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ANCIENT GREEK includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(3rd century BC to the 6th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
.

The language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine (common). Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
Medieval Greek
. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects .

Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
was the language of Homer
Homer
and of fifth-century Athenian historians, playwrights, and philosophers . It has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world
Western world
since the Renaissance . This article primarily contains information about the Epic and Classical phases of the language

CONTENTS

* 1 Dialects

* 1.1 History * 1.2 Related languages

* 2 Phonology

* 2.1 Differences from Proto-Indo-European

* 2.2 Phonemic inventory

* 2.2.1 Consonants * 2.2.2 Vowels

* 3 Morphology

* 3.1 Augment * 3.2 Reduplication

* 4 Writing system
Writing system
* 5 Sample texts * 6 Modern use * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading

* 10 External links

* 10.1 Grammar learning * 10.2 Classical texts

DIALECTS

Main article: Ancient Greek dialects
Ancient Greek dialects

Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
was a pluricentric language , divided into many dialects. The main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic , Aeolic , Arcadocypriot , and Doric , many of them with several subdivisions. Some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature , while others are attested only in inscriptions.

There are also several historical forms. Homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek (derived primarily from Ionic and Aeolic) used in the epic poems , the " Iliad
Iliad
" and " Odyssey
Odyssey
", and in later poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic and other Classical-era dialects.

HISTORY

The origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language
Proto-Indo-European language
and the Classical period. They have the same general outline, but differ in some of the detail. The only attested dialect from this period is Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
, but its relationship to the historical dialects and the historical circumstances of the times imply that the overall groups already existed in some form.

Scholars assume that major Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
period dialect groups developed not later than 1120 BC, at the time of the Dorian invasion (s)—and that their first appearances as precise alphabetic writing began in the 8th century BC. The invasion would not be "Dorian" unless the invaders had some cultural relationship to the historical Dorians . The invasion is known to have displaced population to the later Attic-Ionic regions, who regarded themselves as descendants of the population displaced by or contending with the Dorians.

The Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians, Aeolians, and Ionians (including Athenians), each with their own defining and distinctive dialects. Allowing for their oversight of Arcadian, an obscure mountain dialect, and Cypriot, far from the center of Greek scholarship, this division of people and language is quite similar to the results of modern archaeological-linguistic investigation.

One standard formulation for the dialects is:

Distribution of Greek dialects in Greek in the classical period .

WESTERN group: Doric proper Northwest Doric Achaean Doric CENTRAL group: Aeolic Arcado-Cypriot EASTERN group: Attic Ionic

* West Group

* Northwest Greek * Doric

* Aeolic Group

* Aegean/Asiatic Aeolic * Thessalian * Boeotian

* Ionic-Attic Group

* Attica * Euboea and colonies in Italy * Cyclades * Asiatic Ionia

* Arcadocypriot Greek

* Arcadian * Cypriot

West vs. non-west Greek is the strongest marked and earliest division, with non-west in subsets of Ionic-Attic (or Attic-Ionic) and Aeolic vs. Arcadocypriot, or Aeolic and Arcado-Cypriot vs. Ionic-Attic. Often non-west is called East Greek.

Arcadocypriot apparently descended more closely from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age.

Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, and can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect. Thessalian likewise had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree.

Pamphylian Greek , spoken in a small area on the southwestern coast of Anatolia and little preserved in inscriptions, may be either a fifth major dialect group, or it is Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
overlaid by Doric, with a non-Greek native influence.

Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions, generally equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, or to an island. Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric (including Cretan Doric ), Southern Peloponnesus Doric (including Laconian , the dialect of Sparta
Sparta
), and Northern Peloponnesus Doric (including Corinthian ).

The Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek .

All the groups were represented by colonies beyond Greece
Greece
proper as well, and these colonies generally developed local characteristics, often under the influence of settlers or neighbors speaking different Greek dialects.

The dialects outside the Ionic group are known mainly from inscriptions, notable exceptions being fragments of the works of the poet Sappho
Sappho
from the island of Lesbos
Lesbos
and the poems of the Boeotian poet, Pindar .

