The Info List - Ancient Olympic Games

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The ancient Olympic Games
Olympic Games
were originally a festival, or celebration of and for Zeus; later, events such as a footrace, a javelin contest, and wrestling matches were added. The Olympic Games
Olympic Games
(Ancient Greek: Ὀλύμπια Olympia[1][2][3][4][5][6] "the Olympics"; also Ὀλυμπιάς Olympias[7][4][5][6] "the Olympiad") were a series of athletic competitions among representatives of city-states and one of the Panhellenic Games of ancient Greece. They were held in honor of Zeus, and the Greeks gave them a mythological origin. The first Olympics is traditionally dated to 776 BC.[8] They continued to be celebrated when Greece came under Roman rule, until the emperor Theodosius I
Theodosius I
suppressed them in AD 393 as part of the campaign to impose Christianity as the State religion of Rome. The games were held every four years, or olympiad, which became a unit of time in historical chronologies. During the celebration of the games, an Olympic Truce was enacted so that athletes could travel from their cities to the games in safety. The prizes for the victors were olive leaf wreaths or crowns. The games became a political tool used by city-states to assert dominance over their rivals. Politicians would announce political alliances at the games, and in times of war, priests would offer sacrifices to the gods for victory. The games were also used to help spread Hellenistic culture throughout the Mediterranean. The Olympics also featured religious celebrations. The statue of Zeus
at Olympia was counted as one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. Sculptors and poets would congregate each olympiad to display their works of art to would-be patrons. The ancient Olympics had fewer events than the modern games, and only freeborn Greek men were allowed to participate,[9] although there were victorious women chariot owners. As long as they met the entrance criteria, athletes from any Greek city-state and kingdom were allowed to participate, although the Hellanodikai, the officials in charge, allowed king Alexander I of Macedon
Alexander I of Macedon
to participate in the games only after he had proven his Greek ancestry.[10][11] The games were always held at Olympia rather than moving between different locations as is the practice with the modern Olympic Games.[12] Victors at the Olympics were honored, and their feats chronicled for future generations.


1 Origins 2 History 3 Culture 4 Politics 5 Events

5.1 Running 5.2 Combat 5.3 Pentathlon

6 Equestrian 7 Famous athletes 8 Olympic festivals in other places 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 External links


An artist's impression of ancient Olympia

To the Greeks, it was important to root the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
in mythology.[13] During the time of the ancient games their origins were attributed to the gods, and competing legends persisted as to who actually was responsible for the genesis of the games.[14] These origin traditions have become nearly impossible to untangle, yet a chronology and patterns have arisen that help people understand the story behind the games.[15] The earliest myths regarding the origin of the games are recounted by the Greek historian, Pausanias. According to the story, the dactyl Heracles
(not to be confused with the son of Zeus
and the Roman god Hercules) and four of his brothers, Paeonaeus, Epimedes, Iasius and Idas, raced at Olympia to entertain the newborn Zeus. He crowned the victor with an olive tree wreath (which thus became a peace symbol), which also explains the four year interval, bringing the games around every fifth year (counting inclusively).[16][17] The other Olympian gods (so named because they lived permanently on Mount Olympus) would also engage in wrestling, jumping and running contests.[18] Another myth of the origin of the games is the story of Pelops, a local Olympian hero. The story of Pelops
begins with Oenomaus, the king of Pisa, Greece, who had a beautiful daughter named Hippodamia. According to an oracle, the king would be killed by her husband. Therefore, he decreed that any young man who wanted to marry his daughter was required to drive away with her in his chariot, and Oenomaus
would follow in another chariot, and spear the suitor if he caught up with them. Now, the king's chariot horses were a present from the god Poseidon
and were therefore supernaturally fast. Pelops was a very handsome young man and the king's daughter fell in love with him. Before the race, she persuaded her father's charioteer Myrtilus
to replace the bronze axle pins of the king's chariot with wax ones. Naturally, during the race, the wax melted and the king fell from his chariot and was killed. At the same time, the king's palace was struck by lightning and reduced to ashes, save for one wooden pillar that was revered in the Altis for centuries, and stood near what was to be the site of the temple of Zeus. Pelops
was proclaimed the winner and married Hippodamia. After his victory, Pelops
organized chariot races as thanksgiving to the gods and as funeral games in honor of King Oenomaus, in order to be purified of his death. It was from this funeral race held at Olympia that the beginnings of the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
were inspired. Pelops
became a great king, a local hero, and he gave his name to the Peloponnese. One other myth, this one occurring after the aforementioned myth, is attributed to Pindar. He claims the festival at Olympia involved Heracles, the son of Zeus. The story goes that after completing his labors, Heracles
established an athletic festival to honor his father. The games of previous millennia were discontinued and then revived by Lycurgus of Sparta, Iphitos of Elis, and Cleisthenes of Pisa at the behest of the Oracle of Delphi
Oracle of Delphi
who claimed that the people had strayed from the gods, which had caused a plague and constant war. Restoration of the games would end the plague, usher in a time of peace, and signal a return to a more traditional lifestyle.[19] The patterns that emerge from these myths are that the Greeks believed the games had their roots in religion, that athletic competition was tied to worship of the gods, and the revival of the ancient games was intended to bring peace, harmony and a return to the origins of Greek life.[20] Since these myths were documented by historians like Pausanias, who lived during the reign of Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
in the AD 160, it is likely that these stories are more fable than fact. It was often supposed that the origins of many aspects of the Olympics date to funeral games of the Mycenean period and later.[21] Alternatively, the games were thought to derive from some kind of vegetation magic or from initiation ceremonies. The most recent theory traces the origins of the games to large game hunting and related animal ceremonialism.[22] History[edit]

