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This page lists some links to ancient philosophy. In Western philosophy, the spread of Christianity
Christianity
in the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
marked the ending of Hellenistic philosophy
Hellenistic philosophy
and ushered in the beginnings of Medieval philosophy, whereas in Eastern philosophy, the spread of Islam through the Arab Empire marked the end of Old Iranian philosophy and ushered in the beginnings of early Islamic philosophy.

Contents

1 Introduction 2 Ancient Chinese philosophy

2.1 Schools of thought

2.1.1 Hundred Schools of Thought 2.1.2 Early Imperial China

2.2 Philosophers

3 Ancient Greek and Roman philosophy

3.1 Philosophers

3.1.1 Presocratic philosophers 3.1.2 Classical Greek philosophers 3.1.3 Hellenistic philosophy

3.2 Hellenistic schools of thought 3.3 Early Roman and Christian philosophy 3.4 Philosophers during Roman times

4 Ancient Indian philosophy

4.1 Vedic philosophy 4.2 Sramana
Sramana
philosophy 4.3 Classical Indian philosophy 4.4 Ancient Indian philosophers

4.4.1 1st millennium BCE 4.4.2 Philosophers of Vedic Age (2000–600 BCE) 4.4.3 Philosophers of Axial Age
Axial Age
(600–185 BCE) 4.4.4 Philosophers of Golden Age (184 BCE – 600 CE)

5 Ancient Iranian philosophy

5.1 Schools of thought

5.1.1 Zoroastrianism 5.1.2 Pre-Manichaean thought 5.1.3 Manichaeism 5.1.4 Mazdakism 5.1.5 Zurvanism

5.2 Philosophy
Philosophy
and the Empire 5.3 Literature

6 Ancient Jewish philosophy

6.1 First Temple (c. 900 BCE to 587 BCE) 6.2 Assyrian exile (587 BCE to 516 BCE) 6.3 Second Temple (516 BCE to 70 CE) 6.4 Early Roman exile (70 CE to c. 600 CE)

7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

Introduction[edit] Genuinely philosophical thought, depending upon original individual insights, arose in many cultures roughly contemporaneously. Karl Jaspers termed the intense period of philosophical development beginning around the 7th century and concluding around the 3rd century BCE an Axial Age
Axial Age
in human thought. Ancient Chinese philosophy[edit]

Part of a series on

Eastern philosophy

Aryadeva
Aryadeva
and Nagarjuna Adi Shankara

Laozi
Laozi
and Confucius

India

Āstika (orthodox) Vedic philosophy

Agastya Aruni Ashtavakra Atri Vashistha Yajnavalkya

Mimamsa

Jaimini

Vedanta

Advaita

Badarayana Gaudapada Adi Shankara

Dvaita

Madhvacharya

Sri Vaishnavism

Ramanuja

Neo-Vedanta

Vivekananda Aurobindo

Samkhya

Kapila

Yoga

Patanjali

Nyaya

Gotama

Navya-Nyāya

Gangesha Upadhyaya

Vaisheshika

Kanada

Nāstika (heterodox)

Ājīvika Charvaka Kashmir Shaivism

Abhinavagupta

Pratyabhijna Tantra

Tamil

Valluvam Valluvar

Other

Chanakya

General topics

Ahimsa Atomism Atman

Ātman (Hinduism) Ātman (Buddhism) Ātman (Jainism)

Artha Anekantavada Brahman Dharma Indian logic Karma Kama Maya Metta Moksha Nondualism Samadhi Pramana Yoga

