The Kingdom of
Israel and the
Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah were related Iron Age
kingdoms of the ancient Levant. The Kingdom of
Israel emerged as an
important local power by the 10th century BCE before falling to the
Neo-Assyrian Empire in 722 BCE. Israel's southern neighbor, the
Kingdom of Judah, emerged in the 8th or 9th century BCE and enjoyed
a period of prosperity as a client state of first the Neo-Assyrian
Empire and then the
Neo-Babylonian Empire before a revolt against the
latter led to its destruction in 586 BCE. Following the fall of
Babylon to the
Achaemenid Empire under
Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great in
539 BCE, some
Judean exiles returned to Jerusalem, inaugurating
the formative period in the development of a distinctive Judahite
identity in the province of Yehud Medinata. Yehud was absorbed into
the subsequent Hellenistic kingdoms that followed the conquests of
Alexander the Great, but in the 2nd century BCE the Judaeans revolted
Seleucid Empire and created the
Hasmonean kingdom. This,
the last nominally independent kingdom of Judea, came to an end in
63 BCE with its conquest by
Pompey of Rome. With the installation
of client kingdoms under the Herodian dynasty, the Province of Judea
was wracked by civil disturbances which culminated in the First
Jewish–Roman War, the destruction of the Temple, the emergence of
Judaism and Early Christianity.
2 Late Bronze Age background (1600–1200 BCE)
3 Iron Age I (1200–1000 BCE)
4 Iron Age II (1000–587 BCE)
5 Babylonian period
6 Persian period
7 Hellenistic period
8.1 Iron Age Yahwism
8.2 The Babylonian exile and Second Temple Judaism
9 See also
11 Further reading
Iron Age I: 1200–1000 BCE
Iron Age II: 1000–586 BCE
Neo-Babylonian: 586–539 BCE
Persian: 539–332 BCE
Hellenistic: 332–53 BCE
Late Bronze Age background (1600–1200 BCE)
The Canaanite god Baal, 14th–12th century BCE (
Louvre museum, Paris)
The eastern Mediterranean seaboard – the
Levant – stretches 400
miles north to south from the
Taurus Mountains to the Sinai Peninsula,
and 70 to 100 miles east to west between the sea and the Arabian
Desert. The coastal plain of the southern Levant, broad in the
south and narrowing to the north, is backed in its southernmost
portion by a zone of foothills, the Shfela; like the plain this
narrows as it goes northwards, ending in the promontory of Mount
Carmel. East of the plain and the
Shfela is a mountainous ridge, the
"hill country of Judah" in the south, the "hill country of Ephraim"
north of that, then
Galilee and Mount Lebanon. To the east again lie
the steep-sided valley occupied by the Jordan River, the Dead Sea, and
the wadi of the Arabah, which continues down to the eastern arm of the
Red Sea. Beyond the plateau is the Syrian desert, separating the
Levant from Mesopotamia. To the southwest is Egypt, to the northeast
Mesopotamia. The location and geographical characteristics of the
Levant made the area a battleground among the powerful entities
that surrounded it.
Canaan in the Late Bronze Age was a shadow of what it had been
centuries earlier: many cities were abandoned, others shrank in size,
and the total settled population was probably not much more than a
hundred thousand. Settlement was concentrated in cities along the
coastal plain and along major communication routes; the central and
northern hill country which would later become the biblical kingdom of
Israel was only sparsely inhabited although letters from the
Egyptian archives indicate that
Jerusalem was already a Canaanite
city-state recognising Egyptian overlordship. Politically and
culturally it was dominated by Egypt, each city under its own
ruler, constantly at odds with its neighbours, and appealing to the
Egyptians to adjudicate their differences.
The Canaanite city state system broke down during the Late Bronze Age
collapse, and Canaanite culture was then gradually absorbed into
that of the Philistines, Phoenicians and Israelites. The process
was gradual and a strong Egyptian presence continued into the 12th
century BCE, and, while some Canaanite cities were destroyed, others
continued to exist in Iron Age I.
Iron Age I (1200–1000 BCE)
The Merneptah Stele. While alternative translations exist, the
majority of biblical archeologists translate a set of hieroglyphs as
"Israel", representing the first instance of the name
Israel in the
The name "Israel" first appears in the
Merneptah Stele c.