A torch race

The Olympic games were held to be one of the two central rituals in ancient Greece, the other being the much older religious festival, the Eleusinian Mysteries.[23] The games started in Olympia, Greece, in a sanctuary site for the Greek deities near the towns of Elis
and Pisa (both in Elis
on the peninsula of Peloponnesos). The first games began as an annual foot race of young women in competition for the position of the priestess for the goddess, Hera,[24] and a second race was instituted for a consort for the priestess who would participate in the religious traditions at the temple.[25] The Heraean Games, the first recorded competition for women in the Olympic Stadium, were held as early as the sixth century BC. It originally consisted of foot races only, as did the competition for males. Some texts, including Pausanias's Description of Greece, c. AD 175, state that Hippodameia gathered a group known as the "Sixteen Women" and made them administrators of the Heraea Games, out of gratitude for her marriage to Pelops. Other texts related to the Elis
and Pisa conflict indicate that the "Sixteen Women" were peacemakers from Pisa and Elis
and, because of their political competence, became administrators of the Heraea. Being the consort of Hera
in Classical Greek mythology, Zeus
was the father of the deities in the pantheon of that era. The Sanctuary of Zeus
in Olympia housed a 13-metre-high (43 ft) statue in ivory and gold of Zeus
that had been sculpted by Phidias
circa 445 BC. This statue was one of the ancient Seven Wonders of the World. By the time of the Classical Greek culture, in the fifth and fourth centuries BC, the games were restricted to male participants. The historian Ephorus, who lived in the fourth century BC, is one potential candidate for establishing the use of Olympiads to count years, although credit for codifying this particular epoch usually falls to Hippias of Elis, to Eratosthenes, or even to Timaeus, whom Eratosthenes may have imitated.[26][27][28] The Olympic Games
Olympic Games
were held at four-year intervals, and later, the ancient historians' method of counting the years even referred to these games, using the term Olympiad
for the period between two games. Previously, the local dating systems of the Greek states were used (they continued to be used by everyone except the historians), which led to confusion when trying to determine dates. For example, Diodorus states that there was a solar eclipse in the third year of the 113th Olympiad, which must be the eclipse of 316 BC. This gives a date of (mid-summer) 765 BC for the first year of the first Olympiad.[29] Nevertheless, there is disagreement among scholars as to when the games began.[30]

The exedra reserved for the judges at Olympia on the north embankment of the stadium