Jainism

Haribhadra Umaswati

Buddhism

Buddha

Traditions

Madhyamika

Nagarjuna

Yogacara

Vasubandhu Dharmakirti

Indian logic

Dignaga

Topics

Dukkha Anatta Anicca Nirvana Pratītyasamutpāda Emptiness

China

Confucianism Persons

Confucius Mencius

Topics

Face Filial piety Guanxi Ren Li

New Confucianism

Han Yu Wang Yangming Xiong Shili Zhu Xi

Daoism Persons

Laozi

Topics

Tao Yin yang Wu wei

Legalism

Shang Yang

Chinese Buddhism

Tientai

Zhiyi

Huayan school

Fazang Guifeng Zongmi

East Asian Mādhyamaka

Jizang

Chinese Chan

Hundred Schools of Thought

Mozi Zhuangzi

Maoism

Mao

Other

Sun Tzu

General topics

De Qi

Japan

Traditions

Japanese Zen

Sōtō

Dogen

Shingon

Kukai

Kyoto School

Kitaro Nishida

Korea

Yi Hwang Yi I

Tibet

Traditions

Sakya

Sakya
Sakya
Pandita

Nyingma

Longchenpa

Gelug

Tsongkhapa

Topics

Four Tenets system Rangtong-Shentong Svatantrika-Prasaṅgika distinction

v t e

Main article: Chinese philosophy Chinese philosophy
Chinese philosophy
is the dominant philosophical thought in China and other countries within the East Asian cultural sphere
East Asian cultural sphere
that share a common language, including Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. Schools of thought[edit] Hundred Schools of Thought[edit] Main article: Hundred Schools of Thought The Hundred Schools of Thought
Hundred Schools of Thought
were philosophers and schools that flourished from the 6th century to 221 BCE,[1] an era of great cultural and intellectual expansion in China. Even though this period – known in its earlier part as the Spring and Autumn period
Spring and Autumn period
and the Warring States
Warring States
period – in its latter part was fraught with chaos and bloody battles, it is also known as the Golden Age of Chinese philosophy because a broad range of thoughts and ideas were developed and discussed freely. The thoughts and ideas discussed and refined during this period have profoundly influenced lifestyles and social consciousness up to the present day in East Asian countries. The intellectual society of this era was characterized by itinerant scholars, who were often employed by various state rulers as advisers on the methods of government, war, and diplomacy. This period ended with the rise of the Qin Dynasty
Qin Dynasty
and the subsequent purge of dissent. The Book of Han
Book of Han
lists ten major schools, they are:

Confucianism, which teaches that human beings are teachable, improvable and perfectible through personal and communal endeavour especially including self-cultivation and self-creation. A main idea of Confucianism
Confucianism
is the cultivation of virtue and the development of moral perfection. Confucianism
Confucianism
holds that one should give up one's life, if necessary, either passively or actively, for the sake of upholding the cardinal moral values of ren and yi.[2] Legalism. Often compared with Machiavelli, and foundational for the traditional Chinese bureaucratic empire, the Legalists examined administrative methods, emphasizing a realistic consolidation of the wealth and power of autocrat and state. Taoism, a philosophy which emphasizes the Three Jewels of the Tao: compassion, moderation, and humility, while Taoist thought generally focuses on nature, the relationship between humanity and the cosmos; health and longevity; and wu wei (action through inaction). Harmony with the Universe, or the source thereof (Tao), is the intended result of many Taoist rules and practices. Mohism, which advocated the idea of universal love: Mozi
Mozi
believed that "everyone is equal before heaven", and that people should seek to imitate heaven by engaging in the practice of collective love. His epistemology can be regarded as primitive materialist empiricism; he believed that human cognition ought to be based on one's perceptions – one's sensory experiences, such as sight and hearing – instead of imagination or internal logic, elements founded on the human capacity for abstraction. Mozi
Mozi
advocated frugality, condemning the Confucian emphasis on ritual and music, which he denounced as extravagant. Naturalism, the School of Naturalists
School of Naturalists
or the Yin-yang
Yin-yang
school, which synthesized the concepts of yin-yang and the Five Elements; Zou Yan is considered the founder of this school.[3] Agrarianism, or the School of Agrarianism, which advocated peasant utopian communalism and egalitarianism.[4] The Agrarians believed that Chinese society should be modeled around that of the early sage king Shen Nong, a folk hero which was portrayed in Chinese literature as "working in the fields, along with everyone else, and consulting with everyone else when any decision had to be reached."[4] The Logicians or the School of Names, which focused on definition and logic. It is said to have parallels with that of the Ancient Greek sophists or dialecticians. The most notable Logician was Gongsun Longzi. The School of Diplomacy
Diplomacy
or School of Vertical and Horizontal [Alliances], which focused on practical matters instead of any moral principle, so it stressed political and diplomatic tactics, and debate and lobbying skill. Scholars from this school were good orators, debaters and tacticians. The Miscellaneous School, which integrated teachings from different schools; for instance, Lü Buwei found scholars from different schools to write a book called Lüshi Chunqiu
Lüshi Chunqiu
cooperatively. This school tried to integrate the merits of various schools and avoid their perceived flaws. The School of "Minor-talks", which was not a unique school of thought, but a philosophy constructed of all the thoughts which were discussed by and originated from normal people on the street. Another group is the School of the Military that studied strategy and the philosophy of war; Sunzi
Sunzi
and Sun Bin
Sun Bin
were influential leaders. However, this school was not one of the "Ten Schools" defined by Hanshu.

