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The Kingdom of Israel
Israel
and the Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah
were related Iron Age kingdoms of the ancient Levant. The Kingdom of Israel
Israel
emerged as an important local power by the 10th century BCE before falling to the Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
in 722 BCE. Israel's southern neighbor, the Kingdom of Judah, emerged in the 8th or 9th century BCE[1] and enjoyed a period of prosperity as a client state of first the Neo-Assyrian Empire and then the Neo-Babylonian Empire
Neo-Babylonian Empire
before a revolt against the latter led to its destruction in 586 BCE. Following the fall of Babylon
Babylon
to the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
under Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
in 539 BCE, some Judean
Judean
exiles returned to Jerusalem, inaugurating the formative period in the development of a distinctive Judahite identity in the province of Yehud Medinata. Yehud was absorbed into the subsequent Hellenistic kingdoms that followed the conquests of Alexander the Great, but in the 2nd century BCE the Judaeans revolted against the Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
and created the Hasmonean
Hasmonean
kingdom. This, the last nominally independent kingdom of Judea, came to an end in 63 BCE with its conquest by Pompey
Pompey
of Rome. With the installation of client kingdoms under the Herodian dynasty, the Province of Judea was wracked by civil disturbances which culminated in the First Jewish–Roman War, the destruction of the Temple, the emergence of Rabbinic Judaism
Judaism
and Early Christianity.

Contents

1 Periods 2 Late Bronze Age background (1600–1200 BCE) 3 Iron Age I (1200–1000 BCE) 4 Iron Age II (1000–587 BCE) 5 Babylonian period 6 Persian period 7 Hellenistic period 8 Religion

8.1 Iron Age Yahwism 8.2 The Babylonian exile and Second Temple Judaism

9 See also 10 References

10.1 Citations 10.2 Bibliography

11 Further reading

Periods[edit]

Iron Age I: 1200–1000 BCE Iron Age II: 1000–586 BCE Neo-Babylonian: 586–539 BCE Persian: 539–332 BCE Hellenistic: 332–53 BCE[2]

Late Bronze Age background (1600–1200 BCE)[edit]

The Canaanite god Baal, 14th–12th century BCE ( Louvre
Louvre
museum, Paris)

The eastern Mediterranean seaboard – the Levant
Levant
– stretches 400 miles north to south from the Taurus Mountains
Taurus Mountains
to the Sinai Peninsula, and 70 to 100 miles east to west between the sea and the Arabian Desert.[3] The coastal plain of the southern Levant, broad in the south and narrowing to the north, is backed in its southernmost portion by a zone of foothills, the Shfela; like the plain this narrows as it goes northwards, ending in the promontory of Mount Carmel. East of the plain and the Shfela
Shfela
is a mountainous ridge, the "hill country of Judah" in the south, the "hill country of Ephraim" north of that, then Galilee
Galilee
and Mount Lebanon. To the east again lie the steep-sided valley occupied by the Jordan River, the Dead Sea, and the wadi of the Arabah, which continues down to the eastern arm of the Red Sea. Beyond the plateau is the Syrian desert, separating the Levant
Levant
from Mesopotamia. To the southwest is Egypt, to the northeast Mesopotamia. The location and geographical characteristics of the narrow Levant
Levant
made the area a battleground among the powerful entities that surrounded it.[4] Canaan
Canaan
in the Late Bronze Age was a shadow of what it had been centuries earlier: many cities were abandoned, others shrank in size, and the total settled population was probably not much more than a hundred thousand.[5] Settlement was concentrated in cities along the coastal plain and along major communication routes; the central and northern hill country which would later become the biblical kingdom of Israel
Israel
was only sparsely inhabited[6] although letters from the Egyptian archives indicate that Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was already a Canaanite city-state recognising Egyptian overlordship.[7] Politically and culturally it was dominated by Egypt,[8] each city under its own ruler, constantly at odds with its neighbours, and appealing to the Egyptians to adjudicate their differences.[6] The Canaanite city state system broke down during the Late Bronze Age collapse,[9] and Canaanite culture was then gradually absorbed into that of the Philistines, Phoenicians and Israelites.[10] The process was gradual[11] and a strong Egyptian presence continued into the 12th century BCE, and, while some Canaanite cities were destroyed, others continued to exist in Iron Age I.[12] Iron Age I (1200–1000 BCE)[edit]

The Merneptah Stele. While alternative translations exist, the majority of biblical archeologists translate a set of hieroglyphs as "Israel", representing the first instance of the name Israel
Israel
in the historical record.