The only competition held then was, according to the later Greek traveller Pausanias who wrote in AD 175, the stadion race, a race over about 190 metres (620 feet), measured after the feet of Hercules. The word stadium is derived from this foot race. The Greek tradition of athletic nudity (gymnos)[31] was introduced in 720 BC, either by the Spartans or by the Megarian Orsippus, and this was adopted early in the Olympics as well. Several groups fought over control of the sanctuary at Olympia, and hence the games, for prestige and political advantage. Pausanias later writes that in 668 BC, Pheidon of Argos
was commissioned by the town of Pisa to capture the sanctuary from the town of Elis, which he did and then personally controlled the games for that year. The next year, Elis
regained control. The Olympic Games
Olympic Games
were part of the Panhellenic Games, four separate games held at two- or four-year intervals, but arranged so that there was at least one set of games every year. The Olympic Games
Olympic Games
were more important and more prestigious than the Pythian, Nemean, and Isthmian Games. The games were in decline for many years but continued past AD 385, by which time flooding and earthquakes had damaged the buildings and invasions by barbarians had reached Olympia.[32] In 394 Theodosius I
Theodosius I
banned all pagan festivals, but archeological evidence indicates that some games were still held.[33] Culture[edit]

The "Discobolus" is a copy of a Greek statue c. 5th century BC. It represents an ancient Olympic discus thrower

The ancient Olympics were as much a religious festival as an athletic event. The games were held in honor of the Greek god Zeus, and on the middle day of the games, 100 oxen would be sacrificed to him.[12] Over time Olympia, the site of the games, became a central spot for the worship of the head of the Greek pantheon and a temple, built by the Greek architect Libon, was erected on the mountaintop. The temple was one of the largest Doric temples in Greece.[12] The sculptor Pheidias created a statue of the god made of gold and ivory. It stood 42 feet (13 m) tall. It was placed on a throne in the temple. The statue became one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.[12] As the historian Strabo
put it,

... the glory of the temple persisted ... on account both of the festal assembly and of the Olympian Games, in which the prize was a crown and which were regarded as sacred, the greatest games in the world. The temple was adorned by its numerous offerings, which were dedicated there from all parts of Greece.[12]

Artistic expression was a major part of the games. Sculptors, poets, painters and other artisans would come to the games to display their works in what became an artistic competition. Sculptors created works like Myron's Diskobolos
or Discus Thrower. Their aim was to highlight natural human movement and the shape of muscles and the body. Poets would be commissioned to write poems in praise of the Olympic victors. Such victory songs or epinicians, were passed on from generation to generation and many of them have lasted far longer than any other honor made for the same purpose.[34] Pierre de Coubertin, one of the founders of the modern Olympic Games, wanted to fully imitate the ancient Olympics in every way. Included in his vision was an artistic competition modeled on the ancient Olympics and held every four years, during the celebration of the Olympic Games.[35] His desire came to fruition at the Olympics held in Athens
in 1896.[36] Politics[edit]

The Parthenon
in Athens, one of the leading city-states of the ancient world

Power in ancient Greece became centered around the city-state in the 8th century BC.[37] The city-state was a population center organized into a self-contained political entity.[38] These city-states often lived in close proximity to each other, which created competition for limited resources. Though conflict between the city-states was ubiquitous, it was also in their self-interest to engage in trade, military alliances and cultural interaction.[39] The city-states had a dichotomous relationship with each other: on one hand, they relied on their neighbors for political and military alliances, while on the other they competed fiercely with those same neighbors for vital resources.[40] The Olympic Games
Olympic Games
were established in this political context and served as a venue for representatives of the city-states to peacefully compete against each other.[41] In the first 200 years of the games' existence, they only had regional religious importance. Only Greeks in proximity to the mountain competed in these early games. This is evidenced by the dominance of Peloponnesian athletes in the victors' rolls.[42] The spread of Greek colonies in the 5th and 6th centuries BC is repeatedly linked to successful Olympic athletes. For example, Pausanias recounts that Cyrene was founded c. 630 BC by settlers from Thera with Spartan support. The support Sparta
gave was primarily the loan of three-time Olympic champion Chionis. The appeal of settling with an Olympic champion helped to populate the colonies and maintain cultural and political ties with the city-states near Olympia. Thus, Hellenic culture and the games spread while the primacy of Olympia persisted.[43] The games faced a serious challenge during the Peloponnesian War, which primarily pitted Athens
against Sparta, but, in reality, touched nearly every Hellenic city-state.[44] The Olympics were used during this time to announce alliances and offer sacrifices to the gods for victory.[12][45] During the Olympic Games, a truce, or ekecheiria was observed. Three runners, known as spondophoroi, were sent from Elis
to the participant cities at each set of games to announce the beginning of the truce.[46] During this period, armies were forbidden from entering Olympia and legal disputes and the use of the death penalty were forbidden. The truce was primarily designed to allow athletes and visitors to travel safely to the games and was, for the most part, observed.[46] Thucydides
wrote of a situation when the Spartans were forbidden from attending the games, and the violators of the truce were fined 2,000 minae for assaulting the city of Lepreum
during the period of the ekecheiria. The Spartans disputed the fine and claimed that the truce had not yet taken hold.[45][47] While a martial truce was observed by all participating city-states, no such reprieve from conflict existed in the political arena. The Olympic Games
Olympic Games
evolved the most influential athletic and cultural stage in ancient Greece, and arguably in the ancient world.[48] As such the games became a vehicle for city-states to promote themselves. The result was political intrigue and controversy. For example, Pausanias, a Greek historian, explains the situation of the athlete Sotades,

