπιάς 1 pecul. fem. of Ὀλύμπιος". 1.the
Olympic games, Hdt., Pind.
* ^ "History". Olympic Games. Retrieved 2016-08-11.
* ^ David Sansone,
Ancient Greek civilization, Wiley-Blackwell,
* ^ Robert Malcolm Errington, A history of Macedonia, University of
California Press, 1990, p.3
* ^ Joseph Roisman, Ian Worthington, A Companion to Ancient
Macedonia, Wiley-Blackwell, 2010, p.16
* ^ A B C D E F G "The Ancient Olympics". The Perseus Project.
Tufts University. Archived from the original on 10 February 2010.
Retrieved 12 February 2010.
* ^ Kyle, 1999, p.101
* ^ Kyle, 1999, pp.101–102
* ^ Kyle, 1999, p.102
* ^ Spivey, 2005, pp.225–226
* ^ Pausanias , Description of Greece, 5.7.6-9
* ^ Spivey, 2005, p.226
* ^ Kyle, 1999, pp.102–103
* ^ Kyle, 1999, p.102–104
* ^ Wendy J. Raschke (15 June 1988). Archaeology Of The Olympics:
The Olympics & Other Festivals In Antiquity. Univ of Wisconsin Press.
pp. 22–. ISBN 978-0-299-11334-6 . Retrieved 12 August 2012.
* ^ Patay-Horváth, András (2015). The Origins of the Olympic
Games. Budapest: Archaeolingua. ISBN 978-963-9911-72-7 .
* ^ "The Ancient Olympic Games". HickokSports. 4 February 2005.
Archived from the original on 22 February 2002. Retrieved 13 May 2007.
* ^ Pausanias: v. 16. 2
* ^ Pindar: Pythian Odes ix
* ^ Plutarch, Numa Pompilius 1.4
* ^ Dionysius, 1.74-1-3. Little remains of Eratosthenes'
Chronographiae, but its academic influence is clearly demonstrated
here in the Roman Antiquities by Dionysius of Halicarnassus.
* ^ Denis Feeney in Caesar's Calendar: Ancient Time and the
Beginnings of History. (Berkeley and Los Angeles, California:
University of California Press, 2007), 84.
* ^ "The Athletics of the Ancient Olympics: A Summary and Research
Tool" by Kotynski, p.3 (Quote used with permission). For the
calculation of the date, see Kotynski footnote 6.
* ^ See, for example, Alfred Mallwitz's article "Cult and
Competition Locations at Olympia" p.101 in which he argues that the
games may not have started until about 704 BC. Hugh Lee, on the other
hand, in his article "The 'First'
Olympic Games of 776 B.C.E" p.112,
follows an ancient source that claims that there were twenty-seven
Olympiads before the first one was recorded in 776. There are no
records of Olympic victors extant from earlier than the fifth century
* ^ Yalouris, N. 1976. The Olympic Games-through the ages. Print
* ^ David C. Young (15 April 2008). A Brief History of the Olympic
Games. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 135–. ISBN 978-0-470-77775-6 .
Retrieved 1 April 2013.
* ^ Tony Perrottet (8 June 2004). The Naked Olympics: The True
Story of the Ancient Games. Random House Digital, Inc. pp. 190–.
ISBN 978-1-58836-382-4 . Retrieved 1 April 2013.
* ^ Golden, Mark, p. 77.
* ^ Stanton, 2000, pp.3–4
* ^ Stanton, 2000, p. 17
* ^ Hansen, 2006, p. 9
* ^ Hansen, 2006, pp.9–10
* ^ Hansen, 2006, p.10
* ^ Hansen, 2006, p.114
* ^ Raschke, 1988, p. 23
* ^ Spivey, 2005, p.172
* ^ Spivey, 2005, pp.182–183
* ^ Lendering, Jona. "Peloponnesian War". Livius, Articles on
Ancient History. Archived from the original on 13 February 2010.
* ^ A B Thucydides. The History of the Peloponnesian War. 5.
Richard Crawley . The Internet Classics Archive. ISBN
0-525-26035-8 . Archived from the original on 13 February 2010.
* ^ A B Swaddling, 1999, p.11
* ^ Strassler & Hanson, 1996, pp. 332–333
* ^ Kyle, 2007, p. 8
* ^ Crowther
* ^ Young, p. 18
* ^ Miller, p. 33
* ^ Miller, p. 44
* ^ Golden, p. 55. "The dolichos varied in length from seven to
twenty-four lengths of the stadium - from 1,400 to 4,800 Greek feet."
* ^ Miller, p. 32 "The sources are not unanimous about the length
of this race: some claim that it was twenty laps of the stadium track,
others that it was twenty-four. It may have differed from site to
site, but it was in the range of 7.5 to 9 kilometers."