Early Imperial China[edit] The founder of the Qin Dynasty, who implemented Legalism as the official philosophy, quashed Mohist and Confucianist schools. Legalism remained influential until the emperors of the Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
adopted Daoism
Daoism
and later Confucianism
Confucianism
as official doctrine. These latter two became the determining forces of Chinese thought until the introduction of Buddhism. Confucianism
Confucianism
was particularly strong during the Han Dynasty, whose greatest thinker was Dong Zhongshu, who integrated Confucianism
Confucianism
with the thoughts of the Zhongshu School and the theory of the Five Elements. He also was a promoter of the New Text school, which considered Confucius
Confucius
as a divine figure and a spiritual ruler of China, who foresaw and started the evolution of the world towards the Universal Peace. In contrast, there was an Old Text school that advocated the use of Confucian works written in ancient language (from this comes the denomination Old Text) that were so much more reliable. In particular, they refuted the assumption of Confucius
Confucius
as a godlike figure and considered him as the greatest sage, but simply a human and mortal. The 3rd and 4th centuries saw the rise of the Xuanxue (mysterious learning), also called Neo-Taoism. The most important philosophers of this movement were Wang Bi, Xiang Xiu and Guo Xiang. The main question of this school was whether Being came before Not-Being (in Chinese, ming and wuming). A peculiar feature of these Taoist thinkers, like the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove, was the concept of feng liu (lit. wind and flow), a sort of romantic spirit which encouraged following the natural and instinctive impulse. Buddhism
Buddhism
arrived in China around the 1st century AD, but it was not until the Northern and Southern, Sui and Tang Dynasties that it gained considerable influence and acknowledgement. At the beginning, it was considered a sort of Taoist sect, and there was even a theory about Laozi, founder of Taoism, who went to India and taught his philosophy to Buddha. Mahayana Buddhism
Buddhism
was far more successful in China than its rival Hinayana, and both Indian schools and local Chinese sects arose from the 5th century. Two chiefly important monk philosophers were Sengzhao and Daosheng. But probably the most influential and original of these schools was the Chan sect, which had an even stronger impact in Japan as the Zen
Zen
sect. Philosophers[edit]

Taoism

Laozi
Laozi
(5th–4th century BCE) Zhuangzi (4th century BCE) Zhang Daoling Zhang Jue
Zhang Jue
(died 184 CE) Ge Hong (283 – 343 CE)

Confucianism

Confucius Mencius Xun Zi
Xun Zi
(c. 312 – 230 BCE)

Legalism

Li Si Li Kui Han Fei Mi Su Yu Shang Yang Shen Buhai Shen Dao

Mohism

Mozi Song Xing

Logicians

Deng Xi Hui Shi (380–305 BCE) Gongsun Long (c. 325 – c. 250 BCE)

Agrarianism

Xu Xing

Naturalism

Zou Yan (305 – 240 BCE)

Neotaoism

Wang Bi Guo Xiang Xiang Xiu

School of Diplomacy

Guiguzi Su Qin
Su Qin
(380 – 284 BCE) Zhang Yi (bef. 329 – 309 BCE) Yue Yi Li Yiji (268 – 204 BCE)

School of the Military

Sunzi
Sunzi
(c. 500 BCE) Sun Bin
Sun Bin
(died 316 BCE)

Ancient Greek and Roman philosophy[edit] Main article: Ancient Greek philosophy

Graphical relationship among the various pre-socratic philosophers and thinkers; red arrows indicate a relationship of opposition.

Raphael's School of Athens, depicting an array of ancient Greek philosophers engaged in discussion.