Sotades at the ninety-ninth Festival was victorious in the long race and proclaimed a Cretan, as in fact he was. But at the next Festival he made himself an Ephesian, being bribed to do so by the Ephesian people. For this act he was banished by the Cretans.[12]


Three runners featured on an Attic black-figured Panathenaic prize amphora. 332-333 BC, British Museum.

Events at the Olympics

Olympiad Year Event first introduced

1st 776 BC Stade

14th 724 BC Diaulos

15th 720 BC Long distance race (Dolichos)

18th 708 BC Pentathlon, Wrestling

23rd 688 BC Boxing (pygmachia)

25th 680 BC Four horse chariot race (tethrippon)

33rd 648 BC Horse race (keles), Pankration

37th 632 BC Boys stade and wrestling

38th 628 BC Boys pentathlon

41st 616 BC Boys boxing

65th 520 BC Hoplite
race (hoplitodromos)

70th 500 BC Mule-cart race (apene)

93rd 408 BC Two horse chariot race (synoris)

96th 396 BC Competition for heralds and trumpeters

99th 384 BC Tethrippon
for horse over one year

128th 266 BC Chariot for horse over one year

131st 256 BC Race for horses older than one year

145th 200 BC Pankration
for boys

Apparently starting with just a single foot race, the program gradually increased to twenty-three contests, although no more than twenty featured at any one Olympiad.[49] Participation in most events was limited to male athletes except for women who were allowed to take part by entering horses in the equestrian events. Youth events are recorded as starting in 632 BC. Our knowledge of how the events were performed primarily derives from the paintings of athletes found on many vases, particularly those of the Archaic and Classical periods.[50] Running[edit]

A section of the stone starting line at Olympia, which has a groove for each foot

The only event recorded at the first thirteen games was the stade, a straight-line sprint of just over 192 metres.[51] The diaulos (lit. "double pipe"), or two-stade race, is recorded as being introduced at the 14th Olympiad
in 724 BC. It is thought that competitors ran in lanes marked out with lime or gypsum for the length of a stade then turned around separate posts (kampteres), before returning to the start line.[52] Xenophanes
wrote that "Victory by speed of foot is honored above all." A third foot race, the dolichos ("long race"), was introduced in the next Olympiad. Accounts of the race's distance differ, it seems to have been from twenty to twenty-four laps of the track, around 7.5 km to 9 km, although it may have been lengths rather than laps and thus half as far.[53][54] The last running event added to the Olympic program was the hoplitodromos, or " Hoplite
race", introduced in 520 BC and traditionally run as the last race of the games. Competitors ran either a single or double diaulos (approximately 400 or 800 metres) in full military armour.[55] The hoplitodromos was based on a war tactic of soldiers running in full armor to surprise the enemy. Combat[edit]

scene: the pankriatiast on the right tries to gouge his opponent's eye; the umpire is about to strike him for this foul. Detail from an Attic red-figure kylix c. 490-480 BC, British Museum