After the conquests of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in the late 4th century BC, a new international dialect known as Koine or Common Greek developed, largely based on Attic Greek , but with influence from other dialects. This dialect slowly replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language , which is spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has also passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek . By about the 6th century AD, the Koine had slowly metamorphosized into Medieval Greek
Medieval Greek
.

RELATED LANGUAGES

Ancient Macedonian was an Indo-European language closely related to Greek, but its exact relationship is unclear because of insufficient data: possibly a dialect of Greek ; a sibling language to Greek; or a close cousin to Greek, and perhaps related to some extent, to Thracian and Phrygian languages. The Pella curse tablet is one of many finds that support the idea that the Ancient Macedonian language is closely related to the Doric Greek
Doric Greek
dialect.

PHONOLOGY

DIFFERENCES FROM PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN

Main article: Proto- Greek language
Greek language

Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
differs from Proto-Indo-European and other Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
in certain ways. In phonotactics , Ancient Greek words could end only in a vowel or /n s r/; final stops were lost, as in γάλα "milk", compared with γάλακτος "of milk" (genitive). Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
of the classical period also differed in phonemic inventory:

* PIE *s became /h/ at the beginning of a word (debuccalization ): Latin
Latin
sex, English six, Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
ἕξ /héks/. * PIE *s was elided between vowels after an intermediate step of debuccalization: Sanskrit janasas, Latin
Latin
generis (where s > r by rhotacism ), Greek *genesos > *genehos > Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
γένεος (/géneos/), Attic γένους (/génoːs/) "of a kind". * PIE *y /j/ became /h/ (debuccalization) or /(d)z/ (fortition ): Sanskrit yas, Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
ὅς "who" (relative pronoun); Latin iugum, English yoke, Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
ζυγός /zygós/. * PIE *w, which occurred in Mycenaean and some non-Attic dialects, was lost: early Doric ϝέργον, English work, Attic Greek ἔργον /érgon/. * PIE and Mycenaean labiovelars changed to plain stops (labials, dentals, and velars) in the later Greek dialects: for instance, PIE *kʷ became /p/ or /t/ in Attic: Attic Greek ποῦ /pôː/ "where?", Latin
Latin
quō; Attic Greek τίς /tís/, Latin
Latin
quis "who?". * PIE "voiced aspirated" stops *bʰ dʰ ǵʰ gʰ gʷʰ were devoiced and became the aspirated stops φ θ χ /pʰ tʰ kʰ/ in Ancient Greek.

PHONEMIC INVENTORY

Main article: Ancient Greek phonology

The pronunciation of Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
was very different from that of Modern Greek. Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
had long and short vowels ; many diphthongs ; double and single consonants; voiced, voiceless, and aspirated stops ; and a pitch accent . In Modern Greek, all vowels and consonants are short. Many vowels and diphthongs once pronounced distinctly are pronounced as /i/ (iotacism ). Some of the stops and glides in diphthongs have become fricatives , and the pitch accent has changed to a stress accent . Many of the changes took place in the Koine Greek
Koine Greek
period. The writing system of Modern Greek, however, does not reflect all pronunciation changes.

The examples below represent Attic Greek in the 5th century BC. Ancient pronunciation cannot be reconstructed with certainty, but Greek from the period is well documented, and there is little disagreement among linguists as to the general nature of the sounds that the letters represent.

Consonants

BILABIAL DENTAL VELAR GLOTTAL

NASAL μ m ν n γ (ŋ )

PLOSIVE VOICED β b δ d γ ɡ

VOICELESS π p τ t κ k

ASPIRATED φ pʰ θ tʰ χ kʰ

FRICATIVE

σ s h

TRILL

ρ r

LATERAL

λ l

occurred as an allophone of /n/ that was used before velars and as an allophone of /ɡ/ before nasals. /r/ was probably voiceless when word-initial (written ῥ). /s/ was assimilated to before voiced consonants.