Philosophers[edit] Presocratic philosophers[edit]

Milesian School

Thales
Thales
(624 – c 546 BCE) Anaximander
Anaximander
(610 – 546 BCE) Anaximenes of Miletus
Anaximenes of Miletus
(c. 585 – c. 525 BCE)

Pythagoreans

Pythagoras
Pythagoras
(582 – 496 BCE) Philolaus
Philolaus
(470 – 380 BCE) Alcmaeon of Croton Archytas
Archytas
(428 – 347 BCE)

Heraclitus
Heraclitus
(535 – 475 BCE) Eleatic School

Xenophanes
Xenophanes
(570 – 470 BCE) Parmenides
Parmenides
(510 – 440 BCE) Zeno of Elea
Zeno of Elea
(490 – 430 BCE) Melissus of Samos
Melissus of Samos
(c. 470 BCE – ?)

Pluralists

Empedocles
Empedocles
(490 – 430 BCE) Anaxagoras
Anaxagoras
(500 – 428 BCE)

Atomists

Leucippus
Leucippus
(first half of 5th century BCE) Democritus
Democritus
(460 – 370 BCE) Metrodorus of Chios (4th century BCE)

Pherecydes of Syros
Pherecydes of Syros
(6th century BCE) Sophists

Protagoras
Protagoras
(490 – 420 BCE) Gorgias
Gorgias
(487 – 376 BCE) Antiphon (480 – 411 BCE) Prodicus
Prodicus
(465/450 – after 399 BCE) Hippias (middle of the 5th century BCE) Thrasymachus (459 – 400 BCE) Callicles Critias Lycophron

Diogenes of Apollonia (c. 460 BCE – ?)

Classical Greek philosophers[edit]

Socrates
Socrates
(469 – 399 BCE) Euclid of Megara
Euclid of Megara
(450 – 380 BCE) Antisthenes
Antisthenes
(445 – 360 BCE) Aristippus
Aristippus
(435 – 356 BCE) Plato
Plato
(428 – 347 BCE) Speusippus
Speusippus
(407 – 339 BCE) Diogenes of Sinope
Diogenes of Sinope
(400 – 325 BCE) Xenocrates
Xenocrates
(396 – 314 BCE) Aristotle
Aristotle
(384 – 322 BCE) Stilpo
Stilpo
(380 – 300 BCE) Theophrastus
Theophrastus
(370 – 288 BCE)

Hellenistic philosophy[edit]

Pyrrho
Pyrrho
(365 – 275 BCE) Epicurus
Epicurus
(341 – 270 BCE) Metrodorus of Lampsacus (the younger)
Metrodorus of Lampsacus (the younger)
(331 – 278 BCE) Zeno of Citium
Zeno of Citium
(333 – 263 BCE) Cleanthes (c. 330 – c. 230 BCE) Timon (320 – 230 BCE) Arcesilaus
Arcesilaus
(316 – 232 BCE) Menippus
Menippus
(3rd century BCE) Archimedes
Archimedes
(c. 287 – 212 BCE) Chrysippus
Chrysippus
(280 – 207 BCE) Carneades
Carneades
(214 – 129 BCE) Clitomachus (187 – 109 BCE) Metrodorus of Stratonicea (late 2nd century BCE) Philo of Larissa
Philo of Larissa
(160 – 80 BCE) Posidonius
Posidonius
(135 – 51 BCE) Antiochus of Ascalon (130 – 68 BCE) Aenesidemus (1st century BCE) Agrippa (1st century CE)

Hellenistic schools of thought[edit]

Cynicism Eclecticism Epicureanism Middle Platonism Neo-Platonism Neopythagoreanism Peripatetic School Pyrrhonism Stoicism Sophism

Early Roman and Christian philosophy[edit] See also: Christian philosophy

School of the Sextii

Philosophers during Roman times[edit]