Wrestling (pale) is recorded as being introduced at the 18th Olympiad. Three throws were necessary for a win. A throw was counted if the body, hip, back or shoulder (and possibly knee) touched the ground. If both competitors fell nothing was counted. Unlike its modern counterpart Greco-Roman wrestling, it is likely that tripping was allowed.[56] Boxing (pygmachia) was first listed in 688 BC,[57] the boys event sixty years later. The laws of boxing were ascribed to the first Olympic champion Onomastus of Smyrna.[58] It appears body-blows were either not permitted or not practised.[59][60] The Spartans, who claimed to have invented boxing, quickly abandoned it and did not take part in boxing competitions.[58] At first the boxers wore himantes (sing. himas), long leather strips which were wrapped around their hands.[57] The pankration was introduced in the 33rd Olympiad
(648 BC).[61] Boys' pankration became an Olympic event in 200 BC, in the 145th Olympiad.[62] As well as techniques from boxing and wrestling, athletes used kicks,[63] locks, and chokes on the ground. Although the only prohibitions were against biting and gouging, the pankration was regarded as less dangerous than boxing.[64] It was one of the most popular events: Pindar
wrote eight odes praising victors of the pankration.[65] A famous event in the sport was the posthumous victory of Arrhichion
of Phigaleia who "expired at the very moment when his opponent acknowledged himself beaten."[66][67] Pentathlon[edit] Main article: Ancient Olympic pentathlon The pentathlon was a competition made up of five events: running, long jump, discus throw, javelin throw and wrestling.[68] The pentathlon is said to have first appeared at the 18th Olympiad
in 708 BC.[69] The competition was held on a single day,[70] but it is not known how the victor was decided,[71][72] or in what order the events occurred,[73] except that it finished with the wrestling.[74] Equestrian[edit] Horse racing and chariot racing were the most prestigious competitions in the games, due to only the wealthy being able to afford the maintenance and transportation of horses. These races consisted of different events: the four-horse chariot race, the two-horse chariot race, and the horse with rider race, the rider being hand picked by the owner. The four-horse chariot race was the first equestrian event to feature in the Olympics, being introduced in 680 BC. It consisted of two horses that were harnessed under a Yoke
in the middle, and two outer horses that were attached with a rope.[75] The two-horse chariot was introduced in 408 BC.[76] The horse with rider competition on the other hand, was introduced in 648 BC. In this race, Greeks didn't use saddles or stirrups, so they required good grip and balance.[77] In AD 67, the Roman Emperor Nero
competed in the chariot race at Olympia. He was thrown from his chariot and was thus unable to finish the race. Nevertheless, he was declared the winner on the basis that he would have won if he had finished the race.[78] Famous athletes[edit] Main article: List of ancient Olympic victors

Ancient list of Olympic victors of the 75th to the 78th, and from the 81st to the 83rd Olympiads (480–468 BC, 456–448 BC)

From Sparta

of Sparta
(owner of a four-horse chariot) (first woman to be listed as an Olympic victor)

From Rhodes:

Diagoras of Rhodes
(boxing 79th Olympiad, 464 BC) and his sons Akusilaos and Damagetos (boxing and pankration) Leonidas of Rhodes
(running: stadion, diaulos and hoplitodromos) (His record of 12 individual olympic titles was broken in 2016 by Michael Phelps who received his 13th original title.[79][80][81])

From Croton:

Astylos of Croton
Astylos of Croton
(running: stadion, diaulos and hoplitodromos) Milo of Croton
Milo of Croton
(wrestling) Timasitheos of Croton (wrestling)[82]

From other cities/kingdoms:

Koroibos of Elis
(stadion, the very first Olympic champion) Orsippus
of Megara
(running: diaulos) Theagenes of Thasos
Theagenes of Thasos
(boxer, pankratiast and runner) Alexander I of Macedon
Alexander I of Macedon
(running: stadion) [83] Dionysodorus, Theban[84]


(steerer of a four-horse chariot)[85] Nero
(steerer of a ten-horse chariot) Varastades, Prince and future King of Armenia, last known Ancient Olympic victor (boxing) during the 291st Olympic Games
Olympic Games
in the 4th century[86]