Vowels

FRONT BACK

UNROUNDED ROUNDED

CLOSE ι i iː υ y yː

CLOSE-MID ε ει e eː ο ου o oː

OPEN-MID η ɛː ω ɔː

OPEN α a aː

/oː/ raised to , probably by the 4th century BC.

MORPHOLOGY

Main article: Ancient Greek grammar Ostracon
Ostracon
bearing the name of Cimon
Cimon
, Stoa of Attalos
Stoa of Attalos

Greek, like all of the older Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
, is highly inflected. It is highly archaic in its preservation of Proto-Indo-European forms. In Ancient Greek, nouns (including proper nouns) have five cases (nominative , genitive , dative , accusative , and vocative ), three genders (masculine , feminine , and neuter ), and three numbers (singular, dual , and plural ). Verbs have four moods (indicative , imperative , subjunctive , and optative ) and three voices (active, middle, and passive ), as well as three persons (first, second, and third) and various other forms. Verbs are conjugated through seven combinations of tenses and aspect (generally simply called "tenses"): the present , future , and imperfect are imperfective in aspect; the aorist (perfective aspect ); a present perfect , pluperfect and future perfect . Most tenses display all four moods and three voices, although there is no future subjunctive or imperative. Also, there is no imperfect subjunctive, optative or imperative. The infinitives and participles correspond to the finite combinations of tense, aspect, and voice.

AUGMENT

The indicative of past tenses adds (conceptually, at least) a prefix /e-/, called the augment . This was probably originally a separate word, meaning something like "then", added because tenses in PIE had primarily aspectual meaning. The augment is added to the indicative of the aorist, imperfect, and pluperfect, but not to any of the other forms of the aorist (no other forms of the imperfect and pluperfect exist).

The two kinds of augment in Greek are syllabic and quantitative. The syllabic augment is added to stems beginning with consonants, and simply prefixes e (stems beginning with r, however, add er). The quantitative augment is added to stems beginning with vowels, and involves lengthening the vowel:

* a, ā, e, ē → ē * i, ī → ī * o, ō → ō * u, ū → ū * ai → ēi * ei → ēi or ei * oi → ōi * au → ēu or au * eu → ēu or eu * ou → ou

Some verbs augment irregularly; the most common variation is e → ei. The irregularity can be explained diachronically by the loss of s between vowels. In verbs with a prefix, the augment is placed not at the start of the word, but between the prefix and the original verb. For example, προσ(-)βάλλω (I attack) goes to προσέβαλoν in the aorist.

Following Homer
Homer
's practice, the augment is sometimes not made in poetry , especially epic poetry.

The augment sometimes substitutes for reduplication; see below.

REDUPLICATION

Almost all forms of the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect reduplicate the initial syllable of the verb stem. (Note that a few irregular forms of perfect do not reduplicate, whereas a handful of irregular aorists reduplicate.) The three types of reduplication are:

* Syllabic reduplication: Most verbs beginning with a single consonant, or a cluster of a stop with a sonorant, add a syllable consisting of the initial consonant followed by e. An aspirated consonant, however, reduplicates in its unaspirated equivalent: Grassmann\'s law . * Augment: Verbs beginning with a vowel, as well as those beginning with a cluster other than those indicated previously (and occasionally for a few other verbs) reduplicate in the same fashion as the augment. This remains in all forms of the perfect, not just the indicative. * Attic reduplication: Some verbs beginning with an a, e or o, followed by a sonorant (or occasionally d or g), reduplicate by adding a syllable consisting of the initial vowel and following consonant, and lengthening the following vowel. Hence er → erēr, an → anēn, ol → olōl, ed → edēd. This is not actually specific to Attic Greek , despite its name, but it was generalized in Attic. This originally involved reduplicating a cluster consisting of a laryngeal and sonorant, hence h₃l → h₃leh₃l → olōl with normal Greek development of laryngeals. (Forms with a stop were analogous.)

Irregular duplication can be understood diachronically. For example, lambanō (root lab) has the perfect stem eilēpha (not *lelēpha) because it was originally slambanō, with perfect seslēpha, becoming eilēpha through compensatory lengthening.