The name "Israel" first appears in the Merneptah Stele
Merneptah Stele
c. 1209 BCE: " Israel
Israel
is laid waste and his seed is no more."[13] This "Israel" was a cultural and probably political entity, well enough established for the Egyptians to perceive it as a possible challenge, but an ethnic group rather than an organised state;[14] Archaeologist Paula McNutt says: "It is probably ... during Iron Age I [that] a population began to identify itself as 'Israelite'," differentiating itself from its neighbours via prohibitions on intermarriage, an emphasis on family history and genealogy, and religion.[15] In the Late Bronze Age there were no more than about 25 villages in the highlands, but this increased to over 300 by the end of Iron Age I, while the settled population doubled from 20,000 to 40,000.[16] The villages were more numerous and larger in the north, and probably shared the highlands with pastoral nomads, who left no remains.[17] Archaeologists and historians attempting to trace the origins of these villagers have found it impossible to identify any distinctive features that could define them as specifically Israelite – collared-rim jars and four-room houses have been identified outside the highlands and thus cannot be used to distinguish Israelite sites,[18] and while the pottery of the highland villages is far more limited than that of lowland Canaanite sites, it develops typologically out of Canaanite pottery that came before.[19] Israel Finkelstein proposed that the oval or circular layout that distinguishes some of the earliest highland sites, and the notable absence of pig bones from hill sites, could be taken as markers of ethnicity, but others have cautioned that these can be a "common-sense" adaptation to highland life and not necessarily revelatory of origins.[20] Other Aramaean sites also demonstrate a contemporary absence of pig remains at that time, unlike earlier Canaanite and later Philistine excavations. In The Bible Unearthed
The Bible Unearthed
(2001), Finkelstein and Silberman summarised recent studies. They described how, up until 1967, the Israelite heartland in the highlands of western Palestine was virtually an archaeological terra incognita. Since then, intensive surveys have examined the traditional territories of the tribes of Judah, Benjamin, Ephraim, and Manasseh. These surveys have revealed the sudden emergence of a new culture contrasting with the Philistine and Canaanite societies existing in the Land of Israel
Israel
earlier during Iron Age I.[21] This new culture is characterised by a lack of pork remains (whereas pork formed 20% of the Philistine diet in places), by an abandonment of the Philistine/Canaanite custom of having highly decorated pottery, and by the practice of circumcision. The Israelite ethnic identity had originated, not from the Exodus and a subsequent conquest, but from a transformation of the existing Canaanite-Philistine cultures.[22]

These surveys revolutionized the study of early Israel. The discovery of the remains of a dense network of highland villages – all apparently established within the span of few generations – indicated that a dramatic social transformation had taken place in the central hill country of Canaan
Canaan
around 1200 BCE. There was no sign of violent invasion or even the infiltration of a clearly defined ethnic group. Instead, it seemed to be a revolution in lifestyle. In the formerly sparsely populated highlands from the Judean
Judean
hills in the south to the hills of Samaria
Samaria
in the north, far from the Canaanite cities that were in the process of collapse and disintegration, about two-hundred fifty hilltop communities suddenly sprang up. Here were the first Israelites.[23]

From then on, over a period of hundreds of years until after the return of the exiles from Babylon, the Israelites
Israelites
and other tribes gradually absorbed the Canaanites. After the period of Ezra
Ezra
(~450 BCE) there is no more biblical record of them.[24] The Hebrew language, a dialect of Canaanite, became the language of the hill country, and later of the valleys and plains.[25] Modern scholars therefore see Israel
Israel
arising peacefully and internally from existing people in the highlands of Canaan.[26] Iron Age II (1000–587 BCE)[edit]

A reconstructed Israelite house, 10th–7th century BCE. Eretz Israel Museum, Tel Aviv.