1209 BCE: "
Israel is laid waste and his seed is no more."
This "Israel" was a cultural and probably political entity, well
enough established for the Egyptians to perceive it as a possible
challenge, but an ethnic group rather than an organised state;
Archaeologist Paula McNutt says: "It is probably ... during Iron Age I
[that] a population began to identify itself as 'Israelite',"
differentiating itself from its neighbours via prohibitions on
intermarriage, an emphasis on family history and genealogy, and
In the Late Bronze Age there were no more than about 25 villages in
the highlands, but this increased to over 300 by the end of Iron Age
I, while the settled population doubled from 20,000 to 40,000. The
villages were more numerous and larger in the north, and probably
shared the highlands with pastoral nomads, who left no remains.
Archaeologists and historians attempting to trace the origins of these
villagers have found it impossible to identify any distinctive
features that could define them as specifically Israelite –
collared-rim jars and four-room houses have been identified outside
the highlands and thus cannot be used to distinguish Israelite
sites, and while the pottery of the highland villages is far more
limited than that of lowland Canaanite sites, it develops
typologically out of Canaanite pottery that came before. Israel
Finkelstein proposed that the oval or circular layout that
distinguishes some of the earliest highland sites, and the notable
absence of pig bones from hill sites, could be taken as markers of
ethnicity, but others have cautioned that these can be a
"common-sense" adaptation to highland life and not necessarily
revelatory of origins. Other Aramaean sites also demonstrate a
contemporary absence of pig remains at that time, unlike earlier
Canaanite and later Philistine excavations.
The Bible Unearthed
The Bible Unearthed (2001), Finkelstein and Silberman summarised
recent studies. They described how, up until 1967, the Israelite
heartland in the highlands of western Palestine was virtually an
archaeological terra incognita. Since then, intensive surveys have
examined the traditional territories of the tribes of Judah, Benjamin,
Ephraim, and Manasseh. These surveys have revealed the sudden
emergence of a new culture contrasting with the Philistine and
Canaanite societies existing in the Land of
Israel earlier during Iron
Age I. This new culture is characterised by a lack of pork remains
(whereas pork formed 20% of the Philistine diet in places), by an
abandonment of the Philistine/Canaanite custom of having highly
decorated pottery, and by the practice of circumcision. The Israelite
ethnic identity had originated, not from the Exodus and a subsequent
conquest, but from a transformation of the existing
These surveys revolutionized the study of early Israel. The discovery
of the remains of a dense network of highland villages – all
apparently established within the span of few generations –
indicated that a dramatic social transformation had taken place in the
central hill country of
Canaan around 1200 BCE. There was no sign of
violent invasion or even the infiltration of a clearly defined ethnic
group. Instead, it seemed to be a revolution in lifestyle. In the
formerly sparsely populated highlands from the
Judean hills in the
south to the hills of
Samaria in the north, far from the Canaanite
cities that were in the process of collapse and disintegration, about
two-hundred fifty hilltop communities suddenly sprang up. Here were
the first Israelites.
From then on, over a period of hundreds of years until after the
return of the exiles from Babylon, the
Israelites and other tribes
gradually absorbed the Canaanites. After the period of
Ezra (~450 BCE)
there is no more biblical record of them. The Hebrew language, a
dialect of Canaanite, became the language of the hill country, and
later of the valleys and plains.
Modern scholars therefore see
Israel arising peacefully and internally
from existing people in the highlands of Canaan.
Iron Age II (1000–587 BCE)
A reconstructed Israelite house, 10th–7th century BCE. Eretz Israel
Museum, Tel Aviv.
Unusually favourable climatic conditions in the first two centuries of
Iron Age II brought about an expansion of population, settlements and
trade throughout the region. In the central highlands this
resulted in unification in a kingdom with the city of
Samaria as its
capital, possibly by the second half of the 10th century BCE when
an inscription of the Egyptian pharaoh Shoshenq I, the biblical
Shishak, records a series of campaigns directed at the area.