Reduplication is also visible in the present tense stems of certain verbs. These stems add a syllable consisting of the root's initial consonant followed by i. A nasal stop appears after the reduplication in some verbs.

WRITING SYSTEM

GREEK ALPHABET

Αα Alpha
Alpha
Νν Nu

Ββ Beta
Beta
Ξξ Xi

Γγ Gamma
Gamma
Οο Omicron

Δδ Delta Ππ Pi

Εε Epsilon
Epsilon
Ρρ Rho
Rho

Ζζ Zeta
Zeta
Σσς Sigma
Sigma

Ηη Eta
Eta
Ττ Tau

Θθ Theta
Theta
Υυ Upsilon

Ιι Iota Φφ Phi
Phi

Κκ Kappa
Kappa
Χχ Chi

Λλ Lambda
Lambda
Ψψ Psi

Μμ Mu Ωω Omega
Omega

HISTORY

Archaic local variants

* * * * * *

* Diacritics * Ligatures

Numerals

* ϛ (6) * ϟ (90) * ϡ (900)

USE IN OTHER LANGUAGES

* Bactrian * Coptic * Albanian

RELATED TOPICS

* Use as scientific symbols

* Book
Book
* Category
Category

* Commons

* v * t * e

Main article: Greek orthography

Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
was written in the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
, with some variation among dialects. Early texts are written in boustrophedon style, but left-to-right became standard during the classic period. Modern editions of Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
texts are usually written with accents and breathing marks , interword spacing , modern punctuation , and sometimes mixed case , but they all were introduced later.

SAMPLE TEXTS

The beginning of Homer
Homer
's Iliad
Iliad
exemplifies the Archaic period of Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
(see Homeric Greek for more details):

Μῆνιν ἄειδε, θεά, Πηληϊάδεω Ἀχιλῆος οὐλομένην, ἣ μυρί’ Ἀχαιοῖς ἄλγε’ ἔθηκε, πολλὰς δ’ ἰφθίμους ψυχὰς Ἄϊδι προΐαψεν ἡρώων, αὐτοὺς δὲ ἑλώρια τεῦχε κύνεσσιν οἰωνοῖσί τε πᾶσι· Διὸς δ’ ἐτελείετο βουλή· ἐξ οὗ δὴ τὰ πρῶτα διαστήτην ἐρίσαντε Ἀτρεΐδης τε ἄναξ ἀνδρῶν καὶ δῖος Ἀχιλλεύς.

The beginning of Apology by Plato
Plato
exemplifies Attic Greek from the Classical period of Ancient Greek: Ὅτι μὲν ὑμεῖς, ὦ ἄνδρες Ἀθηναῖοι, πεπόνθατε ὑπὸ τῶν ἐμῶν κατηγόρων, οὐκ οἶδα· ἐγὼ δ' οὖν καὶ αὐτὸς ὑπ' αὐτῶν ὀλίγου ἐμαυτοῦ ἐπελαθόμην, οὕτω πιθανῶς ἔλεγον. Καίτοι ἀληθές γε ὡς ἔπος εἰπεῖν οὐδὲν εἰρήκασιν.

Using the IPA
IPA
:

Transliterated into the Latin
Latin
alphabet using a modern version of the Erasmian scheme : Hóti mèn hūmeîs, ô ándres Athēnaîoi, pepónthate hupò tôn emôn katēgórōn, ouk oîda: egṑ d' oûn kaì autòs hup' autōn olígou emautoû epelathómēn, hoútō pithanôs élegon. Kaítoi alēthés ge hōs épos eipeîn oudèn eirḗkāsin.

Translated into English: How you, men of Athens, are feeling under the power of my accusers, I do not know: actually, even I myself almost forgot who I was because of them, they spoke so persuasively. And yet, loosely speaking, nothing they have said is true.

