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Ancient North Arabian (ANA)[1][2][3][4] refers to all South Semitic scripts excluding Ancient South Arabian (ASA) used in central and northern Arabia from the 8th century BCE to the 4th century CE.[5] To date, it has not been demonstrated that these scripts derive from an ancestor not also shared by the ASA scripts. The hypothesis that all of the non-ASA alphabets derive from a single ancestor gave rise to the idea that the languages which these scripts express constitute a linguistic unity, a so-called ANA language, the linguistic validity of which has been called into question.[6] From a linguistic perspective, the dialects expressed by the Safaitic inscriptions should be classified as forms of Old Arabic, as they contain several important isoglosses which characterize Arabic. Unlike Arabic, Dadanitic continues the anaphoric use of the 3rd person pronouns and does not appear to have leveled the at allomorph of the feminine ending. Taymanitic, on the other hand, exhibits the common Northwest Semitic sound change w > y, and merges *s3 with *ṯ, excluding a Proto-Arabic origin. At the moment, nothing can be said about the languages which stand behind the Thamudic inscriptions.[6]

Contents

1 Classification 2 Geographical distribution 3 Varieties

3.1 Dadanitic 3.2 Dumaitic 3.3 Hasaitic 3.4 Hismaic 3.5 Safaitic 3.6 Taymanitic 3.7 Thamudic

4 Unicode 5 See also 6 Notes 7 Literature

Classification[edit] Many scholars believed that the various ANA alphabets were derived from the ASA script, mainly because the latter was employed by a major civilization and exhibited more angular features. Others believed that the ANA and ASA scripts shared a common ancestor from which they both developed in parallel. Indeed, it seems unlikely that the various ANA scripts descend from the monumental ASA alphabet, but that they collectively share a common ancestor to the exclusion of ASA is also something which has yet to be demonstrated.[6] Geographical distribution[edit] The Ancient North Arabian scripts were used both in the oases (Dadanitic, Dumaitic, Taymanitic) and by the nomads (Hismaic, Safaitic, Thamudic B, C, D, and possibly Southern Thamudic) of central and northern Arabia.[7] Varieties[edit] Dadanitic[edit] Main article: Dadanitic Dadanitic was the alphabet used by the inhabitants of the ancient oasis of Dadan (Biblical Dedān, modern Al-`Ula
Al-`Ula
in north-west Saudi Arabia), probably some time during the second half of the first millennium BC.[8] Dumaitic[edit] Main article: Dumaitic Dumaitic is the alphabet which seems to have been used by the inhabitants of the oasis known in antiquity as Dūma and later as Dumat Al-Jandal
Dumat Al-Jandal
and al-Jawf. It lies in northern Saudi Arabia at the south-eastern end of the Wādī Sirḥān which leads up to the oasis of Azraq in north-eastern Jordan. According to the Assyrian annals Dūma was the seat of successive queens of the Arabs, some of whom were also priestesses, in the eighth and seventh centuries BC.[8] Hasaitic[edit] Main article: Hasaitic Hasaitic is the name given to the inscriptions — mostly gravestones — which have been found in the huge oasis of Al-Hasa
Al-Hasa
in north-eastern Saudi Arabia at sites like Thāj and Qatīf, with a few from more distant locations. They are carved in what may be an ANA dialect but expressed in a slightly adapted form of another member of the South Semitic script
South Semitic script
family, the Ancient South Arabian alphabet.[8] Hismaic[edit] Main article: Hismaic dialect Hismaic is the name given to texts carved largely by nomads in the Ḥismā desert of what is now southern Jordan and north-west Saudi Arabia, though they are occasionally found in other places such as northern Jordan and parts of northern Saudi Arabia outside the Ḥismā. They are thought to date from roughly the same period as the Safaitic, i.e. first century BC to fourth century AD, though there is even less dating evidence in the case of Hismaic.[8] Safaitic[edit] Main article: Safaitic Safaitic
Safaitic
is the name given to an alphabet used by tens of thousands of ancient nomads in the deserts of what are now southern Syria, north-eastern Jordan, and northern Saudi Arabia. Occasionally, Safaitic
Safaitic
texts are found further afield, in western Iraq, Lebanon, and even at Pompeii. They are thought to have been carved between the first century BC and the fourth century AD, though these limits can be no more than suggestions based on the fact that none of the approximately 35,000 texts known so far seems to mention anything earlier or later than these limits.[8] Taymanitic[edit] Main article: Taymanitic Taymanitic is the name given to the ANA script used in the oasis of Tayma. This was an important stopping point on the caravan route from South Arabia to the Levant
Levant
and Mesopotamia. The Taymanitic alphabet is probably mentioned as early as c. 800 BC when the regent of Carchemish (on what is now the Turkish-Syrian border) claimed to have learned it. About the same time an Assyrian official west of the Euphrates reported that he had ambushed a caravan of the people of Taymāʾ and Sabaʾ (an ancient South Arabian kingdom, Biblical Sheba) because it had tried to avoid paying tolls. There are two Taymanitic inscriptions dated to the mid-sixth century BC, since they mention the last king of Babylon, Nabonidus
Nabonidus
(556–539 BC), who spent ten years of his seventeen-year reign in Taymāʾ.[8] Thamudic[edit] Main article: Thamudic Thamudic is a name invented by nineteenth-century scholars for large numbers of inscriptions in ANA alphabets which have not yet been properly studied. It does not imply that they were carved by members of the ancient tribe of Thamūd. These texts are found over a huge area from southern Syria to Yemen. In 1937, Fred V. Winnett divided those known at the time into five rough categories A, B, C, D, E. In 1951, some 9000 more inscriptions were recorded in south-west Saudi Arabia which have been given the name 'Southern Thamudic'. Further study by Winnett showed that the texts he had called ' Thamudic A' represent a clearly defined script and language and he therefore removed them from the Thamudic 'pending file' and gave them the name 'Taymanite', which was later changed to 'Taymanitic'. The same was done for ' Thamudic E' by Geraldine M.H. King, and this is now known as 'Hismaic'. However, Thamudic B, C, D and Southern Thamudic still await detailed study.[8] Unicode[edit] See also: Old North Arabian ( Unicode
Unicode
block) The Old North Arabian alphabet (U+10A80–10A9F) was added to the Unicode
Unicode
Standard in June 2014 with the release of version 7.0. The Unicode
Unicode
block for Old North Arabian is U+10A80–U+10A9F:

Old North Arabian[1] Official Unicode
Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+10A8x 𐪀 𐪁 𐪂 𐪃 𐪄 𐪅 𐪆 𐪇 𐪈 𐪉 𐪊 𐪋 𐪌 𐪍 𐪎 𐪏

U+10A9x 𐪐 𐪑 𐪒 𐪓 𐪔 𐪕 𐪖 𐪗 𐪘 𐪙 𐪚 𐪛 𐪜 𐪝 𐪞 𐪟

Notes

1.^ As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0

See also[edit]

Old Arabic Old South Arabian

Notes[edit]

^ http://krc2.orient.ox.ac.uk/aalc/images/documents/mcam/mcam_ancient_north_arabian.pdf ^ http://e-learning.tsu.ge/pluginfile.php/5868/mod_resource/content/0/dzveli_armosavluri_enebi_-ugarituli_punikuri_arameuli_ebrauli_arabuli.pdf ^ Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World. Elsevier. 6 April 2010. p. 931. ISBN 978-0-08-087775-4.  ^ http://e-learning.tsu.ge/pluginfile.php/5868/mod_resource/content/0/dzveli_armosavluri_enebi_-ugarituli_punikuri_arameuli_ebrauli_arabuli.pdf ^ Macdonald, M. C. A. (2004). "Ancient North Arabian". In Woodard, Roger D. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages. Cambridge University Press. pp. 488–533. ISBN 0-521-56256-2.  ^ a b c Al-Jallad, Ahmad (2015-03-27). An Outline of the Grammar of the Safaitic
Safaitic
Inscriptions. BRILL. ISBN 9789004289826.  ^ dan. "The Online Corpus of the Inscriptions of Ancient North Arabia - The Ancient North Arabia scripts". krc.orient.ox.ac.uk. Retrieved 2016-05-29.  ^ a b c d e f g dan. "The Online Corpus of the Inscriptions of Ancient North Arabia - Home". krc.orient.ox.ac.uk. Retrieved 2016-05-29. 