* ^ Miller, p. 33
* ^ Gardiner, p. 374-
* ^ A B Miller, p. 51
* ^ A B Gardiner, p. 402
* ^ Gardiner, p. 421
* ^ To judge from the story of Damoxenos and Kreugas who boxed at
Nemean Games , after a long battle with no result combatants could
agree to a free exchange of hits. (Gardiner, p. 432)
* ^ Gardiner, p. 435
* ^ Miller, p. 60
* ^ Gardiner, p. 445-6 "Galen, in his skit on the Olympic games,
awards the prize to the donkey, as the best of all animals in
* ^ Finley & Pleket, p. 41
* ^ Gardiner, p. 437
* ^ Gardiner, p. 438
* ^ 450 and Miller, p. 59
* ^ Gariner, p. 359
* ^ Miller, p. 60
* ^ Young, p. 32
* ^ Young, p. 19
* ^ Gardiner, p. 362-3
* ^ Gardiner, p. 362-5
* ^ Gardiner, p. 363
* ^ http://ancientolympics.arts.kuleuven.be/eng/TC008aEN.html
* ^ http://ancientolympics.arts.kuleuven.be/eng/TC008bEN.html
* ^ http://ancientolympics.arts.kuleuven.be/eng/TC008cEN.html
"Horse with rider"
* ^ "
Olympic Games We No Longer Play". 2016-08-04. Retrieved
* ^ "
Michael Phelps beats 2,168-year-old Olympic record held by
Leonidas of Rhodes". Retrieved 26 Jan 2017.
* ^ "A Brief History of the Olympic Games". Retrieved 16 April
* ^ Herodotus, Book 5: Terpsichore, 22
* ^ Tiberius, AD 1 or earlier – cf. Ehrenberg & Jones, Documents
Illustrating the Reigns of Augustus and
Tiberius p. 73 (n.78)
* ^ 369 according to Encyclopedia of
Ancient Greece by Nigel
Wilson, 2006, Routledge (UK) or 385 according to Classical Weekly by
Classical Association of the Atlantic States
* ^ William Smith ,
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities ,
1875 – ancientlibrary.com Archived 6 June 2011 at the Wayback
* Gardiner, E. N. (1910). Greek athletic sports and festivals.
London : Macmillan.
* Gardiner, E. Norman, Athletics of the Ancient World, 246 pages,
200+ illustrations, with new material, Oxford University Press, 1930
* Young, David C. (2004). A Brief History of the Olympic Games
(PDF). Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 1-405-11130-5 .
* Miller, Stephen G. (2006).
Ancient Greek Athletics. Yale
University Press. ISBN 0-300-11529-6 .
* Golden, Mark, Sport and Society in Ancient Greece, Cambridge
University Press, 1998.
* Hansen, Mogens Herman (2006). Polis, an Introduction to the
Ancient Greek City-State. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
ISBN 0-19-920849-2 . Retrieved 12 February 2010.
* Hanson, Victor Davis; Strassler, Robert B. (1996). The Landmark
Thucydides. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4165-9087-3 .
Retrieved 12 February 2010.
* Kotynski, Edward J. The Athletics of the Ancient Olympics: A
Summary and Research Tool. 2006. (Archived 2009-10-25); new link
* Kyle, Donald G. (2007). Sport and Spectacle in the Ancient World.
Oxford, England: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 978-0-631-22970-4 .
Retrieved 12 February 2010.
* Mallowitz, Alfred. Cult and Competition Locations at Olympia.
* Miller, Stephen. "The Date of Olympic Festivals". Mitteilungen:
Des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Athenische Abteilung. Vol.
90 (1975): 215–237.
* Patay-Horváth, András (2015). The Origins of the Olympic Games.
Budapest: Archaeolingua Foundation. ISBN 978-963-9911-72-7 .
* Raschke, Wendy J., ed. (1988). The Archaeology of the Olympics:
the Olympics and Other Festivals in Antiquity. Madison, Wisconsin:
Wisconsin University Press. ISBN 978-0-299-11334-6 . Retrieved 12
February 2010. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link )
* Spivey, Nigel (2005). The Ancient Olympics. Oxford, England:
Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280433-2 . Retrieved 12 February
* Stanton, Richard (2000). The Forgotten Olympic Art
Competitions:The story of the Olympic art competitions of the 20th
century. Victoria, Canada: Trafford. ISBN 1-55212-606-4 . Retrieved 23
* Swaddling, Judith (1999). The ancient Olympic Games. Austin,
Texas: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-77751-5 . Retrieved 12
* Tufts – "Women and the Games"
* Ancient Olympics. Research by K. U. Leuven and Peking University
Wikimedia Commons has media related to ANCIENT OLYMPIC GAMES .
Wikisource has the text of The New Student\'s Reference Work
article OLYMPIC GAMES .
* The Ancient
Olympic Games virtual museum (requires registration)