MODERN USE

See also: Classical compound

The study of Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
in European countries in addition to Latin occupied an important place in the syllabus from the Renaissance
Renaissance
until the beginning of the 20th century. Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
is still taught as a compulsory or optional subject especially at traditional or elite schools throughout Europe, such as public schools and grammar schools in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. It is compulsory in the Liceo classico
Liceo classico
in Italy
Italy
, in the gymnasium in the Netherlands
Netherlands
, in some classes in Austria
Austria
, in Croatia
Croatia
in klasična gimnazija, in Classical Studies in ASO in Belgium and it is optional in the Humanistisches Gymnasium in Germany
Germany
(usually as a third language after Latin
Latin
and English, from the age of 14 to 18). In 2006/07, 15,000 pupils studied Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
in Germany
Germany
according to the Federal Statistical Office of Germany
Germany
, and 280,000 pupils studied it in Italy. It is a compulsory subject alongside Latin
Latin
in the Humanities branch of Spanish Bachillerato . Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
is also taught at most major universities worldwide, often combined with Latin
Latin
as part of Classics
Classics
. It will also be taught in state primary schools in the UK , to boost children’s language skills, and will be offered as a foreign language to pupils in all primary schools from 2014 as part of a major drive to boost education standards, together with Latin, Mandarin, French, German, Spanish, and Italian. Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
is also taught as a compulsory subject in all Gymnasiums and Lyceums in Greece
Greece
.

Modern authors rarely write in Ancient Greek, though Jan Křesadlo wrote some poetry and prose in the language, and Harry Potter and the Philosopher\'s Stone and some volumes of Asterix have been translated into Ancient Greek. Ὀνόματα Kεχιασμένα ( Onomata Kechiasmena ) is the first magazine of crosswords and puzzles in Ancient Greek. Its first issue appeared in April 2015 as an annex to Hebdomada Aenigmatum . Alfred Rahlfs included a preface, a short history of the Septuagint text, and other front matter translated into Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
in his 1935 edition of the Septuagint; Robert Hanhart also included the introductory remarks to the 2006 revised Rahlfs–Hanhart edition in the language as well.

Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
is also used by organizations and individuals, mainly Greek, who wish to denote their respect, admiration or preference for the use of this language. This use is sometimes considered graphical, nationalistic or funny. In any case, the fact that modern Greeks can still wholly or partly understand texts written in non-archaic forms of ancient Greek shows the affinity of modern Greek language
Greek language
to its ancestral predecessor.

An isolated community near Trabzon
Trabzon
, Turkey
Turkey
, an area where Pontic Greek is spoken, has been found to speak a variety of Greek that has parallels, both structurally and in its vocabulary, to Ancient Greek not present in other varieties. As few as 5,000 people speak the dialect but linguists believe that it is the closest living language to Ancient Greek.

Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
is often used in the coinage of modern technical terms in the European languages: see English words of Greek origin . Latinized forms of Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
roots are used in many of the scientific names of species and in scientific terminology.

SEE ALSO

* Ancient Greek grammar * Proto- Greek language
Greek language
* Ancient Greek dialects
Ancient Greek dialects
* Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
* Katharevousa * Koine Greek
Koine Greek
* Medieval Greek
Medieval Greek
* Modern Greek * Varieties of Modern Greek * Greek language
Greek language
* Hellenic languages * Exploring the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
Language
Language
and Culture (competition) * Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
* Greek diacritics * List of Greek phrases (mostly Ancient Greek) * List of Greek and Latin
Latin
roots in English