Israel had clearly emerged by the middle of the 9th century BCE, when
the Assyrian king
Shalmaneser III names "
Ahab the Israelite" among his
enemies at the battle of Qarqar (853). At this time
apparently engaged in a three-way contest with
Damascus and Tyre for
control of the
Jezreel Valley and
Galilee in the north, and with Moab,
Damascus in the east for control of Gilead; the Mesha
Stele (c. 830), left by a king of Moab, celebrates his success in
throwing off the oppression of the "House of Omri" (i.e., Israel). It
bears what is generally thought to be the earliest extra-biblical
Semitic reference to the name Yahweh.
André Lemaire has reconstructed a portion of line 31
of the stele as mentioning the "House of David". Other
scholars disagree, saying that BYTDWD is a place name not a
dynasty. The Dan stele (c. 841) tells of the death of a king of
Israel, probably Jehoram, at the hands of a king of Aram-Damascus.
A century later
Israel came into increasing conflict with the
expanding Neo-Assyrian Empire, which first split its territory into
several smaller units and then destroyed its capital,
Both the biblical and Assyrian sources speak of a massive deportation
of people from
Israel and their replacement with settlers from other
parts of the empire – such population exchanges were an established
part of Assyrian imperial policy, a means of breaking the old power
structure – and the former
Israel never again became an independent
Judah emerged somewhat later than Israel, probably during the 9th
century BCE, but the subject is one of considerable controversy.
There are indications that during the 10th and 9th centuries BCE, the
southern highlands had been divided between a number of centres, none
with clear primacy. During the reign of Hezekiah, between c. 715
and 686 BCE, a notable increase in the power of the
can be observed. This is reflected in archaeological sites and
findings, such as the Broad Wall; a defensive city wall in Jerusalem;
and the Siloam tunnel, an aqueduct designed to provide
water during an impending siege by the
Neo-Assyrian Empire led by
Sennacherib; and the Siloam inscription, a lintel inscription found
over the doorway of a tomb, has been ascribed to comptroller Shebna.
LMLK seals on storage jar handles, excavated from strata in and around
that formed by Sennacherib's destruction, appear to have been used
throughout Sennacherib's 29-year reign, along with bullae from sealed
documents, some that belonged to
Hezekiah himself and others that name
King Ahaz's seal is a piece of reddish-brown clay that belonged to
Ahaz of Judah, who ruled from 732 to 716 BCE. This seal
contains not only the name of the king, but the name of his father,
King Yehotam. In addition,
Ahaz is specifically identified as "king of
Judah." The Hebrew inscription, which is set on three lines, reads as
follows: "l'hz*y/hwtm*mlk*/yhdh", which translates as "belonging to
Ahaz (son of) Yehotam, King of Judah."
In the 7th century
Jerusalem grew to contain a population many times
greater than earlier and achieved clear dominance over its
neighbours. This occurred at the same time that
Israel was being
destroyed by the Neo-Assyrian Empire, and was probably the result of a
cooperative arrangement with the Assyrians to establish Judah as an
Assyrian vassal state controlling the valuable olive industry.
Judah prospered as a vassal state (despite a disastrous rebellion
against Sennacherib), but in the last half of the 7th century BCE,
Assyria suddenly collapsed, and the ensuing competition between Egypt
Neo-Babylonian Empire for control of the land led to the
destruction of Judah in a series of campaigns between 597 and 582.
Reconstruction of the
Ishtar Gate of Babylon
Babylonian Judah suffered a steep decline in both economy and
population and lost the Negev, the Shephelah, and part of the
Judean hill country, including Hebron, to encroachments from
other neighbours. Jerusalem, while probably not totally abandoned,
was much smaller than previously, and the town of Mizpah in Benjamin
in the relatively unscathed northern section of the kingdom became the
capital of the new Babylonian province of Yehud Medinata. (This
was standard Babylonian practice: when the Philistine city of Ashkalon
was conquered in 604, the political, religious and economic elite [but
not the bulk of the population] was banished and the administrative
centre shifted to a new location). There is also a strong
probability that for most or all of the period the temple at
Benjamin replaced that at Jerusalem, boosting the prestige of Bethel's
priests (the Aaronites) against those of
Jerusalem (the Zadokites),
now in exile in Babylon.