Olympic festivals in other places[edit] Main article: Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
Olympic festivals Athletic festivals under the name of "Olympic games", named in imitation of the original festival at Olympia, were established over time in various places all over the Greek world. Some of these are only known to us by inscriptions and coins; but others, as the Olympic festival at Antioch, obtained great celebrity. After these Olympic festivals had been established in several places, the great Olympic festival itself was sometimes designated in inscriptions by the addition of Pisa.[87] See also[edit]

Archaeological Museum of Olympia Epinikion List of ancient Olympic victors Athletes and athletics in ancient Greek art Ludi, the Roman games influenced by Greek traditions New Testament athletic metaphors Olympic Games
Olympic Games
ceremony Panathenaic Games Prizes


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Athletics. Yale University Press. p. 33. ISBN 0-300-11529-6. Archived from the original on 18 September 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2017 – via Google Books.  ^ Gardiner, Edward Norman (15 November 2017). "Greek athletic sports and festivals". London : Macmillan. Archived from the original on 11 March 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2017 – via Internet Archive.  ^ a b Miller, Stephen G. (8 January 2006). " Ancient Greek
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Athletics". Yale University Press. Archived from the original on 18 September 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2017 – via Google Books.  ^ a b Gardiner, Edward Norman (15 November 2017). "Greek athletic sports and festivals". London : Macmillan. Archived from the original on 11 March 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2017 – via Internet Archive.  ^ Gardiner, Edward Norman (15 November 2017). "Greek athletic sports and festivals". London : Macmillan. Archived from the original on 11 March 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2017 – via Internet Archive.  ^ To judge from the story of Damoxenos and Kreugas who boxed at the Nemean Games, after a long battle with no result combatants could agree to a free exchange of hits. (Gardiner, p. 432 Archived 17 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine.) ^ Gardiner, Edward Norman (15 November 2017). "Greek athletic sports and festivals". London : Macmillan. p. 435. Archived from the original on 11 March 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2017 – via Internet Archive.  ^ Miller, Stephen G. (8 January 2006). " Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
Athletics". Yale University Press. p. 60. Archived from the original on 15 November 2017. Retrieved 15 November 2017 – via Google Books.  ^ Gardiner, p. 445-6 Archived 17 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine. "Galen, in his skit on the Olympic games, awards the prize [in the pakration] to the donkey, as the best of all animals in kicking." ^ Finley, M. I.; Pleket, H. W. (24 May 2012). "The Olympic Games: The First Thousand Years". Courier Corporation. Archived from the original on 15 November 2017. Retrieved 15 November 2017 – via Google Books.  ^ Gardiner, Edward Norman (15 November 2017). "Greek athletic sports and festivals". London : Macmillan. Archived from the original on 11 March 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2017 – via Internet Archive.  ^ Gardiner, Edward Norman (15 November 2017). "Greek athletic sports and festivals". London : Macmillan. Archived from the original on 11 March 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2017 – via Internet Archive.  ^ Gardiner, Edward Norman (15 November 2017). "Greek athletic sports and festivals". London : Macmillan. Archived from the original on 11 March 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2017 – via Internet Archive.  ^ Gardiner, Edward Norman (15 November 2017). "Greek athletic sports and festivals". London : Macmillan. Archived from the original on 11 March 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2017 – via Internet Archive.  ^ Miller, Stephen G. (8 January 2006). " Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
Athletics". Yale University Press. Archived from the original on 18 September 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2017 – via Google Books.  ^ Young, p. 32 ^ Young, p. 19 ^ Gardiner, Edward Norman (15 November 2017). "Greek athletic sports and festivals". London : Macmillan. pp. 362–365. Archived from the original on 11 March 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2017 – via Internet Archive.  ^ Gardiner, Edward Norman (15 November 2017). "Greek athletic sports and festivals". London : Macmillan. Archived from the original on 11 March 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2017 – via Internet Archive.  ^ Gardiner, Edward Norman (15 November 2017). "Greek athletic sports and festivals". London : Macmillan. p. 363. Archived from the original on 11 March 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2017 – via Internet Archive.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 January 2017. Retrieved 4 April 2017.  "Four-horse chariot" ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 January 2017. Retrieved 4 April 2017.  "Two-horse chariot" ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 October 2015. Retrieved 4 April 2017.  "Horse with rider" ^ " Olympic Games
Olympic Games
We No Longer Play". 4 August 2016. Archived from the original on 5 August 2016. Retrieved 4 August 2016.  ^ " Michael Phelps
Michael Phelps
beats 2,168-year-old Olympic record held by Leonidas of Rhodes". Archived from the original on 16 October 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2017.  ^ Bull, Andy (12 August 2016). "Phelps claims 200m individual medley gold for fourth straight Olympics". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 12 August 2016. Phelps has now overtaken Leonidas of Rhodes
as the most decorated Olympian of this, that, and every era. Leonidas, as every self-respecting sports fan knows, did the sprint triple in the stadion, the diaulos, and the hoplitodromos, at four Olympics in a row between 164 and 152 BC. Or 2,168 years ago.  ^ Kelly, Jon. "Who, What, Why: Who was Leonidas of Rhodes? - BBC News". BBC. Retrieved 14 August 2016.  ^ "A Brief History of the Olympic Games". Retrieved 16 April 2015.  ^ "The History of Herodotus, parallel English/Greek: Book 5: Terpsichore: 20". www.sacred-texts.com. p. 22. Archived from the original on 15 May 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2017.  ^ The Anabasis of Alexander/Book II/Chapter XIV/Alexander’s Treatment of the Captured Greek Ambassadors.—Submission of Byblus and Sidon. - Arrian ^ Tiberius, AD 1 (or earlier) – cf. Ehrenberg & Jones, Documents Illustrating the Reigns of Augustus and Tiberius
[Oxford 1955] p. 73 (n.78) ^ 369 according to Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
by Nigel Wilson, 2006, Routledge (UK) or 385 according to Classical Weekly by Classical Association of the Atlantic States ^ William Smith, A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, 1875 – ancientlibrary.com Archived 6 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.