Unusually favourable climatic conditions in the first two centuries of Iron Age II brought about an expansion of population, settlements and trade throughout the region.[27] In the central highlands this resulted in unification in a kingdom with the city of Samaria
Samaria
as its capital,[27] possibly by the second half of the 10th century BCE when an inscription of the Egyptian pharaoh Shoshenq I, the biblical Shishak, records a series of campaigns directed at the area.[28] Israel
Israel
had clearly emerged by the middle of the 9th century BCE, when the Assyrian king Shalmaneser III names " Ahab
Ahab
the Israelite" among his enemies at the battle of Qarqar (853). At this time Israel
Israel
was apparently engaged in a three-way contest with Damascus
Damascus
and Tyre for control of the Jezreel Valley
Jezreel Valley
and Galilee
Galilee
in the north, and with Moab, Ammon
Ammon
and Damascus
Damascus
in the east for control of Gilead;[27] the Mesha Stele
Stele
(c. 830), left by a king of Moab, celebrates his success in throwing off the oppression of the "House of Omri" (i.e., Israel). It bears what is generally thought to be the earliest extra-biblical Semitic reference to the name Yahweh.[29] French scholar André Lemaire has reconstructed a portion of line 31 of the stele as mentioning the "House of David".[28][30] Other scholars disagree, saying that BYTDWD is a place name not a dynasty.[31] The Dan stele (c. 841) tells of the death of a king of Israel, probably Jehoram, at the hands of a king of Aram-Damascus.[28] A century later Israel
Israel
came into increasing conflict with the expanding Neo-Assyrian Empire, which first split its territory into several smaller units and then destroyed its capital, Samaria
Samaria
(722). Both the biblical and Assyrian sources speak of a massive deportation of people from Israel
Israel
and their replacement with settlers from other parts of the empire – such population exchanges were an established part of Assyrian imperial policy, a means of breaking the old power structure – and the former Israel
Israel
never again became an independent political entity.[32] Judah emerged somewhat later than Israel, probably during the 9th century BCE, but the subject is one of considerable controversy.[1] There are indications that during the 10th and 9th centuries BCE, the southern highlands had been divided between a number of centres, none with clear primacy.[33] During the reign of Hezekiah, between c. 715 and 686 BCE, a notable increase in the power of the Judean
Judean
state can be observed.[34] This is reflected in archaeological sites and findings, such as the Broad Wall; a defensive city wall in Jerusalem; and the Siloam tunnel, an aqueduct designed to provide Jerusalem
Jerusalem
with water during an impending siege by the Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
led by Sennacherib; and the Siloam inscription, a lintel inscription found over the doorway of a tomb, has been ascribed to comptroller Shebna. LMLK seals on storage jar handles, excavated from strata in and around that formed by Sennacherib's destruction, appear to have been used throughout Sennacherib's 29-year reign, along with bullae from sealed documents, some that belonged to Hezekiah
Hezekiah
himself and others that name his servants;[35] King Ahaz's seal is a piece of reddish-brown clay that belonged to King Ahaz
Ahaz
of Judah, who ruled from 732 to 716 BCE. This seal contains not only the name of the king, but the name of his father, King Yehotam. In addition, Ahaz
Ahaz
is specifically identified as "king of Judah." The Hebrew inscription, which is set on three lines, reads as follows: "l'hz*y/hwtm*mlk*/yhdh", which translates as "belonging to Ahaz
Ahaz
(son of) Yehotam, King of Judah."[36] In the 7th century Jerusalem
Jerusalem
grew to contain a population many times greater than earlier and achieved clear dominance over its neighbours.[37] This occurred at the same time that Israel
Israel
was being destroyed by the Neo-Assyrian Empire, and was probably the result of a cooperative arrangement with the Assyrians to establish Judah as an Assyrian vassal state controlling the valuable olive industry.[37] Judah prospered as a vassal state (despite a disastrous rebellion against Sennacherib), but in the last half of the 7th century BCE, Assyria suddenly collapsed, and the ensuing competition between Egypt and Neo-Babylonian Empire
Neo-Babylonian Empire
for control of the land led to the destruction of Judah in a series of campaigns between 597 and 582.[37] Babylonian period[edit]