The Babylonian conquest entailed not just the destruction of Jerusalem
and its temple, but the liquidation of the entire infrastructure which
had sustained Judah for centuries. The most significant casualty
was the state ideology of "Zion theology," the idea that the god
Israel had chosen
Jerusalem for his dwelling-place and that the
Davidic dynasty would reign there forever. The fall of the city
and the end of Davidic kingship forced the leaders of the exile
community – kings, priests, scribes and prophets – to reformulate
the concepts of community, faith and politics. The exile community
Babylon thus became the source of significant portions of the
Hebrew Bible: Isaiah 40–55; Ezekiel; the final version of Jeremiah;
the work of the hypothesized priestly source in the Pentateuch; and
the final form of the history of
Deuteronomy to 2
Kings. Theologically, the Babylonian exiles were responsible for
the doctrines of individual responsibility and universalism (the
concept that one god controls the entire world) and for the increased
emphasis on purity and holiness. Most significantly, the trauma of
the exile experience led to the development of a strong sense of
Hebrew identity distinct from other peoples, with increased
emphasis on symbols such as circumcision and Sabbath-observance to
sustain that distinction.
The concentration of the biblical literature on the experience of the
Babylon disguises the fact that the great majority of the
population remained in Judah; for them, life after the fall of
Jerusalem probably went on much as it had before. It may even have
improved, as they were rewarded with the land and property of the
deportees, much to the anger of the community of exiles remaining in
Babylon. The assassination around 582 of the Babylonian governor
by a disaffected member of the former royal House of
David provoked a
Babylonian crackdown, possibly reflected in the
Book of Lamentations,
but the situation seems to have soon stabilised again.
Nevertheless, those unwalled cities and towns that remained were
subject to slave raids by the Phoenicians and intervention in their
internal affairs by Samaritans, Arabs, and Ammonites.
Main article: Yehud Medinata
Babylon fell to the Persian
Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great in 539 BCE,
Judah (or Yehud medinata, the "province of Yehud") became an
administrative division within the Persian empire. Cyrus was succeeded
as king by Cambyses, who added Egypt to the empire, incidentally
transforming Yehud and the Philistine plain into an important frontier
zone. His death in 522 was followed by a period of turmoil until
Darius the Great
Darius the Great seized the throne in about 521. Darius introduced a
reform of the administrative arrangements of the empire including the
collection, codification and administration of local law codes, and it
is reasonable to suppose that this policy lay behind the redaction of
the Jewish Torah. After 404 the Persians lost control of Egypt,
which became Persia's main rival outside Europe, causing the Persian
authorities to tighten their administrative control over Yehud and the
rest of the Levant. Egypt was eventually reconquered, but soon
afterward Persia fell to Alexander the Great, ushering in the
Hellenistic period in the Levant.
Yehud's population over the entire period was probably never more than
about 30,000 and that of
Jerusalem no more than about 1,500, most of
them connected in some way to the Temple. According to the
biblical history, one of the first acts of Cyrus, the Persian
conqueror of Babylon, was to commission Jewish exiles to return to
Jerusalem and rebuild their Temple, a task which they are said to have
completed c. 515. Yet it was probably not until the middle of the
next century, at the earliest, that
Jerusalem again became the capital
of Judah. The Persians may have experimented initially with ruling
Yehud as a Davidic client-kingdom under descendants of Jehoiachin,
but by the mid–5th century BCE, Yehud had become, in practice, a
theocracy, ruled by hereditary high priests, with a
Persian-appointed governor, frequently Jewish, charged with keeping
order and seeing that taxes (tribute) were collected and paid.