REFERENCES

* ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). " Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
(to 1453)". Glottolog 2.7 . Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ Imprecisely attested and somewhat reconstructive due to its being written in an ill-fitting syllabary ( Linear B
Linear B
). * ^ This one appears in recent versions of the Encyclopædia Britannica, which also lists the major works that define the subject. * ^ Roger D. Woodard (2008), "Greek dialects", in: The Ancient Languages of Europe, ed. R. D. Woodard, Cambridge: Cambridge University
University
Press, p. 51. * ^ Sarah B. Pomeroy, Stanley M. Burstein, Walter Donlan, Jennifer Tolbert Roberts, A Brief History of Ancient Greece: Politics, Society, and Culture, Oxford University
University
Press, 2008, p.289 * ^ Palmer, Leonard (1996). The Greek Language. Norman, OK: University
University
of Oklahoma Press. p. 262. ISBN 0-8061-2844-5 . * ^ * ^ " Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
\'to be taught in state schools\'". Telegraph.co.uk. 30 July 2010. Retrieved 3 May 2015. * ^ "Primaries go Greek to help teach English" Archived 25 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. - Education News - 30 July 2010. * ^ "Now look, Latin\'s fine, but Greek might be even Beta", TES Editorial, 2010 - TSL Education Ltd. * ^ More primary schools to offer Latin
Latin
and ancient Greek, The Telegraph, 26 November 2012 * ^ "Ωρολόγιο Πρόγραμμα των μαθημάτων των Α, Β, Γ τάξεων του Hμερησίου Γυμνασίου". Retrieved 3 May 2015. * ^ "ΩΡΟΛΟΓΙΟ ΠΡΟΓΡΑΜΜΑ ΓΕΝΙΚΟΥ ΛΥΚΕΙΟΥ". Retrieved 3 May 2015. * ^ Areios Potēr kai ē tu philosophu lithos, Bloomsbury 2004, ISBN 1-58234-826-X * ^ " Asterix around the World - the many Languages of Asterix". Retrieved 3 May 2015. * ^ , http://www.repubblica.it/ultimora/24ore/nazionale/news-dettaglio/4581488 Enigmistica: nasce prima rivista in greco antico 2015). * ^ Rahlfs, Alfred, and Hanhart, Robert (eds.), Septuaginta, editio altera ( Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft , 2006). * ^ "Akropolis World News". Retrieved 3 May 2015. * ^ Jason and the argot: land where Greek\'s ancient language survives, The Independent, 3 January 2011 * ^ Against all odds: archaic Greek in a modern world, University of Cambridge * ^ Archaic Greek in a modern world video from Cambridge University, on YouTube

FURTHER READING

* P. Chantraine (1968), Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque, Klincksieck, Paris. * Athenaze: An Introduction to Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
(Oxford University Press). * Hansen, Hardy and Quinn, Gerald M. (1992) Greek: An Intensive Course, Fordham University
University
Press * Easterling, P ">TEXTS IN ANCIENT GREEK

* Classical Greek Lessons (free online through the Linguistics Research Center at UT Austin) * Online Greek resources – Dictionaries, grammar, virtual libraries, fonts, etc. * Alpheios – Combines LSJ, Autenrieth, Smyth's grammar and inflection tables in a browser add-on for use on any web site * Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
basic lexicon at the Global Lexicostatistical Database * Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
Swadesh list of basic vocabulary words (from Wiktionary's Swadesh list appendix) * "Greek Language". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. * Slavonic - online editor for Ancient Greek * Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
( Beta
Beta
version) - Wikimedia Incubator

GRAMMAR LEARNING

* A more extensive grammar of the Ancient Greek language
Greek language
written by J. Rietveld * Recitation of classics books * Perseus Greek dictionaries * Greek-Language.com – Information on the history of the Greek language, application of modern Linguistics to the study of Greek, and tools for learning Greek * Free Lessons in Ancient Greek, Bilingual Libraries, Forum * A critical survey of websites devoted to Ancient Greek * Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
Tutorials – Berkeley Language
Language
Center of the University
University
of California * A Digital Tutorial For Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
Based on White\'s First Greek Book * New Testament Greek * Acropolis World News – A summary of the latest world news in Ancient Greek, Juan Coderch, University
University
of St Andrews

CLASSICAL TEXTS

* Perseus – Greek and Roman Materials * Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
Texts

* v * t * e

Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece

* Outline * Timeline

* History * Geography

PERIODS

* Cycladic civilization * Minoan civilization
Minoan civilization
* Mycenaean civilization * Greek Dark Ages
Greek Dark Ages
* Archaic period * Classical Greece
Classical Greece
* Hellenistic Greece
Greece
* Roman Greece
Greece