Gardiner, E. N. (1910). Greek athletic sports and festivals. London : Macmillan.  Gardiner, E. Norman, Athletics of the Ancient World, 246 pages, 200+ illustrations, with new material, Oxford University Press, 1930 Young, David C. (2004). A Brief History of the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
(PDF). Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 1-4051-1130-5.  Miller, Stephen G. (2006). Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
Athletics. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-11529-6.  Golden, Mark, Sport and Society in Ancient Greece, Cambridge University Press, 1998. Hansen, Mogens Herman (2006). Polis, an Introduction to the Ancient Greek City-State. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-920849-2. Retrieved 12 February 2010.  Hanson, Victor Davis; Strassler, Robert B. (1996). The Landmark Thucydides. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4165-9087-3. Retrieved 12 February 2010.  Kotynski, Edward J. The Athletics of the Ancient Olympics: A Summary and Research Tool. 2006. (Archived 2009-10-25); new link Kyle, Donald G. (2007). Sport and Spectacle in the Ancient World. Oxford, England: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 978-0-631-22970-4. Retrieved 12 February 2010.  Mallowitz, Alfred. Cult and Competition Locations at Olympia. Raschke 79–109. Miller, Stephen. "The Date of Olympic Festivals". Mitteilungen: Des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Athenische Abteilung. Vol. 90 (1975): 215–237. Patay-Horváth, András (2015). The Origins of the Olympic Games. Budapest: Archaeolingua Foundation. ISBN 978-963-9911-72-7.  Raschke, Wendy J. (1988). The Archaeology of the Olympics: the Olympics and Other Festivals in Antiquity. Madison, Wisconsin: Wisconsin University Press. ISBN 978-0-299-11334-6. Retrieved 12 February 2010.  Remijsen, Sofie. The End of Greek Athletics in Late Antiquity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015. Spivey, Nigel (2005). The Ancient Olympics. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280433-2. Retrieved 12 February 2010.  Stanton, Richard (2000). The Forgotten Olympic Art Competitions:The story of the Olympic art competitions of the 20th century. Victoria, Canada: Trafford. ISBN 1-55212-606-4. Retrieved 23 February 2010.  Swaddling, Judith (1999). The ancient Olympic Games. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-77751-5. Retrieved 12 February 2010.  Tufts – "Women and the Games" Ancient Olympics. Research by K. U. Leuven and Peking University

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