According to the biblical history,
Nehemiah arrived in
Jerusalem in the middle of the 5th century BCE, the former empowered
by the Persian king to enforce the Torah, the latter holding the
status of governor with a royal commission to restore Jerusalem's
walls. The biblical history mentions tension between the returnees
and those who had remained in Yehud, the returnees rebuffing the
attempt of the "peoples of the land" to participate in the rebuilding
of the Temple; this attitude was based partly on the exclusivism that
the exiles had developed while in
Babylon and, probably, also partly
on disputes over property. During the 5th century BCE,
Nehemiah attempted to re-integrate these rival factions into a united
and ritually pure society, inspired by the prophecies of
The Persian era, and especially the period between 538 and 400 BCE,
laid the foundations for the unified Judaic religion and the beginning
of a scriptural canon. Other important landmarks in this period
include the replacement of Hebrew as the everyday language of Judah by
Aramaic (although Hebrew continued to be used for religious and
literary purposes) and Darius's reform of the empire's
bureaucracy, which may have led to extensive revisions and
reorganizations of the Jewish Torah. The
Israel of the Persian
period consisted of descendants of the inhabitants of the old kingdom
of Judah, returnees from the Babylonian exile community, Mesopotamians
who had joined them or had been exiled themselves to
Samaria at a far
earlier period, Samaritans, and others.
Hasmonean kingdom at its largest extent
Main articles: Hasmonean, Herodian Dynasty,
Judea (Roman province),
On the death of
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great (322 BCE), Alexander's generals
divided the empire among themselves. Ptolemy I, the ruler of Egypt,
seized Yehud Medinata, but his successors lost it in 198 to the
Seleucids of Syria. At first, relations between
Seleucids and Jews
were cordial, but the attempt of
Antiochus IV Epiphanes
Antiochus IV Epiphanes (174–163) to
impose Hellenic cults on
Judea sparked a national rebellion that ended
in the expulsion of the
Seleucids and the establishment of an
independent Jewish kingdom under the
Hasmonean dynasty. Some modern
commentators see this period also as a civil war between orthodox and
Hasmonean kings attempted to revive the Judah
described in the Bible: a Jewish monarchy ruled from
including all territories once ruled by
David and Solomon. In order to
carry out this project, the Hasmoneans forcibly converted one-time
Moabites, Edomites, and Ammonites to Judaism, as well as the lost
kingdom of Israel. Some scholars argue that the
institutionalized the final Jewish biblical canon.
In 63 BCE the Roman general
Jerusalem and made
the Jewish kingdom a client state of Rome. In 40–39 BCE, Herod the
Great was appointed King of the
Jews by the Roman Senate, and in
6 CE the last ethnarch of
Judea was deposed by the emperor
Augustus, his territories combined with
Samaria and annexed
Iudaea Province under direct Roman administration. The name
Judea (Iudaea) ceased to be used by Greco-Romans after the revolt of
Simon Bar Kochba
Simon Bar Kochba in 135 CE; the area was henceforth called Syria
Palaestina (Greek: Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Latin:
Iron Age Yahwism
Main article: Yahweh
The religion of the
Israelites of Iron Age I, like the Ancient
Canaanite religion from which it evolved and other religions of the
ancient Near East, was based on a cult of ancestors and worship of
family gods (the "gods of the fathers"). With the emergence of
the monarchy at the beginning of Iron Age II the kings promoted their
family god, Yahweh, as the god of the kingdom, but beyond the royal
court, religion continued to be both polytheistic and
family-centered. The major deities were not numerous – El,
Asherah, and Yahweh, with
Baal as a fourth god, and perhaps Shamash
(the sun) in the early period. At an early stage El and Yahweh
became fused and
Asherah did not continue as a separate state
cult, although she continued to be popular at a community level
until Persian times.
Yahweh, the national god of both
Israel and Judah, seems to have
Midian in southern
Canaan and may have been
Israel by the
Midianites at an early stage.
There is a general consensus among scholars that the first formative
event in the emergence of the distinctive religion described in the
Bible was triggered by the destruction of
Israel by Assyria in c.