Plotinus

Cicero
Cicero
(106 – 43 BCE) Lucretius
Lucretius
(94 – 55 BCE) Seneca (4 BCE – 65 CE) Musonius Rufus
Musonius Rufus
(30 – 100 CE) Plutarch
Plutarch
(45 – 120 CE) Epictetus
Epictetus
(55 – 135 CE) Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
(121 – 180 CE) Clement of Alexandria
Clement of Alexandria
(150 – 215 CE) Alcinous (philosopher) (2nd century CE) Sextus Empiricus
Sextus Empiricus
(3rd century CE) Alexander of Aphrodisias
Alexander of Aphrodisias
(3rd century CE) Ammonius Saccas (3rd century CE) Plotinus
Plotinus
(205 – 270 CE) Porphyry (232 – 304 CE) Iamblichus
Iamblichus
(242 – 327 CE) Themistius (317 – 388 CE) Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo
(354 – 430 CE) Proclus (411 – 485 CE) Damascius (462 – 540 CE) Boethius (472 – 524 CE) Simplicius of Cilicia
Simplicius of Cilicia
(490 – 560 CE) John Philoponus (490 – 570 CE)

Ancient Indian philosophy[edit] Main article: Indian philosophy The ancient Indian philosophy
Indian philosophy
is a fusion of two ancient traditions : Sramana
Sramana
tradition and Vedic tradition. Vedic philosophy[edit] Indian philosophy
Indian philosophy
begins with the Vedas
Vedas
where questions related to laws of nature, the origin of the universe and the place of man in it are asked. In the famous Rigvedic Hymn of Creation
Hymn of Creation
(Nasadiya Sukta) the poet says:

Vyasa, at middle of the picture

"Whence all creation had its origin, he, whether he fashioned it or whether he did not, he, who surveys it all from highest heaven, he knows—or maybe even he does not know."

In the Vedic view, creation is ascribed to the self-consciousness of the primeval being (Purusha). This leads to the inquiry into the one being that underlies the diversity of empirical phenomena and the origin of all things. Cosmic order is termed rta and causal law by karma. Nature
Nature
(prakriti) is taken to have three qualities (sattva, rajas, and tamas).

Vedas Upanishads Hindu philosophy

Sramana
Sramana
philosophy[edit] Main articles: Jain philosophy, Buddhist
Buddhist
philosophy, and Sramana Jainism
Jainism
and Buddhism
Buddhism
are continuation of the Sramana
Sramana
school of thought. The Sramanas cultivated a pessimistic worldview of the samsara as full of suffering and advocated renunciation and austerities. They laid stress on philosophical concepts like Ahimsa, Karma, Jnana, Samsara and Moksa. Cārvāka (Sanskrit: चार्वाक) (atheist) philosophy, also known as Lokāyata, it is a system of Hindu philosophy
Hindu philosophy
that assumes various forms of philosophical skepticism and religious indifference. It is named after its founder, Cārvāka, author of the Bārhaspatya-sūtras. Classical Indian philosophy[edit] In classical times, these inquiries were systematized in six schools of philosophy. Some of the questions asked were:

What is the ontological nature of consciousness? How is cognition itself experienced? Is mind (chit) intentional or not? Does cognition have its own structure?

The Six schools of Indian philosophy
Indian philosophy
are:

Nyaya Vaisheshika Samkhya Yoga Mimamsa
Mimamsa
(Purva Mimamsa) Vedanta
Vedanta
(Uttara Mimamsa)

Ancient Indian philosophers[edit] Main article: Timeline of Eastern philosophers § Indian philosophers 1st millennium BCE[edit]

Parashara
Parashara
— writer of Viṣṇu Purāṇa.

Philosophers of Vedic Age (2000–600 BCE)[edit]

Rishi
Rishi
Narayana — seer of the Purusha Sukta of the Rig Veda.[5] Seven Rishis — Atri, Bharadwaja, Gautama, Jamadagni, Kasyapa, Vasishtha, Viswamitra.[6] Other Vedic Rishis — Gritsamada, Sandilya, Kanva etc. Rishaba — Rishi
Rishi
mentioned in Rig Veda
Rig Veda
and later in several Puranas, and believed by Jains to be the first official religious guru of Jainism, as accredited by later followers. Yajnavalkya
Yajnavalkya
— one of the Vedic sages, greatly influenced Buddhistic thought. Angiras — one of the seers of the Atharva Veda
Veda
and author of Mundaka Upanishad. Uddalaka
Uddalaka
Aruni
Aruni
— an Upanishadic sage who authored major portions of Chāndogya Upaniṣad. Ashvapati — a King in the Later Vedic age who authored Vaishvanara Vidya of Chāndogya Upaniṣad. Ashtavakra
Ashtavakra
— an Upanishadic Sage mentioned in the Mahabharata, who authored Ashtavakra
Ashtavakra
Gita.