GEOGRAPHY

* Aegean Sea * Aeolis
Aeolis
* Alexandria
Alexandria
* Antioch
Antioch
* Cappadocia
Cappadocia
* Crete
Crete
* Cyprus
Cyprus
* Doris * Ephesus * Epirus * Hellespont * Ionia
Ionia
* Ionian Sea
Ionian Sea
* Macedonia * Magna Graecia
Magna Graecia
* Miletus * Peloponnesus * Pergamon
Pergamon
* Pontus * Taurica * Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
colonies

* City states * Politics * Military

CITY STATES

* Argos
Argos
* Athens * Byzantion * Chalcis
Chalcis
* Corinth * Eretria
Eretria
* Kerkyra * Larissa
Larissa
* Megalopolis * Megara
Megara
* Rhodes
Rhodes
* Samos
Samos
* Sparta
Sparta
* Syracuse * Thebes

POLITICS

* Boeotarch * Boule * Koinon * Proxeny * Strategos * Tagus * Tyrant * Amphictyonic League

ATHENIAN

* Agora * Areopagus
Areopagus
* Ecclesia * Graphē paranómōn * Heliaia * Ostracism
Ostracism

SPARTAN

* Apella * Ephor * Gerousia * Harmost

MACEDON

* Synedrion * Koinon

MILITARY

* Wars * Athenian military * Antigonid Macedonian army
Antigonid Macedonian army
* Army of Macedon * Ballista
Ballista
* Cretan archers * Hellenistic armies * Hippeis * Hoplite
Hoplite
* Hetairoi * Macedonian phalanx * Phalanx * Peltast * Pezhetairos * Sarissa * Sacred Band of Thebes * Sciritae * Seleucid army * Spartan army * Toxotai * Xiphos * Xyston

PEOPLE

List of ancient Greeks

RULERS

* Kings of Argos
Argos
* Archons of Athens * Kings of Athens * Kings of Commagene * Diadochi
Diadochi
* Kings of Lydia * Kings of Macedonia * Kings of Paionia * Attalid kings of Pergamon
Pergamon
* Kings of Pontus * Kings of Sparta
Sparta
* Tyrants of Syracuse

PHILOSOPHERS

* Anaxagoras
Anaxagoras
* Anaximander
Anaximander
* Anaximenes * Antisthenes * Aristotle
Aristotle
* Democritus
Democritus
* Diogenes of Sinope * Empedocles
Empedocles
* Epicurus
Epicurus
* Gorgias
Gorgias
* Heraclitus
Heraclitus
* Hypatia * Leucippus
Leucippus
* Parmenides * Plato
Plato
* Protagoras * Pythagoras
Pythagoras
* Socrates
Socrates
* Thales
Thales
* Zeno

AUTHORS

* Aeschylus
Aeschylus
* Aesop * Alcaeus * Archilochus * Aristophanes
Aristophanes
* Bacchylides * Euripides
Euripides
* Herodotus
Herodotus
* Hesiod * Hipponax * Homer
Homer
* Ibycus * Lucian * Menander
Menander
* Mimnermus * Panyassis * Philocles * Pindar * Plutarch
Plutarch
* Polybius
Polybius
* Sappho
Sappho
* Simonides * Sophocles * Stesichorus
Stesichorus
* Theognis * Thucydides
Thucydides
* Timocreon * Tyrtaeus * Xenophon
Xenophon

OTHERS

* Agesilaus II * Agis II * Alcibiades
Alcibiades
* Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
* Aratus * Archimedes
Archimedes
* Aspasia * Demosthenes * Epaminondas * Euclid
Euclid
* Hipparchus
Hipparchus
* Hippocrates
Hippocrates
* Leonidas * Lycurgus * Lysander * Milo of Croton
Milo of Croton
* Miltiades
Miltiades
* Pausanias * Pericles
Pericles
* Philip of Macedon * Philopoemen * Praxiteles
Praxiteles
* Ptolemy
Ptolemy
* Pyrrhus * Solon * Themistocles