722 BCE. Refugees from the northern kingdom fled to Judah,
bringing with them laws and a prophetic tradition of Yahweh. This
religion was subsequently adopted by the landowners of Judah, who in
640 BCE placed the eight-year-old
Josiah on the throne. Judah at
this time was a vassal state of Assyria, but Assyrian power collapsed
in the 630s, and around 622
Josiah and his supporters launched a bid
for independence expressed as loyalty to "
The Babylonian exile and Second Temple Judaism
Main article: Second Temple Judaism
According to the Deuteronomists, as scholars call these Judean
nationalists, the treaty with
Yahweh would enable Israel's god to
preserve both the city and the king in return for the people's worship
and obedience. The destruction of Jerusalem, its Temple, and the
Davidic dynasty by
Babylon in 587/586 BCE was deeply traumatic
and led to revisions of the national mythos during the Babylonian
exile. This revision was expressed in the Deuteronomistic history, the
books of Joshua. Judges, Samuel and Kings, which interpreted the
Babylonian destruction as divinely-ordained punishment for the failure
of Israel's kings to worship
Yahweh to the exclusion of all other
Second Temple period
Second Temple period (520 BCE – 70 CE) differed in
significant ways from what had gone before. Strict monotheism
emerged among the priests of the Temple establishment during the
seventh and sixth centuries BCE, as did beliefs regarding angels and
demons. At this time, circumcision, dietary laws, and
Sabbath-observance gained more significance as symbols of Jewish
identity, and the institution of the synagogue became increasingly
important. According to the documentary hypothesis, most of the Torah
was written during this time.
Chronology of the Bible
Early Israelite campaigns
History of Israel
History of Palestine
History of the
Jews in Egypt
History of the
Jews in Iran
History of the
Jews in the Roman Empire
History of the Levant
History of the Southern Levant
Israel and Judah
Kings of Judah
Pre-history of the Southern Levant
^ a b Grabbe 2008, pp. 225–26.
^ King & Stager 2001, p. xxiii.
^ Miller 1986, p. 36.
^ Coogan 1998, pp. 4–7.
^ Finkelstein 2001, p. 78.
^ a b Killebrew 2005, pp. 38–39.
^ Cahill in Vaughn 1992, pp. 27–33.
^ Kuhrt 1995, p. 317.
^ Killebrew 2005, pp. 10–6.
^ Golden 2004b, pp. 61–62.
^ McNutt 1999, p. 47.
^ Golden 2004a, p. 155.
^ Stager in Coogan 1998, p. 91.
^ Dever 2003, p. 206.
^ McNutt 1999, p. 35.
^ McNutt 1999, pp. 46–47.
^ McNutt 1999, p. 69.
^ Miller 1986, p. 72.
^ Killebrew 2005, p. 13.
^ Edelman in Brett 2002, pp. 46–47.
^ Finkelstein and Silberman (2001) Free Press, New York, p. 107,
^ Avraham Faust, “How Did
Israel Become a People? The Genesis of
Israelite Identity”, Biblical Archaeology Review 201 (2009):
^ Finkelstein and Silberman (2001), p. 107
^ Holy Bible. King James version. Ezra, Chapter 9
^ Compare: Gnuse, Robert Karl (1997). No Other Gods: Emergent
Monotheism in Israel. Journal for the study of the Old Testament:
Supplement series. 241. Sheffield: A&C Black. p. 31.
ISBN 9781850756576. Retrieved 2016-06-02. Out of the discussions
a new model is beginning to emerge, which has been inspired, above
all, by recent archaeological field research. There are several
variations in this new theory, but they share in common the image of
an Israelite community which arose peacefully and internally in the
highlands of Palestine.
^ a b c Thompson 1992, p. 408.
^ a b c Mazar in Finkelstein 2007, p. 163.
^ Patrick D. Miller (2000). The Religion of Ancient Israel.
Westminster John Knox Press. pp. 40–.
^ Biblical Archaeology Review [May/June 1994], pp. 30–37
^ "TelDan". vridar.info. Retrieved 2016-05-26.
^ Lemche 1998, p. 85.
^ Lehman in Vaughn 1992, p. 149.
David M. Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of
Scripture and Literature, Oxford University Press, 2005, 164.
^ First Impression: What We Learn from King Ahaz’s Seal (#m1), by
Robert Deutsch, Archaeological Center.
^ a b c Thompson 1992, pp. 410–11.
^ Grabbe 2004, p. 28.
^ Lemaire in Blenkinsopp 2003, p. 291.
^ Davies 2009.
^ Lipschits 2005, p. 48.
^ Blenkinsopp in Blenkinsopp 2003, pp. 103–05.
^ Blenkinsopp 2009, p. 228.
^ Middlemas 2005, pp. 1–2.