Philosophers of Axial Age
Axial Age
(600–185 BCE)[edit]

Gotama (c.600 BCE), logician, author of Nyaya
Nyaya
Sutra Kanada (c. 600 BCE), founded the philosophical school of Vaisheshika, gave theory of atomism Mahavira
Mahavira
(599–527 BCE) — heavily influenced Jainism, the 24th Tirthankara
Tirthankara
of Jainism.

Buddha.

Pāṇini
Pāṇini
(520–460 BCE), grammarian, author of Ashtadhyayi Kapila
Kapila
(c. 500 BCE), proponent of the Samkhya
Samkhya
system of philosophy. Badarayana
Badarayana
(lived between 500 BCE and 400 BCE) — Author of Brahma Sutras. Pingala (c. 500 BCE), author of the Chandas shastra Gautama Buddha
Buddha
(c. 480 – c. 400 BCE), founder of Buddhist
Buddhist
school of thought Chanakya
Chanakya
(c. 350 – c. 275 BCE), author of Arthashastra, professor (acharya) of political science at the Takshashila University Patañjali
Patañjali
(c. 200 BCE), developed the philosophy of Raja Yoga
Yoga
in his Yoga
Yoga
Sutras. Shvetashvatara — Author of earliest textual exposition of a systematic philosophy of Shaivism.

Philosophers of Golden Age (184 BCE – 600 CE)[edit]

Valluvar
Valluvar
(c. 31 BCE), wrote the Kural text, a treatise on secular ethics. Jaimini, author of Purva Mimamsa
Mimamsa
Sutras. Dignāga
Dignāga
(c. 500), one of the founders of Buddhist
Buddhist
school of Indian logic. Asanga
Asanga
(c. 300), exponent of the Yogacara Bhartrihari (c 450–510 CE), early figure in Indic linguistic theory Bodhidharma
Bodhidharma
(c. 440–528 CE), founder of the Zen
Zen
school of Buddhism Siddhasena Divākara (5th Century CE), Jain logician and author of important works in Sanskrit and Prakrit, such as, Nyāyāvatāra (on Logic) and Sanmatisūtra (dealing with the seven Jaina standpoints, knowledge and the objects of knowledge) Vasubandhu
Vasubandhu
(c. 300 CE), one of the main founders of the Indian Yogacara
Yogacara
school. Kundakunda
Kundakunda
(2nd Century CE), exponent of Jain mysticism and Jain nayas dealing with the nature of the soul and its contamination by matter, author of Pañcāstikāyasāra (Essence of the Five Existents), the Pravacanasāra (Essence of the Scripture) and the Samayasāra (Essence of the Doctrine) Nagarjuna
Nagarjuna
(c. 150 – 250 CE), the founder of the Madhyamaka
Madhyamaka
(Middle Path) school of Mahāyāna Buddhism. Umāsvāti or Umasvami (2nd Century CE), author of first Jain work in Sanskrit, Tattvārthasūtra, expounding the Jain philosophy
Jain philosophy
in a most systematized form acceptable to all sects of Jainism.

Ancient Iranian philosophy[edit]

Zarathustra
Zarathustra
as depicted in Raphael's The School of Athens
School of Athens
beside Raphael
Raphael
who appears as the ancient painter Apelles of Kos.

Main article: Iranian philosophy See also: Dualism, Dualism (philosophy of mind) While there are ancient relations between the Indian Vedas
Vedas
and the Iranian Avesta, the two main families of the Indo-Iranian philosophical traditions were characterized by fundamental differences in their implications for the human being's position in society and their view of man's role in the universe. The first charter of human rights by Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
as understood in the Cyrus cylinder
Cyrus cylinder
is often seen as a reflection of the questions and thoughts expressed by Zarathustra
Zarathustra
and developed in Zoroastrian schools of thought of the Achaemenid Era of Iranian history.[7][8] Schools of thought[edit] Ideas and tenets of Zoroastrian schools of Early Persian philosophy are part of many works written in Middle Persian
Middle Persian
and of the extant scriptures of the zoroastrian religion in Avestan language. Among these are treatises such as the Shikand-gumanic Vichar by Mardan-Farrux Ohrmazddadan, selections of Denkard, Wizidagīhā-ī Zātspram ("Selections of Zātspram") as well as older passages of the book Avesta, the Gathas which are attributed to Zarathustra
Zarathustra
himself and regarded as his "direct teachings".[9] Zoroastrianism[edit]