GROUPS

* Philosophers * Playwrights * Poets * Tyrants

BY CULTURE

* Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
tribes * Thracian Greeks * Ancient Macedonians

* Society * Culture

SOCIETY

* Agriculture * Calendar * Clothing * Coinage * Cuisine * Economy * Education * Festivals * Funeral and burial practices * Homosexuality * Law * Olympic Games * Pederasty * Philosophy * Prostitution * Religion * Slavery * Warfare * Wedding customs * Wine

* Arts * Sciences

* Architecture ( Greek Revival architecture ) * Astronomy * Literature * Mathematics * Medicine * Music (Musical system ) * Pottery * Sculpture * Technology * Theatre

RELIGION

* Funeral and burial practices

* Mythology

* mythological figures

* Temple * Twelve Olympians * Underworld

SACRED PLACES

* Eleusis
Eleusis
* Delphi
Delphi
* Delos
Delos
* Dodona * Mount Olympus
Mount Olympus
* Olympia

STRUCTURES

* Athenian Treasury
Athenian Treasury
* Lion Gate * Long Walls
Long Walls
* Philippeion
Philippeion
* Theatre of Dionysus * Tunnel of Eupalinos

TEMPLES

* Aphaea * Artemis * Athena Nike * Erechtheion
Erechtheion
* Hephaestus * Hera (Olympia) * Parthenon
Parthenon
* Samothrace * Zeus (Olympia)

LANGUAGE

* Proto-Greek * Mycenaean * Homeric

* Dialects

* Aeolic * Arcadocypriot * Attic * Doric * Ionic * Locrian * Macedonian * Pamphylian

* Koine

WRITING

* Linear A * Linear B
Linear B
* Cypriot syllabary * Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
* Greek numerals
Greek numerals
* Attic numerals
Attic numerals

LISTS

* Cities

* in Epirus

* People * Place names * Stoae * Temples * Theatres

* Category
Category
* Portal

* v * t * e

Greek language
Greek language

ORIGIN AND GENEALOGY

* Proto-Greek * Pre-Greek substrate * Graeco-Armenian * Graeco-Aryan * Graeco-Phrygian * Hellenic languages

PERIODS

* Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
(c. 1600–1100 BC) * Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
(c. 800–300 BC) * Koine Greek
Koine Greek
(c. 300 BC–AD 330) * Jewish Koine Greek
Koine Greek
* Medieval Greek
Medieval Greek
(c. 330–1453) * Modern Greek (since 1453)

VARIETIES

ANCIENT

* Aeolic * Arcadocypriot * Attic and Ionic * Doric * Homeric * Locrian * Pamphylian * Macedonian

MODERN

* Cappadocian

* Misthiotika

* Cretan * Cypriot * Demotic * Himariote

* Italiot

* Greco/Calabrian * Griko/Apulian

* Katharevousa * Maniot * Mariupolitan * Pontic * Tsakonian * Yevanic

PHONOLOGY

* Ancient (accent /teaching ) * Koine * Standard Modern

GRAMMAR

* Ancient (tables ) * Koine Greek
Koine Greek
grammar * Standard Modern

WRITING SYSTEMS

* Cypriot syllabary * Linear B
Linear B

* Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet

* History * Archaic forms * Attic numerals
Attic numerals
* Greek numerals
Greek numerals
* Orthography * Diacritics * Braille * Cyrillization and Romanization

* Greeklish

LITERATURE

* Ancient * Byzantine * Modern

PROMOTION AND STUDY

* Hellenic Foundation for Culture * Center for the Greek Language
Language

OTHER

* Exonyms * Morphemes in English * Terms of endearment * Place names * Proverbs * Greek language
Greek language
question

* v * t * e

Languages of Tunisia
Tunisia

OFFICIAL LANGUAGES

* Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic

VERNACULAR LANGUAGES

* Tunisian Arabic

* Berber

* Jerba * Matmata

* Judeo- Tunisian Arabic * French * Tunisian Sign Language
Language

HISTORICAL LANGUAGES

*