^ Miller 1986, p. 203.
^ Middlemas 2005, p. 2.
^ a b Middlemas 2005, p. 10.
^ Middlemas 2005, p. 17.
^ Bedford 2001, p. 48.
^ Barstad 2008, p. 109.
^ Albertz 2003a, p. 92.
^ Albertz 2003a, pp. 95–96.
^ Albertz 2003a, p. 96.
^ a b Blenkinsopp 1988, p. 64.
^ Lipschits in Lipschits 2006, pp. 86–89.
^ Grabbe 2004, pp. 29–30.
^ Nodet 1999, p. 25.
^ Davies in Amit 2006, p. 141.
^ Niehr in Becking 1999, p. 231.
^ Wylen 1996, p. 25.
^ Grabbe 2004, pp. 154–55.
^ Soggin 1998, p. 311.
^ Miller 1986, p. 458.
^ Blenkinsopp 2009, p. 229.
^ Albertz 1994, pp. 437–38.
^ Kottsieper in Lipschits 2006, pp. 109–10.
^ Becking in Albertz 2003b, p. 19.
^ Weigel, David. "Hanukkah as Jewish civil war". Slate.com. Slate
Magazine. Retrieved 2012-08-15.
^ "The Revolt of the Maccabees". Simpletoremember.com. Retrieved
^ Davies 1992, pp. 149–50.
^ Philip R. Davies in The Canon Debate, p. 50: "With many other
scholars, I conclude that the fixing of a canonical list was almost
certainly the achievement of the
^ Ben-Sasson 1976, p. 246.
^ Tubbs, Jonathan (2006)"The Canaanites" (BBC Books)
^ Van der Toorn 1996, p. 4.
^ Van der Toorn 1996, pp. 181–82.
^ a b Smith 2002, p. 57.
^ Dever (2005), p.
^ Van der Toorn 1999, p. 911–13.
^ Dunn and Rogerson, pp. 153–54
^ Avery Peck, p. 58
^ Grabbe (2004), pp. 243–44
^ Avery Peck, p. 59
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Avery-Peck, Alan, and Neusner, Jacob, (eds), "The Blackwell Companion
Judaism (Blackwell, 2003)
Brettler, Marc Zvi, "The Creation of History in Ancient Israel"
(Routledge, 1995), and also review at Dannyreviews.com
Cook, Stephen L., "The social roots of biblical Yahwism" (Society of
Biblical Literature, 2004)
Day, John (ed), "In search of pre-exilic Israel: proceedings of the
Old Testament Seminar" (T&T Clark International, 2004)
Gravett, Sandra L., "An Introduction to the Hebrew Bible: A Thematic
Approach" (Westminster John Knox Press, 2008)
Grisanti, Michael A., and Howard,
David M., (eds), "Giving the
Sense:Understanding and Using
Old Testament Historical Texts" (Kregel
Hess, Richard S., "Israelite religions: an archaeological and biblical
survey" Baker, 2007)
Kavon, Eli, "Did the Maccabees Betray the Hanukka Revolution?", The
Jerusalem Post, 26 December 2005
Lemche, Neils Peter, "The
Old Testament between theology and history:
a critical survey" (Westminster John Knox Press, 2008)
Levine, Lee I., "Jerusalem: portrait of the city in the second Temple
period (538 B.C.E.–70 C.E.)" (Jewish Publication Society, 2002)
Na'aman, Nadav, "Ancient
Israel and its neighbours" (Eisenbrauns,
Penchansky, David, "Twilight of the gods: polytheism in the Hebrew
Bible" (Westminster John Knox Press, 2005)
Provan, Iain William, Long, V. Philips, Longman, Tremper, "A Biblical
History of Israel" (Westminster John Knox Press, 2003)
Russell, Stephen C., "Images of Egypt in early biblical literature"
(Walter de Gruyter, 2009)
Sparks, Kenton L., "Ethnicity and identity in ancient Israel"
Stackert, Jeffrey, "Rewriting the Torah: literary revision in
Deuteronomy and the holiness code" (Mohr Siebeck, 2007)
Vanderkam, James, "An introduction to early Judaism" (Eerdmans, 2001)
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