Literature[edit]

Lozachmeur, H., (ed.), (1995) Presence arabe dans le croissant fertile avant l'Hegire (Actes de la table ronde internationale Paris, 13 novembre 1993) Paris: Éditions Recherche sur les Civilisations. ISBN 2-86538-254-0 Macdonald, M.C.A., (2000) "Reflections on the linguistic map of pre-Islamic Arabia" Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy 11(1), 28–79 Scagliarini, F., (1999) "The Dedanitic inscriptions from Jabal 'Ikma in north-western Hejaz" Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 29, 143-150 ISBN 2-503-50829-4 Winnett, F.V. and Reed, W.L., (1970) Ancient Records from North Arabia (Toronto: University of Toronto) Woodard, Roger D. Ancient Languages of Syria-Palestine and Arabia. Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press
2008.

v t e

Arabic
Arabic
language

Overviews

Language Alphabet History Romanization Numerology Influence on other languages

Alphabet

Nabataean alphabet Perso- Arabic
Arabic
alphabet Ancient North Arabian Ancient South Arabian script

Zabūr script

Arabic
Arabic
numerals Eastern numerals Arabic
Arabic
Braille

Algerian

Diacritics

i‘jām Tashkil Harakat Tanwin Shaddah

Hamza Tāʾ marbūṭah

Letters

ʾAlif Bāʾ Tāʾ

Tāʾ marbūṭah

Ṯāʾ Ǧīm Ḥāʾ Ḫāʾ Dāl Ḏāl Rāʾ Zāy Sīn Šīn Ṣād Ḍād Ṭāʾ Ẓāʾ ʿAyn Ġayn Fāʾ Qāf Kāf Lām Mīm Nūn Hāʾ

Tāʾ marbūṭah

Wāw Yāʾ Hamza

Notable varieties

Ancient

Proto-Arabic Old Arabic Ancient North Arabian Old South Arabian

Standardized

Classical Modern Standard Maltese[a]

Regional

Nilo-Egyptian Levantine Maghrebi

Pre-Hilalian dialects Hilalian dialects Moroccan Darija Tunisian Arabic Sa'idi Arabic

Mesopotamian Peninsular

Yemeni Arabic Tihamiyya Arabic

Sudanese Chadian Modern South Arabian

Ethnic / religious

Judeo-Arabic

Pidgins/Creoles

Juba Arabic Nubi language Babalia Creole Arabic Maridi Arabic Maltese

Academic

Literature Names

Linguistics

Phonology Sun and moon letters ʾIʿrāb (inflection) Grammar Triliteral root Mater lectionis IPA Quranic Arabic
Arabic
Corpus

Calligraphy Script

Diwani Jawi script Kufic Rasm Mashq Hijazi script Muhaqqaq Thuluth Naskh (script) Ruqʿah script Taʿlīq script Nastaʿlīq script Shahmukhī script Sini (script)

Technical

Arabic
Arabic
keyboard Arabic
Arabic
script in Unicode ISO/IEC 8859-6 Windows-1256 MS-DOS codepages