Reconstruction of the Ishtar Gate
Ishtar Gate
of Babylon

Babylonian Judah suffered a steep decline in both economy and population[38] and lost the Negev, the Shephelah, and part of the Judean
Judean
hill country, including Hebron, to encroachments from Edom
Edom
and other neighbours.[39] Jerusalem, while probably not totally abandoned, was much smaller than previously, and the town of Mizpah in Benjamin in the relatively unscathed northern section of the kingdom became the capital of the new Babylonian province of Yehud Medinata.[40] (This was standard Babylonian practice: when the Philistine city of Ashkalon was conquered in 604, the political, religious and economic elite [but not the bulk of the population] was banished and the administrative centre shifted to a new location).[41] There is also a strong probability that for most or all of the period the temple at Bethel
Bethel
in Benjamin replaced that at Jerusalem, boosting the prestige of Bethel's priests (the Aaronites) against those of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(the Zadokites), now in exile in Babylon.[42] The Babylonian conquest entailed not just the destruction of Jerusalem and its temple, but the liquidation of the entire infrastructure which had sustained Judah for centuries.[43] The most significant casualty was the state ideology of "Zion theology,"[44] the idea that the god of Israel
Israel
had chosen Jerusalem
Jerusalem
for his dwelling-place and that the Davidic dynasty
Davidic dynasty
would reign there forever.[45] The fall of the city and the end of Davidic kingship forced the leaders of the exile community – kings, priests, scribes and prophets – to reformulate the concepts of community, faith and politics.[46] The exile community in Babylon
Babylon
thus became the source of significant portions of the Hebrew Bible: Isaiah 40–55; Ezekiel; the final version of Jeremiah; the work of the hypothesized priestly source in the Pentateuch; and the final form of the history of Israel
Israel
from Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy
to 2 Kings.[47] Theologically, the Babylonian exiles were responsible for the doctrines of individual responsibility and universalism (the concept that one god controls the entire world) and for the increased emphasis on purity and holiness.[47] Most significantly, the trauma of the exile experience led to the development of a strong sense of Hebrew identity distinct from other peoples,[48] with increased emphasis on symbols such as circumcision and Sabbath-observance to sustain that distinction.[49] The concentration of the biblical literature on the experience of the exiles in Babylon
Babylon
disguises the fact that the great majority of the population remained in Judah; for them, life after the fall of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
probably went on much as it had before.[50] It may even have improved, as they were rewarded with the land and property of the deportees, much to the anger of the community of exiles remaining in Babylon.[51] The assassination around 582 of the Babylonian governor by a disaffected member of the former royal House of David
David
provoked a Babylonian crackdown, possibly reflected in the Book
Book
of Lamentations, but the situation seems to have soon stabilised again.[52] Nevertheless, those unwalled cities and towns that remained were subject to slave raids by the Phoenicians and intervention in their internal affairs by Samaritans, Arabs, and Ammonites.[53] Persian period[edit] Main article: Yehud Medinata When Babylon
Babylon
fell to the Persian Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