Zarathustra Jamasp Ostanes Mardan-Farrux Ohrmazddadan[10] Adurfarnbag Farroxzadan[11] Adurbad Emedan[11] Avesta Gathas

Anacharsis Pre-Manichaean thought[edit]

Bardesanes[12][13]

Manichaeism[edit]

Mani (c. 216 – 276 CE) Ammo[14]

Mazdakism[edit]

Mazdak
Mazdak
the Elder[15] Mazdak
Mazdak
(died c. 524 or 528 CE)

Zurvanism[edit]

Aesthetic Zurvanism Materialist Zurvanism Fatalistic Zurvanism

Philosophy
Philosophy
and the Empire[edit]

Political philosophy

Tansar

University of Gundishapur

Borzouye Bakhtshooa Gondishapuri

Emperor Khosrau's philosophical discourses

Paul the Persian

Literature[edit]

Pahlavi literature

Ancient Jewish philosophy[edit] See also: Jewish philosophy First Temple (c. 900 BCE to 587 BCE)[edit]

Joel (9th–5th century BCE) Amos (8th century BCE) Hosea
Hosea
(8th century BCE) Micah (8th century BCE) Proto-Isaiah
Proto-Isaiah
(8th century BCE) Ezekiel
Ezekiel
(7th century BCE) Habbakuk
Habbakuk
(7th century BCE) Jeremiah
Jeremiah
(7th century BCE) Nahum
Nahum
(7th century BCE) Zephaniah
Zephaniah
(7th century BCE)

Assyrian exile (587 BCE to 516 BCE)[edit]

Deutero-Isaiah
Deutero-Isaiah
(6th century BCE) Haggai
Haggai
(6th century BCE) Obadiah
Obadiah
(6th century BCE) Trito-Isaiah (6th century BCE) Zechariah (6th century BCE)

Second Temple (516 BCE to 70 CE)[edit]

Malachi
Malachi
(5th century BCE) Koheleth (5th – 2nd century BCE) Shimon ben Yeshua ben Eliezer ben Sira
Shimon ben Yeshua ben Eliezer ben Sira
(2nd century BCE) Hillel the Elder
Hillel the Elder
(c. 110 BCE – 10CE) Philo of Alexandria
Philo of Alexandria
(30 BCE – 45 CE)

Early Roman exile (70 CE to c. 600 CE)[edit]

Rabbi Akiva
Rabbi Akiva
(c. 40 – c. 137 CE)

See also[edit]

Index of ancient philosophy articles

References[edit]

^ "Chinese philosophy", Encyclopædia Britannica, accessed 4/6/2014 ^ Lo, Ping-cheung (1999), Confucian Ethic of Death with Dignity and Its Contemporary Relevance (PDF), Society of Christian Ethics, archived from the original (PDF) on 16 July 2011  ^ "Zou Yan". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 1 March 2011.  ^ a b Deutsch, Eliot; Ronald Bontekoei (1999). A companion to world philosophies. Wiley Blackwell. p. 183.  ^ The significance of Purusha Sukta in Daily Invocations by Swami Krishnananda ^ P. 285 Indian sociology through Ghurye, a dictionary By S. Devadas Pillai ^ Philip G. Kreyenbroek: "Morals and Society in Zoroastrian Philosophy" in "Persian Philosophy". Companion Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy: Brian Carr and Indira Mahalingam. Routledge, 2009. ^ Mary Boyce: "The Origins of Zoroastrian Philosophy" in "Persian Philosophy". Companion Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy: Brian Carr and Indira Mahalingam. Routledge, 2009. ^ An Anthology of Philosophy
Philosophy
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Further reading[edit]

Luchte, James, Early Greek Thought: Before the Dawn, in series, Bloomsbury Studies in Ancient Philosophy, Bloomsbury Publishing, London, 2011. ISBN 978-0567353313

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