708 709 710 711 720 864

Mac Arabic
Arabic
encoding

aSociolinguistically not Arabic

v t e

Varieties of Arabic

Pre-Islamic

Old Arabic

Modern literary

Classical Modern Standard

Nilo-Egyptian

Egyptian Chadian Sa'idi Sudanese

Peninsular

Northeastern

Gulf

Omani Shihhi Dhofari Kuwaiti

Najdi

Western

Bareqi Hejazi

Sedentary Bedouin

Southern

Baharna Yemeni

Hadhrami San'ani Ta'izzi-Adeni Tihami Judeo-Yemeni

Northwestern

Northwest Arabian

Eastern

Mesopotamian

North Mesopotamian

Cypriot Anatolian Judeo-Iraqi

South Mesopotamian

Baghdad Koiné Khuzestani

Central Asian

Afghani Khorasani Central Asian Arabic

Levantine

North Levantine

North Syrian Central Levantine

Central Syrian Lebanese

South Levantine

Jordanian Palestinian

Urban Central village

Outer southern

Western

Iberian

Andalusian

Maghrebi

Pre-Hilalian

Urban

North-Eastern Tunisian

Eastern Village

Sahel Sfaxian Lesser Kabylia

Western Village

Traras-Msirda Mountain

Judeo-Maghrebi Arabic

Judeo-Moroccan Judeo-Tripolitanian Judeo-Tunisian

Hilalian

Sulaym

Libyan koiné

Eastern Hilal

Tunisian koiné

Central Hilal

Algerian koiné Algerian Saharan Eastern Algerian Western Algerian

Maqil

Western Moroccan Eastern Moroccan Moroccan koiné Hassānīya

Siculo-Arabic

Sicilian Arabic
Arabic
(extinct ancestor of Maltese which is not part of the Arabic
Arabic
macrolanguage[1])

Undescribed

Shirvani

Judeo-Arabic

Judeo-Iraqi

Judeo-Baghdadi

Judeo-Moroccan Judeo-Tripolitanian Judeo-Tunisian Judeo-Yemeni

Creoles and pidgins

Babalia Bimbashi Juba Nubi Maridi Turku

Italics indicate extinct languages.

v t e

Semitic languages

East Semitic languages

Akkadian Eblaite

West Semitic and Central Semitic languages

Northwest

Canaanite

Hebrew

Biblical Mishnaic Medieval Mizrahi Yemenite Sephardi Ashkenazi Samaritan Modern

Phoenician

Punic

Others

Ammonite Moabite Edomite

Aramaic

Western

Jewish Palestinian Samaritan Christian Palestinian Nabataean Western Neo-Aramaic

Eastern

Biblical Hatran Syriac Jewish Babylonian Aramaic Chaldean Neo-Aramaic Assyrian Neo-Aramaic Senaya Koy Sanjaq Surat Hértevin Turoyo Mlahsô Mandaic Judeo-Aramaic Syriac Malayalam

Others

Amorite Eteocypriot Ugaritic

Arabic

Literary

Classical Modern Standard

Dialects

Mashriqi (Eastern)

Arabian Peninsular

Dhofari Gulf

Bahrani Shihhi

Hejazi Najdi Omani Yemeni

Judeo-Yemeni

Bedouin

Eastern Egyptian and Peninsular Bedawi

Others

Egyptian

Sa'idi Arabic

Levantine

Cypriot Lebanese Palestinian

Mesopotamian

North Mesopotamian Judeo-Iraqi

Sudanese Central Asian

Tajiki Uzbeki

Shirvani

Maghrebi (Western)

Algerian Saharan Shuwa Hassānīya Andalusian Libyan Arabic

Judeo-Tripolitanian

Sicilian

Maltese

Moroccan Arabic

Judeo-Moroccan

Tunisian Arabic

Judeo-Tunisian

Others

Old Arabic Nabataean Arabic

South Semitic languages

Western South

Old South

Sabaean Minaean Qatabanian Hadramautic Awsānian

Ethiopian

North

Ge'ez Tigrinya Tigre Dahalik

South

Amharic

Argobba

Harari

Silt'e (Wolane, Ulbareg, Inneqor) Zay

Outer

n-group

Gafat Soddo

tt-group

Mesmes Muher West Gurage

Mesqan Ezha Chaha Gura Gumer Gyeto Ennemor Endegen

Modern South Arabian

Bathari Harsusi Hobyot Mehri Shehri Soqotri

^ "Documentation for ISO 639 ident

.