in 539 BCE, Judah (or Yehud medinata, the "province of Yehud") became an administrative division within the Persian empire. Cyrus was succeeded as king by Cambyses, who added Egypt to the empire, incidentally transforming Yehud and the Philistine plain into an important frontier zone. His death in 522 was followed by a period of turmoil until Darius the Great
Darius the Great
seized the throne in about 521. Darius introduced a reform of the administrative arrangements of the empire including the collection, codification and administration of local law codes, and it is reasonable to suppose that this policy lay behind the redaction of the Jewish Torah.[54] After 404 the Persians lost control of Egypt, which became Persia's main rival outside Europe, causing the Persian authorities to tighten their administrative control over Yehud and the rest of the Levant.[55] Egypt was eventually reconquered, but soon afterward Persia fell to Alexander the Great, ushering in the Hellenistic period in the Levant. Yehud's population over the entire period was probably never more than about 30,000 and that of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
no more than about 1,500, most of them connected in some way to the Temple.[56] According to the biblical history, one of the first acts of Cyrus, the Persian conqueror of Babylon, was to commission Jewish exiles to return to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and rebuild their Temple, a task which they are said to have completed c. 515.[57] Yet it was probably not until the middle of the next century, at the earliest, that Jerusalem
Jerusalem
again became the capital of Judah.[58] The Persians may have experimented initially with ruling Yehud as a Davidic client-kingdom under descendants of Jehoiachin,[59] but by the mid–5th century BCE, Yehud had become, in practice, a theocracy, ruled by hereditary high priests,[60] with a Persian-appointed governor, frequently Jewish, charged with keeping order and seeing that taxes (tribute) were collected and paid.[61] According to the biblical history, Ezra
Ezra
and Nehemiah
Nehemiah
arrived in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in the middle of the 5th century BCE, the former empowered by the Persian king to enforce the Torah, the latter holding the status of governor with a royal commission to restore Jerusalem's walls.[62] The biblical history mentions tension between the returnees and those who had remained in Yehud, the returnees rebuffing the attempt of the "peoples of the land" to participate in the rebuilding of the Temple; this attitude was based partly on the exclusivism that the exiles had developed while in Babylon
Babylon
and, probably, also partly on disputes over property.[63] During the 5th century BCE, Ezra
Ezra
and Nehemiah
Nehemiah
attempted to re-integrate these rival factions into a united and ritually pure society, inspired by the prophecies of Ezekiel
Ezekiel
and his followers.[64] The Persian era, and especially the period between 538 and 400 BCE, laid the foundations for the unified Judaic religion and the beginning of a scriptural canon.[65] Other important landmarks in this period include the replacement of Hebrew as the everyday language of Judah by Aramaic (although Hebrew continued to be used for religious and literary purposes)[66] and Darius's reform of the empire's bureaucracy, which may have led to extensive revisions and reorganizations of the Jewish Torah.[54] The Israel
Israel
of the Persian period consisted of descendants of the inhabitants of the old kingdom of Judah, returnees from the Babylonian exile community, Mesopotamians who had joined them or had been exiled themselves to Samaria
Samaria
at a far earlier period, Samaritans, and others.[67] Hellenistic period[edit]

The Hasmonean
Hasmonean
kingdom at its largest extent

Main articles: Hasmonean, Herodian Dynasty, Judea
Judea
(Roman province), and Samaria On the death of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
(322 BCE), Alexander's generals divided the empire among themselves. Ptolemy I, the ruler of Egypt, seized Yehud Medinata, but his successors lost it in 198 to the Seleucids
Seleucids
of Syria. At first, relations between Seleucids
Seleucids
and Jews were cordial, but the attempt of Antiochus IV Epiphanes
Antiochus IV Epiphanes
(174–163) to impose Hellenic cults on Judea
Judea
sparked a national rebellion that ended in the expulsion of the Seleucids
Seleucids
and the establishment of an independent Jewish kingdom under the Hasmonean
Hasmonean
dynasty. Some modern commentators see this period also as a civil war between orthodox and hellenized Jews.[68][69] Hasmonean
Hasmonean
kings attempted to revive the Judah described in the Bible: a Jewish monarchy ruled from Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and including all territories once ruled by David
David
and Solomon. In order to carry out this project, the Hasmoneans forcibly converted one-time Moabites, Edomites, and Ammonites to Judaism, as well as the lost kingdom of Israel.[70] Some scholars argue that the Hasmonean
Hasmonean
dynasty institutionalized the final Jewish biblical canon.[71] In 63 BCE the Roman general Pompey
Pompey
conquered Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and made the Jewish kingdom a client state of Rome. In 40–39 BCE, Herod the Great was appointed King of the Jews
Jews
by the Roman Senate, and in 6 CE the last ethnarch of Judea
Judea
was deposed by the emperor Augustus, his territories combined with Idumea
Idumea
and Samaria
Samaria
and annexed as Iudaea Province
Iudaea Province
under direct Roman administration.[72] The name Judea
Judea
(Iudaea) ceased to be used by Greco-Romans after the revolt of Simon Bar Kochba
Simon Bar Kochba
in 135 CE; the area was henceforth called Syria Palaestina (Greek: Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Latin: Palaestina). Religion[edit] Iron Age Yahwism[edit] Main article: Yahweh The religion of the Israelites
Israelites
of Iron Age I, like the Ancient Canaanite religion from which it evolved and other religions of the ancient Near East, was based on a cult of ancestors and worship of family gods (the "gods of the fathers").[73][74] With the emergence of the monarchy at the beginning of Iron Age II the kings promoted their family god, Yahweh, as the god of the kingdom, but beyond the royal court, religion continued to be both polytheistic and family-centered.[75] The major deities were not numerous – El, Asherah, and Yahweh, with Baal
Baal
as a fourth god, and perhaps Shamash (the sun) in the early period.[76] At an early stage El and Yahweh became fused and Asherah
Asherah
did not continue as a separate state cult,[76] although she continued to be popular at a community level until Persian times.[77] Yahweh, the national god of both Israel
Israel
and Judah, seems to have originated in Edom
Edom
and Midian
Midian
in southern Canaan
Canaan
and may have been brought to Israel
Israel
by the Kenites and Midianites
Midianites
at an early stage.[78] There is a general consensus among scholars that the first formative event in the emergence of the distinctive religion described in the Bible was triggered by the destruction of Israel
Israel
by Assyria in c. 722 BCE. Refugees from the northern kingdom fled to Judah, bringing with them laws and a prophetic tradition of Yahweh. This religion was subsequently adopted by the landowners of Judah, who in 640 BCE placed the eight-year-old Josiah
Josiah
on the throne. Judah at this time was a vassal state of Assyria, but Assyrian power collapsed in the 630s, and around 622 Josiah
Josiah
and his supporters launched a bid for independence expressed as loyalty to " Yahweh
Yahweh
alone". The Babylonian exile and Second Temple Judaism[edit] Main article: Second Temple Judaism According to the Deuteronomists, as scholars call these Judean nationalists, the treaty with Yahweh
Yahweh
would enable Israel's god to preserve both the city and the king in return for the people's worship and obedience. The destruction of Jerusalem, its Temple, and the Davidic dynasty
Davidic dynasty
by Babylon
Babylon
in 587/586 BCE was deeply traumatic and led to revisions of the national mythos during the Babylonian exile. This revision was expressed in the Deuteronomistic history, the books of Joshua. Judges, Samuel and Kings, which interpreted the Babylonian destruction as divinely-ordained punishment for the failure of Israel's kings to worship Yahweh
Yahweh
to the exclusion of all other deities.[79] The Second Temple period
Second Temple period
(520 BCE – 70 CE) differed in significant ways from what had gone before.[80] Strict monotheism emerged among the priests of the Temple establishment during the seventh and sixth centuries BCE, as did beliefs regarding angels and demons.[81] At this time, circumcision, dietary laws, and Sabbath-observance gained more significance as symbols of Jewish identity, and the institution of the synagogue became increasingly important. According to the documentary hypothesis, most of the Torah was written during this time.[82] See also[edit]

Biblical archaeology Canaan#History Chronology of the Bible Early Israelite campaigns Habiru History of Israel History of Palestine History of the Jews
Jews
in Egypt History of the Jews
Jews
in Iran History of the Jews
Jews
in the Roman Empire History of the Levant History of the Southern Levant Intertestamental period Israelites Jew Jewish diaspora Kings of Israel
Israel
and Judah Kings of Judah Lachish relief Old Testament Pre-history of the Southern Levant Shasu Tanakh United Monarchy

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ a b Grabbe 2008, pp. 225–26. ^ King & Stager 2001, p. xxiii. ^ Miller 1986, p. 36. ^ Coogan 1998, pp. 4–7. ^ Finkelstein 2001, p. 78. ^ a b Killebrew 2005, pp. 38–39. ^ Cahill in Vaughn 1992, pp. 27–33. ^ Kuhrt 1995, p. 317. ^ Killebrew 2005, pp. 10–6. ^ Golden 2004b, pp. 61–62. ^ McNutt 1999, p. 47. ^ Golden 2004a, p. 155. ^ Stager in Coogan 1998, p. 91. ^ Dever 2003, p. 206. ^ McNutt 1999, p. 35. ^ McNutt 1999, pp. 46–47. ^ McNutt 1999, p. 69. ^ Miller 1986, p. 72. ^ Killebrew 2005, p. 13. ^ Edelman in Brett 2002, pp. 46–47. ^ Finkelstein and Silberman (2001) Free Press, New York, p. 107, ISBN 0-684-86912-8 ^ Avraham Faust, “How Did Israel
Israel
Become a People? The Genesis of Israelite Identity”, Biblical Archaeology Review 201 (2009): 62–69, 92–94. ^ Finkelstein and Silberman (2001), p. 107 ^ Holy Bible. King James version. Ezra, Chapter 9 ^ "Canaan".  ^ Compare: Gnuse, Robert Karl (1997). No Other Gods: Emergent Monotheism
Monotheism
in Israel. Journal for the study of the Old Testament: Supplement series. 241. Sheffield: A&C Black. p. 31. ISBN 9781850756576. Retrieved 2016-06-02. Out of the discussions a new model is beginning to emerge, which has been inspired, above all, by recent archaeological field research. There are several variations in this new theory, but they share in common the image of an Israelite community which arose peacefully and internally in the highlands of Palestine.  ^ a b c Thompson 1992, p. 408. ^ a b c Mazar in Finkelstein 2007, p. 163. ^ Patrick D. Miller (2000). The Religion of Ancient Israel. Westminster John Knox Press. pp. 40–. ISBN 978-0-664-22145-4.  ^ Biblical Archaeology Review [May/June 1994], pp. 30–37 ^ "TelDan". vridar.info. Retrieved 2016-05-26.  ^ Lemche 1998, p. 85. ^ Lehman in Vaughn 1992, p. 149. ^ David
David
M. Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature, Oxford University Press, 2005, 164. ^ "LAMRYEU-HNNYEU-OBD-HZQYEU".  ^ First Impression: What We Learn from King Ahaz’s Seal (#m1), by Robert Deutsch, Archaeological Center. ^ a b c Thompson 1992, pp. 410–11. ^ Grabbe 2004, p. 28. ^ Lemaire in Blenkinsopp 2003, p. 291. ^ Davies 2009. ^ Lipschits 2005, p. 48. ^ Blenkinsopp in Blenkinsopp 2003, pp. 103–05. ^ Blenkinsopp 2009, p. 228. ^ Middlemas 2005, pp. 1–2. ^ Miller 1986, p. 203. ^ Middlemas 2005, p. 2. ^ a b Middlemas 2005, p. 10. ^ Middlemas 2005, p. 17. ^ Bedford 2001, p. 48. ^ Barstad 2008, p. 109. ^ Albertz 2003a, p. 92. ^ Albertz 2003a, pp. 95–96. ^ Albertz 2003a, p. 96. ^ a b Blenkinsopp 1988, p. 64. ^ Lipschits in Lipschits 2006, pp. 86–89. ^ Grabbe 2004, pp. 29–30. ^ Nodet 1999, p. 25. ^ Davies in Amit 2006, p. 141. ^ Niehr in Becking 1999, p. 231. ^ Wylen 1996, p. 25. ^ Grabbe 2004, pp. 154–55. ^ Soggin 1998, p. 311. ^ Miller 1986, p. 458. ^ Blenkinsopp 2009, p. 229. ^ Albertz 1994, pp. 437–38. ^ Kottsieper in Lipschits 2006, pp. 109–10. ^ Becking in Albertz 2003b, p. 19. ^ Weigel, David. "Hanukkah as Jewish civil war". Slate.com. Slate Magazine. Retrieved 2012-08-15.  ^ "The Revolt of the Maccabees". Simpletoremember.com. Retrieved 2012-08-15.  ^ Davies 1992, pp. 149–50. ^ Philip R. Davies in The Canon Debate, p. 50: "With many other scholars, I conclude that the fixing of a canonical list was almost certainly the achievement of the Hasmonean
Hasmonean
dynasty." ^ Ben-Sasson 1976, p. 246. ^ Tubbs, Jonathan (2006)"The Canaanites" (BBC Books) ^ Van der Toorn 1996, p. 4. ^ Van der Toorn 1996, pp. 181–82. ^ a b Smith 2002, p. 57. ^ Dever (2005), p. ^ Van der Toorn 1999, p. 911–13. ^ Dunn and Rogerson, pp. 153–54 ^ Avery Peck, p. 58 ^ Grabbe (2004), pp. 243–44 ^ Avery Peck, p. 59

Bibliography[edit]

Albertz, Rainer (1994) [Vanderhoek & Ruprecht 1992]. A History of Israelite Religion, Volume I: From the Beginnings to the End of the Monarchy. Westminster John Knox Press.  Albertz, Rainer (1994) [Vanderhoek & Ruprecht 1992]. A History of Israelite Religion, Volume II: From the Exile to the Maccabees. Westminster John Knox Press.  Albertz, Rainer (2003a). Israel
Israel
in Exile: The History and Literature of the Sixth Century B.C.E. Society of Biblical Literature.  Albertz, Rainer; Becking, Bob, eds. (2003b). Yahwism After the Exile: Perspectives on Israelite Religion in the Persian Era. Koninklijke Van Gorcum. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Becking, Bob. "Law as Expression of Religion ( Ezra
Ezra
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Further reading[edit]

This article's further reading may not follow's content policies or guidelines. Please improve this article by removing less relevant or redundant publications with the same point of view; or by incorporating the relevant publications into the body of the article through appropriate citations. (August 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Avery-Peck, Alan, and Neusner, Jacob, (eds), "The Blackwell Companion to Judaism
Judaism
(Blackwell, 2003) Brettler, Marc Zvi, "The Creation of History in Ancient Israel" (Routledge, 1995), and also review at Dannyreviews.com Cook, Stephen L., "The social roots of biblical Yahwism" (Society of Biblical Literature, 2004) Day, John (ed), "In search of pre-exilic Israel: proceedings of the Oxford Old Testament
Old Testament
Seminar" (T&T Clark International, 2004) Gravett, Sandra L., "An Introduction to the Hebrew Bible: A Thematic Approach" (Westminster John Knox Press, 2008) Grisanti, Michael A., and Howard, David
David
M., (eds), "Giving the Sense:Understanding and Using Old Testament
Old Testament
Historical Texts" (Kregel Publications, 2003) Hess, Richard S., "Israelite religions: an archaeological and biblical survey" Baker, 2007) Kavon, Eli, "Did the Maccabees Betray the Hanukka Revolution?", The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Post, 26 December 2005 Lemche, Neils Peter, "The Old Testament
Old Testament
between theology and history: a critical survey" (Westminster John Knox Press, 2008) Levine, Lee I., "Jerusalem: portrait of the city in the second Temple period (538 B.C.E.–70 C.E.)" (Jewish Publication Society, 2002) Na'aman, Nadav, "Ancient Israel
Israel
and its neighbours" (Eisenbrauns, 2005) Penchansky, David, "Twilight of the gods: polytheism in the Hebrew Bible" (Westminster John Knox Press, 2005) Provan, Iain William, Long, V. Philips, Longman, Tremper, "A Biblical History of Israel" (Westminster John Knox Press, 2003) Russell, Stephen C., "Images of Egypt in early biblical literature" (Walter de Gruyter, 2009) Sparks, Kenton L., "Ethnicity and identity in ancient Israel" (Eisenbrauns, 1998) Stackert, Jeffrey, "Rewriting the Torah: literary revision in Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy
and the holiness code" (Mohr Siebeck, 2007) Vanderkam, James, "An introduction to early Judaism" (Eerdmans, 2001)

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